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63-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5227 DTIC #: AD421567
TITLE: NOISE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE OPERATION OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): JIMMY L. HATFIELD, DONALD C. GASAWAY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES AND ILLUSTRATES BASIC, AS WELL AS UNIQUE, CHARACTERISTICS OF NOISE ASSOCIATED WITH THE OPERATION OF ARMY AIRCRAFT. IT SUMMARIZES THE IMPORTANT FACTS RELATIVE TO HAZARDOUS NOISE, ITS EFFECTS ON MAN, THE CHARACTERISTICS OF NOISE GENERATORS, NOISE REDUCTION CONCEPTS, AND FUTURE NOISE PROBLEMS. THE PURPOSE IS TO ALERT AVIATION MEDICAL OFFICERS, FLIGHT SURGEONS, AND PHYSICIANS IN THE ARMY TO THIS PROBLEM, AND PROVIDE GUIDANCE IN THOSE CIRCUMSTANCES WHERE A PROBLEM OF POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS NOISE EXISTS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING, ARMY AVIATION
64-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4976 DTIC #: AD428331
TITLE: A SURVEY OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL NOISE ENVIRONMENTS IN U.S. AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): JIMMY L. HATFIELD, DONALD C. GASAWAY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PRESENTS AND DESCRIBES REPRESENTATIVE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL NOISE ENVIRONMENTS FOR EACH MAJOR TYPE OF ARMY AIRCRAFT DURING NORMAL OPERATIONS. MEASUREMENTS OF ALL FIXED- AND ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT ARE CLASSIFIED, WHEN APPROPRIATE, INTO FOUR MAJOR CATEGORIES: GROUND OPERATIONS, HOVERING FLIGHT, NORMAL, AND MAXIMUM CRUISE CONDITIONS. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF MAJOR NOISE GENERATORS IN EACH TYPE OF AIRCRAFT IS DISCUSSED IN DETAIL.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING, ARMY AVIATION, FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
65-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 149 DTIC #: AD444330
TITLE: AIR DROP OF ACD WHOLE BLOOD
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES I. WABNER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF AIR DROP ON ACD WHOLE BLOOD AS A RELATION TO THE PLASMA HEMOGLOBIN LEVELS BEFORE AND AFTER DROP. NINETEEN PERCENT OF THE UNITS OF BLOOD DROPPED WERE FRACTURED AND UNUSABLE DUE TO IMPACT SHOCK. THOSE UNITS REMAINING INTACT SHOWED NO SIGNIFICANT ELEVATION IN PLASMA HEMOGLOBIN. PRESENT METHODS OF PACKAGING BLOOD FOR AERIAL DROPS ARE INADEQUATE. ERYTHROCYTE BREAKDOWN DUE TO IMPACT FORCES IS NOT SIGNIFICANT.
KEYWORDS: BLOOD PLASMA, HEMOGLOBIN, AIR DROP OPERATIONS
65-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1066 DTIC #: AD462860
TITLE: COLOR VISION DEFICIENCIES IN ARMY FLIERS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. BAILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NORMAL COLOR VISION HAS HISTORICALLY BEEN AN INTRINSIC PART OF THE PHYSICAL STANDARDS MAINTAINED FOR MILITARY AND CIVILIAN AVIATORS AND AIRCREW MEMBERS. THIS A PRIOR REQUIREMENT HAS NOT BEEN CHALLENGED DUE TO THE ABUNDANT NUMBER OF APPLICANTS VERSUS THE NUMBER OF SUCH POSITIONS AVAILABLE. THERE IS NO LONGER A SURPLUS OF SUCH PERSONNEL.
KEYWORDS: COLOR VISION, PHYSICAL STANDARDS, COLOR VISION TESTING
65-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 179 DTIC #: AD465115
TITLE: NOISE SPECTRA OF THE BELL OH-13-T HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OVERALL SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS WERE MEASURED AND AN OCTAVE BAND ANALYSIS WAS MADE OF THE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL NOISE OF THE BELL OH-13-T HELICOPTER. THE RESULTS OF THE TESTS SHOW THAT THE NOISE LEVEL IN THE OH-13-T IS NOT CONSIDERED TO BE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT THAN THE LEVELS THAT HAVE BEEN RECORDED IN THE OH-13-H HELICOPTER. EARPLUGS AND EFFICIENT EARMUFFS OR HELMETS WILL ATTENUATE THE NOISE TO LEVELS THAT ARE CONSIDERED TO BE SAFE FOR OPERATIONS OF LONG DURATION.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING CONSERVATION, ACOUSTICS
65-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 219 DTIC #: AD465116
TITLE: NOISE SPECTRA OF THE TURBO-BEAVER
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR., ROBERT W. BAILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS WERE MEASURED IN VARIOUS POSITIONS INSIDE THE TURBO-BEAVER UNDER VARIOUS POWER CONDITIONS. A COMPARISON OF THESE DATA WITH COMPARABLE AVAILABLE DATA TAKEN FROM MEASUREMENTS OF SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS IN THE U-6A SHOWS THAT THE OVERALL LEVEL AND THE LOWER PORTION OF THE SPECTRUM IN THE U-6A HAD HIGHER SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS. THE OCTAVE BANDS OF THE TURBO-BEAVER'S NOISE SPECTRUM, ABOVE THE BAND CENTERED AROUND 500 CPS, HAD HIGHER SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING CONSERVATION, ACOUSTICS
66-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 896 DTIC #: AD482084
TITLE: SOME CREW SPACE MEASUREMENTS IN ARMY AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE, K. E. SLINDE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE IN THE COCKPITS OF EVERY TYPE OF AIRCRAFT PRESENTLY IN THE U.S. ARMY INVENTORY, AND IN MOST PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT SCHEDULED FOR DELIVERY TO THE U.S. ARMY THROUGH FY 1970. FROM THESE MEASUREMENTS IT APPEARS THAT A PILOT OF STANDING HEIGHT GREATER THAN 76 INCHES OR SITTING HEIGHT GREATER THAN 38 INCHES WOULD BE UNABLE TO COMFORTABLY AND SAFELY PILOT MANY U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT. THIS APPLIES PARTICULARLY TO THE AIRCRAFT USED IN BOTH FIXED- AND ROTARY-WING PILOT TRAINING.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, CREW SPACE DIMENSIONS, ARMY AIRCRAFT
66-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 303 DTIC #: AD633630
TITLE: EXPECTED INJURY RATES FOR EXPERIMENTAL AIRBORNE OPERATIONS
AUTHOR(s): R.A. AVNER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PROBABILITY OF INJURY FOR ARMY PARATROOPERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF FULL COMBAT LOAD AND UNPREPARED DROP ZONE WAS ESTIMATED TO BE .006 (STANDARD ERROR EQUALS .002, N EQUALS 5,253). TABLES WERE COMPUTED TO ALLOW TESTS OF DEPARTURE FROM THIS RATE UNDER EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS INVOLVING UP TO 50 JUMPERS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, PARACHUTING, CASUALTY RATE, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, APPLIED STATISTICS
67-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 277 DTIC #: AD635375
TITLE: COMMENT ON CORRELATION COEFFICIENT USE
AUTHOR(s): R.A. AVNER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN COMPUTING THE PEARSON R, OBSERVATIONS ARE IDENTIFIED ON A NOMINAL SCALE. THE VALUES ASSIGNED THESE OBSERVATIONS ARE MEASURED ON A RATIO OF INTERVAL SCALE. CONFUSION OF THESE TWO FACTS HAS LED TO THE MISTAKEN ASSUMPTION THAT THE PEARSON R CAN MEASURE DEGREE OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN NOMINALLY MEASURED VARIABLES.
KEYWORDS: STATISTICS, CORRELATION, NON-PARAMETRIC
67-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 904 DTIC #: AD639342
TITLE: PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAINING OF HALO PARACHUTISTS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT REVIEWS THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH A HALO PARACHUTIST OPERATES, INDICATES SOME AREAS IN TRAINING WHICH DESERVE SPECIAL ATTENTION, AND MAKES SOME SPECIFIC OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS WHICH, IF ADOPTED, WOULD REDUCE THE POSSIBILITY OF INJURY OR DISEASE CAUSED BY MAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION.
KEYWORDS: PARACHUTING, ALTITUDE PHYSIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAINING
67-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 755 DTIC #: AD642371
TITLE: LOADING OF LITTER PATIENTS IN ARMY AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): J.C. ROTHWELL, R.A. AVNER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO TYPES OF AIRCRAFT, THE CV-2 "CARIBOU" AND THE CH-47 "CHINOOK," PRESENTLY ARE AVAILABLE FOR MEDICAL EVACUATION OF RELATIVELY LARGE LOADS (14 AND 24 LITTERS RESPECTIVELY) FROM MINIMALLY-PREPARED LANDING SITES. THIS REPORT INDICATES MAXIMUM RIGGING TIMES FOR CONVERSION OF THESE AIRCRAFT TO AMBULANCE USE, OPTIMAL CREW SIZES FOR MINIMUM LOADING TIMES, AND SOME SUGGESTIONS FOR LOADING METHODS AND DESIGN OF FUTURE LARGE MEDICAL EVACUATION AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, MEDICINE, EVACUATION
67-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 632 DTIC #: AD644305
TITLE: A RAPID TIMING SEQUENCER FOR TOXIC GAS SAMPLING
AUTHOR(s): G.L. HODY, H.W. HUFFMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AS PART OF A STUDY OF TOXIC HAZARDS, IT IS NECESSARY TO OBTAIN SAMPLES OF GASES GIVEN OFF BY RAPID FIRE WEAPONS AND FAST BURNING ROCKET MOTORS. A SOLID STATE INSTRUMENT WAS DESIGNED WHICH CAN PROGRAM SOLENOID VALVES FOR THIS PURPOSE. THE CONFIGURATION CHOSEN PROVIDES THREE INDIVIDUALLY ADJUSTABLE INTERVAL TIMERS. EACH CAN BE DELAYED FROM 25 TO 5,000 MILLISECONDS AFTER FIRING OF WEAPONS, AND CAN REMAIN ON FOR 30 TO 4,000 MILLISECONDS. THE VERY SHORT SAMPLING TIMES WHICH ARE AVAILABLE ENABLE ACQUISITION OF GAS SAMPLES AT PRESSURES CONSIDERABLY BELOW AMBIENT, IF THIS IS DESIRED TO PROTECT ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS OR TO MINIMIZE CHEMICAL INTERACTIONS IN THE SAMPLE. BY ADJUSTMENT OF R-C TIME CONSTANTS, THE TIMER RANGE CAN BE EXTENDED OR REDUCED FURTHER TO PROVIDE A VERSATILE TOOL FOR FUTURE TIME APPLICATIONS. CIRCUIT DETAILS AND PERFORMANCE DATA ARE PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: TOXIC GAS SAMPLING, SEQUENTIAL TIMER, ELECTRONIC INTERVAL TIMER
67-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 601 DTIC #: AD646587
TITLE: APPROACH TO THE EVALUATION OF TOXIC HAZARDS FROM WEAPONS EXHAUST IN ARMED HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): G.L. HODY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE COMPLEXITY OF FLYING AND THE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES ENCOUNTERED BY PILOTS OF ARMED HELICOPTERS ARE CONTINUING CHALLENGES. UNDER SUCH DIFFICULT CONDITIONS ANY INTERFERENCE WITH MENTAL OR SENSORY CAPABILITIES OF THE PILOTS CAN BE REFLECTED IN AN INCREASED CASUALTY RATE. HELICOPTER-MOUNTED WEAPONS RELEASE A TOXIC EXHAUST WHICH COULD DISTURB VISION AND HEARING AND MIGHT ADVERSELY AFFECT REACTION TIME AND THE REASONING PROCESS. A BRIEF EXPLORATORY STUDY CONFIRMED THE IMPRESSION THAT THE WEAPONS EXHAUST CAN REACH THE CREW IN MEASURABLE CONCENTRATIONS. AN OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE HAZARD IS OBVIOUSLY NEEDED BEFORE COSTLY OR INCONVENIENT CORRECTIVE MEASURES NEED BE CONSIDERED. A CAREFUL SEARCH FAILED TO REVEAL EXISTING METHODS FOR THE REQUIRED EVALUATION WHICH INVOLVES CONTINUOUS MEASUREMENT OF RAPIDLY CHANGING CONTAMINANT CONCENTRATIONS IN A CONFINED AND VIBRATING ENVIRONMENT. AN EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM DESIGNED TO EXPLORE A TECHNIQUE FOR MEETING THE OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENT IS BEING IMPLEMENTED IN COOPERATION WITH THE AIR FORCE ROCKET PROPULSION LABORATORY. WHILE THE POTENTIAL FOR A HAZARDOUS SITUATION IS VERY REAL IN ALL ARMED AIRCRAFT, THE CONCERN IS WITH THE NEW, EXPERIMENTAL HELICOPTERS EQUIPPED WITH MULTIPLE RAPID FIRE WEAPONS SYSTEMS, IN ADDITION TO THOSE ARMED HELICOPTERS NOW DEPLOYED IN THE FIELD.
KEYWORDS: TOXICOLOGY, WEAPONS EXHAUST, ARMED HELICOPTERS, ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS
67-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1050 DTIC #: AD649462
TITLE: SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARMY APH-5 HELMET
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR., ROBERT L. KEISER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF THE REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARMY APH-5 CRASH PROTECTIVE HELMET WAS DONE WITH PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFIED BY ASA Z24.22-1957. THE RESULTS SHOW THAT THE APH-5 OFFERS HIGH ATTENUATION AT TEST FREQUENCIES 3,000 THROUGH 8,000 HZ. HOWEVER, THE APH-5 HAS RELATIVELY LOW SOUND ATTENUATION BETWEEN 75 AND 2,000 HZ. IN VIEW OF THE POOR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APH-5, IT HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED THAT THE PRESENT EARMUFFS BE REPLACED WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY EAR PROTECTIVE MUFFS. IF CHANGING EARMUFFS IS NOT FEASIBLE, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE APH-5 BE REPLACED BY A HELMET WITH HIGH SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS.
KEYWORDS: AUDITION, PSYCHOACOUSTICS, HEARING, HEARING PROTECTION
67-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1418 DTIC #: AD653598
TITLE: CONTINUOUS EKG RECORDING DURING FREE-FALL PARACHUTING
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE, KENNETH E. SLINDE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY IS AN ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE HEART RATE AND RHYTHM OF EXPERIENCED PARACHUTISTS DURING FREE-FALL AND DURING THE PERIODS IMMEDIATELY BEFORE AND AFTER THE JUMPS. IT INCLUDES ENOUGH SUBJECTS SO THAT STATISTICAL INFERENCES CAN BE MADE REGARDING A POPULATION OF EXPERIENCED PARACHUTISTS. CONTINUOUS EKG READINGS WERE MADE OF 29 EXPERIENCED PARACHUTISTS WHILE EACH PARTICIPATED IN FREE-FALL PARACHUTING EXERCISES. A TOTAL OF 98 INDIVIDUAL EXITS FROM AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT WERE RECORDED. MEAN R-R INTERVAL WAS 0.403 SECONDS JUST PRIOR TO EXIT FROM THE AIRCRAFT, 0.363 SECONDS DURING FREE-FALL, 0.336 SECONDS IMMEDIATELY AFTER PARACHUTE OPENING, 0.369 AT LANDING, AND 0.465 SECONDS 5 MINUTES AFTER LANDING. ALTHOUGH THERE WAS VARIATION IN THE R-R INTERVAL AMONG THE INDIVIDUALS, THE PROGRESSIVE DECREASE OF R-R INTERVAL THROUGHOUT THE EXIT AND FREE-FALL WITH A NADIR AT PARACHUTE OPENING WAS THE COMMON FINDING. THERE IS MARKED INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE IN THE DURATION OF TACHYCARDIA BEFORE AND AFTER JUMPS. OVER THE ENTIRE GROUP, MEAN DURATION PER SUBJECT WAS 19.4 MINUTES OF TACHYCARDIA PRIOR TO EXIT, AND 30.4 MINUTES OF TACHYCARDIA AFTER PARACHUTE OPENING. IN THE INDIVIDUAL WHO MADE AT LEAST TWO JUMPS ON ANY 1 DAY, THE R-R INTERVALS MEASURED ON A SINGLE INDIVIDUAL ON THE FIRST AND SECOND JUMPS WERE REMARKABLY SIMILAR, AND WITHIN THE GROUP NOT STATISTICALLY DIFFERENT. A CORRELATION MATRIX WAS COMPUTED TO SHOW RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN VARIOUS PARAMETERS STUDIED. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE R-R INTERVAL AND TOTAL NUMBER OF JUMPS WAS OPPOSITE IN DIRECTION TO THAT WHICH WAS EXPECTED, AND NEARLY ATTAINED VALUES THAT WERE STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, PARACHUTING, STRESS PHYSIOLOGY
67-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2128 DTIC #: AD656748
TITLE: SOUND ATTENTUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NAVY SPH-3 (MODIFIED) (LS) HELMET
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR., ROBERT L. KEISER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF THE REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NAVY SPH-3 (MODIFIED) (LS) HELMET WAS DONE WITH PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFIED BY ASA Z24.22-1957. THE RESULTS SHOW THAT THE SPH-3 (MODIFIED) (LS) IS A RELATIVELY EFFICIENT ATTENUATOR OF SOUND THROUGHOUT THE AUDIO SPECTRUM. IN VIEW OF THE POOR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ARMY APH-5, IT HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED THAT THIS HELMET BE REPLACED BY THE SPH-3 (MODIFIED) (LS).
KEYWORDS: AUDITION, PSYCHOACOUSTICS, HEARING, HEARING PROTECTION
67-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 791 DTIC #: AD652096
TITLE: AN IMPROVED C-RATION SLEEVE LITTER
AUTHOR(s): V. V. VILLA, WILLIAM P. SCHANE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A FIELD EXPEDIENT LITTER IMPROVISED FROM DISCARDED C-RATION SLEEVES AND TWO STURDY POLES HAS BEEN LABORATORY TESTED AND FOUND TO BE WORTHY OF FIELD USE.
KEYWORDS: LITTER
67-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1494 DTIC #: AD655844
TITLE: THE MEASUREMENT OF THE EXHAUST COMPOSITION OF SELECTED HELICOPTER ARMAMENT
AUTHOR(s): P. B. SCHARF, B. B. GOSHGARIAN, H. M. NELSON, G. L. HODY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CREWMEMBERS OF ARMED HELICOPTERS ARE EXPOSED TO EXHAUST PRODUCTS OF RAPID FIRE MACHINE GUNS AND ROCKETS. THE EXHAUST COMPOSITION OF THE WEAPONS, NEEDED FOR TOXIC HAZARD PREDICTION, IS DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN. IN A JOINT ARMY-AIR FORCE EXPLORATORY STUDY, METHODS OF ANALYSIS WERE EVALUATED AND EXHAUST COMPOSITIONS FOR THE .50- CALIBER AND 7.62MM MACHINE GUNS AND THE 2.75" ROCKET WERE DETERMINED. A RAPID SCAN INFRARED SPECTROPHOTOMETER WAS USED FOR IMMEDIATE EXAMINATION OF EFFLUENT GASES IN ORDER TO DETECT REACTIVE SPECIES. THE EXHAUST GASES WERE ANALYZED AT CONCENTRATIONS AS HIGH AS 1,000 TIMES THOSE PRESENT IN HELICOPTERS TO MINIMIZE THE CHANCE OF MISSING ANY SIGNIFICANT TOXIC PRODUCT. A QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF GAS PHASE AND AEROSOL COMPONENTS IS GIVEN. IT MAY WELL BE THAT THE PROPORTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE EXHAUST IS SO HIGH THAT PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE TIMES CAN BE SELECTED ON THE BASIS OF ITS CONCENTRATION ALONE WHILE STILL LIMITING EXPOSURES TO ALL OTHER TOXIC MATERIALS TO SAFE LEVELS. HOWEVER, SIGNIFICANT AMOUNTS OF NITROGEN DIOXIDE, AMMONIA, CARBONYL SULFIDE, HYDROGEN CYANIDE, LEAD, AND COPPER WERE FOUND. THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE TOXICITY OF WEAPONS EXHAUST IS NOW BEING EVALUATED AND WILL BE REPORTED IN A SUBSEQUENT PAPER.
KEYWORDS: WEAPONS EXHAUST COMPOSITION, TOXICOLOGY, ARMED HELICOPTERS, CARBON MONOXIDE, TOXIC HAZARDS PREDICTION
68-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 766 DTIC #: AD673118
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A PAINT SCHEME FOR INCREASING HELICOPTER CONSPICUITY
AUTHOR(s): JAMES A. BYNUM, ROBERT W. BAILEY, JOHN K. CROSLEY, M. S. NIX, JR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX PAINT DESIGNS WERE APPLIED TO TOP SURFACES OF HELICOPTER ROTORS TO ASSESS VALUE AS AN AID OF CONSPICUITY. STIMULI WERE PRESENTED TO 40 AVIATORS BY THE METHOD OF PAIR COMPARISONS IN ACTUAL FLIGHT TESTS AND RANKINGS WERE OBTAINED. DATA ANALYSIS INDICATED AS FIRST CHOICE A SCHEME INCORPORATING GLOSS WHITE, FLUORESCENT RED-ORANGE, AND BLACK.
KEYWORDS: COLOR PERCEPTION, COLOR VISION, CONSPICUITY
68-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 653 DTIC #: AD661067
TITLE: IMPROVING HELICOPTER CONSPICUITY THROUGH THE USE OF PAINTED MAIN ROTOR BLADES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, ROBERT W. BAILEY, M. S. NIX, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN IN-FLIGHT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF FOUR PAINT SCHEMES, APPLIED TO THE MAIN ROTOR BLADES OF UH-1D HELICOPTERS, UPON HELICOPTER CONSPICUITY. TWENTY-THREE OBSERVERS MADE A TOTAL OF 138 COMPARISONS OF PAIRED AIRCRAFT. THE PREFERRED SCHEME INCORPORATED WHITE, RED-ORANGE FLUORESCENT, AND BLACK PAINTS.
KEYWORDS: COLOR PERCEPTION, COLOR VISION, CONSPICUITY
68-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2480 DTIC #: AD662208
TITLE: EFFECTS OF DOWNWASH UPON MAN
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE THREATS IMPOSED UPON MAN BY HELICOPTER AND VTOL DOWNWASH ARE EXPLORED. INFORMATION IS DERIVED FROM (1) REFERENCE MATERIAL, (2) MATHEMATICAL CALCULATION, (3) INDIVIDUAL DATA COLLECTION, AND (4) PERSONAL EXPERIENCE. EIGHT TYPES OF THREAT ARE EXPLORED IN SOME DETAIL, AND CONCLUSIONS ARE DRAWN CONCERNING NEEDS FOR PROTECTION.
KEYWORDS: DOWNWASH, HELICOPTER, PHYSIOLOGY, AVIATION MEDICINE
68-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 493 DTIC #: AD664129
TITLE: ANALOG NYSTAGMUS ANALYZER
AUTHOR(s): GEORGE W. BEELER, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RAPID TO-AND-FRO MOVEMENTS OF THE EYE ARE CLASSIFIED AS NYSTAGMUS. THIS MOVEMENT IS USUALLY THE CONSEQUENCE OF REFLEX EXCITATION OF THE EXTRA OCULAR MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH STIMULATION OF THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. AN ANALOG NYSTAGMUS ANALYZER IS DESCRIBED THAT CAN PRODUCE CONTINUOUS INFORMATION CONCERNING THE DURATION, AMPLITUDE AND SLOW-PHASE VELOCITY OF EACH NYSTAGMIC BEAT DURING EXPERIMENTS INVOLVING THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS.
KEYWORDS: NYSTAGMUS, VISION, VESTIBULAR, ANALOG ANALYZER
68-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1787 DTIC #: AD668502
TITLE: GANGLION CELL RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS FROM THE AREA CENTRALIS IN THE INTACT EYE OF THE CAT
AUTHOR(s): ROY H. STEINBERG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: GANGLION CELL RESPONSES WERE RECORDED WITH MICROELECTRODES FROM THE INTACT EYE TO FOCUSED SPOTS AND ANNULI OF LIGHT DELIVERED BY A DUAL-BEAM OPHTHALMOSCOPE. ONLY CONCENTRICALLY ORGANIZED CIRCULAR RECEPTIVE FIELDS WERE ANALYZED. THRESHOLDS FOR OPTIMAL CENTER AND SURROUND STIMULI APPROXIMATELY WERE EQUAL, AS WERE THE LATENCIES OF ON-RESPONSES FROM THE CENTER AND SURROUND. WITH WHOLE-FIELD STIMULATION CENTER-DOMINANCE WAS A FUNCTION OF LIGHT INTENSITY. OFF-RESPONSES AND CENTER-SURROUND INTERACTION WERE OBSERVED WITH BRIEF FLASHES (5 MSEC, 10 MSEC). WITH INCREASES OF FLASH DURATION, THE DURATION OF THE ON RESPONSE DID NOT INCREASE BY THE FULL INCREMENT OF THE FLASH UNTIL THE FLASHES WERE 50 TO 80 MSEC. AT HIGH FLASH-INTENSITIES THE ON-RESPONSE EXTENDED INTO THE OFF-PERIOD AND THE OFF-RESPONSE WEAKENED AND DISAPPEARED; IT OCCURRED WITH BOTH ON-EXCITATION AND ON-INHIBITION AND FOR THE RESPONSES OF BOTH CENTER AND SURROUND. THESE INTENSITY EFFECTS ALSO WERE STUDIED IN AN INTRACELLULAR RECORDING; AT HIGH INTENSITIES THE RATE OF REPOLARIZATION OF THE POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL DECREASED AND THE LATENCY OF REPOLARIZATION WAS DELAYED.
KEYWORDS: GANGLION CELL, RECEPTIVE FIELD, RETINA, LOCAL ELECTRORETINOGRAM, AFTERIMAGE
68-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1027 DTIC #: AD667959
TITLE: SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NAVY BPH-2 HELICOPTER HELMET
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF THE REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NAVY BPH-2 HELMET WAS DONE WITH PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFIED BY ASA Z-24.22-1957. THE RESULTS SHOW THAT THE BPH-2 HAS ACOUSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS SUPERIOR TO THE STANDARD ARMY APH-5 AT FREQUENCIES FROM 125 HZ THROUGH 1,000 HZ. IN VIEW OF THE HIGH ATTENUATION IN THE SPEECH COMMUNICATIONS SPECTRUM, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THIS HELMET BE CONSIDERED FOR THE USE BY THE U.S. ARMY.
KEYWORDS: AUDITION, PSYCHOACOUSTICS, HEARING, HEARING PROTECTION
68-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 531 DTIC #: AD667960
TITLE: TINTED WINDSCREENS IN U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS WAS PERFORMED ON THE TINTED WINDSCREEN OF THE U.S. ARMY AH-1G HELICOPTER. THE RESULTS OF THIS TEST, CONSIDERED IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CONCLUSIONS OF OTHER RESEARCHERS WORKING WITH BOTH AIRCRAFT AND AUTOMOBILE TINTED WINDSHIELDS, HAVE LED TO THE RECOMMENDATION THAT NO TINTED MEDIA SHOULD BE POSITIONED BETWEEN THE PILOT AND HIS NORMAL FIELD OF VIEW DURING HEAVY OVERCAST DAYS, AT TWILIGHT, OR AT NIGHT.
KEYWORDS: WINDSCREEN, COCKPIT VISIBILITY, AVIATION VISION
68-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 856 DTIC #: AD669458
TITLE: ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF INFRARED CO2 ANALYZER AND THE ESTIMATION OF ALVEOLAR CO2 TENSION
AUTHOR(s): PEI CHIN TANG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THEORETICAL EQUATIONS WERE DERIVED FROM KNOWN PHYSICOCHEMICAL LAWS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF ROOM TEMPERATURE AND BAROMETRIC PRESSURE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE INFRARED TYPE OF CO2 ANALYZER. THEY WERE TESTED FIRST EXPERIMENTALLY AND THEN AGAINST EMPIRICAL EQUATIONS DERIVED FROM THE GODART NOMOGRAM. THESE EQUATIONS WERE FOUND TO BE VALID AND USEFUL IN THE ESTIMATION OF THE FRACTIONAL CONCENTRATION OF CO2 OF GAS MIXTURES UNDER VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS. MINIMAL GAS TEMPERATURE RECORDED WITH A THERMISTOR PROBE AT THE INLET OF THE ANALYZER WAS USED TO ESTIMATE THE WATER VAPOR PRESSURE OF GAS SAMPLES IN THE ANALYZER CHAMBER. THIS METHOD WAS EXPERIMENTALLY FOUND TO BE VALID IN ESTIMATING CO2 FRACTIONAL CONCENTRATIONS OF HEATED WET GAS MIXTURES. IT WAS USED TO ESTIMATE THE ALVEOLAR CO2 TENSION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS WITH VARIOUS ENDTIDAL SAMPLING METHODS. METHODS USED BY OTHERS WITH THIS TYPE OF ANALYZER ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: INFRARED CO2 ANALYZER, ALVEOLAR CO2 TENSION
68-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1548 DTIC #: AD670231
TITLE: A TRIAXIAL ACCELEROMETER MODULE FOR VESTIBULAR APPLICATION
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A BRIEF DESCRIPTION IS GIVEN OF A 6-CHANNEL INSTRUMENTATION MODULE DEVELOPED FOR COLLECTION OF PRELIMINARY ACCELERATION DATA FOR THE A PRIORI DETERMINATION OF OPTIMAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR TRANSDUCERS TO BE INSTALLED PERMANENTLY ON VARIOUS AIRCRAFT AND MAN-RATED RESEARCH DEVICES FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF VESTIBULAR-SIGNIFICANT ACCELERATION STIMULI. THE MODULE UTILIZES THREE LINEAR AND THREE ANGULAR ACCELEROMETERS ALL OF THE STANDARD, COMMERCIALLY-AVAILABLE, SERVOTYPE, TO MEASURE THE TRIAXIAL LINEAR AND TRIAXIAL ANGULAR ACCELERATIONS, ALONG AND ABOUT, RESPECTIVELY, THE ROLL, PITCH, AND YAW AXES OF THE TEST DEVICE OR VEHICLE. SIGNAL CONDITIONING AMPLIFIERS EQUIPPED WITH FEEDBACK CIRCUITRY TO FACILITATE IN-FLIGHT ADJUSTMENT OF GAIN AND HIGH-FREQUENCY ROLLOFF CHARACTERISTICS ARE PROVIDED FOR OPTIMAL UTILIZATION OF THE DYNAMIC RANGE CAPABILITIES OF MAGNETIC TAPE DATA STORAGE RECORDERS. THOUGH THE INSTRUMENT IS USED PRIMARILY TO COLLECT ACCELERATION DATA IN THE O-5 CPS SPECTRUM, THE LINEAR CHANNELS ALSO CAN BE USED IN DETERMINING VIBRATION LEVELS IN THE 0-100 CPS RANGE.
