A technical report is a technical document that records and disseminates methods and results from research studies and research,
development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E) activities. Technical reports are USAARL's principal method of in-depth reporting on
technical subjects that are of interest not only to the department, agency, or command sponsoring the work, but also to external
groups and laboratories in government, academia, and industry. Technical reports may vary in type, to include technical reports
that present the findings of research or analyses or that provide guidance or instruction on matters important to the DoD, journal
articles (open access and embargoed text) that have been published under an open access agreement with the publisher or published
under a Creative Commons license, conference proceedings that include whole collections of papers presented at a symposium or
workshop, and conference papers that could include an individual paper, briefing charts, or a poster presented at a workshop or
symposium. For inquiries related to USAARL's technical report(s), contact
For more reports, please visit the technical reports archive page.
TITLE:Evaluation of Hearing Protector Fit Test Systems
AUTHOR(s):Ahroon, W. A., Stefanson, J. R.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:The objective of this project was to conduct an evaluation of five Hearing Protection Device (HPD) Field Attenuation Estimation Systems (FAES) and measure the improvement in device attenuation following training in the proper use of hearing protection devices. Soldiers, civilians, and contractors enrolled in the Army Hearing Program at five U.S. Army installations each exhibiting a Significant Threshold Shift during annual audiometric monitoring comprised a convenience sample for a repeated-measures design. Personal Attenuation Ratings (PARs) were collected before and after earplug retraining. PARs were measured using five different HPD FAES: the NIOSH HPD Well-Fit™, the Michael & Associates FitCheck™, the Howard Leight VeriPRO®, the 3M™
E-A-Rfit™ and the Workplace Integra INTEGRAfit®. Retraining how to fit the hearing protection improved PARs measured by each HPD FAES. HPD FAES provide a valuable tool to assess the hearing protection provided to individual Soldiers during annual audiometric examinations, especially when retraining on fitting the HPD is advised.
KEYWORDS:hearing protection, earplugs, fit testing, field attenuation estimation system
TITLE:Evaluating Pupillometric Indicators of Cognitive Workload and Autonomic Tone in Changing Luminance Conditions
AUTHOR(s):Aura, C., Temme, L., St. Onge, P., McAtee, A., Wilson, M., Bowers, B., Baugher, K., Hayes, A.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:The pupil is an invaluable source of information about autonomic tone and cognitive workload. Direct and indirect enervation of the pupillary sphincter muscles by the autonomic nervous system. Advances in eye tracking technology allow for easy access to these data using a variety of platforms: externally mounted versus head mounted options. Further testing must be done to determine how these systems are best employed in military operational settings.
KEYWORDS:pupil, oculometrics, degraded visual environments, eye-tracking, mental workload, fatigue
TITLE:Simulator-based Assessment of Usability of New Flight Reference Cards for Emergency Procedures
AUTHOR(s):Boggs, J., Morabito, C., Feltman, K., Goldie, C., O'Brien, C., Murphy, J.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:The U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) evaluated Book 2 of the new Flight Reference Cards (FRCs), an aircrew checklist designed to aid in the management of aircraft malfunctions and emergencies. The primary objective of the testing was to assess the utility and suitability of the new FRCs. The key findings suggest that the FRCs are easy to use, promote crew coordination and teamwork and facilitate fault diagnosis and Emergency Procedure (EP) management, in line with the new Emergency Response Method described in Aircrew Training Manual Task 1070: Respond to Emergencies. In addition, the FRCs do not negatively impact pilot workload or safe handling of the aircraft during an EP. The layout of the FRCs is intuitive and appears to be superior to the Green Checklist, evidenced by the reduced times taken to locate the correct Emergency Procedure cards for the given scenarios. The FRCs are an improved method of conferring emergency information compared to the current checklist and do not present any significant human factors issues.
KEYWORDS:emergency response methodology; aviation safety; flight reference cards
TITLE:Research Note: Proposal for a Special Topics Journal Issue on Applied Composite Cognitive Workload Assessment and Modeling
AUTHOR(s):Vogl, J., Bommer, S., McCurry, C.D.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:This research note previews a proposal for a special edition of the journal Frontiers, an open access, peer-reviewed journal. Articles considered for this special edition should have direct consideration to composite cognitive workload assessment and modeling as it pertains to an operational application. Authors will be required to submit their abstracts and obtain approval by the editors before submitting a manuscript. By sharing findings in this domain, we hope to promote an enriching and stimulating exchange of ideas between researchers, practitioners, laboratories, and others interested in this growing field.