KEYWORDS: AEROSPACE MEDICINE, VESTIBULAR, LINEAR ACCELERATION, ANGULAR ACCELLERATION, INSTRUMENTATION, MEASUREMENT
68-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1513 DTIC #: AD670230
TITLE: INSTRUMENTATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF VESTIBULAR-SIGNIFICANT FORCES IN HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE REPORT DESCRIBES AN AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM DEVELOPED AT MINIMAL COST FROM STANDARD COMMERCIALLY-AVAILABLE COMPONENTS FOR THE IN-FLIGHT ACQUISITION AND STORAGE OF HELICOPTER LOW-FREQUENCY MOTION DATA PERTINENT TO THE INVESTIGATION OF VESTIBULAR-RELATED PILOT DISORIENTATION. SYSTEM COMPONENTS PROVIDED TO MEASURE AND RECORD THE INSTANTANEOUS TRIAXIAL LINEAR ACCELERATION AND INSTANTANEOUS TRIAXIAL ANGULAR VELOCITY OF THE AIRCRAFT AT A GIVEN CREWSTATION INCLUDE THREE POTENTIOMETER READOUT LINEAR ACCELEROMETERS, THREE SIMILAR GIMBALLESS RATE GYROS, SIX SIGNAL-CONDITIONING AMPLIFIERS, AND A 7-CHANNEL BATTERY-POWERED, IRIG-COMPATIBLE, MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDER.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENTATION, HELICOPTERS, LINEAR ACCELERATION, ANGULAR VELOCITY, VESTIBULAR SYSTEM, PILOT DISORIENTATION
68-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 630 DTIC #: AD672514
TITLE: PAINTED HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR BLADES AND FLICKER-INDUCED VERTIGO
AUTHOR(s): JAMES A. BYNUM, JOHN A. STERN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PAINTING THE MAIN ROTOR BLADES OF UH-1 HELICOPTERS LED TO THE QUESTION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF FLICKER-INDUCED VERTIGO IN FORMATION FLIGHTS INVOLVING THESE HELICOPTERS. IN THE FIRST OF TWO EXPERIMENTS DESIGNED TO ANSWER THE QUESTION, SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES OF 38 INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS WERE OBTAINED AND EVALUATED AFTER THEIR PARTICIPATION IN FORMATION FLIGHTS IN HELICOPTERS WITH PAINTED BLADES. IN THE SECOND EXPERIMENT, 10 STUDENT PILOTS WERE SCREENED FROM A GROUP OF 37 ON THE BASIS OF THEIR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL AND SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES TO PHOTIC STIMULATIONS IN THE LABORATORY. THESE 10 THEN FLEW IN FORMATIONS WHILE EEG, EOG, AND EYE BLINK DATA WERE RECORDED DURING THE FLIGHT AND THEY WERE DEBRIEFED IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE FLIGHT. RESULTS OF BOTH EXPERIMENTS DID NOT INDICATE THE PAINTED BLADES TO BE A SOURCE OF FLICKER VERTIGO.
KEYWORDS: FLICKER, VERTIGO, FLIGHT DISORIENTATION, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY, EYE MOVEMENTS
69-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 908 DTIC #: AD674184
TITLE: USER EVALUATION OF TWO AIRCREW PROTECTION HELMETS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES A. BYNUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO AIRCREW PROTECTIVE HELMETS WERE EVALUATED BY 24 INSTRUCTOR PILOTS WHO WERE DIVIDED EQUALLY INTO GROUPS SUBJECTED TO THREE AMBIENT NOISE ENVIRONMENTS. PILOTS RATED THE ARMY APH-5 AND SPH-3X (EXPERIMENTAL) ON EIGHT CATEGORIES DESIGNED TO ASSESS RELATIVE COMFORT, ACCEPTABILITY, AND NOISE ATTENUATION. RATINGS WERE COMPARED, USING A SPLIT-PLOT FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND BETWEEN HELMETS ON SEVEN OF THE EIGHT CHARACTERISTICS RATED AND RESULTS FAVORED THE SPH-3X IN SIX CHARACTERISTICS.
KEYWORDS: HUMAN ENGINEERING, HELMETS, AVIATION, PROTECTION, COMFORT
69-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1609 DTIC #: AD688856
TITLE: SELECTED ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF 1,640 U. S. ARMY WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATE TRAINEES
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE, DELVIN E. LITTELL, CHARLES G. MOULTRIE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE RESULTS OF NINE ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS CONDUCTED UPON 1,640 U.S. ARMY WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ARE PRESENTED. THE NINE MEASUREMENTS WERE SELECTED AS THOSE WHICH CONTRIBUTE MOST TO AIRCREW WORKSPACE DESIGN IN AIRCRAFT. COMPARISON OF THESE DATA WAS PERFORMED AGAINST SIMILAR MEASUREMENTS CONDUCTED UPON FLYING PERSONNEL IN FIVE SEPARATE STUDIES BY OTHER MILITARY SERVICES.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, AVIATION PERSONNEL, HUMAN ENGINEERING, MEASUREMENT, AIRCREW STATION DESIGN
69-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 800 DTIC #: AD684371
TITLE: AN EVALUATION OF OPHTHALMIC PLASTIC (CR-39) LENSES IN THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, ROBERT W. BAILEY, FRANK H. FISCHER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIRTY RATED U.S. ARMY AVIATORS WITH VARIOUS TYPES OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS WERE SELECTED TO WEAR-TEST BOTH CLEAR AND TINTED PLASTIC (CR-39) OPHTHALMIC LENSES FOR A PERIOD OF 6 MONTHS. SUBJECTIVE EVALUATIONS WERE MADE IN THE AREAS OF IMPACT RESISTANCE, SCRATCH RESISTANCE, WEIGHT, OPTICAL CLARITY, COMFORT, CLEANING EASE, RESISTANCE TO BREAKAGE, AND ACCUMULATION OF FOREIGN MATERIAL. USER ACCEPTANCE WAS QUITE GOOD. LENS SCRATCHING WAS NOT FOUND TO BE A SIGNIFICANT PROBLEM. FAVORABLE RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE CONCERNING THE GENERAL USE OF PLASTIC OPHTHALMIC LENSES FOR U.S. ARMY AVIATION PERSONNEL.
KEYWORDS: LENSES, SPECTACLES, PLASTIC, VISION, AVIATION
69-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 319 DTIC #: AD683315
TITLE: THE SOMATIC CHROMOSOMES OF THE MONGOLIAN GERBIL (MERIONES UNGUICULATUS)
AUTHOR(s): STEVEN P. PAKES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS INITIATED TO CHARACTERIZE THE SOMATIC CHROMOSOMES OF THE MONGOLIAN GERBIL (MERIONES UNGUICULATUS) PRIOR TO CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS CONCERNED WITH THE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ENCOUNTERED IN SPACE FLIGHT ON MAMMALIAN CHROMOSOMES. FROM THE STUDY OF BONE MARROW CELLS AFTER INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTION OF COLCHICINE, IT WAS DETERMINED THAT THE DIPLOID NUMBER OF CHROMOSOMES FOR THE MONGOLIAN GERBIL IS 44. THE KARYOTYPE WAS CONSTRUCTED BY ARRANGING THE CHROMOSOMES INTO FOUR DISTINCT GROUPS AND INCLUDES 32 META- OR SUBMETACENTRIC AND 10 ACROCENTRIC AUTOSOMAL CHROMOSOMES. THE X ELEMENT WAS IDENTIFIED AS A LARGE SUBMETACENTRIC CHROMOSOME AND THE Y ELEMENT AS A MEDIUM-SIZED SUBMETACENTRIC CHROMOSOME.
KEYWORDS: SOMATIC CHROMOSOMES, MONGOLIAN GERBIL, MERIONES UNGUICULATUS, CYTOGENETICS, LABORATORY ANIMALS
69-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 568 DTIC #: AD688857
TITLE: CONTINUOUS EKG RECORDING OF HELICOPTER INSTRUCTOR PILOTS: A INTERIM EVALUATION
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FIFTY-THREE INSTRUCTOR PILOTS WERE STUDIED WITH ONE LEAD OF EKG FOR A FULL WORK DAY. MEAN HEART RATES WERE TABULATED FROM THE RECORD DURING: ADMINISTRATIVE WORK (87.2 BEATS PER MINUTE), AUTOMOBILE DRIVING (85.5 BEATS PER MINUTE), EATING (90.1 BEATS PER MINUTE), AND FLYING (92.0 BEATS PER MINUTE). USING TUKEY'S MULTIPLE COMPARISON OF MEANS, SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND BETWEEN HEART RATES DURING FLYING AND HEART RATES NOTED WHILE DRIVING, AND WHILE PERFORMING ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES. MEANS OF "LOWEST HEART RATE RECORDED" AND "HIGHEST HEART RATE RECORDED" FOR EACH SUBJECT WERE RECORDED (MEANS OF 71.8 AND 140.4 RESPECTIVELY). THE ACTIVITIES IN WHICH THE SUBJECTS WERE ENGAGED AT THE TIME ARE REPORTED. THERE WERE NO REGULAR SCHEDULES OF PHYSICAL TRAINING OR SPORTS PARTICIPATION BY 71.7 PERCENT OF THE SUBJECTS. AN 11 BY 11 CORRELATION MATRIX INDICATES SUBJECTS WHO HAVE HIGH HEART RATES DURING ONE ACTIVITY WILL HAVE COMPARABLY HIGH HEART RATES DURING ALL ACTIVITIES, AND VICE VERSA. FOUR OF THE 53 SUBJECTS SHOWED ARRHYTHMIAS AT SOME TIME DURING THE RECORDING; ONE HAD 38 UNIFOCAL VENTRICULAR PREMATURE CONTRACTIONS DURING THE RECORDING PERIOD; THREE HAD ATRIAL PREMATURE CONTRACTIONS.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, HELICOPTER PILOTS, PHYSIOLOGY
69-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 832 DTIC #: AD692069
TITLE: DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THE HEAD AND NECK OF THE LIVING HUMAN TO -GX IMPACT ACCELERATION. 1. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTAL DATA
AUTHOR(s): CHANNING L. EWING, DANIEL J. THOMAS, GEORGE W. BEELER, JR., LAWRENCE M. PATRICK, DAVID B. GILLIS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE PRINCIPLE AUTHOR, A JOINT ARMY-NAVY RESEARCH STUDY, IN COOPERATION WITH WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY, IS UNDERWAY TO DETERMINE THE DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THE HEAD AND NECK OF LIVING HUMAN SUBJECTS TO -GX IMPACT ACCELERATION, USING TRANSDUCERS TO MEASURE DIFFERENTIAL DISPLACEMENTS AND DIFFERENTIAL ANGULAR AND LINEAR ACCELERATIONS OF THE HEAD WITH REFERENCE TO THE BASE OF THE NECK IN RESPONSE TO THE INPUT ACCELERATION MEASURED AT THAT POINT. A REDUNDANT PHOTOGRAPHIC DATA SYSTEM IS BEING USED FOR VALIDATION. PRELIMINARY RESULTS ARE PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: HUMAN DYNAMIC RESPONSE, DIFFENTIAL DISPLACEMENTS, DIFFERENTIAL ANGULAR ACCELERATION, DIFFERENTIAL LINEAR ACCELERATION, BIOMECHANICS, BIOENGINEERING, IMPACT ACCELERATION
69-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 656 DTIC #: AD695368
TITLE: ASSESSMENT OF SEMICIRCULAR CANAL FUNCTION. 1. MEASUREMENTS OF SUBJECTIVE EFFORTS PRODUCED BY TRIANGULAR WAVEFORMS OF ANGULAR VELOCITY
AUTHOR(s): FRED E. GUEDRY, JR., GALE G. OWENS, JOEL W. NORMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO METHODS WERE COMPARED FOR MEASURING SUBJECTIVE ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT PRODUCED BY TRIANGULAR WAVEFORMS OF ANGULAR VELOCITY WHILE SUBJECTS (N EQUALS 11) WERE ENCLOSED IN A VERTICAL-AXIS ROTATION DEVICE THAT EXCLUDED VISUAL AND AUDITORY CUES OF ANGULAR MOTION. ACCURACY OF SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATES WAS INFLUENCED BY THE METHODS AND BY THE MAGNITUDES OF ACCELERATION COMPRISING THE STIMULUS WAVEFORMS. RESULTS SUGGEST THAT ONE OF THE METHODS, WITH SLIGHT MODIFICATION, WILL PROVIDE RELIABLE INDICATION OF THE SUBJECTIVE EFFECTS OF CONTROLLED SEMICIRCULAR CANAL STIMULATION. A FOLLOW-UP EXPERIMENT, REPORTED SEPARATELY AS PART II, DEALS WITH THIS MODIFICATION.
KEYWORDS: VESTIBULAR FUNCTION, SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURES, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, DISORIENTATION, SPACE PERCEPTION, EQUILIBRIUM
69-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1300 DTIC #: AD689118
TITLE: AUTONOMIC RESPONSES TO VESTIBULAR STIMULATION
AUTHOR(s): PEI CHIN TANG, BO E. GERNANDT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DECEREBRATE, PARALYZED CATS WERE USED TO DETERMINE SOME AUTONOMIC EFFECTS OF VESTIBULAR STIMULATION AND TO ESTABLISH THROUGH WHICH PERIPHERAL LINKS THIS VESTIBULOFUGAL ACTIVITY WAS TRANSMITTED. VESTIBULAR STIMULATION INCREASED BOTH RATE AND DEPTH OF RESPIRATION, AS DEMONSTRATED BY PHRENIC AND RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE RECORDING, AND A MARKED ELEVATION IN BLOOD PRESSURE ACCOMPANIED THIS EFFECT. WHEN THE STRENGTH OF STIMULATION WAS REDUCED AND THE EVOKED RESPIRATORY EFFECT WEAK OR QUESTIONABLE, THE SYSTEMIC BLOOD PRESSURE DECLINED. VESTIBULAR STIMULATION ELICITED STRONG RESPONSES FROM THE NECK VAGUS NERVE, BUT THIS VESTIBULOFUGAL ACTIVITY WAS FOUND TO BE CONDUCTED EXCLUSIVELY IN THE RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE AND NOT IN THE VAGUS NERVE PROPER. ONLY THE SYMPATHETIC PORTION OF THE AUTONOMIC SYSTEM RESPONDED TO VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, THUS PROVIDING VESTIBULAR IMPULSES A CHANNEL FOR REACHING DIFFERENT EFFECTOR ORGANS. THE RESPONSES OBTAINED FROM THE NECK SYMPATHETIC NERVE WERE ANALYZED AND THEIR CHARACTERISTICS DESCRIBED.
KEYWORDS: VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, VESTIBUL-VAGAL RESPONSE, RECURRENT LARYNGEAL NERVE RESPONSE, PHRENIC NERVE RESPONSE, SYMPATHETIC NERVE RESPONSE, CENTRAL EFFECT OF GALLAMINE
69-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2813 DTIC #: AD032804
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN BODY AS AN AIRFOIL
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE, DEAN C. BORGMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FIVE SUBJECTS WERE USED TO DETERMINE THE LIFT AND DRAG CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HUMAN BODY HELD IN A TRACKING ATTITUDE. THE EFFECTS OF EIGHT DIFFERENT PARACHUTE PACK CONFIGURATIONS WERE TESTED TO EVALUATE THE INFLUENCE OF THE PACK UPON LIFT AND DRAG. 1. THE MEAN CL OF OUR UNENCUMBERED SUBJECTS (0.374) CORRESPONDED TO THE CL ATTRIBUTED TO STRAUMANN'S SKI JUMPERS (0.43). 2. CHANGES IN PARACHUTE PACK CONFIGURATION SIGNIFICANTLY CHANGED L/D, CL AND CD. SUBJECTS APPEARED TO BE HOMOGENOUS. 3. DESIGN OF PACK TRAY IS DESCRIBED WHICH, BY TEST, HAD A SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER L/D THAN ANY CURRENTLY AVAILABLE PARACHUTE PACK TRAY CONFIGURATION. 4. MAN IS NOT AN IDEAL SUBJECT TO TEST AS AN AIRFOIL IN THE WIND TUNNEL.
KEYWORDS: HUMAN BODY, AERODYNAMICS, AIRFOIL, PARACHUTING, FREE-FALL
69-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 750 DTIC #: AD693039
TITLE: ROD AND CONE CONTRIBUTIONS TO S-POTENTIALS FROM CAT RETINA
AUTHOR(s): ROY H. STEINBERG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PROBLEM OF WHETHER THE RODS CONTRIBUTE TO S-POTENTIALS WAS STUDIED IN THE INTACT EYE OF THE CAT. S-POTENTIALS FROM LUMINOSITY UNITS (L-UNITS) WERE EVOKED BY SMALL SPOTS OF RELATIVELY MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT IN DARK AND LIGHT-ADAPTED RETINAE. THE SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY CURVE FOR DARK-ADAPTED S-POTENTIALS HAD ITS MAXIMUM AT 500 NM, AND THE FORM OF DARK-ADAPTED RESPONSES ALSO SUGGESTED THAT RODS WERE EXCITED. THE SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY CURVE FOR LIGHT-ADAPTED S-POTENTIALS HAD ITS MAXIMUM AT 560 NM, AND RESPONSE LATENCIES EVEN AT THRESHOLD WERE MUCH FASTER THAN IN DARK ADAPTATION. INDIVIDUAL S-POTENTIALS EXHIBITED PURKINJE SHIFTS. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT RHODOPSIN RODS CONTRIBUTE TO S-POTENTIALS (L-TYPE) IN THE CAT AND THAT CONES CONTRIBUTE TO THE SAME RESPONSES.
KEYWORDS: S-POTENTIALS, LUMINOSITY POTENTIALS, CHROMATICITY POTENTIALS, DARK-ADAPTED RETINA, LIGHT-ADAPTED RETINA
69-10a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 863 DTIC #: AD747628
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF PERFORMANCE RELEVANCE AND FEEDBACK UPON RESISTANCE TO ANTICIPATORY STRESS
AUTHOR(s): XENIA COULTER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY SOUGHT TO DEMONSTRATE THAT, IN A THREATENING SITUATION, IF OCCURRENCE OF HARM DEPENDS UPON PERFORMANCE (RELEVANCE) AND INFORMATION IS SUPPLIED REGARDING PERFORMANCE QUALITY (FEEDBACK), RESISTANCE TO STRESS WILL BE ENHANCED EVEN THOUGH STRESS MAGNITUDE (PROBABILITY OF HARM) REMAINS UNCHANGED. EIGHTY AVIATION OFFICER CANDIDATES WERE EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS; 10 OTHERS WERE CONTROLS. A SUBJECT-PACED, FOUR-CHOICE DISCRIMINATION TASK WAS USED, AND ALL SUBJECTS WERE ALLOWED AN INITIAL 5-MINUTE PRACTICE SESSION. SUBJECTS ANTICIPATED EITHER A NOXIOUS EVENT (ELECTRIC SHOCK) OR A BENIGN EVENT (BELL). WITHIN EACH CONDITION, FOUR GROUPS PERFORMED THE TASK, EACH WITH A DIFFERENT COMBINATION OF FEEDBACK AND RELEVANCE: WITH NEITHER, WITH BOTH, OR WITH ONE OR THE OTHER. CONTROLS SIMPLY PERFORMED THE TASK A SECOND TIME. RESULTS INDICATE THAT: 1) ANTICIPATION IN ITSELF MAY BE STRESSFUL; 2) MEASURED BY CHANCES IN PERFORMANCE ACROSS TIME, STRESS RESISTANCE IS ENHANCED BY BOTH FEEDBACK AND RELEVANCE; 3) STRESS MAGNITUDE IS BEST MEASURED BY PERFORMANCE VARIABILITY; AND 4) PERFORMANCE LEVEL, WHICH IS RELATED BY A U-SHAPED FUNCTION TO STRESS, MAY REFLECT MOTIVATIONAL ASPECTS OF STRESS.
KEYWORDS: THREAT, STRESS, ANTICIPATORY PHYSICAL THREAT STRESS, PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES
69-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 702 DTIC #: AD693040
TITLE: ROD-CONE INTERACTION IN CAT S-POTENTIAL FROM CAT RETINA
AUTHOR(s): ROY H. STEINBERG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ROD-CONE INTERACTION IN CAT S-POTENTIALS WAS STUDIED BY ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF WAVELENGTH AND INTENSITY UPON THE FORM OF DARK-ADAPTED RESPONSES. FLASHES OF WHITE LIGHT AND RELATIVELY MONOCHROMATIC FLASHES PRODUCED RESPONSES THAT SEEMED TO ORIGINATE FROM THE EXCITATION OF BOTH RECEPTOR TYPES. THE ROD RESPONSE CHANGED AS A FUNCTION OF INTENSITY, PEAKING AT 2.5 LOG ABOVE THRESHOLD AND INCREASING IN DURATION AT 3.0 LOG ABOVE THRESHOLD. THE CONE RESPONSE SEEMED IN SOME WAY TO ADD TO THE CHANGING ROD RESPONSE. V-LOG I CURVES SHOWED THAT THE ROD RESPONSE REACHED A CEILING (INITIAL PEAK VOLTAGE) AT 3.5 LOG ABOVE THRESHOLD WHILE THE MAINTAINED VOLTAGE LEVELED OFF AT A LOWER INTENSITY. BOTH CEILINGS WERE OBSCURED BY THE APPARENT ADDITION OF THE CONE CONTRIBUTION. CONE AND ROD RESPONSES TO BRIEF ORANGE AND BLUE LIGHTS OF MODERATE INTENSITY, SEPARATED IN TIME, ADDED TOGETHER ACROSS A COMPLETE RANGE OF INTERVALS.
KEYWORDS: RETINA, AREA CENTRALIS, ROD-CONE INTERACTION, S-POTENTIALS
69-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 585 DTIC #: AD695635
TITLE: AUTOMATED COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF DEACYLATED PHOSPHOLIPIDS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES G. WETMUR, CHARLES R. WILSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PROCEDURE IS FULLY DESCRIBED FOR ISOLATION AND DEACYLATION OF PHOSPHOLIPIDS FROM SERUM OR TISSUE. CONTROL EXPERIMENTS ARE DESCRIBED THAT ENSURE MAXIMUM YIELD WITH MINIMUM DEGRADATION. A COMPLETELY AUTOMATED SYSTEM IS DESCRIBED FOR COLUMN CHROMATOGRAPHIC RESOLUTION AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FRACTIONS OF A COMPLEX MIXTURE OF DEACYLATED PHOSPHOLIPIDS. CONTROL EXPERIMENTS ARE DESCRIBED THAT ENSURE MAXIMUM EFFICIENCY OF CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF AND MAXIMUM SENSITIVITY OF ANALYSIS OF THE FRACTIONS. ELUTION PROFILES FOR HUMAN SERUM AND RED CELLS AND FOR RAT LIVER DEACYLATED PHOSPHOLIPIDS ARE SHOWN. ALL OF THE SEVEN FRACTIONS ARE IDENTIFIED.
KEYWORDS: PHOSPHOLIPIDS, STRESS, FATIGUE
69-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 634 DTIC #: AD692433
TITLE: ASSESSMENT OF SEMICIRCULAR CANAL FUNCTION. II. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN SUBJECTIVE ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT PRODUCED BY TRIANGULAR WAVEFORMS OF ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT
AUTHOR(s): GALE G. OWENS, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MEAN ESTIMATES (N = 26) OF SHORT ARCS OF PASSIVE WHOLE-BODY ROTATION ABOUT AN EARTH-VERTICAL AXIS WERE ACCURATE WHEN SUBJECTS USED A PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURE THAT INVOLVED COUNTER-DISPLACEMENT OF A POINTER ON A DIAL. THE REQUIRED RETROSPECTIVE DISPLACEMENT JUDGMENTS YIELDED MORE ACCURATE MEAN ESTIMATES OF ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT THAN WERE OBTAINED IN AN EARLIER EXPERIMENT WHICH PROBABLY INVOLVED CONCURRENT VELOCITY MATCHING. THE DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSE CURVES IN THE VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF THE TWO EXPERIMENTS CLEARLY ILLUSTRATE THE IMPORTANCE OF ATTENTION TO PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURES PRIOR TO ATTEMPTING TO DEVELOP MODELS OF THE VESTIBULAR END-ORGANS TO EXPLAIN RESULTS. THE METHOD USED IN THIS EXPERIMENT IS SUFFICIENT TO DETECT PROMINENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES WITHIN A SAMPLE OF AVIATION TRAINING CANDIDATES, AND THE RESULTS OBTAINED THUS FAR INDICATE HIGH TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY (R = .94).
KEYWORDS: VESTIBULAR FUNCTION, SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURES, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERNCES, DISORIENTATION, SPACE PERCEPTION, EQUILIBRIUM
69-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 598 DTIC #: AD693041
TITLE: THE ROD AFTEREFFECT IN S-POTENTIALS FROM CAT RETINA
AUTHOR(s): ROY H. STEINBERG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE RELATION OF THE ROD AFTEREFFECT TO PERCENTAGE RHODOPSIN BLEACHED WAS STUDIED IN S-POTENTIALS FROM CAT RETINA. AT THRESHOLD, FLASHES WHICH PRODUCED THE ROD AFTEREFFECT BLEACHED ONLY VERY SMALL QUANTITIES OF RHODOPSIN; AND AT A FIXED FLASH DURATION, THE DURATION OF THE AFTEREFFECT INCREASED AS A FUNCTION OF LOG INTENSITY. THE AFTEREFFECT'S THRESHOLD OCCURRED AT ABOUT THE INTENSITY WHICH SATURATED THE MAINTAINED VOLTAGE. WITH FLASH INTENSITY FIXED (6.5 LOG TD. SCOTOPIC) AND FLASH DURATION INCREASED (0.5 TO 64.0 SECONDS) THE DURATION OF THE AFTER-EFFECT WAS A LINEAR FUNCTION OF EXPOSURE TIME. THE DURATION CONTINUED TO INCREASE AFTER AN EXPOSURE OF 16 SEC, EVEN THOUGH AT LEAST 99 PERCENT OF THE RHODOPSIN HAD BEEN BLEACHED. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT THE AFTEREFFECT ORIGINATES FROM SOMETHING WHICH ACCUMULATES AFTER THE MAINTAINED VOLTAGE IN ROD PATHWAYS REACHES A CEILING. THE ACCUMULATION CAN CONTINUE AT A FIXED RATE IRRESPECTIVE OF THE BLEACHING RATE.
KEYWORDS: S-POTENTIALS, RETINA
69-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 330 DTIC #: AD689451
TITLE: FORMS OF CLOSED CIRCULAR DNA IN RAT LIVER DURING REGENERATION AND FOLLOWING AMINOAZO-DYE CARCINOGENESIS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES G. WETMUR, CHARLES R. WILSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CLOSED CIRCULAR FORMS OF DNA OF RAT LIVER HAVE BEEN OBSERVED DURING AMINOAZO-DYE CARCINOGENESIS, DURING REGENERATION FOLLOWING PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY AND IN CONTROL ANIMALS. PAUCIDISPERSE MULTIPLE MITOCHONDRIAL FORMS WERE NOT OBSERVED. POLYDISPERSE SMALLER MOLECULES WERE OBSERVED FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS. THE CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY HISTOGRAM SHOWS THE SAME PROFILE AS OTHERS OBSERVED IN HELA CELLS. THE RELATIVE QUANTITY OF THE SMALL CIRCLES TO THE MITOCHONDRIAL CIRCLES NORMALLY PRESENT WAS EXTREMELY SMALL. NO CONCLUSIONS COULD BE DRAWN REGARDING THE SOURCE OF THESE MOLECULES. WE CONCLUDE THAT NEITHER REGENERATION NOR CARCINOGENESIS RESULTS IN AN ALTERATION OF THE GENETIC RECOMBINATION APPARATUS OF A MAGNITUDE WHICH MIGHT YIELD SIGNIFICANT QUANTITIES OF THE TWO ABERRANT FORMS OF CLOSED CIRCULAR DNA.
KEYWORDS: DNA, CARCINOGENESIS
69-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 436 DTIC #: AD690800
TITLE: TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF VENOM PHOSPHOLIPASE A AND RELATE HAEMOLYSIS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE, JAMES G. WETMUR, CHARLES R. WILSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PHOSPHOLIPASE A ACTIVITY OF THE VENOM OF CROTALUS ADMANATEUS WAS FOUND TO INCREASE BY A FACTOR OF TWO FOR EVERY 10 DEGREES C INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE. A PERCENTAGE OF HAEMOLYSIS OF RED CELLS BY LYSOLECITHIN PRODUCED BY PHOSPHOLIPASE A OCCURRED AT TWO TIMES LOWER LYSOLECITHIN CONCENTRATION FOR EVERY 10 DEGREE C DECREASE IN TEMPERATURE. UNDER ALL CONDITIONS, PERCENT LYSIS INCREASED WITH DECREASING TEMPERATURE, ALTHOUGH INITIALLY THE TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE IS SMALL. AT ANY TIME, DECREASING THE TEMPERATURE IN A COMPLEX REACTION MIXTURE WOULD BE EXPECTED TO PRODUCE AN INSTANTANEOUS INCREASE IN THE PERCENTAGE OF CELLS LYSED.
KEYWORDS: VENOM, PHOSPHOLIPASE, HAEMOLYSIS
69-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 379 DTIC #: AD691020
TITLE: EFFECTS OF CYANIDE AND 2 DEOXYGLUCOSE ON PROXIMAL TUBULAR FUNCTION IN THE RAT KIDNEY
AUTHOR(s): STEPHEN W. WEINSTEIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SERIES OF 13 EXPERIMENTS WAS PERFORMED TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF CYANIDE, AN OXIDATIVE INHIBITOR, AND 2 DEOXYGLUCOSE (2DG), A GLYCOLYTIC INHIBITOR, ON THE FUNCTION OF THE PROXIMAL TUBULE OF THE RAT'S KIDNEY. THE TECHNIQUE UTILIZED WAS SPLIT OIL DROPLET MICROPERFUSION OF SURFACE PROXIMAL NEPHRON SEGMENTS WITH SEQUENTIAL PHOTOMICROGRAPHY. ISOTONIC SALINE WAS THE CONTROL PERFUSION FLUID. CYANIDE REDUCED THE REABSORPTIVE RATE OF THE PERFUSED NEPHRON SEGMENTS TO 50 PERCENT OF THE CONTROL. 2DG HAD NO EFFECT ON SALINE REABSORPTION. CYANIDE PLUS 2DG PERFUSED SIMULTANEOUSLY IN SALINE INHIBITED REABSORPTION TO THE SAME DEGREE AS DID CYANIDE ALONE. THESE RESULTS ARE INTERPRETED AS INDICATING ALMOST TOTAL DEPENDENCE OF PROXIMAL TUBULAR REABSORPTION OF FILTRATE UPON ENERGY AVAILABLE FROM OXIDATE METABOLISM. SINCE REABSORPTION OF FILTRATE IN THIS SEGMENT IS MEDIATED THROUGH ACTIVE SODIUM TRANSPORT, IT WOULD APPEAR THAT OXIDATIVE METABOLISM AND NOT GLYCOLYSIS IS THE ENERGY SOURCE FOR THIS PROCESS.
KEYWORDS: KIDNEY, METABOLISM, PHYSIOLOGY
69-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 397 DTIC #: AD691104
TITLE: EFFECTS OF 2, 4 DINITROPHENOL ON PROXIMAL TUBULAR SODIUM REABSORPTION AND PERMEABILITY ON NONELECTROLYTES IN THE RAT KIDNEY
AUTHOR(s): STEPHEN W. WEINSTEIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SERIES OF 19 EXPERIMENTS WAS PERFORMED TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF 2,4 DINITROPHENOL (2,4 DNP), AN UNCOUPLER OF OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION ON THE CAPACITY OF THE PROXIMAL TUBULE OF THE RAT KIDNEY TO REABSORB ISOTONIC SODIUM CHLORIDE AND TO LIMIT PASSIVE PERMEATION ON NONELECTROLYTES. THE TECHNIQUE UTILIZED WAS SEQUENTIAL PHOTOMICROGRAPHY OF SPLIT OIL DROPLET MICROPERFUSIONS OF SURFACE PROXIMAL CONVOLUTIONS. THE PERFUSION FLUIDS WERE ISOTONIC SOLUTIONS OF SALINE, MANNITOL, SUCROSE, AND RAFFINOSE. THE ADDITION OF 2,4 DNP HAD NO EFFECT ON ISOTONIC SALINE REABSORPTIVE RATE. HOWEVER, IT INCREASED THE RATE OF REABSORPTION OF THE NONELECTROLYTES. THESE RESULTS SUGGEST AN INTIMATE LINKAGE IN THE PROXIMAL CONVOLUTION OF SODIUM TRANSPORT DIRECTLY TO THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT SYSTEM SINCE 2,4 DNP PREVENTS OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION WITHOUT INHIBITING ELECTRON TRANSPORT. IN CONTRAST, PERMEABILITY OF THIS TUBULAR SEGMENT TO NONELECTROLYTES IS ENHANCED BY 2,4 DNP. AT LEAST TWO MECHANISTIC AND TWO FUNCTION EXPLANATIONS ARE POSSIBLE FOR THIS EFFECT. THESE ARE DISCUSSED AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS CONSIDERED.
KEYWORDS: KIDNEY, METABOLISM, PHYSIOLOGY
69-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 608 DTIC #: AD705532
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF PRIOR EXPOSURE TO A HARMFUL EVENT UPON SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE UNDER THREAT
AUTHOR(s): XENIA B. COULTER, MARY ANNE OVERMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EARLIER RESEARCH STRESSED THE NEED FOR CONTROLLING MAGNITUDE OF THREAT WHEN MEASURING SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FEAR OF HARM (ELECTRIC SHOCK). LEVEL OF THREAT WAS MANIPULATED BEFORE TESTING BY VARYING THE INTENSITY OF DEMONSTRATED SHOCK AND THE STATED PROBABILITY OF RECEIVING SHOCK AT A SPECIFIED POINT DURING A GIVEN EXPERIMENTAL PERFORMANCE TASK. THE PRESENT STUDY INVESTIGATED EFFECTS OF: 1) THE STATED PROBABILITY AT 0.25 VERSUS 0.85 WITH NO PRETEST SHOCK DEMONSTRATION AND 2) PRETEST SHOCK DEMONSTRATION VERSUS NO DEMONSTRATION WITH THE STATED PROBABILITY HELD CONSTANT AT 0.65. SUBJECTS WERE 70 ENTERING AVIATION TRAINEES. THE TASK WAS A SUBJECT-PACED FOUR-CHOICE DISCRIMINATION TASK. TEN SUBJECTS WERE USED AS CONTROLS, WITH THE REMAINDER DIVIDED AMONG THE EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS. A 5-MINUTE PRACTICE PERIOD WITHOUT THREAT PRECEDED A 5-MINUTE EXPERIMENTAL PERIOD FOR ALL CONDITIONS. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT: 1) SHOCK DEMONSTRATION IS NOT NECESSARY, AND ITS ELIMINATION WOULD PROVIDE A MORE USEFUL RANGE FOR INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE MEASUREMENT; 2) THE 0.65 PROBABILITY IS BETTER FOR PRODUCING MEASURABLE PERFORMANCE DECREMENT THAN EITHER THE LOWER OR HIGHER EXTREMES OF 0.25 AND 0.85; 3) THREAT PERCEPTION AS MEASURED BY MEAN PERFORMANCE LEVEL ACROSS TIME MAY BE AS USEFUL A PARAMETER AS PERFORMANCE DECREMENT IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING THE ANTICIPATED HARMFUL STIMULUS.
KEYWORDS: STRESS, THREAT, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, SELECTION
70-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 717 DTIC #: AD692845
TITLE: MICROPUNCTURE STUDIES ON THE MECHANISM OF SULFATE EXCRETION BY THE RAT KIDNEY
AUTHOR(s): STEPHEN W. WEINSTEIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SERIES OF FREE FLOW MICROPUNCTURE EXPERIMENTS WERE PERFORMED ON RATS UNDERGOING SODIUM SULFATE DIURESIS. END PROXIMAL TUBULAR FLUIDS AND URETERAL URINES FROM THE PUNCTURED KIDNEY WERE COLLECTED. THE DATA INDICATES THAT TUBULAR FLUID/PLASMA (TF/P) RATIOS FOR SULFATE REMAINED CLOSE TO 1.0 AND FILTRATE REABSORPTION WAS QUANTITATIVELY NORMAL DURING SULFATE INFUSION IN THE PROXIMAL TUBULE. FINAL URINE ANALYSIS SUGGESTED THAT ALL SULFATE LEAVING THE PROXIMAL CONVOLUTION IS EXCRETED. THE DATA IS INTERPRETED AS EVIDENCE THAT SULFATE IS NOT HANDLED BY A TM LIMITED MECHANISM IN THE RAT KIDNEY. RATHER IT APPEARS DEPENDENT UPON FILTRATION RATE, PROXIMAL TUBULAR REABSORPTION RATE AND PLASMA CONCENTRATION OF THE ANION. A COMPARISON OF BICARBONATE REABSORPTION DURING CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITION TO SULFATE REABSORPTION IN THE RAT NEPHRON SUGGESTS GREATER PROXIMAL PASSIVE PERMEABILITY TO SULFATE THAN BICARBONATE AND EQUALLY RESTRICTED DISTAL NEPHRON PERMEABILITY.
KEYWORDS: RENAL MICROPUNCTURE, SULFATE, NEPHRON PERMEABILITY, ION TRANSPORT
70-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 757 DTIC #: AD693261
TITLE: REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CBS LABORATORIES' MARK II EARPHONE ENCLOSURES
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR., RONALD F. KOVACS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE REAL-EAR ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CBS LABORATORIES' MARK II EARPHONE ENCLOSURES WERE DETERMINED BY STANDARD PROCEDURES AND EQUIPMENT SPECIFIED BY ASI Z24.22-1957. THE ENCLOSURES MOUNTED IN AN ARMY APH-5 HELMET. THE RESULTS OF THE TESTS SHOW THAT THE MARK II EARPHONE ENCLOSURES DO IMPROVE THE ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE APH-5 AT FREQUENCIES FROM 75 TO 500 HZ. AT HIGHER FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 3K AND 8K HZ THE ATTENUATION WAS LESS THAN THAT OFFERED BY THE STANDARD APH-5 EARMUFF. A COMPARISON OF THE OVERALL SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MARK II ENCLOSURES AND THE SPH-3 (MODIFIED) SHOWS THAT THE LATTER HAS SUPERIOR ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS.
KEYWORDS: AUDITION, PSYCHOACOUSTICS, HEARING, HEARING PROTECTION
70-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1585 DTIC #: AD693797
TITLE: VISIBILITY FROM THE REAR SEAT OF THE U.S. ARMY O-1A (BIRD DOG) AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, ROBERT W. BAILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DYNAMIC VISUAL FIELD OF VIEW WAS MEASURED FROM THE REAR SEAT OF THE U.S. ARMY O-1A (BIRD DOG) AIRCRAFT. SUBJECTS FROM THE 5TH AND 95TH PERCENTILE LEVEL SITTING EYE HEIGHTS WERE USED TO DETERMINE THE CHANGES IN FIELD OF VIEW WHEN THE SHORT MAN OCCUPIED THE FRONT SEAT AND THE TALL MAN THE REAR, AND VICE VERSA. CHANGES OCCURRING AS A RESULT OF USING A CUSHION, SITTING IN A FIXED POSITION, OR MOVING THE EXTENT OF THE SEAT HARNESS ALSO WERE MEASURED. RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE CONCERNING SEAT ADJUSTMENT CHARACTERISTICS, REAR WINDOW DESIGN, THE AVAILABILITY OF INSTRUMENTS TO THE INSTRUCTOR PILOT IN THE REAR SEAT, AND THE WEATHER STANDARDS FOR DUAL VFR FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: VISION, VISUAL FIELD, AVIATION VISION, FIELD OF VIEW
70-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 693 DTIC #: AD697765
TITLE: MEASUREMENT OF THE TOXIC HAZARD DUE TO FIRING THE WEAPONS OF THE UH-1B ARMED HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): G. L. HODY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE TOXIC EXHAUST PRODUCTS OF MACHINE GUNS AND ROCKETS FIRED FROM ARMED HELICOPTERS CAN CREATE A HAZARD FOR THE CREW. A TOXIC HAZARD EVALUATION WAS CARRIED OUT WITH THE UH-1B ARMED HELICOPTER. SPECIAL METHODS WERE USED TO MEASURE RAPIDLY CHANGING LEVELS OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE HELICOPTER DURING ACTUAL FLIGHT TESTING. THE EXPOSURE TO METALLIC PARTICLES ALSO WAS RECORDED. NO TOXIC LEVELS OF WEAPONS EXHAUST WERE PRESENT IN THE CABIN DURING ANY PRACTICAL MISSION PROFILE WITH THE SPECIFIC WEAPONS TESTED. THESE TESTS ARE PART OF A CONTINUING ARMED HELICOPTER TOXIC HAZARD STUDY PROGRAM AT USAARL.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT, ATMOSPHERE, DETECTING, CARBON MONOXIDE, TOXIC, WEAPON SYSTEM, HELICOPTER
70-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 557 DTIC #: AD700908
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF SEMICIRCULAR CANAL STIMULATIONS DURING TILTING ON THE SUBSEQUENT PERCEPTION OF THE VISUAL VERTICAL
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES W. STOCKWELL, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WHEN A MAN IS ACCELERATED ON A CENTRIFUGE, THE DIRECTION OF GRAVITOINERTIAL VERTICAL CHANGES RELATIVE TO HIS BODY. HOWEVER, A LAG OCCURS IN HIS PERCEPTION OF THIS CHANGE. THE HYPOTHESIS HAS BEEN ADVANCED THAT THE PERCEPTUAL LAG IN THIS SITUATION IS PARTLY THE RESULT OF A CONFLICT BETWEEN SIGNALS ARISING FROM THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS AND FROM THE OTOLITH ORGANS. TO TEST THIS HYPOTHESIS, SUBJECTS WERE TILTED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THEY RECEIVED CONSISTENT SEMICIRCULAR CANAL AND OTOLITH SIGNALS. THIS WAS ACCOMPLISHED SIMPLY BY TILTING THEM 30 DEGREES FROM UPRIGHT IN THEIR FRONTAL PLANE. IMMEDIATELY AFTER BEING TILTED, THESE SUBJECTS MADE ESTIMATES OF THE VERTICAL WHICH WERE APPROXIMATELY ACCURATE, AND THEY CONTINUED TO MAKE ACCURATE ESTIMATES THROUGHOUT A 140-SECOND JUDGMENT PERIOD. THE ABSENCE OF A PERCEPTUAL LAG UNDER THESE CIRCUMSTANCES SUPPORTS THE HYPOTHESIS.
KEYWORDS: GRAVITATION, VISUAL VERTICAL, VESTIBULAR APPARATUS, SUBJECTIVE VERTICAL, ORIENTATION, PERCEPTION
70-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7445 DTIC #: AD701696
TITLE: SAMPLE HELICOPTER FLIGHT MOTION DATA FOR VESTIBULAR REFERENCE
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PRESENTS LOW-FREQUENCY LINEAR AND ANGULAR MOTION FLIGHT DATA COLLECTED ON A NONINTERFERENCE BASIS ABOARD THE FOLLOWING MILITARY HELICOPTERS: AH-1G, UH-1B, UH-1D, OH-6A, CH-54, CH-47, AND UH-2B. MEASUREMENT DATA RECORDED DURING VARIOUS TACTICAL MANEUVERS AND ROUTINE FLIGHT OPERATIONS INCLUDED THE TRIAXIAL LINEAR ACCELERATIONS OCCURRING ALONG THE ROLL, PITCH, AND YAW AXES AND THE TRIAXIAL ANGULAR VELOCITIES OCCURRING ABOUT THE SAME THREE REFERENCE AXES.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENTATION, HELICOPTERS, LINEAR ACCELERATION, ANGULAR VELOCITY, VESTIBULAR SYSTEM, PILOT DISORIENTATION
70-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1690 DTIC #: AD702903
TITLE: THE SEMIAUTOMATED TEST SYSTEM: A TOOL FOR STANDARDIZED PERFORMANCE TESTING
AUTHOR(s): H. RUDY RAMSEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOR PERFORMANCE TESTS TO BE TRULY STANDARDIZED, THEY MUST BE ADMINISTERED IN A WAY THAT WILL MINIMIZE VARIATION DUE TO OPERATOR INTERVENTION AND ERRORS. THROUGH SUCH TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS AS LOW-COST DIGITAL COMPUTERS AND DIGITAL LOGIC MODULES, AUTOMATIC TEST ADMINISTRATION WITHOUT RESTRICTION OF TEST CONTENT HAS BECOME POSSIBLE. A SEMIAUTOMATED TEST SYSTEM (SATS), INCORPORATING PROGRAMMABLE DIGITAL LOGIC MODULES FOR CONTROL, HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO ALLOW AN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGIST, UNASSISTED AND WITH A MINIMUM OF SPECIAL TRAINING, TO SET UP AND MODIFY TESTS OR EXPERIMENTS; THUS, IT IS ESPECIALLY USEFUL FOR EXPLORATORY STUDIES. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SATS IS DESCRIBED AND AN EXAMPLE IS PRESENTED TO CLARIFY THE OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN ITS USE.
KEYWORDS: COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN THE BEHAVIRAL SCIENCES, PERFORMANCE TESTING, PERSONNEL SELECTION, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, SELECTION TESTING
70-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1188 DTIC #: AD701014
TITLE: THE DESIGN OF A LITERATURE FILE IN AIRCRAFT-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE
AUTHOR(s): G. L. HODY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY OFTEN IS REQUIRED TO MAKE SPECIALIZED MEASUREMENTS AND PERFORM APPLIED RESEARCH IN AIRCRAFTRELATED AREAS OF ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE. RAPID ACCESS TO THE PERIODICAL LITERATURE IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE COMPLETION OF MANY OF THESE PROJECTS. A GROWING FILE OF REPRINTS FROM THE PERIODICAL LITERATURE IS AVAILABLE AT USAARL. A METHOD FOR THE ORDERLY STORAGE OF THE REPRINTS IN PRINTED FORM AND A SEPARATE SCHEME FOR RAPID RETRIEVAL OF ABSTRACTS WAS DEVELOPED FOR THE FILE. BOTH METHODS WERE BASED UPON THE NATURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE DATA. STORAGE OF PAPERS WITHIN THE FILE WILL BE BASED ON THE MAJOR TOPIC OF EACH REPRINT WHILE RETRIEVAL WILL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF KEY WORDS. THE COMBINED SYSTEM IS EXPANDABLE AND CAN BE EASILY ADAPTED TO A VARIETY OF MECHANICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND COMPUTER STORAGE RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS.
KEYWORDS: WEAPONS EXHAUST, AIRCRAFT ATMOSPHERE CONTAMINATION, ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS, CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING, TOXICOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, AVIATION MEDICINE, LITERATURE FILE
70-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1003 DTIC #: AD704859
TITLE: INFLUENCE OF VESTIBULAR STIMULATION AND DISPLAY LUMINANCE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A COMPENSATORY TRACKING TASK
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD D. GILSON, ALAN J. BENSON, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LOSS OF ACUITY FOR VISUAL DETAILS IN AIRCRAFT DURING UNUSUAL MANEUVERS HAS BEEN DOCUMENTED BY MELVILL JONES. RECENT INVESTIGATIONS OF THIS PROBLEM HAVE SERVED TO DEFINE THE MAGNITUDE OF SEMICIRCULAR CANAL STIMULATION NECESSARY TO PROVIDE NYSTAGMUS OF SUFFICIENT STRENGTH TO DEGRADE VISUAL ACUITY. PRESENT WORK EXTENDS FORMER OBSERVATIONS BY INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION DURING SEMICIRCULAR CANAL STIMULATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A TASK REQUIRING VISION. THE ILLUMINATION LEVELS WERE SELECTED TO ENCOMPASS THE RANGE USED IN AIRCRAFT COCKPITS. A COMPENSATORY TRACKING TASK WITH AN AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT AS THE DISPLAY PROVIDED AN INDIRECT MEASURE OF THIS LOSS OF VISUAL ACUITY AND A DIRECT PRACTICAL MEASURE OF PERFORMANCE. IT WAS FOUND THAT DECREASING THE LUMINANCE OF THE DISPLAY OVER A RANGE FROM THE HIGHEST TO THE LOWEST LEVELS NORMALLY USED IN COCKPITS SIGNIFICANTLY MAGNIFIED THE DEGRADATION OF TRACKING PERFORMANCE RESULTING FROM VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, WHILE PRODUCING ONLY SMALL CHANGES IN NYSTAGMUS. WITHOUT VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, THE SAME CHANGES IN LUMINANCE RESULTED IN NO SIGNIFICANT ALTERATIONS IN TRACKING PERFORMANCE. IT APPEARS THAT FOR A GIVEN LEVEL OF NYSTAGMUS, PERFORMANCE OF VISUAL TASKS MAY OR MAY NOT BE IMPAIRED DEPENDING ON THE LEVEL OF ILLUMINATION. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF RETINAL SMEAR RESULTING FROM NYSTAGMUS-PRODUCED IMAGE MOVEMENT ACROSS THE RETINA ARE AUGMENTED BY DECREASES IN LUMINANCE. APPLICATION OF THESE RESULTS TO AIRCRAFT OPERATION IS DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, COMPENSATORY TRACKING, AIRCRAFT OPERATION, AVIATION, VISION, ROTATION
70-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 797 DTIC #: AD716967
TITLE: TWO PROCEDURES FOR APPLIED AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF STRESS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT S. KENNEDY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO COMPENSATE FOR THE LOW RELIABILITY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY TWO METHODS ARE OFFERED. THE FIRST METHOD REQUIRES A MAJOR RESEARCH PROGRAM BY WHICH A VALID CRITERION OF STRESS WOULD BE DETERMINED BY EXPERIMENTATION, AND THEN PREDICTORS OF THIS CRITERION WOULD BE OBTAINED EMPIRICALLY BY CORRELATIONAL TECHNIQUES. THESE PREDICTORS THEN COULD BE CROSS VALIDATED. BY USING THE PREDICTORS, THE INFLUENCES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS COULD BE SEPARATED. WHETHER A FUNCTIONAL RELATIONSHIP EXISTS BETWEEN THE MAGNITUDE OF THE RESPONSE TO STRESS AND THE PROBABILITY OF ITS OCCURRENCE THEN COULD BE DETERMINED. THE SECOND METHOD IS SIMILAR, BUT LESS EXACT. IT HAS BEEN USED SUCCESSFULLY IN MOTION SICKNESS STUDIES AND AVOIDS THE NECESSITY OF A LONG EXPLORATORY PROGRAM WITH NUMEROUS PILOT STUDIES. A PROCEDURE FOR THE CONTROL AND THE REGULATION OF THE PERCEPTION OF THE MAGNITUDE OF THE STRESS TO THE ORGANISM (HUMAN AND INFRAHUMAN) IS OFFERED FOR USE WITH THE TWO METHODS. THE LACK OF SUITABLE CONTROL OF THIS FACTOR IS DISCUSSED IN CONNECTION WITH PREVIOUS RESEARCH.
KEYWORDS: STRESS, MULTIPLE REGRESSION, EMOTION, AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS
70-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 643 DTIC #: AD709591
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES TO SEMICIRCULAR CANAL STIMULATION PRODUCED BY ROTATION ABOUT TWO AXES
AUTHOR(s): FRED E. GUEDRY, JR., CHARLES W. STOCKWELL, RICHARD D. GILSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PRACTICAL PROCEDURE HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR OBTAINING RELIABLE MEASURES OF SENSATION ASSOCIATED WITH SEMICIRCULAR CANAL STIMULATION. THEORETICALLY THESE MEASURES CAN BE USED ALONG WITH MEASURES OF NYSTAGMUS TO ESTIMATE SEVERAL VESTIBULAR RESPONSE SYSTEM PARAMETERS RELEVANT IN THE CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF PILOT VERTIGO. IN THIS EXPERIMENT, RESPONSES PRODUCED BY STIMULATION OF THE HORIZONTAL SEMICIRCULAR CANALS ARE COMPARED WITH THOSE PRODUCED BY STIMULATION OF THE VERTICAL CANALS. GROUP MEAN ESTIMATES OF SUBJECTIVE ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT OBTAINED FROM 40 NAVAL FLIGHT STUDENTS WERE APPROXIMATELY ACCURATE FOR STIMULATION OF BOTH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL CANALS. SIGNIFICANT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES WERE FOUND WITHIN THE GROUP. FROM THE RESPONSES OBTAINED, MEAN ESTIMATES OF VESTIBULAR SYSTEM PARAMETERS WERE CALCULATED. THE METHOD APPEARS TO BE A RELIABLE AND PRACTICAL MEANS OF MEASURING THE KSA/^ PARAMETER WHICH HAS NOT BEEN ASSESSED IN THE PAST DUE TO LACK OF A SUITABLE METHOD. THE THEORETICAL BASIS OF THE METHOD IS DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: VESTIBULAR FUNCTION, SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, PSYCHOPHYSICAL DIFFERENCES, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, DISORIENTATION, SPACE PERCEPTION, EQUILIBRIUM
70-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1924 DTIC #: AD710987
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1967: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FIRST IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY FIXED-WING AND ROTARY-WING FLIGHT OPERATIONS. FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE ORIENTATION-ERROR CLASS OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS ARE DISCUSSED. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1967 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 57 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (19 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 45 FATALITIES, 105 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND A TOTAL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $10,144,034. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ROTARY-WING ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS TO THIS TOTAL WAS 55 ACCIDENTS (18 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 44 FATALITIES, 104 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND A TOTAL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $10,116,847.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO
71-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1288 DTIC #: AD715107
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1967: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FIRST IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1967 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 50 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (15 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 38 FATALITIES, 88 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND A TOTAL UH-1 AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $7,542,177.
KEYWORDS: REGULAR ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, UH-1 HELICOPTERS
71-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2758 DTIC #: AD730478
TITLE: MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1967: ACCIDENT FACTORS
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS ONE OF A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INDIVIDUAL CASE HISTORY DATA EXTRACTED FROM THE USABAAR MASTER AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT FILES ARE PRESENTED ON 44 UH-1 MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS THAT OCCURRED DURING FISCAL YEAR 1967. SUMMARY DATA LISTINGS INVOLVING A VARIETY OF OPERATIONAL AND PILOT-RELATED ACCIDENT FACTORS ARE PRESENTED FOR EACH OF THE 44 CASES. THE LISTINGS ARE ARRANGED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THOSE FACTORS AND EVENTS PRESENT BEFORE TAKEOFF, I.E., THE INITIAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A GIVEN ACCIDENT, AND THOSE THAT OCCURRED OR WERE MANIFESTED DURING THE ACTUAL AIRBORNE PHASE OF THE ACCIDENT FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, ACCIDENT FACTORS, HELICOPTERS
71-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 522 DTIC #: AD715625
TITLE: LIGHTING FACTORS AFFECTING THE VISIBILITY OF A MOVING DISPLAY
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD D. GILSON, ROBERT H. ELLIOTT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: COMPENSATORY TRACKING PERFORMANCE WAS SHOWN TO BE SUBSTANTIALLY DEGRADED BY OSCILLATION OF THE VISUAL DISPLAY AT BOTH 1.0 HZ AND 2.0 HZ. THE SEVERITY OF THIS DECREMENT WAS SIGNIFICANTLY ALTERED BY CHANGES IN BOTH THE COLOR AND THE INTENSITY OF THE DISPLAY ILLUMINATION. PERFORMANCE WAS SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER WITH RED LIGHT ILLUMINATING THE DISPLAY AT 0.05 ML THAN WITH BLUE LIGHT AT THE EQUIVALENT LUMINANCE. THIS IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE WAS SIMILAR IN MAGNITUDE TO THAT FOUND FOR THE INCREASE IN BROADBAND ILLUMINATION OF THE DISPLAY WHERE LUMINANCE WAS INCREASED FROM ONE-HALF LOG UNIT BELOW TO ONE-HALF LOG UNIT ABOVE 0.05 ML. VISUAL MECHANISMS THAT MAY HAVE BEEN RESPONSIBLE FOR THESE FINDINGS ARE SUGGESTED AND PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF INSTRUMENT LIGHTING ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: COMPENSATORY TRACKING, DISPLAY OSCILLATION, DISPLAY ILLUMINATION
71-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 785 DTIC #: AD711927
TITLE: FAMILY HEALTH EDUCATION AND ITS PLACE IN THE TRAINING OF STUDENT AVIATORS: A METHOD
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FLIGHT SURGEONS OFTEN ARE POORLY UNDERSTOOD; AND THEIR REAL MISSIONS ARE NOT REALIZED BY MILITARY AVIATION STUDENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES. THE FLIGHT SURGEON, BECAUSE OF HIS PROMINENT POSITION IN SELECTION AND RETENTION OF THE STUDENT AVIATOR, MAY REPRESENT A THREAT TO THE AVIATOR'S CAREER. THE ARMY AVIATION TRAINING PROGRAM IS RAPIDLY EXPANDING. FORMAL STUDENT-FLIGHT SURGEON CONTACT IS RARE. A NEED FOR IMPROVING THE IMAGE OF THE FLIGHT SURGEON WAS REALIZED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF AEROMEDICAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING, ARMY AVIATION SCHOOL, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA. A METHOD OF HEALTH EDUCATION DISCUSSIONS WITH THE WIVES OF STUDENT AVIATORS WAS DEVELOPED. THE AIMS OF THE DISCUSSIONS WERE TWOFOLD. IN THE FIRST PLACE, IMPROVING THE IMAGE OF THE FLIGHT SURGEON BY EARLY AND INFORMAL CONTACT AND ENLISTING THE HELP OF THE WIVES IN THE CARE OF THEIR HUSBANDS AS PART OF THE FLIGHT SURGEON'S MISSION, AND THE PRESENTATION OF A NUMBER OF VITAL AVIATION TOPICS PERTINENT TO THE HEALTH AND SAFETY OF THE HUSBAND-AVIATORS.
KEYWORDS: HEALTH EDUCATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION TRAINING
71-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 497 DTIC #: AD716767
TITLE: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE BRIEF VESTIBULAR DISORIENTATION TEST COMPARED UNDER 10-RPM AND 15-RPM CONDITIONS
AUTHOR(s): ROSALIE K. AMBLER, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A BRIEF VESTIBULAR DISORIENTATION TEST (BVDT) WAS DEVELOPED THAT INVOLVES OBSERVER ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTS' REACTIONS PRODUCED BY HEAD MOVEMENTS IN A ROTATING CHAIR. RELIABILITY OF OBSERVERS HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED, AND SIGNIFICANT VALIDATION AND CROSS-VALIDATION COEFFICIENTS HAVE BEEN REPORTED FOR CRITERIA OF PASS VERSUS VARIOUS TYPES OF SEPARATION FROM PILOT TRAINING. IT ALSO HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED THAT THE BVDT SCORE SIGNIFICANTLY AUGMENTED THE MULTIPLE CORRELATION OF EXISTING AVIATION SELECTION VARIABLES WITH THE SAME CRITERIA. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE IF RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND AUGMENTATION OF CORRELATION COULD BE OBTAINED WITH LESS DISTURBANCE TO THE SUBJECT CAUSED BY THE 15-RPM SPEED OF ROTATION USED THUS FAR IN THE BVDT. REDUCED DISTURBANCE AND AFTEREFFECTS ARE DESIRED BECAUSE THE BVDT NOW IS ENVISIONED AS BECOMING PART OF THE ENTERING FLIGHT PHYSICAL, AND PROCEDURES THAT MIGHT EITHER IMPAIR PERFORMANCE ON THE OTHER TESTS OR REQUIRE RECOVERY PERIODS MUST BE HELD TO A MINIMUM. THE BVDT PROCEDURE USED HERE WAS IDENTICAL TO TWO PREVIOUS STUDIES EXCEPT THAT A SPEED OF 10-RPM WAS USED INSTEAD OF 15-RPM. SUBJECTS WERE 157 FLIGHT STUDENTS WHO WERE TESTED WITHIN THE FIRST 4 DAYS OF REPORTING FOR TRAINING. RETESTING OF 72 OF THE SUBJECTS WAS CONDUCTED 9 WEEKS LATER. THE TEST-RETEST AND RATER RELIABILITY COEFFICIENTS OBTAINED WERE NOT QUITE SO HIGH AS FOR THOSE WHO HAD THE 15-RPM PROCEDURE, BUT THEY WERE OF ACCEPTABLE MAGNITUDE. THE VALIDITY COEFFICIENTS WERE APPROXIMATELY THE SAME AS THOSE OBTAINED FOR 15-RPM, AND SIGNIFICANT AUGMENTATION OF THE EXISTING SELECTION BATTERY AND COST EFFECTIVENESS WAS DEMONSTRATED. IT WAS CONCLUDED, THEREFORE, THAT THE 10-RPM BVDT WAS A FEASIBLE PROCEDURE. IT ALSO WAS CONCLUDED THAT, BECAUSE THE MEAN SCORE FOR THE 10-RPM GROUP WAS LOWER THAN THE MEAN FOR EITHER OF THE TWO 15-RPM GROUPS USED PREVIOUSLY, SUBJECT DISTURBANCE HAD BEEN REDUCED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION PERSONNEL, MOTION SICKNESS, SELECTION, VESTIBULAR MECHANISMS
71-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 758 DTIC #: AD711928
TITLE: MEDICAL AND PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF EJECTION AND PARACHUTING: AN OVERVIEW
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS FOR EJECTION SEATS AND PERSONAL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT SOMETIMES OMIT AS A CRITERIA MAN'S PHYSIOLOGIC AND PSYCHOLOGIC LIMITATIONS. MAN'S ABILITY TO COME THROUGH THE EJECTION AND PARACHUTE DESCENT SEQUENCES UNINJURED IS INFLUENCED DIRECTLY BY THE DESIGN OF THE EQUIPMENT AND HIS EXPERIENCE IN THE TECHNIQUES OF PROPER USE. MANY LIMITING PHYSIOLOGIC FACTORS MUST BE CONSIDERED. RESPONSE TO MULTIPLE ACCELERATIONS IN MULTIPLE AXES, WIND BLAST, EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE EXTREMES, ANTHROPOMETRIC PROBLEMS, AND NEUROMUSCULAR RESPONSE ARE AMONG THE FACTORS DISCUSSED. ENGINEERS WILL FIND A KNOWLEDGE OF HUMAN FACTORS VITAL TO THE DESIGN OF SEAT RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, CUSHIONS, ACCESSORY PACKS, CONTROL PLACEMENT, CATAPULTS, THE PARACHUTE, ETC. THIS BROAD OVERVIEW REVIEWS SIGNIFICANT LITERATURE ON SPORT FREE-FALL, MILITARY STATIC LINE, HALO, AND EJECTION PARACHUTING STATISTICS. MODES OF INJURY AND MORBIDITY DURING EJECTION AND PARACHUTING ARE DETAILED.