KEYWORDS:cognitive workload, mental workload, operator state monitoring, simulation, modeling, attentional resources, multitasking, operational environment, performance assessment, physiological assessment, subjective assessment
TITLE:Identification of Fatigue Risk Management Systems Relevant to Army Rotary-Wing Extended Operations
AUTHOR(s):Wilkins, J., Feltman, K., Delgado-Howard, C.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Army rotary wing extended operation work cycles are frequently long (14-16 hours) and take place in harsh environments. Aviators often fly around-the-clock with little opportunity for sleep. Fatigue caused by operational demands and poor sleep is a common feature of aviators' duty days. Fatigue is compounded by the physiological limitations experienced by aviators during the window of circadian low (WOCL), a period of maximum sleepiness and low performance capability during a 24 hour cycle. As a result, the need for a method of adding performance indicators into flight operations risk predication models was identified as a gap by the Army's rotary wing aviation community. This presentation describes how researchers and aviators worked together to identify two fatigue risk management systems (FRMS) with potential applicability to Army aviation and set the stage for future collaboration. The evidenced-based presentation of currently available FRMS to an expert panel of Army aviation stakeholders led to the identification of two FRMS with promise for rotary wing extended operations. Full results in USAARL Report No. 2019-17.
KEYWORDS:fatigue, risk management, circadian, aviation, 2B-Alert
TITLE:Aqua Lung© Portable Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS) in the Altitude Chamber: Cerebral Blood Oxygen Saturations
AUTHOR(s):Temme, L., Eshelman, R., Bowers, B., Hayes, A., Adaway, C., St. Onge, P., McAtee, A., Ard, D., Petrassi, F., Goldie, C., & Plummer, H.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Presentation at AsMA 2021 Aqua Lung© Portable Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS) in the altitude chamber.
KEYWORDS:hypoxia, cerebral blood oxygen, altitude chamber
TITLE:Pupil Diameter as an Index of Cognitive Workload.
AUTHOR(s):Temme, L., Aura, C., St. Onge, P., Hayes, A., Bowers, B., Baugher, K.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Effects of light on pupil diameter (PD) are dramatic and well known. Less well known and dramatic are the effects psychophysiological states have on PD. Recent literature describes characteristic pupillary behavior as a promising objective biomarker of mental workload. One challenge is to differentiate the pupil's workload response from its light response. The findings reported here describe the pupil's response to three mental workload levels under three well-defined lighting conditions.
KEYWORDS:pupil, oculometrics, degraded visual environments, eye-tracking, mental workload, fatigue
TITLE:FOXTROT Mobile Eye Care
AUTHOR(s):Stowe, J., Gensheimer, W. G., Legault, G., Miller, K., Miller, J.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need to expand telemedicine solutions. FOXTROT prevented the need for aeromedical evacuations by 54% If deployed worldwide an estimated saving could occur every year of $4.1 million.
In future LSCO environments, we will need a virtual health platform that can be used in Denied, Intermittent, or Low-Bandwidth Communications Environments. Meaning future build-outs of FOXTROT would require the need for Artificial Intelligence (AI).
KEYWORDS:telemedicine, aeromedical evacuation, artificial intelligence
TITLE:Aqua Lung© Portable Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS) in the
Altitude Chamber: Cerebral Blood Oxygen Saturations
AUTHOR(s):Temme, L., Eshelman, R.E., Bowers, B., Hayes, A., Adaway, C.
St. Onge, P., McAtee, A., Ard, D., Petrassi, F., Goldie, C., &
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Presentation to the Oxygen Standardization Coordinating Group 2021 Virtual Conference on the use of AQUA LUNG© Portable
Helicopter Oxygen Delivery System (PHODS) in the altitude chamber.
KEYWORDS:aqua lung, PHODS, oxygen delivery, helicopter, oxygen
TITLE:Non-invasive Physiological Biomarkers of Cognitive Fatigue in a Virtual Reality Simulated, Rotary-wing Flight Environment
AUTHOR(s):Ciccarelli, G., Rao, H., Smalt, C., Edwards, H., Mehta, D., Reynolds, H., Cave , K., & Quatieri, T.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT:Timely and accurate monitoring of aviator cognitive workload offers a means to identify and mitigate aviation mishaps. This study examined a proof-of-concept for a non-invasive, multi-modal platform to quantify the relationship between physiological indicators of pilot fatigue and operational performance in simulated flight tasks. Seven participants (two females) varying from no piloting experience to a commercially rated pilots, completed a 90-min repetitive flight traffic pattern. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT), flight performance data, and thirteen physiological sensing modalities monitored fatigue and performance. Post-flight PVT reaction times were longer as compared to pre-flight baselines. Further, vocal biomarkers analyses support the existence of a coupling between fine motor aspects of speech production and flight performance in more experienced aviators. These preliminary results show the potential for speech to be used to predict real-time flight performance. In future work, addition sensing modalities (e.g., eye tracking, electrocardiogram, electrodermal activity, and torso accelerometry) are to be included into the analysis.
KEYWORDS:cognitive workload, vocal biomarker, multi-modal physiological workload, pilot fatigue
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Last Modified Date: 2021-04-21