KEYWORDS: PARACHUTING, PARACHUTE INJURIES, AVIATION MEDICINE, EJECTION INJURIES, MEDICAL FACTORS
71-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1175 DTIC #: AD714368
TITLE: PROBLEMS OF ADAPTION TO LONG RANGE, LARGE SCALE AERIAL TROOP DEPLOYMENTS
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER DISCUSSES THE DEMONSTRATED STRESSES AND ADAPTION PROBLEMS DURING LARGE SCALE, LONG RANGE, RAPID REACTION TIME, AERIAL TROOP DEPLOYMENTS. NATO EXERCISE REFORGER I, JANUARY 1969, AND OTHER RECENT LARGE SCALE AERIAL TROOP DEPLOYMENTS ARE DISCUSSED. LONG RANGE AERIAL TROOP TRANSPORT AND DEPLOYMENT IS A TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENT OF THE 1960S THAT HAS INFLUENCED AND SHAPED INTERNATIONAL POLITICAL THINKING AND MILITARY STRATEGY. "SUPERTRANSPORT AIRCRAFT," CAPABLE OF AROUND-THE-WORLD TROOP LIFTS, ARE A REALITY IN THE MILITARY INVENTORY. CAREFUL CONSIDERATION HAS BEEN GIVEN TO THE AIRCREWS THAT OPERATE THESE AIRCRAFT. IT IS NECESSARY TO CAREFULLY ASSESS THE POSITION, ROLE, AND REGARD FOR THE INDIVIDUAL SOLDIER, THE "PASSENGER," WHOM ALL OF THIS AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING SUPPORTS. HISTORICALLY, SOLDIERS HAVE PROVEN TO BE FLEXIBLE, WELL MOTIVATED, AND CAPABLE OF GREAT PERSONAL AND GROUP INGENUITY AND ADAPTION IN THE FACE OF STRESS. THESE FACTORS CREATE FIGHTING FORCES THAT ARE ABLE TO GO ALMOST ANYWHERE, AT ANY TIME, BY ANY MEANS, AND REMAIN EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE. CERTAIN HUMAN FACTORS AND PARAMETERS OF PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT AND ADAPTION, HOWEVER, ARE RELATIVELY FIXED OR SLOW. AMONG THEM ARE REQUIREMENTS FOR SLEEP, FOOD, FLUIDS, EXERCISE, WARMTH, SHELTER, SENSORY STIMULATION, RECREATION, PERIODS OF QUIET, AND PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT. MAN HAS PROVEN BIOLOGICAL OR CIRCADIAN RHYTHM THAT IS ESSENTIALLY UNALTERABLE OVER PROLONGED PERIODS OF STRESS, LET ALONE ABRUPT EXPOSURE. MAN DOES NOT IMMEDIATELY ADAPT TO SUDDEN ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES, I.E., SEA LEVEL TO MOUNTAINOUS, ARCTIC TO EQUATORIAL, TROPICAL TO ARID, OR PASTORAL TO AQUATIC.
KEYWORDS: ADAPTATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, TROOP DEPLOYMENTS, INTERNATIONAL TRAVEL, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, SLEEP WORK CYCLES
71-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 760 DTIC #: AD717130
TITLE: LIVING HUMAN DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO -GX IMPACT ACCELERATIONS. II. ACCELERATIONS ON THE HEAD AND NECK
AUTHOR(s): CHANNING L. EWING, DANIEL J. THOMAS, LAWRENCE M. PATRICK, GEORGE W. BEELER, JR., MARGARET J. SMITH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A METHODICAL INVESTIGATION AND MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO IMPACT ACCELERATION WAS CONDUCTED AS A JOINT ARMY-NAVY-WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY INVESTIGATION. DETAILS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN WERE PRESENTED AT THE TWELFTH STAPP CAR CRASH CONFERENCE IN OCTOBER 1968. LINEAR ACCELERATIONS WERE MEASURED ON THE TOP OF THE HEAD, AT THE MOUTH, AND AT THE BASE OF THE NECK. ANGULAR VELOCITY ALSO WAS MEASURED AT THE BASE OF THE NECK AND AT THE MOUTH. A REDUNDANT PHOTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM WAS USED FOR VALIDATION. ALL DATA WERE COLLECTED IN COMPUTER COMPATIBLE FORMAT AND DATA PROCESSING WAS BY DIGITAL COMPUTER. SELECTED DATA IN A STAGE OF INTERIM ANALYSIS ON 18 REPRESENTATIVE HUMAN RUNS OF THE 236 HUMAN RUNS COMPLETED TO DATE ARE PRESENTED. REVIEW OF THE DATA INDICATES THAT PEAK ACCELERATIONS MEASURED AT THE MOUTH ARE HIGHER THAN PREVIOUS ESTIMATES. THE TIME RELATIONSHIP OF THE PEAK RESULTANT MOUTH ACCELERATIONS TO THE PEAK SLED ACCELERATIONS FOR THIS PARTICULAR ACCELERATOR AND RESTRAINT SYSTEM IS DESCRIBED. THE MAXIMUM PEAK RESULTANT MOUTH ACCELERATION WAS 47.8 G AND THE PEAK MOUTH ANGULAR VELOCITY ON ANOTHER RUN EXCEEDED 30 RAD/SEC, ON NOMINAL 10 G, 250 G/SEC RUNS WITH NO EVIDENCE OF UNCONSCIOUSNESS OR NEUROLOGICAL DEFICIT ATTRIBUTABLE TO THE ACCELERATION. REPRESENTATIVE PLOTS OF THE HUMAN DYNAMIC RESPONSE ARE PRESENTED, DISCUSSED, AND COMPARED. A FIRST ORDER LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS FOR THE PEAK MOUTH RESULTANT ACCELERATION AND THE PEAK MOUTH ANGULAR VELOCITY OBTAINABLE FROM THE PEAK SLED ACCELERATION IS PRESENTED. IMPORTANT SIMILARITIES DISCOVERED IN THE TIME PHASING OF THE HUMAN DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO IMPACT ACCELERATIONS ARE PRESENTED AND DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: HUMAN ACCELERATION EFFECTS, DYNAMIC RESPONSE, DIFFERENTIAL DISPLACEMENTS, DIFFERENTIAL ANGULAR AND LINEAR ACCELERATION, BIOMECHANICS, BIOENGINEERING, IMPACT ACCLERATION, ACCELERATION TOLERANCE
71-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1199 DTIC #: AD717596
TITLE: COMPARISON OF TRACKING TASK PERFORMANCE AND NYSTAGMUS DURING SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATION IN YAW AND PITCH
AUTHOR(s): ALAN J. BENSON, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SINUSOIDAL TORSIONAL OSCILLATION (0.04 HZ, PEAK ANGULAR VELOCITY ±60 TO ±159 DEG/SEC) DEGRADED SUBJECTS' PERFORMANCE OF A COMPENSATORY TRACKING TASK BECAUSE INAPPROPRIATE NYSTAGMIC EYE MOVEMENTS IMPAIRED VISIBILITY OF THE DISPLAY. RESPONSES TO ANGULAR OSCILLATION IN YAW AND PITCH WERE COMPARED. DURING ANGULAR MOTION IN THE PITCH-FORWARD DIRECTION THE NYSTAGMUS FREQUENCY AND SLOW PHASE VELOCITY, AND THE CONSEQUENT PERFORMANCE DECREMENT, WERE SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER THAN DURING THE PITCH-BACK HALF CYCLE. NO SUCH ASYMMETRY WAS FOUND DURING OSCILLATION IN YAW WHERE THE NYSTAGMUS MEASURES AND ERROR SCORES WERE SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED IN THE PITCHBACK HALF CYCLE. THE POORER SUPPRESSION OF VESTIBULAR NYSTAGMUS DURING PITCH-FORWARD MOTION IS ATTRIBUTED TO THE HIGHER FREQUENCY AND SMALLER AMPLITUDE OF DOWNBEATING NYSTAGMUS. ANGULAR OSCILLATION IN PITCH INDUCED MOTION SICKNESS MORE RAPIDLY THAN A COMPARABLE YAW-AXIS STIMULUS.
KEYWORDS: VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, COMPENSATORY TRACKING, HUMAN FACTORS, AVIATION, VISION, ROTATION
71-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 913 DTIC #: AD718639
TITLE: THE USE OF HIGH INTENSITY XENON LIGHTING TO ENHANCE U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT DAY/NIGHT CONSPICUITY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, RONALD G. TABAK, ROBERT W. BAILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN-FLIGHT STUDIES WERE PERFORMED AT FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRCRAFT-MOUNTED, HIGH-INTENSITY XENON FLASHTUBE LIGHTS FOR INCREASING THE CONSPICUITY OF SMALL TRAINER HELICOPTERS (TH-55) DURING BOTH DAYLIGHT AND NIGHTTIME FLIGHTS. TWENTY-EIGHT SUBJECTS RATED BOTH LIGHTED AND NONLIGHTED AIRCRAFT VISIBILITY AS VIEWED FROM THE GROUND AND FROM AIR-TO-AIR IN DIFFERING FLIGHT MODES. DATA ARE PRESENTED TO INDICATE THE INCREASE IN AIRCRAFT CONSPICUITY AVAILABLE THROUGH THE APPLICATION OF THIS TYPE OF LIGHTING.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT LIGHTING, AIRCRAFT CONSPICUITY, VISIBILITY, LIGHTING, MID-AIR COLLISIONS
71-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1060 DTIC #: AD721624
TITLE: EFFECTS OF ISONIAZID ON PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD O. NOSSMAN, MARK A. HOFMANN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NINE AVIATORS WHO CONVERTED FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE ON A TUBERCULOSIS TINE TEST PERFORMED A VARIETY OF LABORATORY TESTS GIVEN BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER INH THERAPY. INH WAS ADMINISTERED PROPHYLACTICALLY AT DOSAGE LEVELS OF 300 MG PER DAY. THE TASKS CONSISTED OF REACTION TIME (AUDITORY AND VISUAL), ROTARY PURSUIT TRACKING, MENTAL MULTIPLICATION AND DIGIT SPAN. THE DATA DID NOT INDICATE THAT THE DRUG ADVERSELY AFFECTED PERFORMANCE ON ANY OF THE TASKS UTILIZED.
KEYWORDS: HUMAN VOLUNTEERS, DRUGS, PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE, AVIATOR
71-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 836 DTIC #: AD726172
TITLE: NYSTAGMUS RESPONSE DURING ROTATION ABOUT A TILTED AXIS
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES W. STOCKWELL, GENE T. TURNIPSEED, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PERSISTENT HORIZONTAL NYSTAGMUS RESPONSE IS ELICITED WHEN A MAN IS ROTATED AT CONSTANT VELOCITY ABOUT AN EARTH-HORIZONTAL AXIS. THIS RESPONSE COMPRISES TWO COMPONENTS: A DIRECTIONAL BIAS AND A CYCLIC MODULATION OF THE BIAS LEVEL. OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE OF THE EFFECTS OF THE BIAS STIMULUS VARIABLES: RATE OF INITIAL ACCELERATION, RATE OF STEADY ROTATION, AND ANGLE OF TILT OF THE ROTATION AXIS. BIAS AND CYCLIC MODULATION WERE AFFECTED DIFFERENTLY BY STIMULUS VARIABLES, ESPECIALLY BY RATE OF STEADY ROTATION, SUGGESTING THE PRESENCE OF TWO SEPARATE RESPONSE MECHANISMS. PREVIOUS EXPERIMENTS INDICATE THAT BOTH MECHANISMS DEPEND UPON THE OTOLITH SYSTEM, ALTHOUGH THE POSSIBILITY OF A SEMICIRCULAR CANAL CONTRIBUTION REMAINS. THUS IT IS REASONABLE TO CONCLUDE THAT THESE RESPONSE COMPONENTS PROVIDE A MEANS OF ASSESSING THE DYNAMICS OF OTOLITH-REGULATED RESPONSES.
KEYWORDS: OTOLITH, OTOLITH TEST, LINEAR ACCELERATION, NYSTAGMUS
71-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1095 DTIC #: AD726173
TITLE: NYSTAGMUS AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE DURING SINUSOIDAL STIMULATION OF THE VERTICAL SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
AUTHOR(s): FRED E. GUEDRY, JR., ALAN J. BENSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MEN WERE POSITIONED ON THEIR SIDES AND OSCILLATED SINUSOIDALLY (0.04 HZ, PEAK VELOCITY +90 DEG/SEC) ABOUT AN EARTH-VERTICAL AXIS. INITIALLY, NYSTAGMUS SLOW PHASE VELOCITY WAS ABOUT EQUAL DURING THE FORWARD- AND BACKWARD-PITCH HALVES OF THE STIMULUS CYCLE IN DARKNESS; BUT WHEN SUBJECTS TRACKED A DIMLY ILLUMINATED AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT, SLOW PHASE VELOCITY DURING FORWARD-PITCH WAS ABOUT 10 TIMES THAT DURING BACKWARD-PITCH. CONSEQUENTLY, TRACKING ERRORS WERE MUCH GREATER DURING FORWARD-PITCH. CHANGE IN LUMINANCE LEVEL FROM 0.01 FT-L TO 1.0 FT-L PRODUCED SMALL, STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DECREMENTS IN SLOW PHASE VELOCITY AND SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENTS IN TRACKING PERFORMANCE. FOLLOWING THIS PART OF THE EXPERIMENT, NYSTAGMUS WAS AGAIN RECORDED IN DARKNESS. THERE WAS A DIFFERENTIAL DECLINE IN SLOW PHASE VELOCITY, THE SLOW-PHASE-DOWN RESPONSE SHOWING SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER DECLINE. STIMULUS-RESPONSE PHASE RELATIONS ALSO WERE ALTERED FOR THE SLOW-PHASE-UP RESPONSE. IT IS PROPOSED THAT INTERACTIONS BETWEEN EYELID AND EYEBALL MOVEMENTS CAUSED DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES OF UPBEATING AND DOWNBEATING NYSTAGMUS WHICH, IN TURN, PRODUCED DIFFERENT VISUAL SUPPRESSION OF SLOW PHASE VELOCITY IN THE TWO HALVES OF THE STIMULUS CYCLE. THE ASYMMETRIC VISUAL SUPPRESSION MAY HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE ASYMMETRIC HABITUATION OF THE TWO REACTIONS.
KEYWORDS: VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, COMPENSATORY TRACKING, HUMAN FACTORS, AVIATION, VISION, HABITUATION
71-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1218 DTIC #: AD725482
TITLE: CRASH INJURY ECONOMICS: THE COSTS OF TRAINING, MAINTAINING, AND REPLACING AN ARMY AVIATOR
AUTHOR(s): ARMAND E. ZILIOLI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WHILE THE HARDWARE COSTS OF ARMY AVIATION ACCIDENTS ARE KNOWN, THE MONETARY COSTS OF INJURIES AND FATALITIES HAVE NOT BEEN DETERMINED. IN ORDER TO ASCERTAIN THESE COSTS, THE TRAINING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS OF AVIATORS ARE NEEDED. THIS REPORT PRESENTS A STUDY OF TRAINING AND MAINTENANCE COSTS OF ARMY AVIATORS IN ALL GRADE LEVELS FROM TRAINING UP TO, INCLUDING, AND AFTER AN ACCIDENTAL DEATH. A RANDOM SAMPLE OF FIVE ARMY AVIATORS IN EACH GRADE LEVEL WAS USED IN THE STUDY. COST DATA FOLLOWING THEIR HYPOTHETICAL DEATH IN AN ARMY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT WERE PROJECTED USING SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION AND VETERANS ADMINISTRATION ACTUARIAL FIGURES, DATA, AND TABLES. THE MINIMUM COST FOR TRAINING A BACHELOR ROTARY-WING WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATE WITH NO PREVIOUS MILITARY EXPERIENCE IS $38,035. THE TOTAL COST TO THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT UP TO AND AFTER THE ACCIDENTAL DEATH OF AN ARMY AVIATOR IN AN ARMY AIRCRAFT CAN RANGE FROM $102,670 TO $759,954. MONETARY COSTS TO REPLACE THE AIRCRAFT CREW OFTEN EXCEED BY SEVERAL TIMES THE COST TO REPLACE THE AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION TRAINING COSTS, AVIATION MAINTENANCE COSTS, AVIATION REPLACEMENT COSTS, AVIATION DEATH COSTS, AVIATOR INJURIES, SAFETY EQUIPMENT FAILURES
71-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1724 DTIC #: AD741363
TITLE: CRASH INJURY ECONOMICS: INJURY AND DEATH COSTS IN ARMY UH-1 ACCIDENTS IN FISCAL YEAR 1969
AUTHOR(s): ARMAND E. ZILIOLI, JAY C. BISGARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INJURY AND FATALITY COSTS OF ARMY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS HAVE NEVER BEEN DETERMINED. DURING FY 69, THERE WERE A TOTAL OF 546 MAJOR AND MINOR AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS INVOLVING UH-1 TYPE HELICOPTERS. THIS REPORT PRESENTS AN ECONOMIC STUDY OF 160 INDIVIDUALS WITH MAJOR INJURIES AND 227 FATALITIES WHICH OCCURRED IN 129 OF THESE ACCIDENTS. MINOR INJURIES WERE NOT CONSIDERED IN THIS STUDY. PERSONNEL COSTS OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS WERE EVALUATED USING HOSPITALIZATION AND CONVALESCENCE TIMES AND COSTS, DEATH BENEFITS, AND VETERANS ADMINISTRATION AND SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION BENEFITS. THESE COSTS WERE COMPUTED USING THE LEAST EXPENSIVE METHOD. HUMAN COSTS, SUCH AS PAIN, SUFFERING, DEFORMITY, OR THE LOSS OF EARNING POWER ARE FACTORS WHICH ARE REAL COSTS BUT WHICH CANNOT BE DETERMINED. THE TOTAL TREATMENT TIME FOR THE 160 INJURED INDIVIDUALS WAS 19,097 DAYS. WHEN CONSIDERED ON THE BASIS OF A 246-DAY WORK YEAR, THE TOTAL TREATMENT TIME EQUALED 77.6 WORK YEARS. THE AVERAGE PERSONNEL COSTS OF AN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT RANGED FROM $38,227 FOR A SURVIVABLE ACCIDENT TO $408,757 FOR A NONSURVIVABLE ACCIDENT. THE AVERAGE HARDWARE COST OF AN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT WAS $220,772. THE MONETARY COST OF INJURIES AND FATALITIES CAN OFTEN CONSIDERABLY EXCEED THE SUM REQUIRED TO REPLACE THE AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: CRASH INJURIES AND FATALITIES, HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS, AIRCRAFT INJURIES, AIRCRAFT FATALITIES, PERSONNEL COSTS, HUMAN COSTS, HOSPITALIZATION COSTS, FATALITY COSTS, SAFETY COSTS, AVIATOR REPLACEMENTS COSTS, ECONOMICS - ACCIDENTS
71-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2894 DTIC #: AD732429
TITLE: ENGINEERING TEST OF LIGHTWEIGHT UNDERWEAR OF THE WINTER CLOTHING SYSTEM: THERMAL PROTECTION
AUTHOR(s): FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, GEORGE R. MCCAHAN, JR., THOMAS L. WACHTEL, WALTER P. TREVETHAN, ANDREW MARTIN, DAVID R. DUBOIS, GEORGE M. KEISER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE USE OF A BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE TO EVALUATE THE FIRE RESISTANT AND THERMAL PROTECTION CAPABILITIES OF THE LIGHTWEIGHT UNDERWEAR OF THE ARMY WINTER FLIGHT CLOTHING SYSTEM. SAMPLES OF THE FABRICS UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR INCLUSION IN THE ARMY WINTER FLIGHT CLOTHING SYSTEM WERE MOUNTED ON A TEMPLATE AND HELD IN CONTACT WITH THE SIDE OF A PIG. THUS PROTECTED, THE PIG WAS EXPOSED TO A FLAME SOURCE CALIBRATED TO SIMULATE A WELL-DEVELOPED JP-4 FIRE. EXPOSURE TIMES OF 1.75, 3.50, AND 7.0 SECONDS WERE USED. EVALUATION OF RESULTANT SKIN BURNS SHOWED THAT NONE OF THE FABRIC SYSTEMS AS EVALUATED, MEET THE ESSENTIAL REQUIREMENT OF 10 SECONDS PROTECTION. SINGLE-LAYERED FABRIC (NOMEX SHELL FABRIC) OFFERS SLIGHT PROTECTION AND DOUBLE-LAYERED FABRIC SYSTEMS (NOMEX OUTER SHELL EITHER WITH NOMEX UNDERWEAR OR 50 PERCENT COTTON/50 PERCENT WOOL UNDERWEAR) OFFER MORE THAN THREE TIMES THE PROTECTION OF SINGLE LAYERS, BUT STILL FAIL TO PROVIDE 10 SECONDS OF PROTECTION. THE 50 PERCENT COTTON/50 PERCENT WOOL UNDERWEAR OFFERS EQUAL OR BETTER PROTECTION THAN EXPERIMENTAL NOMEX UNDERWEAR WORN UNDER STANDARD NOMEX OUTER SHELL. WASHING DOES NOT AFFECT THERMAL PROTECTION. THE DATA FURTHER INDICATE THAT THE METHOD USING PIGS PROVIDES A VERY CONSISTENT AND MEANINGFUL WAY OF EVALUATING THERMAL PROTECTIVE FABRICS.
KEYWORDS: BURNS, THERMAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, TEST METHODS, SKIN, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, AVIATION SAFETY
71-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1054 DTIC #: AD729679
TITLE: EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL INGESTION ON TRACKING PERFORMANCE DURING ANGULAR ACCELERATION
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. COLLINS, RICHARD D. GILSON, DAVID J. SCHROEDER, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOLLOWING PRACTICE, TWO GROUPS OF 10 SUBJECTS EACH WERE GIVEN PREBASELINE TESTS OF TRACKING PERFORMANCE IN BOTH STATIC (STATIONARY) AND DYNAMIC (WHOLE BODY ANGULAR ACCELERATION) CONDITIONS. ONE GROUP THEN RECEIVED ORANGE JUICE WHICH CONTAINED 2.0 ML OF 100-PROOF VODKA PER KG OF SUBJECT WEIGHT; THE OTHER GROUP DRANK ORANGE JUICE WITH A FEW DROPS OF RUM EXTRACT ADDED. ALL SUBJECTS WERE LED TO BELIEVE THAT THEY WERE RECEIVING ALCOHOL. ADDITIONAL TESTS WERE CONDUCTED 1, 2, 4, 8, AND 10 HOURS AFTER DRINKING. ALL TESTS WERE IN TOTAL DARKNESS WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE VISUAL DISPLAY WHICH WAS ILLUMINATED TO A LEVEL RECOMMENDED FOR COCKPIT INSTRUMENTS. STATIC TRACKING ERROR DECLINED SLIGHTLY FOR THE CONTROL GROUP, BUT INCREASED OVER THE PREDRINKING LEVELS DURING THE 1-, 2-, AND 4-HOUR TESTS FOR THE ALCOHOL GROUP; ONLY THE 1-HOUR SCORES DIFFERED SIGNIFICANTLY FROM THE PRESCORES FOR THE ALCOHOL GROUP. IN COMPARING THE TWO GROUPS, STATIC TRACKING ERRORS FOR ALCOHOL SUBJECTS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER THAN THOSE OF CONTROL SUBJECTS ONLY AT THE 4-HOUR SESSION WHEN THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL WERE BEGINNING TO WANE. HOWEVER, IN THE DYNAMIC TESTS, ALCOHOL SUBJECTS MADE SIGNIFICANTLY MORE TRACKING ERRORS THAN CONTROL SUBJECTS DURING 1-, 2-, AND 4-HOUR SESSIONS. THESE DATA SUGGEST THAT EYE-HAND COORDINATION MAY SHOW LITTLE OR NO IMPAIRMENT FOLLOWING ALCOHOL INGESTION IN STATIC SITUATIONS, YET MAY BE SERIOUSLY DEGRADED DURING MOTION.
KEYWORDS: TRACKING PERFORMANCE, ALCOHOL, VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, ANGULAR ACCELERATION, NYSTAGMUS
71-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2789 DTIC #: AD726949
TITLE: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT ON ATTACK HELICOPTER CREW TASK PERFORMANCE IN THE NATO THEATER
AUTHOR(s): EDITED AND COMPILED BY STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT ADDRESSES THE UNIQUE TASKS, REQUIREMENTS, AND DEMANDS UPON ATTACK HELICOPTER CREWS AND THE EFFECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT UPON THE PERFORMANCE OF THESE TASKS. NIGHT OPERATIONS UNDER LOW CEILINGS, REDUCED VISIBILITY, HIGH OR LOW SPEEDS, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT PROFILES, AND A THREAT OF SOPHISTICATED ANTIAIRCRAFT WEAPONRY IS DEFINED AS THE "WORSE-CREDIBLE-ENVIRONMENT" FOR THE NATO THEATER. IN THIS ENVIRONMENT, THE ATTACK HELICOPTER AND ITS CREW WILL BE EXPECTED TO FLY A LARGE PERCENTAGE OF ITS MISSIONS AND DELIVER ITS ORDNANCE WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF ACCURACY. TASK PERFORMANCE IS OUTLINED IN A DETAILED MATRIX. COLLECTIVE TASKS ARE GROUPED INTO FUNCTIONAL TASK CLUSTERS. THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATIC CONDITIONS, THE HOSTILE THREAT, AND SOCIAL AND CIVIL FACTORS UPON PERFORMANCE OF THESE TASK CLUSTERS ARE DISCUSSED. THE EFFECTS OF THE MACHINE/MISSION-CREATED ENVIRONMENT ARE PRESENTED AND INCLUDE HYPOXIA, TOXIC PRODUCTS, TEMPERATURE EXTREMES, VISUAL AND OPTICAL PROBLEMS, ACOUSTICS, VIBRATION, AND HUMAN FACTORS. AIRCRAFT SAFETY AND RELIABILITY ARE DIRECTLY AFFECTED BY ALL OF THESE FACTORS. SIMPLE AND PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS FOR NEARLY ALL FACTORS PRESENTED ARE AVAILABLE WITH CURRENT TECHNOLOGY. APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THESE SOLUTIONS, WITH EXPLICIT CONSIDERATION GIVEN TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND HUMAN CAPABILITY, WILL ENSURE MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE FROM BOTH MEN AND MACHINES.
KEYWORDS: OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE, ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, AVIATION MEDICINE, HELICOPTER MEDICINE, ATTACK HELICOPTERS, PERFORMANCE, STRESS (PHYSIOLOGICAL), STRESS (PSYCHOLOGICAL), HUMAN ENGINEERING, MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS, MISSION PROFILES, ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS, VISION
71-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5677 DTIC #: AD744808
TITLE: THE NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS OF INH
AUTHOR(s): J. E. JORDAN, STEPHEN SHIELDS, DAN BOCHNEAK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INH WAS GIVEN FOR ONE YEAR TO A GROUP OF 28 VOLUNTEER CIVILIAN AVIATORS. NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATIONS, MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATIONS, EEGS, AND VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS WERE MONITORED AT CONTROL, 6 MONTHS AND 12 MONTHS. MINOR CHANGES WERE OBSERVED IN ALL THE MEASURES; NONE OF THESE CHANGES WERE SEVERE ENOUGH TO BE OF GREAT CONCERN. NO EVIDENCE WAS FOUND TO JUSTIFY RESTRICTION OF FLYING DURING INH ADMINISTRATION, ALTHOUGH THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY SUGGEST THAT CAREFUL MONITORING OF PATIENTS TAKING INH IS INDICATED.
KEYWORDS: INH, VITAMIN B6, NEUROLOGICAL EXAMINATION, MENTAL STATUS EXAMINATION, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH, VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS, AVIATORS, NEUROPATHY
71-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 980 DTIC #: AD728823
TITLE: EFFECTS OF ISONIAZID ON PERFORMANCE II
AUTHOR(s): MARK A. HOFMANN, RICHARD O. NOSSMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEVENTEEN AVIATORS WHO CONVERTED FROM NEGATIVE TO POSITIVE ON A TUBERCULOSIS TINE TEST PERFORMED A VARIETY OF LABORATORY TESTS GIVEN BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER INH THERAPY. INH WAS ADMINISTERED PROPHYLACTICALLY AT DOSAGE LEVELS OF 300 MG PER DAY FOR 1 YEAR. THE TASKS CONSISTED OF REACTION TIME (AUDITORY AND VISUAL), ROTARY PURSUIT TRACKING, MENTAL MULTIPLICATION, AND DIGIT SPAN. THE DATA DID NOT INDICATE THAT THE DRUG ADVERSELY AFFECTED PERFORMANCE ON ANY OF THE TASKS UTILIZED.
KEYWORDS: HUMAN VOLUNTEERS, DRUGS, PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE, AVIATOR
71-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4981 DTIC #: AD729362
TITLE: THE TESTING OF THERMAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN A REPRODUCIBLE FUEL FIRE ENVIRONMENT, A FEASIBILITY STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN D. ALBRIGHT, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, DAVID R. DUBOIS, GEORGE M. KEISER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT SETS FORTH THE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR A FACILITY INTENDED FOR DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF THERMAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING IN A REPRODUCIBLE FUEL FIRE ENVIRONMENT. THE METHODS DEVELOPED RELATE THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FABRICS TO BIOMEDICAL ASPECTS OF BURN PREVENTION. A NUMBER OF BIOENGINEERING PROBLEMS ARE IDENTIFIED, THE RESOLUTION OF WHICH IS EXPENSIVE AND TIME CONSUMING. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT CONSTRUCTION OF THE FACILITY DESIGNED IS TECHNICALLY FEASIBLE. DUE TO THE MAGNITUDE AND COMPLEXITY OF THE BIOENGINEERING PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED AND BECAUSE OF ADVANCES IN LABORATORY TESTING METHODS, HOWEVER, CONSTRUCTION OF SUCH A FACILITY IS NOT CONSIDERED TO BE A PRUDENT EXPENDITURE OF PUBLIC FUNDS AT THIS TIME. OPERATIONALLY-ORIENTED BIOENGINEERING/AEROMEDICAL EVALUATION OF THERMAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING SYSTEMS REMAINS ESSENTIAL.
KEYWORDS: BURNS, THERMAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, FIRE SIMULATION, AVIATION SAFETY, BIOINSTRUMENTATION
72-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 502 DTIC #: AD731380
TITLE: NYSTAGMUS RESPONSES DURING TRIANGULAR WAVEFORMS OF ANGULAR VELOCITY THE Y- AND Z-AXES
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD D. GILSON, CHARLES W. STOCKWELL, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NYSTAGMUS RESPONSE PARAMETERS WERE ESTIMATED BY A TEST PROCEDURE USING SHORT TRIANGULAR WAVEFORMS OF ANGULAR VELOCITY. MEAN ESTIMATES WERE DETERMINED AS FOLLOWS: (PI/DELTA=15.5 SECONDS AND KN(0/DELTA)=8.0 SECONDS FOR HORIZONTAL SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, AND PI/DELTA=6.8 SECONDS AND KN(0/DELTA)=5.4 SECONDS FOR THE VERTICAL SEMICIRCULAR CANALS. THE PI/DELTA VALUES ARE CONSISTENT WITH RESULTS OBTAINED BY OTHER METHODS. VALUES OF KN(0/DELTA) HAVE NOT BEEN HERETOFORE ASSESSED. DETERMINATION OF THE EFFECTS OF STIMULUS DISTORTION ON THE VALUES OF THE RESPONSE PARAMETERS AND ESTIMATES OF INTERSUBJECT AND INTRASUBJECT VARIABILITY ARE INCLUDED. ALSO INCLUDED ARE NOMOGRAMS THAT PERMIT A SIMPLE AND ACCURATE METHOD FOR CALCULATING PI/DELTA AND KN(0/DELTA).
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, DISORIENTATION, MAGNETIC FIELD EFFECTS, MOTION SICKNESS, RADIATION HAZARDS, SELECTION TRAINING PERFORMANCE, SPACE MEDICINE, VESTIBULAR APPARATUS, VIBRATION EFFECTS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES
72-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 420 DTIC #: AD732444
TITLE: EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ALCOHOL DOSAGES AND DISPLAY ILLUMINATION ON TRACKING PERFORMANCE DURING VESTIBULAR STIMULATION
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD D. GILSON, DAVID J. SCHROEDER, WILLIAM E. COLLINS, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PREVIOUS INVESTIGATION SHOWED THAT ALCOHOL IMPAIRS THE ABILITY TO SUPPRESS VESTIBULAR NYSTAGMUS, THUS DEGRADING VISUAL COMPENSATORY TRACKING PERFORMANCE DURING ANGULAR ACCELERATION. REDUCED DISPLAY ILLUMINATION, INDEPENDENTLY, ALSO HAS BEEN SHOWN TO DEGRADE TRACKING PERFORMANCE DURING VESTIBULAR STIMULATION. THE PRESENT STUDY INVESTIGATED THE WAY IN WHICH LOW AND MODERATE DOSAGES OF ALCOHOL AND TWO LEVELS OF INSTRUMENT-DISPLAY ILLUMINATION COMBINED TO AFFECT TRACKING PERFORMANCE A) IN A STATIC (NO MOTION) ENVIRONMENT, AND B) IN A DYNAMIC (WHOLE-BODY MOTION) ENVIRONMENT. MEAN BLOOD-ALCOHOL LEVELS AS LOW AS 0.027 PERCENT SIGNIFICANTLY (P<.05) DECREASED TRACKING PERFORMANCE DURING WHOLE-BODY MOTION, YET CAUSED LITTLE CHANGE IN PERFORMANCE IN A STATIONARY ENVIRONMENT. IMPAIRMENT WAS MUCH MORE PRONOUNCED WITH DIM LIGHTING (0.1 FT-L) THAN WITH BRIGHT LIGHTING (1.0 FT-L). THESE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT SERIOUS PROBLEMS MAY EVEN BE ENCOUNTERED BY THE PILOT WHO DRINKS LIGHTLY AND WHO CONSIDERS FLYING, ESPECIALLY AT NIGHT.
KEYWORDS: ALCOHOL, PERFORMANCE, NYSTAGMUS, ILLUMINATION LEVEL, VESTIBULAR STIMULATION
72-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2439 DTIC #: AD730316
TITLE: STATIC COMPARISON OF VERTICAL TAPE AND VERTICAL LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, ANDREW S. MARTIN, KURT E. LIDKE, MARK A. HOFMANN, ERWIN G. BRAUN, JOHN K. CROSLEY, RONALD G. TABAK, EDGAR C. WHITE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS PERFORMED IN THREE PARTS. THE FIRST PART CONSISTED OF COMPARING A PROTOTYPE LIGHT EMITTING DIODE VERTICAL DISPLAY WITH A CURRENT VERTICAL TAPE DISPLAY, FOR READING SPEED AND ACCURACY, UNDER TWO VIEWING ANGLES, THREE LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION, AND TWO TIME CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT THE 16 AVIATORS (SUBJECTS) OVERESTIMATED THE LED INSTRUMENT WHILE THE VERTICAL TAPE INSTRUMENT WAS UNDERESTIMATED. IN ADDITION, ABSOLUTE ERRORS IN READING WERE GREATER FOR THE LED DISPLAY THAN THEY WERE FOR THE VERTICAL DISPLAY. TIME CONDITIONS AND ANGLES DID NOT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT EFFECT, WHILE ILLUMINATION LEVEL FOR THE LEDS WAS OF IMPORTANCE. PART II CONSISTED OF A HUMAN FACTORS FACIAL DESIGN EVALUATION FOR ONE VERTICAL TAPE DISPLAY AND FOUR PROTOTYPE LED DISPLAYS. ALL DISPLAYS WERE FOUND TO BE DEFICIENT WHEN COMPARED TO MILITARY STANDARDS AND RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS. PART III CONSISTED OF A PHOTOMETRIC EVALUATION OF THE FOUR LED DISPLAYS. THE RESULTS SHOWED THAT THESE DISPLAYS WERE UNACCEPTABLE FOR VIEWING UNDER HIGH AMBIENT LIGHT CONDITIONS AND THAT GROSS LUMINANCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL DIODES EXISTED WITHIN THE SAME DISPLAY.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR, HUMAN VOLUNTEERS, AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS, VERTICAL DISPLAYS
72-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1250 DTIC #: AD735119
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1968: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): JORMA I. NIVEN, W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE SECOND IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN ARMY FIXED-WING AND ROTARY-WING FLIGHT OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1968 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 75 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (26 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 91 FATALITIES, 75 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND AN OVERALL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $12,381,805. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS TO THESE TOTALS WAS 66 ACCIDENTS (21 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 80 FATALITIES, 70 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND AN OVERALL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $9,077,065.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO
72-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1105 DTIC #: AD735457
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1968: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): JORMA I. NIVEN, W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE SECOND IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1968 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 53 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (17 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 74 FATALITIES, 60 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND $8,224,607 AIRCRAFT DAMAGE.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, UH-1 HELICOPTERS, AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION MEDICINE, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO
72-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2115 DTIC #: AD738808
TITLE: MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1968: ACCIDENT FACTORS
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE SECOND IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INDIVIDUAL CASE HISTORY DATA EXTRACTED FROM THE USABAAR MASTER AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT FILES ARE PRESENTED ON 52 MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS THAT OCCURRED IN UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1968. SUMMARY DATA LISTINGS INVOLVING A VARIETY OF OPERATIONAL AND PILOT-RELATED ACCIDENT FACTORS ARE PRESENTED FOR EACH OF THE CASES. THE LISTINGS ARE ARRANGED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THOSE FACTORS AND EVENTS PRESENT BEFORE TAKE-OFF; I.E., THE INITIAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A GIVEN ACCIDENT, AND THOSE WHICH OCCURRED OR WERE MANIFESTED DURING THE ACTUAL AIRBORNE PHASE OF THE ACCIDENT.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, UH-1 HELICOPTERS, AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION MEDICINE, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, ACCIDENT FACTORS
72-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 6562 DTIC #: AD737197
TITLE: DYNAMIC AND CRASHWORTHY EVALUATION OF UH-1B, C, D, H MEDICAL ATTENDANT'S SEAT
AUTHOR(s): ERROL B. BARBER, STANLEY C. KNAPP, G. E. TORNQUIST, S. P. DESJARDINS, FELIX T. AGUILAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CHALLENGE WAS TO EVALUATE THE CRASHWORTHINESS OF THE UH-1 MEDICAL ATTENDANT'S SEAT AND INVESTIGATE THE FEASIBILITY OF MODIFICATIONS TO IMPROVE THE SEAT AND ITS RESTRAINT SYSTEM. THIS REPORT IS A RECORD OF USAARL'S INVOLVEMENT, FROM RESEARCHING THE BACKGROUND TO ACHIEVE A PROPER DIRECTION FOR STUDY, THROUGH ACCIDENT STATISTICS, STRESS ANALYSIS, DYNAMIC TEST PROGRAM, REDUCTION OF DATA, INTERPRETATION, CONCLUSION, AND FINALLY, FEASIBLE RECOMMENDATIONS. THE SEAT WAS FOUND TO BE COMPLETELY UNCRASHWORTHY AND A DIRECT CONTRIBUTOR TO SERIOUS INJURIES TO ITS OCCUPANTS MOSTLY TO THE UPPER TORSO AND HEAD BECAUSE OF POOR OCCUPANT RESTRAINT. ITS CONSTRUCTION AND MANUFACTURE DID NOT MEET ALL OF THE DESIGN CRITERIA OF MILITARY SEAT SPECIFICATIONS. THE DYNAMIC TESTS OF THE SEAT DEMONSTRATED THAT WITH THE ADDITION OF THE INERTIA REEL, SHOULDER HARNESS, AND ATTACHMENT OF THE LAP BELT TO THE FLOOR, A SEAT OCCUPANT COULD BE SATISFACTORILY RESTRAINED DESPITE SERIOUS SEAT FAILURE FROM A CRASH. THE PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS IN KIT FORM WILL PROVIDE THE SEAT'S OCCUPANT WITH THE GREATEST INCREASE IN SAFETY AND RETENTION, SHOULD CRASH OCCUR, FOR THE LOWEST DOLLAR INVESTMENT AND "DOWN TIME" REQUIRED FOR ITS INSTALLATION. THIS SEAT SHOULD NOT BE CONSIDERED FOR INCORPORATION INTO ANY FUTURE MILITARY AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: IMPACT, ACCELERATION, RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION MEDICINE, CRASHWORTHINESS, SURVIVABILITY, TROOP SEATS, SEAT DESIGN, CRASH SURVIVABILITY
72-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 577 DTIC #: AD737671
TITLE: STUDIES OF FLUOROMETRIC ASSAY PROCEDURES FOR LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE
AUTHOR(s): PETER J. KASVINSKY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STUDIES OF THE AVAILABLE FLUOROMETRIC ASSAY PROCEDURES FOR LSD-25 ARE DESCRIBED FOR POSSIBLE CLINICAL APPLICATION. VARIABILITY OF PLASMA 'BLANK' BACKGROUND FLUORESCENCE VALUES WERE FOUND TO PROHIBIT THE USE OF STANDARD FLUOROMETRIC PROCEDURES WITHOUT MODIFICATION. A LITTLE KNOWN FLUOROMETRIC PROCEDURE IS DESCRIBED, WHICH MINIMIZES THIS PROBLEM AND MAINTAINS THE SENSITIVITY OF THE ASSAY AT THE SUBNANOGRAM LEVEL.
KEYWORDS: DRUG ABUSE, DRUG ASSAY, FLUOROMETRY, LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE (LSD), PHARMACOLOGY
72-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3229 DTIC #: AD745118
TITLE: HELICOPTER IN-FLIGHT MONITORING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): HARLIE W. HUFFMAN, MARK A. HOFMANN, MICHAEL R. SLEETER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER DEALS WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A HELICOPTER IN-FLIGHT MONITORING SYSTEM. THIS SYSTEM MEASURES AND RECORDS IN REAL TIME, ALL SIX DEGREES OF FREEDOM OF THE AIRCRAFT, CYCLIC, COLLECTIVE, AND PEDAL INPUTS AS WELL AS SOME STATUS VALUES.
KEYWORDS: ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM, DIGITAL
72-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 465 DTIC #: AD742665
TITLE: VIETNAM RETURNEE SURVEY
AUTHOR(s): KURT E. LIDKE, MARK A. HOFMANN, ANDREW S. MARTIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER PRESENTS SOME RESULTS OF A QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN TO 300 ARMY AVIATORS WHO SERVED IN THE REPUBLIC OF VIETNAM. THE QUESTIONS ANALYZED WERE PRIMARILY THOSE CONCERNED WITH WORK PATTERNS, PHYSICAL CONDITIONS, MEDICAL CARE, GROUNDINGS, AND ACCIDENTS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, QUESTIONNAIRE, MEDICAL
72-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1694 DTIC #: AD743483
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1969: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE THIRD IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN ARMY FIXED-WING AND ROTARY-WING FLIGHT OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1969 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 71 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (22 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 51 FATALITIES, 79 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND AN OVERALL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE OF $11,928,660. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS TO THESE TOTALS WAS 65 ACCIDENTS (20 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 46 FATALITIES, 78 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND $11,724,852 AIRCRAFT DAMAGE.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO
72-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1354 DTIC #: AD745119
TITLE: DIFFERENTIAL VELOCITY AND TIME PREDICTION OF MOTION
AUTHOR(s): KENT A. KIMBALL, MARK A. HOFMANN, RICHARD O. NOSSMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INVESTIGATION EXAMINED THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL TARGET VELOCITY, HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL PLANE CONDITIONS AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER EXPERIENCE ON THE INTERSECTION TIME ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF TWO CONVERGING TARGETS. PERFORMANCE ACCURACY ON THIS TASK WAS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTED BY HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL CONDITIONS NOR BY AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER EXPERIENCE. HOWEVER, ACCURACY IN MAGNITUDE AND DIRECTION WAS FOUND TO SIGNIFICANTLY VARY AS A FUNCTION OF CURSOR SPEED WITH SLOWER SPEEDS PRODUCING THE POORER PERFORMANCE. A DIFFERENTIAL EFFECT FOR VARIOUS SPEED COMBINATIONS ALSO WAS NOTED. ESTIMATION ACCURACY ON THE SLOWEST CURSOR SPEED WHEN PAIRED WITH THE TWO FASTER SPEEDS WAS DECREASED WHILE ACCURACY ON THE INTERMEDIATE SPEED WAS DEGRADED WHEN COMBINED WITH EITHER SLOWER OR FASTER SPEEDS. ESTIMATIONS ON THE FASTEST SPEED WERE NOT AFFECTED BY DIFFERENTIAL PAIRINGS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, TARGET, MOTION PERCEPTION, VELOCITY, PREDICTION
72-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 866 DTIC #: AD744453
TITLE: IMPROVING U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT PROPELLER AND TAIL ROTOR CONSPICUITY WITH PAINT
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, RONALD G. TABAK, ERWIN G. BRAUN, ROBERT W. BAILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ROTATING PROPELLERS AND TAIL ROTORS REPRESENT A POTENTIAL HAZARD FOR PERSONNEL WHILE AIRCRAFT ARE ON THE GROUND. THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ASCERTAIN IF ROTATING BLADES COULD BE VISUALLY DETECTED MORE EASILY BY THE JUDICIOUS APPLICATION OF PAINT. A TOTAL OF 22 OBSERVERS RATED NINE DIFFERENT PAINT SCHEMES FOR EFFECTIVENESS. THE RESULTS SHOWED THAT 1) THE TWO SCHEMES PRESENTLY BEING USED ON ARMY AIRCRAFT RATED THE POOREST OF ALL THOSE INVESTIGATED, AND 2) THE MOST CONSPICUOUS SCHEME WAS ONE WHICH HAD (FROM THE TIP TOWARD THE HUB) A FOUR-INCH SECTION PAINTED RED-ORANGE FLUORESCENT, WITH THE REMAINING SURFACE DIVIDED INTO THIRDS AND PAINTED ALTERNATELY FLAT BLACK AND GLOSS WHITE. THE BLACK AND WHITE SECTIONS OF THE OTHER HALF OF THE BLADE WERE REVERSED TO PROVIDE A NONCONCENTRIC PATTERN.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT PAINT, HELICOPTER CONSPICUITY, PROPELLER VISIBILITY, TAIL ROTOR VISIBILITY
72-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1102 DTIC #: AD017665
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1969: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE THIRD IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1969 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 46 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (16 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 39 FATALITIES, 67 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND $8,130,297 AIRCRAFT DAMAGE.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, UH-1 HELICOPTERS
73-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 22519 DTIC #: AD747988
TITLE: HUMAN HEAD AND NECK RESPONSE TO IMPACT ACCELERATION
AUTHOR(s): CHANNING L. EWING, DANIEL J. THOMAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A METHODICAL INVESTIGATION AND MEASUREMENT OF HUMAN DYNAMIC RESPONSE TO IMPACT ACCELERATION WAS CONDUCTED AS A JOINT ARMY-NAVY-WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY INVESTIGATION. LINEAR ACCELERATIONS WERE MEASURED ON THE TOP OF THE HEAD, AT THE MOUTH, AND AT THE BASE OF THE NECK. ANGULAR VELOCITY WAS ALSO MEASURED AT THE BASE OF THE NECK AND AT THE MOUTH. A REDUNDANT PHOTOGRAPHIC SYSTEM WAS USED FOR VALIDATION. ALL DATA WERE COLLECTED IN COMPUTER-COMPATIBLE FORMAT AND DATA PROCESSING WAS BY DIGITAL COMPUTER. SELECTED DATA ANALYSIS ON 41 REPRESENTATIVE HUMAN RUNS INVOLVING 12 SUBJECTS OF THE 236 HUMAN RUNS COMPLETED TO DATE ARE PRESENTED. DESCRIPTION OF THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING IS GIVEN IN DETAIL. ANCILLARY RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SUPPORT OF THE PROGRAM ALSO ARE DESCRIBED. REPRESENTATIVE PLOTS OF HUMAN KINEMATIC RESPONSE ARE PRESENTED, DISCUSSED, AND COMPARED. REPEATABILITY AND QUALITY CONTROL PLOTS ALSO ARE PRESENTED. THERE ARE A TOTAL OF 755 COMPUTER DRAWN PLOTS ILLUSTRATING A CHARACTERISTIC, REPEATABLE RESPONSE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS TO IMPACT ACCELERATION.
KEYWORDS: HUMAN ACCELERATION EFFECTS, DYNAMIC RESPONSE, DIFFERENTIAL DISPLACEMENTS, DIFFERENTIAL ANGULAR ACCELERATION, DIFFERENTIAL LINEAR ACCELERATION, BIOMECHANICS, IMPACT ACCELERATION, BIOENGINEERING, ACCELERATION TOLERANCE, BIODYNAMICS MODEL
73-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2069 DTIC #: AD753208
TITLE: MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1969: ACCIDENT FACTORS
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE THIRD IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INDIVIDUAL CASE HISTORY DATA EXTRACTED FROM THE USABAAR MASTER AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT FILES ARE PRESENTED ON 44 MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS THAT OCCURRED IN UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1969. SUMMARY DATA LISTINGS INVOLVING A VARIETY OF OPERATIONAL AND PILOT-RELATED ACCIDENT FACTORS ARE PRESENTED FOR EACH OF THE 44 CASES. THE LISTINGS ARE ARRANGED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THOSE FACTORS AND EVENTS PRESENT BEFORE TAKEOFF, I.E., THE INITIAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A GIVEN ACCIDENT, AND THOSE THAT OCCURRED OR WERE MANIFESTED DURING THE ACTUAL AIRBORNE PHASE OF THE ACCIDENT FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, UH-1 HELICOPTERS, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION MEDICINE, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, ACCIDENT FACTORS
73-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 827 DTIC #: AD750100
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A BIO-PAC FOR CARDIAC EVALUATION OF PORCINE RESEARCH ANIMALS
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. WACHTEL, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR., LYNN A. ALFORD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A TECHNIQUE FOR IMPLANTING CENTRAL VENOUS AND AORTIC CATHETERS VIA THE JUGULAR VEINS AND CAROTID ARTERIES IN MINIATURE SWINE AND THE DEVICE DESIGNED AND UTILIZED TO PROTECT THESE CATHETERS. SUCH INDWELLING CATHETERS WERE EASILY MAINTAINED FOR 14 DAYS IN UNRESTRAINED, FREE ROAMING PIGS WHILE SERIAL BLOOD SAMPLES, PRESSURE RECORDING, ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC MONITORING, AND CARDIAC OUTPUT MEASURING WERE CONDUCTED AND INFUSION OF PRECISE AMOUNTS OF FLUIDS OR DRUGS ADMINISTERED.
KEYWORDS: MINATURE SWINE, CATHETERIZATION, AORTIC ARCH, CENTRAL VENOUS, EXTERNAL CATHETER PROTECTION DEVICE, CARDIOVASCULAR STUDIES
73-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 736 DTIC #: AD032805
TITLE: THE CONTRACTILE RESPONSE OF THE SPLEEN OF MINIATURE SWINE TO INTRA-ARTERIAL INFUSION OF EPINEPHRINE
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. WACHTEL, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR., WILLIAM M. MCPHERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SPLEEN OF MINIATURE SWINE IS A BLOOD ORGAN WHICH CONTRACTS WITH INTRA-ARTERIAL INJECTION OF EPINEPHRINE (AND PRESUMABLY OTHER STRESSFUL STIMULI) AND THUS AUTOTRANSFUSES THE ANIMAL. WE RECOMMEND THE REMOVAL OF THE SPLEEN OF MINIATURE SWINE PRIOR TO USE OF THIS ANIMAL FOR ANY SHOCK STUDIES.
KEYWORDS: MINIATURE SWINE, SPLEEN CONTRACTION, EPINEPHRINE, PACKED CELL VOLUMES (PCV)
73-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 823 DTIC #: AD757600
TITLE: DETERMINING THE SURFACE AREAS OF MINIATURE SWINE AND DOMESTIC SWINE BY GEOMETRIC DESIGN--A COMPARATIVE STUDY
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. WACHTEL, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR., WILLIAM I. WATSON, MICHAEL GORMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE GEOMETRIC DESIGN METHOD PROVIDES AN ACCURATE MEANS OF DERIVING THE TOTAL BODY SURFACE AREA (TBSA) OF MINIATURE SWINE AND ALSO THE PERCENTAGE OF TBSA FOR A GIVEN AREA. THE FORMULA FOR TBSA DERIVED FOR DOMESTIC SWINE AND THE "RULES OF 5" ARE NOT APPLICABLE TO MINIATURE SWINE. THE EQUATION S EQUALS 0.121 W.575 PROVIDES A MORE ACCURATE, QUICK ASSESSMENT OF TBSA OF MINIATURE SWINE.
KEYWORDS: SURFACE AREA, SWINE, MINIATURE SWINE, GEOMETRIC
73-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 849 DTIC #: AD955914
TITLE: ANESTHESIA OR IMMOBILIZATION OF DOMESTIC AND MINIATURE SWINE: METHODS AND SOME PROBLEMS
AUTHOR(s): G. R. MCCAHAN, JR., THOMAS L. WACHTEL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ANESTHETIC PROCEDURES, CARE, AND HANDLING OF BOTH MINIATURE SWINE AND DOMESTIC SWINE HAVE BEEN OUTLINED. PRACTICAL TECHNIQUES TO OVERCOME SOME OF THE FORMER DIFFICULTIES ASSOCIATED WITH ENDOTRACHEAL INTUBATION ARE DESCRIBED. ATROPINE AND HALOTHANE WERE CONSIDERED THE BEST AGENTS.
KEYWORDS: ANESTHESIA, DOMESTIC SWINE, MINIATURE SWINE, INTUBATION, ENDOTRACHEAL, VIVARIUM, TRACHEA, MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA (MH)
73-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 616 DTIC #: AD032806
TITLE: REAL-EAR ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DH-132 HELMET FOR ARMORED VEHICLE CREWMEN
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR., ROBERT W. BAILEY, BEN T. MOZO, GORDON A. SCHOTT, ROHINTON N. GUZDAR, TIMOTHY M. HINKEL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS REQUESTED BY THE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL TO TEST "OFF-THE-SHELF" HELMETS THAT WOULD BE SUITABLE FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF THE STANDARD T56-6 CVC HELMET. AUDIOMETRIC DATA TAKEN FROM SAMPLES OF TANK CREWMEN REVEALED HEARING LOSSES WHICH INDICATED THAT THERE IS AN URGENT NEED FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HELMET THAT WOULD PROTECT AGAINST THE ADVERSE ACOUSTIC ENVIRONMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH TANK OPERATIONS. PREVIOUS EVALUATION BY REAL-EAR TESTS OF SOUND ATTENUATION ESTABLISHED THE T56-6 TO BE AN INADEQUATE ACOUSTIC PROTECTIVE DEVICE FOR ARMORED VEHICLE CREWMEN. THREE "OFF-THE-SHELF" HELMETS WERE TESTED AND RECOMMENDED AS SUITABLE FOR CONSIDERATION AS A POSSIBLE REPLACEMENT FOR THE STANDARD CVC HELMET. THE DH-132 WAS IDENTIFIED BY THE ARMOR CENTER AS THEIR CHOICE OF THE THREE PRESENTED AS MOST APPROPRIATE FOR THE ARMOR ENVIRONMENT. A MATERIAL NEED (MN) DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED AND STAFFED TO PROCURE THE DH-132. THE FIRST GROUP PROCURED FOR ENGINEERING AND SERVICE TEST DH-132-1 WAS FOUND LESS EFFICIENT THAN THE ORIGINAL DH132. THIS IDENTIFIED DEFICIENCY WAS CORRECTED IN A SECOND PROTOTYPE DH-132-2. DATA IN THIS REPORT CONFIRMS THE DH-132-2 MEETING OR EXCEEDING ALL ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION REQUIREMENTS OF THE MN AND MEDICALLY ACCEPTABLE AS AN ACOUSTIC PROTECTOR FOR ARMORED VEHICLE CREWMEN. THEREFORE, TYPE CLASSIFICATION STANDARD A IS RECOMMENDED FOR THE DH-132-2 HELMET.
KEYWORDS: ACOUSTICS, AUDITION, HEARING CONSERVATION
73-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 577 DTIC #: AD001684
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF METHODS OF PREPARING PORCINE SKIN FOR BIOASSAY OF THERMAL INJURY
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. WACHTEL, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CLIPPING, SHAVING, AND DEPILATION METHODS OF HAIR REMOVAL WERE EVALUATED ON PORCINE SKIN IN PREPARATION FOR ITS AS A BIOASSAY SUBSTRATE FOR THERMAL INJURY. EACH METHOD PROVIDES DISTINCT ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING THE PROPER METHODOLOGY ARE IDENTIFIED FOR A BIOASSAY FOR THERMAL SUBSTRATE INJURY STUDIES.
KEYWORDS: PORCINE SKIN, SKIN PREPARATION, HAIR REMOVAL, CLIPPING, SHAVING, DEPILATION, THERMAL INJURY, BIOASSAY, SUBSTRATE
73-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 454 DTIC #: AD760527
TITLE: MILITARY ANTI-SHOCK TROUSER
AUTHOR(s): BURTON H. KAPLAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACUTE HYPOVOLEMIA MAY OCCUR WITH BLOOD LOSS, FLUID SHIFTS WITHIN TISSUE COMPARTMENTS AND VASODILATATION. PREHOSPITAL TREATMENT HAS CONSISTED OF POSITIONING PATIENT, CONTROL OF ENVIRONMENT, OXYGEN ADMINISTRATION, WOUND DRESSING, AND MORE RECENTLY, INTRAVENOUS FLUID ADMINISTRATION AND/OR VASOPRESSORS. FEW STUDIES DEMONSTRATE ON-SITE EFFICACY OF INTRAVENOUS FLUID THERAPY IN TERMS OF TIME FACTORS, QUANTITIES ADMINISTERED, AND EFFECT PERIODS. EVEN MORE CONTROVERSIAL ARE THE EFFECTS OF PRESSOR AGENTS IN SUCH STATES AS A PRIMARY METHOD OF CHOICE. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, HAS PRODUCED AN ANTISHOCK GARMENT OF NOVEL DESIGN WHICH IS EXTREMELY FAST AND EASY TO APPLY, FITS NEARLY ALL SIZE AND BODY CONFIGURATIONS, AND IS EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE. IT HAS BEEN EVALUATED BY CITY OF MIAMI FIRE RESCUE UNITS IN A SERIES OF TRAUMA CASES INVOLVING LOWER EXTREMITIES, PELVIS, AND ABDOMEN. IT RESULTS IN PROMPT RETURN OF VITAL SIGNS IN THE PATIENT WHERE NEITHER PULSE NOR BLOOD PRESSURE WERE OBTAINABLE. THE TIME OF APPLICATION AND RETURN OF VITAL SIGNS HAS BEEN LESS THAN 3 MINUTES IN ALL CASES. ALTHOUGH INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS ALSO WERE STARTED, THE AMOUNT ADMINISTERED WAS LESS THAN 100 CC IN EACH CASE CITED. THE DEVICE ENABLES SOME DEGREE OF AUTOTRANSFUSION FROM EACH LOWER EXTREMITY, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME LIMITING THE CIRCULATION TO THE LOWER HALF OF THE BODY. ITS EFFECT IN STATES OF CARDIAC ARREST REMAINS TO BE DEFINED. BY ITS SHUNTING ACTION, IT MIGHT BE EXTREMELY BENEFICIAL BY DIVERTING MARGINAL CARDIAC OUTPUT TO THE UPPER BODY AND BRAIN. THE DEVICE IS SHOWN AND CASES REGARDING ITS USE ARE PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: SHOCK, TREATMENT, PARAMEDICAL RESCUE, PRE-HOSPITAL TREATMENT, EMERGENCY RESUSCITATION
73-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2100 DTIC #: AD001685
TITLE: PORCINE BURN SHOCK: DEVELOPMENT OF A RELIABLE MODEL AND RESPONSE TO SODIUM, WATER, AND PLASMA LOADS ADMINISTERED FOR RESUSCITATION
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. WACHTEL, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MINIATURE SWINE ARE A SENSITIVE AND RESPONSIVE ANIMAL FOR THE STUDY OF BURN SHOCK RESUSCITATION. THE SODIUM LOADS REQUISITE FOR RESUSCITATION OF BURNED SWINE CAN EXERT ROUGHLY THE SAME EFFECTS WHEN ADMINISTERED IN VOLUMES OF FROM 25 TO 50 PERCENT LESS THAN THOSE COMMONLY USED CLINICALLY. SODIUM EXCRETION IS MORE DEPENDENT UPON THE SODIUM LOAD THAN UPON THE CONCENTRATION OF THE SALINE SOLUTION. PLASMA ADMINISTRATION HAS NO DEMONSTRABLE RESUSCITATIVE EFFECT OVER AND ABOVE THAT PROVIDED BY THE SODIUM AND VOLUME GIVEN IN THIS MODEL.
KEYWORDS: BURNS, SHOCK, BURN SHOCK, THERMAL INJURY, SWINE, MINIATURE SWINE, ANIMAL MODEL, RESUSCITATION, SODIUM, PLASMA
73-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1311 DTIC #: AD762154
TITLE: BUMP PROTECTION EVALUATION OF THE STANDARD P/N 791 COMBAT VEHICLE CREWMAN'S HELMET
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS D. CASEY, ROBERT K. SHIRCK, RICHARD TUCKER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PROTOTYPE OF THE SIERRA COMBAT VEHICLE CREWMAN'S HELMET MODEL P/N 791 WAS EVALUATED FOR ITS ABILITY TO PROVIDE BUMP PROTECTION. THE P/N 791 FAILED TO MEET THE TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE CRITERIA OF THE MATERIEL NEED DOCUMENT.
KEYWORDS: BUMP, CONDITIONING, HELMET SYSTEMS, IMPACT, MEAN TIME DURATION, PEAK 'G', PROTECTION, PROTOTYPE
73-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 574 DTIC #: AD762565
TITLE: REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SIERRA P/N 791 AVC HELMET
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT T. CAMP, JR., ALAN L. CROSHAW, BEN T. MOZO, GORDON A. SCHOTT, ROHINTON N. GUZDAR, TIMOTHY M. HINKEL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS REQUESTED BY THE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE DIVISION OF THE OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL TO TEST "OFF-THE-SHELF" HELMETS THAT WOULD BE SUITABLE FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF THE STANDARD T56-6 CVC HELMET. PREVIOUS EVALUATION BY REAL-EAR TESTS OF SOUND ATTENUATION ESTABLISHED THE T56-6 TO BE AN INADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTOR FOR ARMORED VEHICLE CREWMEN. THREE "OFF-THE-SHELF" HELMETS WERE TESTED AND RECOMMENDED AS SUITABLE FOR CONSIDERATION AS A POSSIBLE REPLACEMENT FOR THE STANDARD CVC HELMET. THE DH-132 WAS IDENTIFIED BY THE ARMOR CENTER AS THEIR CHOICE OF THE THREE PRESENTED HELMETS AS BEING MOST APPROPRIATE FOR THE ARMOR ENVIRONMENT. RECENTLY ANOTHER HELMET, THE SIERRA P/N 791 AVC HELMET, HAS BEEN SUBMITTED FOR CONSIDERATION AS A SECOND HELMET FOR ARMORED VEHICLE CREWMEN. THE REAL-EAR ATTENUATION TEST RESULTS SHOW THAT THE SIERRA HELMET SIGNIFICANTLY FAILED THE ATTENUATION TESTS AND THEREFORE DID NOT MEET THE ATTENUATION REQUIREMENTS ESTABLISHED BY THE SURGEON GENERAL. THE SIERRA HELMET IN ITS PRESENT CONFIGURATION IS NOT ACCEPTABLE AS A HEARING PROTECTOR FOR U.S. ARMY TANK PERSONNEL.
KEYWORDS: ACOUSTICS, AUDITION, HEARING CONSERVATION
73-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1493 DTIC #: AD766224
TITLE: STUDY OF FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT EFFECTS ON HELICOPTER GUNNER
AUTHOR(s): CARL LARSON, EDWARD WELLS, BURTON H. KAPLAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DISORIENTATION PERIODS OF A HELICOPTER GUNNER IN THE CONDUCT OF HIS TASK DURING A PLANNED FLIGHT PROFILE WERE INVESTIGATED THROUGH THE USE OF A COMPUTERIZED MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM. FLIGHT ATTITUDE AND CREWMAN SEAT CHANGE DATA WERE USED AS INPUT TO THE MODEL AND CREWMAN NYSTAGMUS RATES AND PERCEIVED ANGULAR SENSATIONS WERE PREDICTED. THESE OUTPUT DATA THEN WERE COMPARED TO ACTUAL ON-BOARD FLIGHT OBSERVATIONS OF CREWMAN STATUS AND WELL BEING. THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL WAS FOUND TO ACCURATELY PREDICT PERIODS OF DISORIENTATION THAT COINCIDED WITH THOSE OBSERVED AND WERE MANIFESTED BY EITHER EXCESS NYSTAGMUS RATES, PERCEIVED SENSATIONS OF MOTION, OR A COMBINATION OF BOTH. RAPID CHANGES IN SEAT ANGLE WERE ATTRIBUTED AS THE PRIMARY CAUSE OF DISORIENTATION WITH VEHICLE ATTITUDE CHANGES CROSS-COUPLED WITH SEAT ANGLE CHANGES, PRODUCING A SECONDARY EFFECT.
KEYWORDS: DISORIENTATION, PERCEPTION, ROTATION, FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT, GUNNER TARGETS, MATHEMATICAL MODEL, VESTIBULAR
73-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1846 DTIC #: AD776348
TITLE: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF PORTABLE AVIATION OXYGEN SYSTEMS
AUTHOR(s): JAY C. BISGARD, RODERICK J. MCNEIL, FRANK S. PETTYJOHN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PROBLEM WAS TO DETERMINE THE REQUIREMENTS FOR PORTABLE AVIATION OXYGEN SYSTEMS DURING ARMY HIGH ALTITUDE RESCUE AND MEDICAL EVALUATION MISSIONS, AND THEN TO DETERMINE THE NECESSITY FOR R&D EFFORTS BY EVALUATING THE POTENTIAL OF CURRENTLY AVAILABLE SYSTEM COMPONENTS TO FULFILL THE IDENTIFIED REQUIREMENTS. THIS PRELIMINARY REPORT IS A RECORD OF USAARL'S INVOLVEMENT IN THE AREA OF ARMY AVIATION OXYGEN SYSTEMS TO INCLUDE RESEARCHING THE BACKGROUND TO ACHIEVE A PROPER DIRECTION FOR STUDY, SELECTION OF PROMISING SYSTEMS FOR ALTITUDE CHAMBER EVALUATION, STUDY RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, AND FEASIBLE RECOMMENDATIONS. IT WAS FOUND THAT IMMEDIATE ARMY REQUIREMENTS CAN BE SATISFIED BY CURRENTLY AVAILABLE MILITARY AND COMMERCIAL OXYGEN SYSTEM COMPONENTS. PRIOR TO PROCUREMENT APPROVAL, HOWEVER, THE RECOMMENDED SYSTEMS SHOULD BE OBTAINED FOR FIELD TESTING BY THREE OPERATIONAL RESCUE UNITS, THE RESULTS OF WHICH WILL PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR THE FINAL REPORT OF THIS STUDY. ALTHOUGH AN R&D EFFORT IS NOT ABSOLUTELY REQUIRED, A SHORT TERM EFFORT WOULD BE DESIRABLE IF LIMITED TO MODIFICATION OF PROTOTYPE COMPONENTS TO MAXIMIZE THEIR POTENTIALS WHILE DECREASING THEIR ULTIMATE COSTS.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT OXYGEN SYSTEMS, HELICOPTER OXYGEN SYSTEMS, PORTABLE OXYGEN SYSTEMS, AVIATION OXYGEN SYSTEMS, MEDICAL OXYGEN SYSTEMS, WALK-AROUND OXYGEN SYSTEMS, CHLORATE CANDLE OXYGEN SYSTEMS, THERAPEUTIC OXYGEN SYSTEMS, OXYGEN SYSTEMS, OXYGEN MARKS
74-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1320 DTIC #: AD772968
TITLE: CHRONIC TRANSDERMAL ELECTRODES
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE, THOMAS L. WACHTEL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FIVE-TENTHS (0.5) MM DIAMETER (20 MIL) 80 PERCENT PLATINUM--20 PERCENT IRIDIUM WIRE WAS USED TO MAKE CHRONICALLY IMPLANTED TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRODES FOR USE IN 14 SUBJECTS OVER A 19-WEEK PERIOD. THE TECHNIQUES OF IMPLANTATION AND MANAGEMENT ARE DESCRIBED. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF THE IMPLANTED ELECTRODES ARE DISCUSSED. SUGGESTIONS ARE MADE TO IMPROVE FUTURE APPLICATION.
KEYWORDS: PHYSIOLOGY, ELECTRODES, PLATINUM-IRIDIUM, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, ELECTROCARDIOGRAMS, ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY, TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRODES, IMPLANTED ELECTRODES
74-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1044 DTIC #: AD766225
TITLE: ARMY AUTOROTATION ACCIDENTS: FISCAL YEARS 70-72
AUTHOR(s): KENT A. KIMBALL, DONALD F. HARDEN, MARK A. HOFMANN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS A REVIEW OF AUTOROTATION ACCIDENTS OCCURRING DURING THE FISCAL YEARS 1970 THROUGH 1972. THIS WORK PRESENTS INFORMATION ON THESE ACCIDENTS AND THEIR RELATION TO TOTAL ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS, ACCIDENT RATES, GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS, SPECIFIC AIRCRAFT, COSTS, FATALITIES, AND INJURIES. DATA DELINEATING THE CAUSATIVE FACTORS OF THESE ACCIDENTS ALSO ARE PRESENTED AND DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: ACCIDENTS, AUTOROTATION, AIRCRAFT, CAUSATIVE FACTORS
74-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1400 DTIC #: AD767028
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1970: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): JORMA I. NIVEN, W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FOURTH IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN ARMY FIXED-WING AND ROTARY-WING FLIGHT OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1970 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 81 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (25 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 80 FATALITIES, 104 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND AN OVERALL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $19,355,689. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS TO THIS TOTAL WAS 75 ACCIDENTS (24 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 79 FATALITIES, 98 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND AN OVERALL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $17,060,490.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, HELICOPTERS
74-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 351 DTIC #: AD772970
TITLE: PARACHUTE ESCAPE FROM HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM P. SCHANE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE SHOWS THAT A PARACHUTIST EXPERIENCES NO MAJOR DIFFICULTY IN ACHIEVING VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL SEPARATION FROM AN AUTOROTATING HELICOPTER. AT HIGH RATES OF DESCENT, THERE IS A 0.5-0.75 SECOND DELAY AFTER EXIT BEFORE EXPECTED SEPARATION BEGINS.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER, PARACHUTE, EMERGENCY EGRESS, BOUNDARY-LAYER AERODYNAMICS
74-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1093 DTIC #: AD768307
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1970: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): JORMA I. NIVEN, W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FOURTH IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1970 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 43 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (17 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 66 FATALITIES, 67 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND A TOTAL UH-1 AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $7,706,191.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, UH-1 HELICOPTERS
74-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1831 DTIC #: AD780847
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL SPINAL CONFIGURATION ON PILOT EJECTION
AUTHOR(s): Y. KING LIU, UWE R. PONTIUS, RONALD R. HOSEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL SPINAL ALIGNMENT ON THE LOCATION AND MAGNITUDE OF MAXIMUM VERTEBRAL STRESS DURING EJECTION WERE STUDIED USING THE ORNE-LIU DISCRETE PARAMETER MODEL OF THE SPINE. FACE CURTAIN, SHOULDER HARNESS, AND SEAT BACK RESTRAINTS WERE ADDED TO THE MODEL AS LINEAR SPRINGS. SPINAL ALIGNMENT DATA USED WERE FROM X-RAYS OF 5TH, 40TH, AND 95TH, PERCENTILE (SITTING HEIGHT) MEN SEATED IN THE MK-J5(D) EJECTION SEAT UNDER STATIC CONDITIONS. MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESSES WERE SHOWN TO OCCUR AT L1(5TH), T12(40TH) AND T9(95TH) WITH FACE CURTAIN AND SHOULDER HARNESS RESTRAINT. THESE LOCATIONS CORRESPOND ALMOST EXACTLY TO THE PREDICTIONS OF INJURY BASED ON STATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE CURVATURE OF THE INITIAL CONFIGURATION OF THE PILOT'S SPINE. INCLUSION OF POSTERIOR-ANTERIOR SEAT BACK SUPPORT DECREASED MAXIMUM STRESSES AS DID THE USE OF AN IMPROVED LUMBAR PAD WHICH PLACED THE LOWER SPINAL COLUMN IN EXTENSION. FAILURE TO UTILIZE THE FACE CURTAIN RESTRAINT GAVE RISE TO LARGE NORMAL STRESSES IN THE UPPER THORACIC COLUMN. RESULTS INDICATED THAT A STATE OF NEARLY UNIFORM AXIAL STRESS EXISTS IN THE COLUMN DURING EJECTION AND THUS THE LOCATION OF MAXIMUM BENDING STRESS DICTATES THE SPINAL LOCATION OF THE MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESS. HENCE, INITIAL SPINAL ALIGNMENT, IN TERMS OF THE CURVATURE OF THE COLUMN, IS A MAJOR DETERMINANT OF THE LOCATION AND MAGNITUDE OF MAXIMUM NORMAL STRESS FOR A GIVEN SET OF RESTRAINTS.
KEYWORDS: BIOMECHANICS, PILOT EJECTION, SPINAL INJURY, SPINAL ALIGNMENT, EJECTION SEAT, LUMBAR PAD
74-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2826 DTIC #: AD032857
TITLE: AVIATION VISUAL PERFORMANCE IN THE UH-1H, STUDY I
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. FREZELL, MARK A. HOFMANN, RICHARD E. OLIVER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY MONITORED, VIA THE CORNEAL REFLECTION TECHNIQUE, VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF ARMY AVIATORS WHILE FLYING A NUMBER OF MANEUVERS IN A UH-1H. VISUAL PERFORMANCE, TO INCLUDE TIME AND TRANSITION INFORMATION, WAS GATHERED OVER 13 COCKPIT AREAS. IN ADDITION TO THE OBJECTIVE RECORDINGS, SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENTS BY THE AVIATORS WITH REGARD TO THEIR VISUAL PERFORMANCE ALSO WERE ATTAINED. RESULTS ACQUIRED BY BOTH TECHNIQUES ARE PROVIDED.
KEYWORDS: PILOT PERFORMANCE, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, RECORDING IN-FLIGHT, HELICOPTER VISUAL DATA, EYE MOVEMENT RECORDING, PILOT VISUAL DATA, FLIGHT DATA VISUAL, HUMAN VOLUNTEERS
74-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1284 DTIC #: AD776373
TITLE: INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PREFERENCE AND FIELD DEPENDENCE
AUTHOR(s): ERIC R. GEORGE, MARK A. HOFMANN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS RESEARCH INVESTIGATED THE POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FIELD DEPENDENCE-INDEPENDENCE, AS MEASURED BY THE ROD AND FRAME TEST (RFT) AND AVIATOR ATTITUDES REGARDING IFR FLIGHT. DEGREE OF AVIATOR PREFERENCE FOR ACTUAL INSTRUMENT FLIGHT (DETERMINED BY QUESTIONNAIRE AND PERSONAL INTERVIEW) SERVED AS A BASIS FOR DIVIDING THE AVIATOR SAMPLE (43 PILOTS) INTO HIGH AND LOW PREFERENCE GROUPS. THESE GROUPS WERE EXAMINED RELATIVE TO THREE FIELD DEPENDENCE MEASURES DERIVED FROM RFT PERFORMANCE. THE IFR PREFERENCE GROUP FACTOR DID NOT CONTRIBUTE SIGNIFICANTLY TO THE VARIATION IN RFT PERFORMANCE EITHER SINGULARLY OR IN INTERACTION WITH OTHER FACTORS, SUCH AS BODY ATTITUDE OR VISUAL FIELD. IN ADDITION, DEMOGRAPHIC DATA OF BOTH SUBJECT GROUPS WERE REDUCED AND EXAMINED. A POSITIVE CORRELATION WAS FOUND BETWEEN INSTRUMENT FLIGHT EXPERIENCE AND TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS FOR THE IFR HIGH PREFERENCE AVIATORS ONLY; NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES WERE DEMONSTRATED FOR OTHER VARIABLES.
KEYWORDS: FIELD DEPENDENCE, ROD AND FRAME, INSTRUMENT FLIGHT, PREFERENCE, AVIATORS
74-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 695 DTIC #: AD776345
TITLE: STATIC EVALUATION OF ABSOLUTE ALTIMETER DISPLAY SIGN - STUDY I
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. FREZELL, DONALD R. HARDEN, PAUL D. HUNT, MARK A. HOFMANN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX ABSOLUTE ALTIMETER DISPLAY DESIGNS WERE EVALUATED IN THE STATIC MODE. PERFORMANCE WAS MEASURED WITH RESPECT TO SUBJECTS' READING ACCURACY, SPEED AND PREFERENCE. THE SUBJECTS CONSISTED OF EXPERIENCED ARMY AVIATORS AND NONFLYING COLLEGE STUDENTS. THE RESULTS SHOWED A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DISPLAY TYPES AS WELL AS BETWEEN AVIATORS AND STUDENTS.
KEYWORDS: ABSOLUTE ALTIMETER, RADAR ALTIMETERS, STATIC TESTING, ALTIMETER FACIAL DESIGN, AIRCRAFT ALTIMETER DISPLAYS
74-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1024 DTIC #: AD776353
TITLE: SOFT (HYDROPHILIC) CONTACT LENSES IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION: AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY OF THE BAUSCH AND LOMB SOFTLENS™
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, ERWIN G. BRAUN, ROBERT W. BAILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF STANDARD ACRYLIC OR "HARD" CONTACT LENSES HAS BEEN RELATIVELY UNSUCCESSFUL IN THE MILITARY AVIATION ENVIRONMENT, PARTICULARLY WHEN WORN BY PERSONNEL FLYING ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE APPLICABILITY OF ONE TYPE OF HYDROPHILIC LENS TO U.S. ARMY AVIATION. NINETEEN VOLUNTEER HELICOPTER PILOTS SERVED AS SUBJECTS AND THREE SPECIFIC AREAS WERE INVESTIGATED. THESE WERE: (1) CLINICAL PROCEDURES, (2) FOREIGN BODY INVOLVEMENT, AND (3) THE EFFECT OF EXTENDED (72 HOURS) CONTINUOUS WEAR. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE SOFLENS™ OFFERS CERTAIN ADVANTAGES OVER ACRYLIC LENSES FOR THIS SPECIALIZED APPLICATION. THERE WERE, HOWEVER, DISTINCT PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WHICH MAY BE LESSENED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW LENS MATERIALS AND ASEPTICIZING TECHNIQUES.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, VISION, AVIATION VISION, SOFT CONTACT LENSES, HYDROPHILIC CONTACT LENSES, EYES, VISUAL ACUITY
74-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 732 DTIC #: AD781881
TITLE: INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN VESTIBULAR INFORMATION AS A PREDICTOR OF MOTION DISTURBANCES SUSCEPTIBILITY
AUTHOR(s): H. J. MOORE, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CERTAIN FACTS SUGGEST THAT MOTION DISTURBANCES MAY BE RELATED TO THE AMOUNT OF VESTIBULAR INFORMATION CONTRIBUTING TO SENSORY CONFLICT. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN MOTION DISTURBANCE SUSCEPTIBILITY MIGHT, THEREFORE, CORRELATE POSITIVELY WITH DIFFERENTIAL ACCESSIBILITY OF VESTIBULAR SENSORY INFORMATION TO THE SPATIAL PERCEPTUAL PROCESS. THE RESULTS OF TWO EXPERIMENTS, WHILE NOT INCONSISTENT WITH THIS HYPOTHESIS, DID NOT DEMONSTRATE A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A VESTIBULAR RESPONSE VARIANCE MEASURE AND MOTION DISTURBANCE SUSCEPTIBILITY AT THE CONVENTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL. THE TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF THE RESPONSE VARIANCE MEASURE WAS NOT FOUND TO BE FAVORABLE. THE SLOPE OF THE VESTIBULAR STIMULUS-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP WAS NOT FOUND TO PREDICT MOTION DISTURBANCE SUSCEPTIBILITY.
KEYWORDS: MOTION SICKNESS, VESTIBULAR SYSTEM, SENSORY CONFLICT, SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, INFORMATION, PSYCHOPHYSICAL FUNCTION
74-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1598 DTIC #: AD001710
TITLE: MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FY 1970: ACCIDENT FACTORS
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, JORMA I. NIVEN, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FOURTH IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INDIVIDUAL CASE HISTORY DATA FROM THE USAAAVS MASTER AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT FILES ARE PRESENTED ON MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS THAT OCCURRED IN UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1970. SUMMARY DATA LISTINGS INVOLVING A VARIETY OF OPERATIONAL AND PILOT-RELATED ACCIDENT FACTORS ARE PRESENTED FOR EACH OF THE 42 CASES. THE LISTINGS ARE ARRANGED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THOSE FACTORS AND EVENTS PRESENT BEFORE TAKEOFF, I.E., THE INITIAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A GIVEN ACCIDENT, AND THOSE WHICH OCCURRED OR WERE MANIFESTED DURING THE ACTUAL AIRBORNE PHASE OF THE ACCIDENT FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, UH-1 HELICOPTERS, AIRCRAFT FACTORS
75-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 949 DTIC #: ADA782976
TITLE: PERSONALITY ASPECTS OF PILOT ERROR ACCIDENT INVOLVEMENT
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL G. SANDERS, MARK A. HOFMANN, PAUL D. HUNT, ALLEN C. SNOW, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CONSISTENTLY HIGH FREQUENCY OF PILOT ERROR ACCIDENTS IN BOTH MILITARY AND CIVILIAN AVIATION PROGRAMS DOES MUCH TO SUPPORT EXPLORATORY RESEARCH WHICH MIGHT HELP ALLEVIATE THE PROBLEM. CATTELL'S SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE (16 PF) AND A DYNAMIC DECISION MAKING TASK (UNDER RISK) WERE GIVEN TO 51 ARMY AVIATORS. ACCIDENT FILES WERE THEN EXAMINED IN ORDER TO CLASSIFY THE AVIATORS AS TO THEIR PRIOR PILOT ERROR ACCIDENT INVOLVEMENT. STEPWISE DISCRIMINATION ANALYSES REVEALED THAT THE DECISION MAKING TASK SCORES WERE UNRELATED TO THE PILOT ERROR ACCIDENT GROUPINGS WHILE THE 16 PF SCORES WERE ABLE TO CORRECTLY CLASSIFY 86 PERCENT OF THE AVIATORS AS TO WHETHER OR NOT THEY HAD BEEN PREVIOUSLY LISTED AS A CAUSE FACTOR IN A MILITARY AVIATION ACCIDENT.
KEYWORDS: PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS, PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS, AVIATORS, ACCIDENT FREQUENCY, DECISION MAKING
75-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 593 DTIC #: ADA000079
TITLE: SOME EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF OCULOMOTOR CONTROLS
AUTHOR(s): FRED E. GUEDRY, JR., RICHARD D. GILSON, DAVID J. SCHROEDER, WILLIAM E. COLLINS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT ALCOHOL INTERFERES WITH VISUAL CONTROL OF VESTIBULAR NYSTAGMUS. THE PRESENT STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO ASSESS THREE PARTIALLY INDEPENDENT SYSTEMS OF OCULOMOTOR CONTROL. PERFORMANCE ON THREE TASKS WAS MEASURED BEFORE AND AFTER MILD ALCOHOL DOSAGE. ONE TASK INVOLVED VISUAL SUPPRESSION OF VESTIBULAR NYSTAGMUS; A SECOND INVOLVED SMOOTH OCULOMOTOR TRACKING OF A MOVING TARGET, AND A THIRD REQUIRED REPETITIVE RAPID VOLUNTARY SHIFTS IN GAZE. OCULOMOTOR CONTROL WAS DEGRADED ON THE FIRST TWO TASKS WITH RECOVERY TOWARD THE INITIAL PERFORMANCE LEVEL 4 HOURS AFTER DRINKING. PERFORMANCE ON THE THIRD TASK WAS NOT OBVIOUSLY DEGRADED, ALTHOUGH IT IS POSSIBLE THAT IMPROVEMENT WITH PRACTICE WAS RETARDED. RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEMS INVOLVED AND KINDS OF FLIGHT TASKS POTENTIALLY AFFECTED.
KEYWORDS: ALCOHOL, OCULOMOTOR CONTROL, VISUAL TRACKING, VOLUNTARY SACCADES, VISUAL-VESTIBULAR INTERACTION, NYSTAGMUS
75-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 987 DTIC #: ADA001683
TITLE: AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DURING LOCAL AREA, LOW-LEVEL AND NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): KENT A. KIMBALL, THOMAS L. FREZELL, MARK A. HOFMANN, ALLEN C. SNOW, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER PRESENTS BASELINE DATA CONCERNING AVIATOR PERFORMANCE AND AIRCRAFT STATE VARIABLES DURING LOCAL AREA, LOW-LEVEL AND NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHTS. FURTHER, INFORMATION IS PROVIDED CONCERNING DIFFERENCES IN AVIATOR CONTROL INPUTS PER UNIT OF TIME ACROSS THE THREE PROFILES. FROM THE DATA, IT IS EVIDENT THAT NOE FLIGHT PLACES MORE DEMANDS ON BOTH CREWS AND AIRCRAFT THAN THE OTHER TWO TYPES OF FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, AIRCRAFT, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH, MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE, HIMS
75-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2841 DTIC #: ADA001544
TITLE: REVIEW OF THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONFERENCE ON AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION, 15-16 JANUARY 1974
AUTHOR(s): FRANK S. PETTYJOHN. CONTRIBUTOR EUGENE L. NAGEL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY HAS SUPPORTED THE HELICOPTER MEDICAL EVACUATION MISSION THROUGHOUT ITS RAPID GROWTH. THE CONCEPT OF DEDICATED EVACUATION HELICOPTERS AND CREWS HAS BEEN WELL PROVEN DURING THE VIETNAM CONFLICT. CONCURRENT WITH THIS DEVELOPMENT HAS BEEN THE RAPID EMERGENCE OF THE CIVILIAN EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES WITHIN THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES. THE UTILIZATION OF THE MILITARY HELICOPTER IN A JOINT ROLE WITH THE CIVILIAN COMMUNITY, THE MILITARY ASSISTANCE TO SAFETY AND TRAFFIC, AS WELL AS IN ITS COMBAT EVACUATION ROLE REQUIRES COMBINED EMPHASIS AND UPGRADING OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES. THIS CONFERENCE REPRESENTS A UNIQUE APPROACH TO THE PROBLEMS OF MAINTAINING PACE WITH THE RAPID DEVELOPING FIELD OF AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION. THE INFORMAL SEMINAR STRUCTURE PROVIDED THE HELICOPTER UNIT, THE USER, AN OPPORTUNITY TO DISCUSS PROBLEM AREAS OF MEDICAL AND OPERATIONAL NEEDS WITH THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, THE DEVELOPER. IN ADDITION, THIS CONFERENCE REPRESENTED A FIRST IN BRINGING TOGETHER OPERATIONAL HELICOPTER UNIT PERSONNEL FROM BOTH THE U.S. ARMY AND THE U.S. AIR FORCE TO DISCUSS COMMON PROBLEMS. THE CONCEPTS, IDEAS, AND SUGGESTIONS PRESENTED SHOULD ENSURE THE CONTINUED IMPROVEMENT OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES TO PROVIDE THE HIGHEST DEGREE OF MEDICAL CARE TO THE U.S. MILITARY FORCES.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER, AIR AMBULANCE, AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, RESCUE, INTERHOSPITAL TRANSFER, EMERGENCY MEDICINE, MEDICAL, LEGAL
75-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 940 DTIC #: ADA002062
TITLE: THE IN VIVO DYNAMIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE CANINE SPINAL CORD: A FEASIBILITY STUDY
AUTHOR(s): Y. KING LIU, K. B. CHANDRAN, WILLIAM C. VAN BUSHIRK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A STUDY WAS COMPLETED WHICH SHOWED THE FEASIBILITY OF DETERMINING THE IN VIVO DYNAMIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE SPINAL CORD IN MONGREL DOGS. IN THE INITIAL PHASE, SINUSOIDAL PRESSURE WAVES WERE INDUCED ON A FLUID-FILLED THIN-WALLED PENROSE SURGICAL DRAINAGE TUBE AND THE WAVE LENGTH WAS MONITORED BY TWO MICROPRESSURE TRANSDUCERS. THE WAVE SPEED OBTAINED FROM THESE MEASUREMENTS WAS INSERTED INTO THE MONS-KORTEWEG RELATION TO DETERMINE THE YOUNG'S MODULUS FOR THE PENROSE TUBING. THE VALUE OBTAINED FOR THE MODULUS WAS IN EXCELLENT AGREEMENT WITH VALUES CITED IN THE LITERATURE. IN THE SECOND PHASE, A PORTION OF THE SPINAL CORDS OF THREE DOGS WAS EXPOSED BY A LAMINECTOMY AND THEN THE CORDS SUBJECTED TO AN IDENTICAL WAVE PROPAGATION METHOD OF PROCEDURE AS DETERMINED IN THE INITIAL PHASE. IT WAS IMPORTANT TO BLOCK THE SPINAL CORD JERK REFLEX BY A LOCAL ANESTHETIC, XYLOCAINE™, DISTAL TO THE TEST SECTION OF THE CORD BEFORE THE START OF THE EXPERIMENT. THUS, THE SURGICAL TOOLS, ELECTROMECHANICAL EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES, AND THE METHOD OF PROCEDURE REQUIRED FOR THE SUCCESSFUL DETERMINATION OF SOME OF THE IN VIVO DYNAMIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE SPINAL CORD OF DOGS WAS ESTABLISHED.
KEYWORDS: SPINAL CORD, WAVE PROPAGATION, IN VIVO STUDIES, DYNAMIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES, BIOMECHANICS
75-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1535 DTIC #: ADA004189
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1971: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FIFTH IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN ARMY FIXED-WING AND ROTARY-WING FLIGHT OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1971 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 50 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (25 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 65 FATALITIES, 67 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND AN OVERALL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $11,404,119. THE CONTRIBUTION OF ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS TO THIS TOTAL WAS 47 ACCIDENTS (23 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 62 FATALITIES, 67 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND AN OVERALL AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $11,191,377.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, HELICOPTERS
75-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 610 DTIC #: ADA004963
TITLE: THE BRIEF VESTIBULAR DISORIENTATION TEST AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR NON-PILOT AVIATION PERSONNEL
AUTHOR(s): ROSALIE K. AMBLER, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PAST RESEARCH HAS DEMONSTRATED THE VALUE OF THE BRIEF VESTIBULAR DISORIENTATION TEST (BVDT) AS A SCREENING TOOL FOR STUDENT PILOTS. THIS STUDY IS CONCERNED WITH THE EXTENSION OF THIS TECHNIQUE FOR USE IN ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL NAVAL FLIGHT OFFICER (NFO). THE RATER BVDT PROCEDURE WAS USED HERE, AND IN ADDITION, A PERFORMANCE TASK INVOLVING A SHORT-TERM MEMORY TASK IN THE AUDITORY MODE WAS INTRODUCED IN ORDER TO MEASURE PERFORMANCE DECREMENT. REPRESENTATIVE GROUPS OF ENTERING NFO STUDENTS FIRST WERE ADMINISTERED THE PERFORMANCE TASK UNDER THE EXACT CONDITIONS OF THE PREVIOUS BVDT PROCEDURE, BUT WITHOUT ROTATION. AFTER A 2-MINUTE REST PERIOD, THE PROCEDURE WAS REPEATED WITH ROTATION. OBSERVER ASSESSMENTS WERE MADE DURING THIS ROTATION SEQUENCE. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT THOSE STUDENTS WHO LATER FAILED NFO TRAINING EXHIBITED GREATER PERFORMANCE DECREMENT UNDER ROTARY CONDITIONS AS COMPARED TO STATIC THAN DID SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS. RATER-TYPE BVDT SCORES ALSO INDICATED SLIGHTLY GREATER SENSITIVITY (.07 LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE) TO THE VESTIBULAR STIMULUS FOR THE FAILURES THAN FOR THE SUCCESSES. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THIS TECHNIQUE IS OF POTENTIAL VALUE IN SCREENING NFOS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION PERSONNEL, SELECTION, VESTIBULAR STIMULATION, PERFORMANCE
75-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 498 DTIC #: ADA003229
TITLE: OXYGEN TOXICITY IN THE MAMMALIAN BRAIN
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS A. BAEYENS, JOSEPH O. BONNETT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) ACTIVITY OF MOUSE BRAIN HOMOGENTES WAS EXAMINED AFTER EXPOSURE TO HYPERBARIC OXYGEN (5763.8 MM HG PO2) AND COMPARED TO ROOM AIR CONTROLS (158.8 MM HG PO2). THE EFFECT OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE ON LDH ACTIVITY AFTER HYPERBARIC OXYGEN EXPOSURE WAS ALSO EXAMINED. THE ACTIVITY OF LDH AFTER TREATMENT WITH HYPERBARIC OXYGEN WAS SIGNIFICANTLY DIMINISHED WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS. IN THE PRESENCE OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE, HOMOGENATES EXPOSED TO HYPERBARIC OXYGEN DEMONSTRATED HIGHER ACTIVITY THAN DID HOMOGENATES INCUBATED WITHOUT GLUTATHIONE. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT OXYGEN INDUCED INHIBITION OCCURS THROUGH THE OXIDATION OF ESSENTIAL FREE SULFHYDRYL GROUPS AND THAT THIS OXIDATION CAN EITHER BE PREVENTED BY REDUCED GLUTATHIONE OR THE DISULFIDE BRIDGES MAY BE REDUCED TO FREE SULFHYDRYL GROUPS BY THE GLUTATHIONE AFTER OXIDATION.
KEYWORDS: O2 TOXICITY, REDUCED GLUTATHIONE, SULFHYDRYL GROUPS, LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
75-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 427 DTIC #: ADA006121
TITLE: EVALUATION OF PROPOSED ELECTROPLATED HGU-4/P FRAMES
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY, FRANK S. PETTYJOHN, DAVID D. GLICK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A GOLD ELECTROPLATED FRAME HAS BEEN RECOMMENDED TO REPLACE THE STANDARD GOLD-FILLED AVIATOR FRAME. SINCE THE PROPOSED FRAME CONTAINS A NICKEL-SILVER BASED METAL, THE FRAME WAS EVALUATED UNDER FIELD AND LABORATORY CONDITIONS AT THE US ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. OF THE 18 SUBJECTS WHO WORE THE TEST FRAMES FOR 3 MONTHS, ONE SUBJECT, AN AVIATOR, DEVELOPED A MILD DERMATITIS ALONG THE FRONTAL AND SUPRAORBITAL PORTION OF THE FACE. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS INDICATED "FREE" NICKEL IN SUFFICIENT QUANTITY TO CAUSE A REACTION FROM NICKEL-SENSITIVE INDIVIDUALS. THIS STUDY HAS SHOWN THAT SOME SKIN REACTION CAN BE EXPECTED FROM A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF WEARERS IF THE GOLD ELECTROPLATED FRAME REPLACES THE GOLD-FILLED FRAME.
KEYWORDS: NICKEL DERMATITIS, SKIN REACTION, CONTACT DERMATITIS, AVIATOR FRAMES, NICKEL-CONTAINING FRAMES
75-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 406 DTIC #: ADA007144
TITLE: OXYGEN INDUCED INHIBITION OF MOUSE BRAIN LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS A. BAEYENS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) ACTIVITY OF MOUSE BRAIN HOMOGENATES WAS EXAMINED AFTER EXPOSURE TO HYPERBARIC OXYGEN (5763.8 MM HG PO2) AND COMPARED TO ROOM AIR CONTROLS (158.8 MM HG PO2). THE EFFECT OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE ON LDH ACTIVITY AFTER HYPERBARIC OXYGEN EXPOSURE ALSO WAS EXAMINED. THE ACTIVITY OF LDH AFTER TREATMENT WITH HYPERBARIC OXYGEN WAS SIGNIFICANTLY DIMINISHED WHEN COM-PARED WITH CONTROLS. IN THE PRESENCE OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE, HOMOGENATES EXPOSED TO HYPERBARIC OXYGEN DEMONSTRATED HIGHER ACTIVITY THAN DID HOMOGENATES INCUBATED WITHOUT GLUTATHIONE. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT OXYGEN INDUCED INHIBITION OCCURS THROUGH THE OXIDATION OF ESSENTIAL FREE SULFHYDRYL GROUPS AND THAT THIS OXIDATION CAN EITHER BE PREVENTED BY REDUCED GLUTATHIONE OR THE DISULFIDE BRIDGES MAY BE REDUCED TO FREE SULFHYDRYL GROUPS BY THE GLUTATHIONE AFTER OXIDATION.
KEYWORDS: O2 TOXICITY, REDUCED GLUTATHIONE, SULFHYDRYL GROUPS, LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
75-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1310 DTIC #: ADA007812
TITLE: AVIATION VISUAL PERFORMANCE IN UH-1, STUDY II
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. FREZELL, MARK A. HOFMANN, ALLEN C. SNOW, JR., RICHARD P. MCNUTT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY MONITORED, VIA THE CORNEAL REFLECTION TECHNIQUE, VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF ARMY AVIATORS WHILE FLYING INCLINE MANEUVERS IN A UH-1 HELICOPTER. VISUAL PERFORMANCE, TO INCLUDE TIME AND TRANSITION INFORMATION, WAS GATHERED OVER 13 SECTORS. IN ADDITION TO VISUAL DATA, PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS WERE RECORDED SIMULTANEOUSLY ON AN INCREMENTAL DIGITAL RECORDER. RESULTS ACQUIRED BY BOTH TECHNIQUES ARE PROVIDED.
KEYWORDS: PILOT PERFORMANCE, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, RECORDING IN-FLIGHT, HELICOPTER VISUAL DATA, EYE MOVEMENT RECORDING, PILOT VISUAL DATA, FLIGHT DATA VISUAL, HUMAN VOLUNTEERS, INCLINE LANDINGS
75-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 885 DTIC #: ADA011244
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE EXPERIMENTAL PLAN TO EVALUATE STABILIZED OPTICAL VIEWING DEVICES: I. IN-FLIGHT MEASUREMENT OF VISUAL ACUITY
AUTHOR(s): DAVID D. GLICK, ROGER W. WILEY, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR., W. CARROLL HIXSON, JOEL W. NORMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN IMPROVED XM-76 STABILIZED VIEWING DEVICE WAS TESTED IN A SCOUT HELICOPTER FLIGHT SCENARIO. TARGET ACQUISITION PERFORMANCE WAS SIGNIFICANTLY CORRELATED WITH THE AIRSICKNESS RATINGS OF AN ON-BOARD EXPERIMENTER. SINCE THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE MAGNITUDE OF THE SYMPTOMS OBSERVED WHEN THE DEVICE WAS STABILIZED AND THE MAGNITUDE WHEN CAGED, THE STABILIZATION FEATURE PROPER COULD NOT BE IDENTIFIED AS A PROBLEM SOURCE. PARTS II AND III OF THE REPORT (IN PREPARATION) WILL DEAL WITH IN-FLIGHT MEASURES OF AIRSICKNESS POTENTIAL AND THE LABORATORY EVALUATION OF INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO AIRSICKNESS RESPECTIVELY.
KEYWORDS: MOTION SICKNESS, XM-76, GYROSTABILIZATION, TARGET ACQUISITION, VIEWING DEVICE, OPTICAL
75-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1438 DTIC #: ADA009336
TITLE: COMMUNICATING DURING TERRAIN FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL G. SANDERS, MARK A. HOFMANN, DONALD F. HARDEN, THOMAS L. FREZELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SAFE AND EFFICIENT TERRAIN FLIGHT REQUIRES THAT THE COPILOT OR NAVIGATOR GIVE VERBAL NAVIGATION INSTRUCTIONS THAT ALLOW THE PILOT TO RESPOND QUICKLY AND EFFECTIVELY WITH MINIMUM CONFUSION AND HEAD-IN-COCKPIT TIME. THE INTRACOCKPIT COMMUNICATIONS OF 47 NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) TRAINING FLIGHTS WERE TAPE RECORDED. NOE COMMUNICATION QUESTIONNAIRES WERE DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 60 STUDENT PILOTS AND 74 INSTRUCTOR PILOTS. ANALYSIS OF THE TAPES AND QUESTIONNAIRE DATA INDICATED THAT THE CREWMEMBERS WERE SPENDING 30.1 PERCENT OF THEIR TIME IN COMMUNICATION CONCERNING NAVIGATION. ANALYSIS OF THE TAPE RECORDINGS ALSO INDICATED THAT NEW STUDENT PILOT (SP) FLIGHT CREWS EXHIBITED A GREATER DENSITY OF COMMUNICATION (T EQUALS 10.07, DF EQUALS 45, P< .05) THAN DID THE SP FLIGHT CREWS THAT HAD BEEN FLYING TOGETHER. SEVENTY-SEVEN PERCENT OF THE IPS INDICATED THAT FORMAL NAVIGATION COMMUNICATION INSTRUCTIONS PRESENTED IN THE CLASSROOM WOULD BE MORE DESIRABLE THAN IPS TEACHING THEIR STUDENTS INDIVIDUALLY THE NAVIGATION TERMS AND TECHNIQUES THAT SHOULD BE USED.
KEYWORDS: NAVIGATION DIRECTIONS, COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES, NOE TRAINING, AIRCREW COORDINATION, HELICOPTER TERRAIN FLIGHT, NOE COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES
75-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1088 DTIC #: ADA032837
TITLE: REPORT OF COLD CLIMATE CLOTHING AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT WORKSHOP
AUTHOR(s): RUSSELL D. NELSON, EMIL SPEZIA, WILLIAM R. BROWN, WILLIAM B. DURAND, HUEY P. LANG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: REPORT OF COLD CLIMATE CLOTHING AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT WORKSHOP HELD 24-27 SEPTEMBER 1974 AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA. RECOGNITION OF NEEDS FOR IMPROVEMENT IN AVIATION COLD CLIMATE EQUIPMENT PROMPTED THE U.S. ARMY AGENCY FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY TO JOINTLY SPONSOR A WORKSHOP TO IDENTIFY SHORTCOMINGS IN THE ARMY'S COLD CLIMATE CLOTHING AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT AND RECOMMEND SOLUTIONS. THE WORKSHOP FOCUSED ON SPECIFIC PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY ARMY AVIATION IN ALASKA. HOWEVER, REQUIREMENTS OF AVIATION UNITS OPERATING IN OTHER COLD CLIMATES ALSO WERE ADDRESSED. THE WORKSHOP RESULTED IN IDENTIFICATION OF DEFICIENCIES IN COLD CLIMATE FLIGHT CLOTHING, COLD CLIMATE SURVIVAL KITS, INDIVIDUAL VEST-TYPE SURVIVAL KITS, COLD CLIMATE TRAINING, EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTERS, AND MANAGEMENT OF LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT. ATTENDEES WERE REPRESENTATIVES OF CONCERNED AGENCIES AND COMMANDS. THEY RECOMMENDED ACTIONS TO EXPEDITE SHORT-TERM IMPROVEMENT OF U.S. ARMY ALASKA'S COLD CLIMATE EQUIPMENT AND TO EFFECT A LONG-TERM OVERALL IMPROVEMENT IN ARMY AVIATION'S COLD CLIMATE LIFE SUPPORT AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT AND MANAGEMENT. ALSO INCLUDED IS A REPORT ON THE WORKSHOP TO DRAFT REQUIREMENTS FOR A COLD WEATHER FLIGHT CLOTHING SYSTEM HELD AT FORT RUCKER, 9-13 DECEMBER 1974.
KEYWORDS: COLD CLIMATE SURVIVAL, ARMY AVIATION, FLIGHT CLOTHING, SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT, USER REQUIREMENTS
75-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 647 DTIC #: ADA010352
TITLE: A CROSS-VALIDATION STUDY OF THE PERSONALITY ASPECTS OF INVOLVEMENT IN PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL G. SANDERS, MARK A. HOFMANN, THOMAS A. NEESE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS HAVE DOMINATED ACCIDENT STATISTICS CONSISTENTLY FROM THE 1940S TO THE PRESENT. SANDERS AND HOFMANN (1975) FOUND THAT THREE FACTORS FROM CATTELL'S SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE (16 PF) SHOWED SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES (P<.05) BETWEEN PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENT GROUPS AND WERE USED TO CORRECTLY CLASSIFY 86 PERCENT OF THE AVIATORS TESTED AS TO THEIR PREVIOUS PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENT INVOLVEMENT. SIXTY-SIX AVIATORS WERE GIVEN THE 16 PF IN THE PRESENT STUDY IN AN ATTEMPT TO CROSS-VALIDATE THE FINDINGS REPORTED IN THE ORIGINAL STUDY. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE PERSONALITY FACTORS DID NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN THE PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENT GROUPS. THE PRIMARY PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PRESENT SAMPLE AND THE ORIGINAL SAMPLE WERE DUE TO VARIATIONS IN THE PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENT FREE GROUPS. THE FINDINGS INDICATE THAT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AVIATORS PREVENT CONSISTENT IDENTIFICATION OF TRAITS ASSOCIATED WITH PILOT-ERROR GROUPS.
KEYWORDS: ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS, PERSONALITY TRAITS, AVIATOR ACCIDENTS, SIXTEEN PERSONALITY FACTOR QUESTIONNAIRE, TRANSIENT PERSONALITY STATES, SAFETY, ACCIDENT CLASSIFICATION, CROSS-VALIDATION
75-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 641 DTIC #: ADA012172
TITLE: EFFECT OF OXYGEN AND REDUCED GLUTATHIONE ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF MOUSE LIVER
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS A. BAEYENS, MARY J. MEIER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TENSIONS ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF MOUSE LIVER HOMOGENATES WERE INVESTIGATED. HYPERBARIC OXYGEN RAPIDLY INHIBITS THE OXIDATIVE METABOLISM OF THE MAMMALIAN LIVER. MOUSE LIVER HOMOGENATE EXPOSED TO A PO2 OF 3837.8 MM HG FOR 30 MINUTES SHOWED A 50.6 PERCENT REDUCTION IN OXYGEN CONSUMPTION COMPARED TO CONTROLS EXPOSED TO NITROGEN AT AMBIENT PRESSURE. THE EFFECT OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE (GSH) AS A PROTECTIVE AGENT AGAINST HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TOXICITY ALSO WAS EXAMINED. LIVER HOMOGENATES PRETREATED WITH GSH AND EXPOSED TO HIGH OXYGEN TENSIONS DEMONSTRATED GREATER ACTIVITY THAN UNTREATED CONTROLS. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT: (1) GSH PROTECTS IMPORTANT ENZYMES OF OXIDATIVE METABOLISM BY KEEPING THEM IN A REDUCED AND VIABLE STATE, AND (2) GSH CAN STIMULATE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BY INCREASING SUCCINATE FORMATION THROUGH A GSH-SUCCINATE SHUNT.
KEYWORDS: OXYGEN TOXICITY, OXYGEN CONSUMPTION, REDUCED GLUTATHIONE, SULFHYDRYL GROUPS
75-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1040 DTIC #: ADA014423
TITLE: ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1971: RELATIVE INCIDENCE AND COST
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FIFTH IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE MAGNITUDE OF THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO ACCIDENT PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INCIDENCE AND COST DATA PRESENTED FOR FISCAL YEAR 1971 INCLUDE A TOTAL OF 31 MAJOR AND MINOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS (15 OF WHICH WERE FATAL), RESULTING IN 44 FATALITIES, 52 NONFATAL INJURIES, AND A TOTAL UH-1 AIRCRAFT DAMAGE COST OF $6,337,446.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, UH-1 HELICOPTERS
75-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 482 DTIC #: ADA012655
TITLE: THE USE OF OPAQUE LOUVERS AND SHIELDS TO REDUCE REFLECTION WITHIN THE COCKPIT: A MATHEMATICAL TREATMENT
AUTHOR(s): WUN C. CHIOU, FRANK F. HOLLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPAQUE SHIELDS CAN BE USED TO CHANNEL LIGHT AND THEREBY REDUCE REFLECTIONS IN THE COCKPIT. THESE SHIELDING DEVICES RANGE FROM THE STANDARD GLARE SHIELD ON TOP OF THE INSTRUMENT PANEL TO THE MORE EXPERIMENTAL USE OF LIGHT CONTROL FILM® AND MICROMESH® FOR THIS PURPOSE. BECAUSE OF THE NEED TO DETERMINE THE BEST POSITION, WIDTH, SPACING, ETC., OF THESE SHIELDING DEVICES, IT WAS FELT THAT A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH WOULD BE HIGHLY DESIRABLE. THIS WORK SHOWS A MATHEMATICAL APPROACH TO THIS PROBLEM AND INCLUDES DERIVATIONS, EXAMPLES, AND A SUGGESTED FIGURE OF MERIT.
KEYWORDS: TRANSPARENT ENCLOSURES, POLISHING ACRYLIC SURFACES, POLISHING PLASTICS, POLISHING COMPOUNDS
76-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 968 DTIC #: ADA017665
TITLE: MAJOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 AIRCRAFT DURING FISCAL YEAR 1971: ACCIDENT FACTORS
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS THE FIFTH IN A LONGITUDINAL SERIES OF REPORTS DEALING WITH THE PILOT DISORIENTATION/VERTIGO PROBLEM IN REGULAR ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. INDIVIDUAL CASE HISTORY DATA EXTRACTED ACTED FROM THE USAAAVS MASTER AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT FILES ARE PRESENTED ON MAJOR UH-1 ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS THAT OCCURRED DURING FISCAL YEAR 1971. SUMMARY DATA LISTINGS INVOLVING A VARIETY OF OPERATIONAL AND PILOT-RELATED ACCIDENT FACTORS ARE PRESENTED FOR EACH OF THE 31 CASES. THE LISTINGS ARE ARRANGED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN THOSE FACTORS AND EVENTS PRESENT BEFORE TAKEOFF, I.E., THE INITIAL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH A GIVEN ACCIDENT, AND THOSE WHICH OCCURRED OR WERE MANIFESTED DURING THE ACTUAL AIRBORNE PHASE OF THE ACCIDENT FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION, AVIATION MEDICINE, AVIATION SAFETY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, UH-1 HELICOPTERS
76-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1663 DTIC #: ADA016885
TITLE: BUETTNER CUEING CONCEPT FOR HELICOPTER FLIGHT CONTROL
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. WRIGHT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FAMILIARIZATION WAS OBTAINED WITH A HELICOPTER FLIGHT CONTROL CUEING CONCEPT DEVELOPED BY A RETIRING SENIOR FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR, WITH EMPHASIS ON ITS POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEMS. IT CONSISTED OF A SIMPLE SET OF WINDSHIELD MARKS ARRANGED TO PROVIDE PRECISION IN CONTACT CONTROL OF PITCH ATTITUDES. STUDENTS TRAINED WITH IT SEEMED TO FIND ADVANCED CONTACT AND INSTRUMENT TRAINING MUCH EASIER THAN TRADITIONALLY-TRAINED STUDENTS, AND EXPERIENCED HELICOPTER PILOTS INTRODUCED TO THE CONCEPT FELT IT PROVIDED SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT IN THEIR CONTROL PRECISION. CONCLUSIONS FROM THIS EXPLORATORY FAMILIARIZATION WERE THE BUETTNER-TYPE CUE SETS (A) HAVE POTENTIAL FOR REDUCING PERCEPTUAL AMBIGUITIES IN HELICOPTER CONTROL WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES; (B) INCREASE PRECISION AND LEAD IN HELICOPTER CONTACT CONTROL, (C) SHOULD PROVIDE A HIGH LEVEL OF TRANSFER TO INSTRUMENT TRAINING, (D) WITH SLIGHT EXTENSION HAVE POTENTIAL AS AN APPROACH AID, PARTICULARLY FOR AN UNDERSLUNG NIGHT VISION DEVICE, AND (E) APPEAR TO HAVE POTENTIAL FOR VERY SIMPLE HELICOPTER SIMULATOR VISUAL DISPLAYS THAT SHOULD HAVE CONSIDERABLE VALUE FOR INITIAL OR TRANSITION TRAINING.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER CONTROL, HELICOPTER DISPLAYS, PERCEPTUAL CUES, FLIGHT CONTROL, CONTROL CUES, CONTROL PRECISION, CONTROL LEAD, VISUAL DISPLAYS, SYMBOLOGY, IMAGERY SYMBOLOGY, TRANSFER OF TRAINING, SIMULATOR DISPLAYS
76-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1082 DTIC #: ADA016870
TITLE: PERCEIVED VELOCITY AND ALTITUDE JUDGEMENTS DURING ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD N. ARMSTRONG, MARK A. HOFMANN, MICHAEL G. SANDERS, LEWIS W. STONE, CHARLES A. BOWEN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EIGHT ARMY ROTARY-WING AVIATORS MADE JUDGEMENTS CONCERNING THE GROUND SPEED AND ALTITUDE OF A UH-1 HELICOPTER. COMBINATIONS OF THREE GROUND SPEEDS AND FOUR ALTITUDES WERE USED ACROSS FOUR VISUAL CONDITIONS INCLUDING DAYLIGHT AND SIMULATED NIGHT ENVIRONMENTS. IN GENERAL, THE RESULTS INDICATE: (1) ABSOLUTE ERROR IN GROUND SPEED ESTIMATIONS INCREASED AS ALTITUDE INCREASED; (2) AT GROUND SPEEDS ABOVE 50 KNOTS THERE WAS A TENDENCY TO UNDERESTIMATE GROUND SPEEDS, AND BELOW 50 KNOTS GROUND SPEED ESTIMATES WERE DEPENDENT UPON VISUAL CONDITIONS; (3) ABSOLUTE ERROR IN ALTITUDE JUDGEMENT INCREASES WITH AIRCRAFT ALTITUDE; (4) AT LOW ALTITUDES, THE TREND IS TOWARD UNDERESTIMATION AND AS ALTITUDE AND AIRSPEED INCREASE, THE TENDENCY IS TO OVERESTIMATE ALTITUDE. THESE AND OTHER RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED AS WELL AS THEIR POSSIBLE IMPLICATIONS FOR CONDUCT OF SAFE FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, AIRCRAFT, AVIATOR PERFORMACNE, MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE, VELOCITY JUDGEMENTS, ALTITUDE JUDGEMENTS
76-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 607 DTIC #: ADA017366
TITLE: THE USE OF OPAQUE LOUVERS AND SHIELDS TO REDUCE REFLECTION WITHIN THE COCKPIT: A TRIGONOMETRICAL AND PLANE GEOMETRICAL APPROACH
AUTHOR(s): CHUN K. PARK, FRANKLIN F. HOLLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPAQUE SHIELDS CAN BE USED TO CHANNEL LIGHT AND THEREBY REDUCE REFLECTIONS WITHIN THE COCKPIT. THESE SHIELDING DEVICES RANGE FROM THE STANDARD GLARE SHIELD ON TOP OF THE INSTRUMENT PANEL TO THE MORE EXPERIMENTAL USE OF LIGHT CONTROL FILM® AND MICROMESH® FOR THIS PURPOSE. BECAUSE OF THE NEED TO DETERMINE THE BEST POSITION, WIDTH, SPACING, ETC., OF THESE SHIELDING DEVICES, IT WAS FELT THAT A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH WOULD BE HIGHLY DESIRABLE. THIS WORK DESCRIBES A MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS TO ASSESS THE APPLICABILITY OF THOSE DEVICES TO RESOLVE AIRCRAFT WINDSCREEN REFLECTION PROBLEMS.
KEYWORDS: REFLECTIONS, LIGHT SHIELDS, COCKPIT
76-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1421 DTIC #: ADA016886
TITLE: OBJECT VISIBILITY PATTERNS IN LOW LEVEL FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. WRIGHT, J. NICHOLAS DEBONIS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LINE-OF-SIGHT VIEWING ANGLE, RANGE AND TIME DISTRIBUTIONS ARE GIVEN FOR A 70 KILOMETER SAMPLE OF TREE-TOP LEVEL ANNULAR (FISHEYE) IMAGERY, AND COMPARISONS MADE BETWEEN THESE DATA AND THEORETICAL RANDOM SINGLE TREE LINE OF SIGHT DISTRIBUTIONS. THE EFFECTS OF LOCATION OVER OPEN AND TREE COVERED TERRAIN ARE ASSESSED AND LIMITED DATA ON THE EFFECT OF ALTITUDE PRESENTED. RELATIVE AZIMUTH, ELEVATION, AND RANGE OF OBJECTS WHEN THEY FIRST EMERGED INTO VIEW WERE RECORDED BY TYPE OF OBJECT. RELATIVE ANGLE OF CROSSING LINEAR FEATURES WAS DETERMINED, ALONG WITH THE DURATION THAT INFORMATION OF NAVIGATIONAL VALUE COULD BE DETERMINED. WHEN OVER TREES THE ACTUAL MASKING FUNCTION WAS GROSSLY DIFFERENT FROM THE THEORETICAL CURVES, WHILE OVER OPEN TERRAIN ACTUAL MASKING APPROXIMATED THE FIVE PERCENT COVER THEORETICAL CURVE AT CLOSE RANGE AND THE ONE PERCENT CURVE AT 1000 METERS. OVER TREES, MASKING FOR TANK-SIZED VEHICLES RANGED FROM 83 TO 93 PERCENT, AND OVER OPEN TERRAIN FROM 10 TO 77 PERCENT. ONLY 12.5 PERCENT OF LINEAR FEATURES WERE FOUND TO BE ORIENTED WITHIN PLUS OR MINUS 30 DEGREES OF THE NOSE AT CROSSING, WHILE 58.3 PERCENT WERE WITHIN PLUS OR MINUS 30 DEGREES OF PERPENDICULAR TO THE NOSE. THIS FINDING IMPLIES VIEWING TO THE SIDES AS AN AIRCRAFT CROSSES FEATURES IS NECESSARY IN ORDER TO SEE THE FEATURE DETAILS THAT WILL PROVIDE POSITIVE GEOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION. THE DETAILED VIEWING ALONG LINEAR FEATURES REQUIRED FOR POSITIVE GEOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION WAS AVAILABLE FOR AN AVERAGE OF 24 METERS, OR 1 SECOND AT 50 KNOTS. LIMITED DATA ARE PRESENTED ON THE EFFECT OF ALTITUDE ON DURATION OF LINE OF SIGHT TO OBJECTS THAT PROVIDE INFORMATION OF VALUE IN GEOGRAPHIC ORIENTATION.
KEYWORDS: LINE OF SIGHT, TARGET MASKING, VIEWING ANGLES, CROSSING ANGLES, VIEWING TIMES, NAVIGATION FEATURES, RANDOM MASKING
76-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 710 DTIC #: ADA018468
TITLE: THE USE OF OPAQUE LOUVERS AND SHIELDS TO REDUCE REFLECTIONS WITHIN THE COCKPIT: COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR TWO APPROACHES TO THE PROBLEM
AUTHOR(s): WUN C. CHIOU, FRANK F. HOLLY, CHUN K. PARK, ALFORD A. HIGDON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPAQUE SHIELDS CAN BE USED TO CHANNEL LIGHT AND THEREBY REDUCE REFLECTIONS WITHIN THE COCKPIT. THESE SHIELDING DEVICES RANGE FROM THE STANDARD GLARE SHIELD ON TOP OF THE INSTRUMENT PANEL TO THE MORE EXPERIMENTAL USE OF LIGHT CONTROL FILM AND MICROSMESH FOR THIS PURPOSE. PREVIOUS WORK IN THIS SERIES HAS DEMONSTRATED TWO MATHEMATICAL APPROACHES TO A SPECIFIC REFLECTION PROBLEM IN THE AH-1 AIRCRAFT, NAMELY, THE REFLECTIONS COMING FROM THE PORTION OF CANOPY DIRECTLY ABOVE THE GUNNER'S HEAD. IT WAS FELT THAT IT WOULD BE USEFUL TO DEMONSTRATE THE COMPATIBILITY OF THESE TWO APPROACHES AND TO PUBLISH THE COMPUTER PROGRAMS (FORTRAN) FOR EACH APPROACH FOR POSSIBLE USE BY OTHERS.
KEYWORDS: COMPUTER PROGRAM, LIGHT SHIELDS, REFLECTIONS, COCKPIT
76-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 896 DTIC #: ADA019787
TITLE: BIO-OPTICAL EVALUATION OF SPECIALIZED EYEWEAR: LASER SAFETY AND DARK ADAPTATION DEVICES
AUTHOR(s): WUN C. CHIOU, DAVID D. GLICK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PROVIDES QUANTITATIVE DATA AND COLOR VISION EVALUATIONS FOR SEVERAL TYPES OF GOGGLES. THE FIRST TWO TYPES ARE LASER SAFETY DEVICES AND THE OTHER THREE ARE FOR DARK ADAPTATION PURPOSES. IT IS FOUND THAT HE-NE LASER SAFETY EYEWEAR CONFORMS TO THE ARMY REGULATION SPECIFICATION. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT ONE TYPE OF THE SAFETY DEVICE CANNOT BE USED FOR ONLY ONE SPECIFIC PURPOSE. FURTHERMORE, THE LASER SAFETY DEVICE CANNOT BE USED WHEN A DETECTION OF A RED DISPLAY OR A RED LIGHT SOURCE IS REQUIRED. RESULTS FROM THE DARK ADAPTATION DEVICES SHOW THAT THE SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS POSSESS VIRTUALLY A COMMON DISTRIBUTION.
KEYWORDS: SPECTRAL TRANSMITTANCE, LASER SAFETY GOGGLES, DARK ADAPTATION DEVICE, COLOR VISION TEST
76-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 519 DTIC #: ADA019788
TITLE: PHOTOMETRIC AND COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE-CYALLUNE®
AUTHOR(s): WUN C. CHIOU, DANNY N. PRICE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PRESENTS AN ANALYSIS OF THE PHOTOMETRIC AS WELL AS THE COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHEMILUMINESCENCE-CYALUME®. IT HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED THAT THE CHEMICAL LIGHT OFFERS ADVANTAGES OVER OTHER LIGHT SOURCES BECAUSE IT GENERATES LIGHT WITHOUT THERMAL ENERGY. IT IS SUITABLE FOR SITUATIONS WHERE THE USE OF CONVENTIONAL LIGHT COULD BE HAZARDOUS. IT WORKS IN ALL WEATHER CONDITIONS AND UNDER WATER AS WELL. ON THE OTHER HAND, ITS DISADVANTAGES INCLUDE THE RELATIVELY SHORT LIFETIME OF USEFUL LIGHT, THE POOR COLOR DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF THE NARROW BAND SPECTRAL EMISSION AND A SLIGHT CHROMATIC VARIATION AS A FUNCTION OF TIME. NONETHELESS, IT HAS POTENTIAL MILITARY APPLICATIONS SUCH AS EMERGENCY LIGHTING IN AIRCRAFT, A GUIDE FOR HOIST MISSIONS, A SET OF HELIPORT MARKERS, A GROUND GUIDE, OR A PARACHUTE LOCATOR.
KEYWORDS: CHEMILUMINESCENCE - CYALUME®, LUMINANCE, ILLUMINANCE, SPECTRAL POWER DISTRIBUTION, CIE CHROMATICITY COORDINATES AND DIAGRAMS
76-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2797 DTIC #: ADA020631
TITLE: AVIATOR PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT DURING LOW ALTITUDE ROTARY-WING FLIGHT WITH AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL G. SANDERS, KENT A. KIMBALL, THOMAS L. FREZELL, MARK A. HOFMANN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS WERE REQUIRED TO FLY A UH-1 HELICOPTER AT NIGHT WITH AND WITHOUT NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (AN/PVS-5). THREE TYPES OF GOGGLES WERE USED: 40 DEGREE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV), 60 DEGREE FOV, AND 40 DEGREE FOV WITH A 30 PERCENT BIFOCAL CUT. DURING FLIGHT, DATA WAS ACQUIRED ON OVER 20 AIRCRAFT STATUS AND CONTROL INPUT VARIABLES. THESE DATA, FOR PURPOSES OF PERFORMANCE COMPARISON, WERE SUBJECTED TO BOTH UNIVARIATE AND MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES. THE SIX SUBJECTS (INSTRUCTOR PILOTS) ALSO RESPONDED TO A QUESTIONNAIRE REGARDING PREFERENCE, TRAINING AND ESTIMATED CAPABILITIES OF EACH TYPE INTENSIFICATION SYSTEM. THE MAJOR FINDING OF BOTH THE SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE MEASURES ARE PROVIDED.
KEYWORDS: AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), TERRAIN FLIGHT, NIGHT FLIGHT, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT, LOW LEVEL FLIGHT
76-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 661 DTIC #: ADA028928
TITLE: SOME SPECIFIC EFFECTS ON HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA ON CELLULAR METABOLISM
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS A. BAEYENS, MARY J. MEIER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) AND SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE (SDH) ACTIVITY OF MOUSE LIVER HOMOGENATES WERE EXAMINED AFTER EXPOSURE TO AN EQUIVALENT ALTITUDE OF 36,000 FEET AND COMPARED TO CONTROLS KEPT AT GROUND LEVEL. AFTER 6- AND 12-HOUR INCUBATION PERIODS, THE ALTITUDE EXPOSED SAMPLES DEMONSTRATED A SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER LDH ACTIVITY THAN CONTROLS. SDH ACTIVITY REMAINED UNCHANGED FROM CONTROLS AFTER 6 HOURS BUT WAS SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER THAN CONTROLS AFTER 12-HOUR EXPOSURES TO ALTITUDE. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT THE CHANGES IN ENZYME ACTIVITY REFLECT A METABOLIC CONTROL MECHANISM TO MAINTAIN ADEQUATE ENERGY PRODUCTION DURING PERIODS OF EXPOSURE TO HYPOBARIC HYPOXIC STRESS.
KEYWORDS: HYPOBARIC, HYPOXIA, LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE, SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE
76-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2607 DTIC #: ADA023785
TITLE: COMPUTER MODELING OF THE BODY-HEAD-HELMET SYSTEM: VOLUME I
AUTHOR(s): WARTAN A. JEMIAN, NAN-HENG LIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT METHODS OF ANALYSIS WERE APPLIED TO THE BODY-HEAD-HELMET STRUCTURAL SYSTEM UNDER CONDITIONS OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM AND TO THE HEAD-HELMET ASSEMBLY IN A DYNAMIC MODE. COMPUTER PROGRAMS WERE WRITTEN TO GENERATE THE THREE DIMENSIONAL GRIDS, TO EVALUATE INERTIAL PROPERTIES, AND TO PROCESS AND DISPLAY RESULTS OF THE STRUCTURAL ANALYSES. STRUCTURAL ANALYSES WERE PERFORMED USING STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS PROGRAM IV SUPPLIED BY THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. STATIC ANALYSIS, USING A FIXED CONFIGURATION, IS APPLICABLE TO THE DESCRIPTION OF DISPLACEMENT AND STRESS COMPONENT FIELDS IN THE SYSTEM. THE RESULTS OF THIS MODE OF ANALYSIS HAVE THE POTENTIAL OF YIELDING INFORMATION RELATED TO LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS DUE TO IMPACT SITUATIONS. DYNAMIC STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS WAS PERFORMED ON A COMPUTER-GENERATED PSEUDOSPHERICAL MODEL SIMULATING THE DROP TEST. RESULTS PROVIDE TIME TRACES OF THE DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, ACCELERATION, AND STRESS COMPONENTS AT SELECTED NODAL POINTS AND ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM. METHODS WERE DEMONSTRATED FOR THE DETERMINATION OF A NUMBER OF PARAMETERS OF POTENTIAL OR PROVEN VALUE IN EVALUATING CRASH PROTECTION OR CRASH SEVERITY. THESE INCLUDE LINEAR ACCELERATION PROFILE, ROTATIONAL ACCELERATION PROFILE, SHEAR STRESS, SKULL DEFLECTION, SEVERITY INDEX, MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA, AND REGIONAL CENTERS OF GRAVITY. SIX SPECIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS WERE MADE FOR STEPS TO BE TAKEN IN APPLYING FINITE ELEMENT SIMULATION TO HELMET DESIGN. THESE INCLUDE THE DEVELOPMENT OF A HEAD FORM SIMULATION IN THE DYNAMIC MODE AND THE ADDITION OF ELEMENTS TO REPRESENT NONLINEAR AND ANISOTROPIC MATERIALS BEHAVIOR TO PORTIONS OF THE SYSTEM AS APPROPRIATE.
KEYWORDS: CRASH HELMET, STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, STRESS FIELD, THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT, COMPUTER SIMULATION, INERTIAL PROPERTIES, DISPLACEMENT, FINITE ELEMENT, SEVERITY INDEX, ACCELERATION PROFILE
76-13a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2518 DTIC #: ADA023786
TITLE: COMPUTER MODELING OF THE BODY-HEAD-HELMET SYSTEM: VOLUME II: FINITE ELEMENT COORDINATES AND COMPUTER SUBROUTINES FOR A BODY-HEAD-HELMET SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): WARTAN A. JEMIAN, NAN-HENG LIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS A SUPPLEMENT TO THE BASIC REPORT ENTITLED "COMPUTER MODELING OF THE BODY-HEAD-HELMET SYSTEM." AS SUCH, IT SHOULD BE USED WITH THE BASIC REPORT FOR MAXIMUM CLARITY. NODAL POINT COORDINATES AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR A FIXED-BODY-HEAD-HELMET CONFIGURATION AS LISTED. A 3X3X3 PSEUDOSPHERE HEAD-HELMET CONFIGURATION ALSO IS LISTED. A LISTING OF SERVICE IN FORTRAN CALLS ON THE FACILITIES AND SUBPROGRAMS OF THE IBM OPERATING SYSTEM AND THE CALCOMP PLOTTER. THE SERVICES LISTED SHOULD PERFORM ALL OF THE OPERATIONS REFERRED TO IN THE BASIC REPORT.
KEYWORDS: CRASH HELMET, STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS, STRESS FIELD, THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT, COMPUTER SIMULATION, INERTIAL PROPERTIES, DISPLACEMENT, FINITE ELEMENT, SEVERITY INDEX, ACCELERATION PROFILE
76-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 583 DTIC #: ADA022769
TITLE: VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF WINDSCREENS IN ARMY AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): WUN C. CHIOU
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PRESENTS AN ANALYSIS OF THE SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION CHARACTERISTICS FROM 360 TO 1080 NM SPECTRAL RANGE OF 16 ARMY AIRCRAFT WINDSCREEN SAMPLES. THOSE SAMPLES WERE FROM SIX FIXED-WING AND SEVEN ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT WINDSCREENS. WE HAVE FOUND THAT THE SPECTRAL TRANSMITTANCE VARIES FROM SAMPLE TO SAMPLE IN THE VISIBLE PORTION OF THE SPECTRUM (I.E., 360-700 NM) AND REMAINS QUITE FLAT FOR ALL THE SAMPLES ACROSS THE NEAR INFRARED PORTION OF THE SPECTRUM (I.E., 700-1080 NM). THE TINTED SAMPLE IN AH-1 HUEY COBRA HAS ABOUT 27 PERCENT REDUCTION FROM THAT OF THE CLEAR ONE ACROSS THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM. THIS REDUCTION COULD CONSTITUTE A DANGEROUS LOSS OF VISIBILITY FOR THE AVIATOR DURING PERIODS OF REDUCED ILLUMINATION AND AT NIGHT. FURTHERMORE, THE VARIANCE FROM A FLAT SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION WOULD RESULT IN DISTORTED COLOR PERCEPTION BY THE AVIATOR VIEWING THROUGH THE TINTED WINDSCREEN. IN SHORT, THE REFERENCE DATA ENABLE POTENTIAL USERS OF ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES SUCH AS NIGHT VISION GOGGLES TO COMPUTE THE LIGHT STIMULUS PRESENTED TO THE AVIATOR AFTER TRANSMISSION THROUGH A TRANSPARENCY.
KEYWORDS: SPECTRAL TRANSMITTANCE, ARMY AIRCRAFT WINDSCREEN, VISIBLE SPECTRUM, NEAR INFRARED SPECTRUM
76-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1383 DTIC #: ADA025455
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A PROTOTYPE EXPERIMENTAL PLAN TO EVALUATE STABILIZED OPTICAL VIEWING DEVICES: II. IN-FLIGHT MEASURES OF AIRSICKNESS POTENTIAL
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, FRED E. GUEDRY, JR., JOEL W. NORMAN, DAVID D. GLICK, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INVESTIGATORS AT THE NAVAL AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED A COMBINED FIELD AND LABORATORY STUDY TO EVALUATE OBSERVER PERFORMANCE WHILE USING AN IMPROVED XM-76 STABILIZED VIEWING DEVICE. AIR-TO-GROUND OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE IN A UH-1 AIRCRAFT, FLYING MANEUVERS MODELED IN PART AFTER A SCOUT HELICOPTER SCENARIO. THE EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOL WAS SUCH THAT VISUAL ACUITY DATA WAS COLLECTED UNDER THREE DIFFERENT OBSERVATION CONDITIONS: WITH THE NAKED EYE, WITH XM-76 OPERATED IN ITS NORMAL STABILIZED MODE, AND WITH THE XM-76 OPERATED IN A CAGED OR NONSTABILIZED MODE. MEASURES OF SELECTED AIRSICKNESS SYMPTOMS WERE DERIVED FROM AN ON-BOARD FLIGHT OBSERVER AND FROM POSTFLIGHT QUESTIONNAIRES. THE RESULTING DATA INDICATE THAT THE LEVEL OF AIRSICKNESS SYMPTOMS MANIFESTED BY THE SUBJECT GROUP WHILE USING THE DEVICE WAS HIGHER THAN THE BASE LINE LEVEL PRESENT WHEN THE OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE WITHOUT THE DEVICE. THIS RISE IN SYMPTOM LEVEL WAS FOUND TO BE PRESENT WHETHER THE XM-76 OPTICS WERE STABILIZED OR NONSTABILIZED. IMPORTANTLY, NO STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE COULD BE FOUND BETWEEN THE MAGNITUDE OF THE SYMPTOMS PRESENT WHEN THE DEVICE WAS STABILIZED AND THE MAGNITUDE WHEN CAGED. IN CONTRADICTION TO THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THE STABILIZATION FEATURE OF SUCH DEVICES INCREASES THE AIRSICKNESS POTENTIAL, THE GENERAL TREND OF THE DATA SHOWED THE OPPOSITE EFFECT. A PREVIOUS REPORT DETAILED THE RESULTS OF THE VISUAL ACUITY ASPECTS OF THE PROJECT. THE PRESENT REPORT PERTAINS PRIMARILY TO THE IN-FLIGHT MEASURES OF AIRSICKNESS POTENTIAL. A THIRD REPORT WILL DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF THE LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIRSICKNESS SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE INDIVIDUAL SUBJECTS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, AIRSICKNESS, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, VESTIBULAR SYSTEM, STABILIZED OPTICAL DEVICES, AIR-TO-GROUND OBSERVATION
76-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4640 DTIC #: ADA024781
TITLE: MARIJUANA AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY (1970-1975)
AUTHOR(s): MELODY L. PAGEL, MICHAEL G. SANDERS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA UPON HUMAN PERFORMANCE IS CURRENTLY AN AREA OF MAJOR CONCERN. NO PLACE IS THIS CONCERN MORE ACUTE THAN IN COMPLEX MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMS, SUCH AS THOSE FOUND IN AVIATION, WHERE DEGRADATIONS IN PSYCHOMOTOR AND/OR COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE CAN RESULT IN CATASTROPHIC LOSSES. THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY CONSISTING OF 199 REFERENCES WAS COMPILED TO AID THE READER IN DETERMINING THE IMPACT OF THIS DRUG ON PSYCHOMOTOR, COGNITIVE, AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS CONSIDERED PERTINENT TO FLIGHT PERFORMANCE. THE BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTAINS AN INDEX WHICH CATEGORIZES THE REFERENCES INTO THE FOLLOWING AREAS: (1) REVIEWS OR OVERVIEWS OF ISSUES, LITERATURE, OR RESEARCH; (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA USE; (3) PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL RESEARCH; (4) MEDICAL COMMENTS AND RESEARCH CRITIQUES; AND (5) ADDITIONAL REFERENCE SOURCES. THE BASIC PERIOD OF COVERAGE IS 1970-1975, ALTHOUGH SELECTED STUDIES FROM EARLIER YEARS ALSO ARE INCLUDED.
KEYWORDS: PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA ON MAN,PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA ON MAN, AVIATION AND MARIJUANA, MARIJUANA, TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL (THC), DRIVING AND MARIJUANA, BIBLIOGRAPHY, CANNABIS
76-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1721 DTIC #: ADA024714
TITLE: PILOT OPINION OF FLIGHT DISPLAYS AND MONITORING GAUGES IN THE UH-1 HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): RONALD R. SIMMONS, MARK A. HOFMANN, MICHAEL A. LEES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES WERE ACQUIRED FROM 54 ARMY AVIATORS CONCERNING THE UH-1 INSTRUMENT PANEL. THE AVIATOR SUBJECTS WERE DRAWN FROM THREE EXPERIENCE LEVELS: STUDENT, "TAC-TICKET," AND FULLY INSTRUMENT RATED PILOTS. THEY WERE ASKED TO RANK INSTRUMENTS WITH REGARD TO FREQUENCY OF USE, ORDER OF PREFERENCE, RELIABILITY, AND READABILITY. THE INSTRUMENTS WERE DIVIDED INTO FLIGHT DISPLAYS AND MONITORING GAUGES. RANKS WERE REQUESTED FOR VARIOUS PROFILES AND FLIGHT CONDITIONS. DATA ANALYSES EXAMINED THE MOUNT OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN EXPERIENCE LEVELS AS WELL AS THE RANKINGS CONCERNING THE AREAS MENTIONED ABOVE. IT WAS DETERMINED THAT ALL EXPERIENCE LEVELS WERE IN HIGH AGREEMENT WITH REGARD TO THEIR OPINIONS CONCERNING THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH THEY USED THE VARIOUS MONITORING GAUGES AND FLIGHT DISPLAYS WHILE HOVERING, CLIMBING, CRUISING, AND DESCENDING IN BOTH IFR AND VFR CONDITIONS. THE FLIGHT DISPLAYS THOUGHT TO BE MOST OFTEN USED WERE THE AIRSPEED INDICATOR FOLLOWED BY THE ALTIMETER. FOR THE MONITORING GAGES, ENGINE RPM AND THE GAS PRODUCER WERE RANKED ONE AND TWO RESPECTIVELY FOR FREQUENCY OF USE.
KEYWORDS: MONITORING GAUGES, RANKS, FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS, INSTRUMENT PANEL, PILOT OPINION, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
76-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 879 DTIC #: ADA024726
TITLE: AEROMEDICAL REVIEW OF OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS OF U.S. ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): FRANK S. PETTYJOHN, RODERICK J. MCNEIL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AEROMEDICAL REVIEW OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT OXYGEN DESIGN CRITERIA AND MILITARY SPECIFICATION INDICATES PHYSIOLOGIC INCONSISTENCIES. OXYGEN DURATION CHARTS IN USE FOR U-21 AIRCRAFT ARE COMPUTED ON THE BASIS OF MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS USING INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME (IMV) OF 13.12 LITERS PER MINUTE (LPM), NORMAL TEMPERATURE (70 DEGREES F), PRESSURE, DRY (NTPD). CURRENT OXYGEN DURATION CHARTS FOR THE RU-21 AIRCRAFT USING CONSTANT FLOW REGULATOR HAVE OVERSTATED OXYGEN AVAILABILITY OF 62.3 PERCENT AT 10,000 FEET AND 18.7 PERCENT AT 15,000 FEET. TYPE REGULATOR AND DILUTION SCHEDULE ARE LISTED FOR U-21 SERIES AIRCRAFT. THE CURRENT DESIGN INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME OF 13.12 LPM NTPD IS THE BASIC DESIGN DEFICIENCY. THE EFFECTS OF THE ACTIVITY AND STRESS OF FLIGHT REQUIRE AN INCREASE OF DESIGN IMV.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT OXYGEN SYSTEM, OXYGEN SYSTEM DESIGN, OXYGEN REGULATORS, AIRCREW OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS, INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUMES
76-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1154 DTIC #: ADA025778
TITLE: LENS MATERIAL EVALUATION (GOGGLES, SUN, WIND, AND DUST)
AUTHOR(s): ISAAC BEHAR, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPTICAL EVALUATIONS OF LENSES CONSIDERED AS CANDIDATES TO REPLACE THE VISOR IN THE COMBAT VEHICLE CREWMAN'S PROTECTIVE GOGGLES ARE DESCRIBED. THE FOUR AREAS OF OPTICAL EVALUATION WERE: SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION, HAZE, OPTICAL DISTORTION, AND ABRASION RESISTANCE. ALL OF THE LENSES WERE FOUND TO HAVE ADEQUATE PROPERTIES OF TRANSMISSIVITY AND FREEDOM FROM HAZE. HOWEVER, NONE OF THE LENSES SUBMITTED FOR EVALUATION WERE MEDICALLY ACCEPTABLE BECAUSE OF EXCESSIVE OPTICAL DISTORTION. THE OPTICAL COATINGS UNDER CONSIDERATION TO INCREASE SCRATCH RESISTANCE OF THE POLYCARBONATE LENSES PROVIDED ONLY NEGLIGIBLE IMPROVEMENT. IF POLYCARBONATE IS DETERMINED TO BE THE MATERIAL OF CHOICE, A HIGHER OPTICAL QUALITY SHOULD BE USED AND A BETTER METHOD OF PROVIDING ABRASION RESISTANCE SHOULD BE SOUGHT.
KEYWORDS: GOGGLES (SUN, WIND, DUST), OPTICAL EVALUATION, POLYCARBONATE LENSES, PROTECTIVE GOGGLES, ABRASION TEST, OPTICAL DISTORTION TEST
76-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 691 DTIC #: ADA025779
TITLE: REDUCTION OF GLARE FROM THE LANDING LIGHTS OF THE OH-58: AN EVALUATION OF FOUR POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS
AUTHOR(s): FRANK F. HOLLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOUR POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO THE OH-58 LANDING LIGHTS GLARE PROBLEM WERE EVALUATED. THE FOUR SOLUTIONS CONSISTED OF: (1) PLACING A METAL SHIELD BENEATH EACH LANDING LIGHT; (2) PLACING SHIELDS ON EACH SIDE OF THE COCKPIT EXTENDING LATERALLY AND FORWARD FROM THE INSTRUMENT PANEL; (3) TAPING OVER THE INSIDE ONE-HALF OF EACH CHINBUBBLE; AND (4) TAPING OVER THE SIDES OF THE PLEXIGLASS SHEET LIGHT WELL. THE FIRST THREE SOLUTIONS WERE ALL FOUND TO BE VERY EFFECTIVE, BUT THE PREFERRED SOLUTION WAS THE PLACING OF SHIELDS BENEATH THE LANDING LIGHTS (SOLUTION 1) SINCE THIS INVOLVED NO VISIBILITY LOSS OR EXTRA MATERIAL INSIDE THE COCKPIT. HOWEVER, THE OVERHEATING OF THE PLEXIGLASS SHEET OVER THE LIGHT WELL CAUSED BY THESE METAL SHIELDS WILL HAVE TO BE OVERCOME BEFORE THIS SOLUTION IS ACCEPTABLE. IT ALSO WAS FOUND THAT THE TAPE OVER THE INSIDE ONE-HALF OF EACH CHINBUBBLE IS A VERY GOOD FIELD-EXPEDIENT "QUICK FIX."
KEYWORDS: LANDING LIGHT, GLARE REDUCTION, OH-58, AIRCRAFT GLARE REDUCTION
76-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1029 DTIC #: ADA073532
TITLE: HEAD INJURY PATHOLOGY AND ITS CLINICAL, SAFETY, AND ADMINISTRATIVE SIGNIFICANCE
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP, THOMAS M. ERHARDT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OCCURRENCE OF HEAD TRAUMA IS SO COMMON THAT ITS TRUE IMPORTANCE AS A MAJOR STATISTIC ASSOCIATED WITH ACCIDENTAL INJURY AND DEATH MAY BE OVERLOOKED. A REVIEW OF HEAD TRAUMA IN WAR, VEHICULAR ACCIDENTS, SPORTS, AND AVIATION DEMONSTRATES THAT WHILE THE HEAD CONSTITUTES ROUGHLY 9 PERCENT OF THE BODY'S WEIGHT, SURFACE AREA, AND VOLUME, IT IS IMPLICATED IN 7 OUT OF 10 BODY INJURIES. GENERALLY SPEAKING, HEAD TRAUMA CAUSES AN UNACCEPTABLE 1 IN 4 DEATHS AND FOR MOTORCYCLING IT CAUSES A STAGGERING 1 OUT OF EVERY 2 DEATHS. HEAD PROTECTIVE DEVICES HAVE BEEN AVAILABLE SINCE ANTIQUITY; BUT EXCEPT IN ISOLATED CIRCUMSTANCES THEY CAN NOT BE SHOWN TO HAVE HAD A MITIGATING EFFECT ON THE MAGNITUDE OF THE INJURY RATE. YET, THE TECHNOLOGY EXISTS TO PREVENT HEAD-INJURY DEATHS AND TO GREATLY REDUCE INJURY SEVERITY IN SURVIVABLE ACCIDENTS, ESPECIALLY IN AVIATION. WHILE IT IS ACCEPTED THAT HELMETS, INDEED, PROVIDE SIGNIFICANT PROTECTION, MOST SYSTEMS OF ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, INJURY ANALYSIS, AND DATA RECORDING DO NOT RECOGNIZE HEAD TRAUMA AS ENDEMIC OR EVEN EPIDEMIC. THUS, THE PROBLEM HAS NOT BEEN APPROACHED EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY. INSTEAD, THE BULK OF HEAD INJURY RESEARCH IS DIRECTED TOWARD IMPROVED TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF DISABILITY. THESE EFFORTS ARE ON THE SECONDARY AND TERTIARY LEVELS OF PREVENTION. HEAD TRAUMA IS EXPENSIVE, AS IS THE TECHNOLOGY TO AVERT IT; BUT THE AUTHORS CONTEND THAT AVAILABLE STATISTICAL DATA CANNOT SUPPORT THE COST EFFECTIVENESS OF PREVENTING HEAD INJURY. IN THE FUTURE, EXAMINATION OF HEAD TRAUMA, ITS COST AND THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROVIDED PROTECTION MUST APPLY THE ANALYTICAL TOOLS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY NOT ONLY TO THE INJURY BUT TO THE EQUIPMENT AS WELL. PREVENTION REQUIRES ANTICIPATORY ACTION, BASED ON THE KNOWLEDGE OF PROTECTIVE PERFORMANCE HISTORY, IN ORDER TO MAKE THE ONSET OR FURTHER OCCURRENCE OF INJURY UNLIKELY.
KEYWORDS: HEAD INJURY, HELMETS, SAFETY ENGINEERING, CRASHWORTHINESS, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS, INJURY COST ANALYSIS, EPIDEMIOLOGY METHODS, TEST METHODOLOGY
76-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 842 DTIC #: ADA027664
TITLE: ATTENUATION OF LIGHT TRANSMISSION IN ARMY AIRCRAFT TRANSPARENCIES DUE TO SLANTING
AUTHOR(s): WUN C. CHIOU, CHUN K. PARK, CHRIS E. MOSER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE RATES OF LIGHT TRANSMISSION REDUCTION DUE TO THE SLANTING IN EIGHT FIXED-WING AND 14 ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT TRANSPARENCIES HAVE BEEN EXAMINED. WE FOUND THAT THE OPTICAL QUALITY AT VARIOUS PORTIONS OF THE UH-1 TRANSPARENCIES AND ALL THE FIXED-WING SAMPLES POSSESS SIMILAR CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSMISSION REDUCTION. THE WINDSCREEN AND THE ARMOR GLASS OF CH-54 SAMPLES ARE SIMILAR TOO. BUT THE TINTED VERSUS THE CLEAR AH-1G TRANSPARENCIES ARE QUITE DIFFERENT. THE TINTED SAMPLE GENERALLY HAS 27 PERCENT SPECTRAL TRANSMISSION LOSS COMPARED TO THAT OF THE CLEAR SAMPLE. THIS REDUCTION COULD CONSTITUTE A DANGEROUS LOSS OF VISIBILITY FOR THE AVIATOR, ESPECIALLY DURING PERIODS OF REDUCED ILLUMINATION AND AT NIGHT. THE RESULTS PRESENTED IN THIS STUDY ENABLE THE POTENTIAL USERS OF OPTICAL AS WELL AS THE ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES TO COMPUTE THE AMOUNT OF TRANSMISSION REDUCTION IN MOST OF THE CURRENT ARMY AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: TRANSMISSION REDUCTION, SLANTING TRANSPARENCIES
76-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 497 DTIC #: ADA027663
TITLE: DYNAMIC VISUAL ACUITY IN FATIGUED PILOTS
AUTHOR(s): ISAAC BEHAR, KENT A. KIMBALL, D. A. ANDERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX ROTARY-WING AVIATORS WERE SUBJECTS IN A CONTINUOUS OPERATION REGIMEN INVOLVING SOME 12 HOURS OF FLYING AND 3.5 HOURS OF SLEEP DAILY FOR 5 DAYS. ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE ON A DYNAMIC VISUAL ACUITY (DVA) TASK WERE OBTAINED SEVERAL TIMES EACH DAY DURING THE STUDY USING TARGET VELOCITIES OF 25 DEGREES AND 40 DEGREES/SEC. DVA PERFORMANCE VARIED SIGNIFICANTLY DURING FATIGUE REGIMEN WHEN MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE WITH TARGET VELOCITIES OF 40 DEGREES/SEC; WITH LOWER VELOCITY TARGETS DIFFERENCES IN DVA SCORES WERE NOT SIGNIFICANT. THIS INDICATES THE NEED TO TAX THE OCULOMOTOR SYSTEM TO DEMONSTRATE FATIGUE EFFECTS. FATIGUE EFFECTS WERE PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY PRACTICE EFFORTS WHICH ARE CONSIDERABLE IN THE DVA TASK. DVA SCORES CORRELATED ONLY MODESTLY WITH SUBJECTIVE ESTIMATES OF FATIGUE INTENSITY AND FLYING PERFORMANCE, AND IP RATINGS OF PERFORMANCE, BUT THE CLUSTER OF CORRELATIONS PROVIDED A CONSISTENT PICTURE.
KEYWORDS: FATIGUE, DYNAMIC VISUAL ACUITY, SLEEP LOSS
76-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 738 DTIC #: ADA029542
TITLE: DEPTH PERCEPTION WITH THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY, DAVID D. GLICK, CAROL T. BUCHA, CHUN K. PARK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LABORATORY MEASURES OF STEREOPSIS AND FIELD MEASURES OF RELATIVE DEPTH DISCRIMINATION WHILE USING THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES WERE DETERMINED AND COMPARED WITH DATA OF UNAIDED EYE PERFORMANCE. USING A MODIFIED HOWARD-DOLMAN APPARATUS, THE STEREOSCOPIC THRESHOLD WAS FOUND TO BE CONSIDERABLY DEGRADED WITH THE MAN-GOGGLES SYSTEM WHEN COMPARED TO PHOTOPIC UNAIDED EYE PERFORMANCE. FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF RELATIVE DEPTH DISCRIMINATION USING ALL AVAILABLE VISUAL CUES SHOWED THAT PERFORMANCE OF THE MAN-GOGGLES SYSTEM WAS STATISTICALLY EQUIVALENT ONLY AT INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES OF 500 FEET OR LESS. HOWEVER, PERFORMANCE WAS INFERIOR TO UNAIDED VIEWING AT DISTANCES GREATER THAN 500 FEET. THESE RESULTS ARE ATTRIBUTED PRIMARILY TO THE LOSS IN RESOLUTION WITH THE MAN-GOGGLES SYSTEM AND THUS A FAILURE TO APPRECIATE SUBTLE VISUAL CUES NORMALLY AVAILABLE FOR DEPTH DISCRIMINATION.
KEYWORDS: AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG), RELATIVE DEPTH PERCEPTION, STEREOPSIS
76-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1505 DTIC #: ADA030052
TITLE: VERSATILE MANOVA: DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS R. SCHORI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECOGNIZING THE COMPLEXITY INHERENT IN HUMAN PERFORMANCE, INVESTIGATORS TYPICALLY UTILIZE MULTIPLE DEPENDENT VARIABLES IN HUMAN FACTORS OR ERGONOMICS RESEARCH. IT IS APPARENT FROM THE LITERATURE, THOUGH, THAT THEY OFTEN EMPLOY A SERIES OF UNIVARIATE ANALYSES TO ANALYZE THEIR DATA, WHEN A SINGLE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS WOULD BE APPROPRIATE. IN MANY CASES, THE INVESTIGATOR MAY BE AWARE THAT A MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS SHOULD BE EMPLOYED. HOWEVER, THE APPROPRIATE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS MAY NEVER HAVE BEEN DESCRIBED OR IT MAY PRODUCE RESULTS WHICH THE INVESTIGATOR IS UNABLE TO INTERPRET. THEREFORE, THE INVESTIGATOR MUST RESORT TO A SERIES OF UNIVARIATE ANALYSES. TO RECTIFY THIS SITUATION, THE WRITER PREPARED THE COMPUTER PROGRAM VERSATILE MANOVA, A COPY OF WHICH IS INCLUDED IN THE APPENDIX. THIS PROGRAM CAN HANDLE FIVE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSES OF VARIANCE (MANOVA) DESIGNS THAT ARE FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED IN HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS RESEARCH: (1) ONE-WAY MANOVA, INDEPENDENT GROUPS DESIGN; (2) ONE-WAY MANOVA, REPEATED MEASURES ON SUBJECTS DESIGN; (3) TWO-WAY MANOVA, INDEPENDENT GROUPS DESIGN; (4) TWO-WAY MANOVA, SUBJECTS REPEATED ON ONE FACTOR DESIGN; AND (5) TWO-WAY MANOVA, SUBJECTS REPEATED ON BOTH FACTORS. EACH DESIGN INCORPORATES THE "INTERPRETATION ENHANCEMENT" FEATURE THAT IS NORMALLY ONLY ASSOCIATED WITH MULTIPLE DISCRIMINATE ANALYSIS. IN ORDER TO PROVIDE THE POTENTIAL USER WITH SOME BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE ANALYSES, THIS PAPER FULLY DESCRIBES AND DOCUMENTS THE FIVE MANOVA DESIGNS IN VERSATILE MANOVA.
KEYWORDS: COMPUTER PROGRAMS, COMPUTERS, AIRCRAFT, AIRBORNE RECORDERS, AIRBORNE COMPUTERS
76-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1381 DTIC #: ADA031991
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE WITH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES DURING REDUCED ILLUMINATION
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL A. LEES, DAVID D. GLICK, KENT A. KIMBALL, ALLEN C. SNOW, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AT THE PRESENT TIME, THE U.S. ARMY IS STRIVING TO ATTAIN AROUND-THE-CLOCK OPERATIONAL CAPABILITY FOR ITS TACTICAL FORCES. THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED TO AID THE ARMY PILOT IN ATTAINING NEAR-DAYTIME CAPABILITY AT NIGHT. PREVIOUS RESEARCH AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY HAS DEMONSTRATED THE REQUIREMENT FOR AN INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF LOW ILLUMINATION LEVELS ON AVIATOR PERFORMANCE WHILE WEARING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. THE CURRENT INVESTIGATION EXAMINED MAN-HELICOPTER SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ACROSS SEVERAL LEVELS OF REDUCED ILLUMINATION. NEUTRAL DENSITY FILTERS WERE USED TO PRESENT SIX STANDARD ILLUMINATION CONDITIONS TO AVIATORS WEARING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, AND TO SIMULATE UNAIDED EYE CONDITIONS TO AVIATORS WEARING WELDERS' GOGGLES. SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN SYSTEM PERFORMANCE WERE OBSERVED WHEN AVIATORS WORE THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. THE RESULTS OF THE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON OBSERVED PERFORMANCE ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REPORT.
KEYWORDS: AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, REDUCED ILLUMINATION
77-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 294 DTIC #: ADA036447
TITLE: MASS SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF POLYETHER AND POLYURETHANE FOAM PLASTICS DEGENERATION IN THE SPH-4 HELMET
AUTHOR(s): RODERICK J. MCNEIL, FRANK S. PETTYJOHN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO COMPONENTS OF PLASTIC MANUFACTURE, N-BUTYLPHTHALATE AND ETHYLMETHYL KETONE, HAVE BEEN FOUND IN HIGH CONCENTRATIONS CONTAINED IN THE LOW GASEOUS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT POLYETHYLENE PROTECTIVE BAG FOR THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. THESE AGENTS ARE THE CAUSE OF THE DETERIORATION OF THE SPH-4 HELMET POLYETHER AND POLYURETHANE FOAM LINING MATERIAL. THE USE OF MASS SPECTROGRAPHIC AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES PROVIDED THE SAMPLING OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS CONTAINED WITHIN THE POLYETHYLENE BAG. THE SOLUTION TO PREVENT FOAM LINER DETERIORATION IS TO REMOVE THE SPH-4 HELMET FROM THE PROTECTIVE BAG.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR HELMET, CHEMICAL SOLVENTS, MASS SPECTROSCOPY, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
77-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 767 DTIC #: ADA036448
TITLE: EFFECTS OF OXYGEN AND GLUTATHIONE ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY OF THE LIVER
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS A. BAEYENS, MARY J. MEIER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TENSIONS ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE (SDH) ACTIVITY OF MOUSE LIVER WERE INVESTIGATED. MOUSE LIVER HOMOGENATE EXPOSED TO A PO2 OF 3837.8 MM HG FOR 30 MINUTES SHOWED A 50.6 PERCENT REDUCTION IN OXYGEN CONSUMPTION COMPARED TO CONTROLS EXPOSED TO NITROGEN AT AMBIENT PRESSURE. THE SDH ACTIVITY OF MOUSE LIVER WAS REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY AFTER A 3-HOUR EXPOSURE TO A PO2 OF 3796 MM HG. THE EFFECT OF GLUTATHIONE AS A PROTECTIVE AGENT AGAINST OXYGEN TOXICITY ALSO WAS EXAMINED. LIVER PRETREATED WITH REDUCED GLUTATHIONE AND EXPOSED TO HIGH OXYGEN TENSIONS DEMONSTRATED GREATER ACTIVITY THAN UNTREATED CONTROLS. OXIDIZED GLUTATHIONE PROTECTED SDH AGAINST HYPERBARIC OXYGEN TOXICITY. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT GLUTATHIONE CAN STIMULATE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND MAINTAIN SDH ACTIVITY AFTER EXPOSURE TO HYPERBARIC OXYGEN BY INCREASING SUCCINATE FORMATION THROUGH THE GLUTATHIONE-SUCCINATE SHUNT.
KEYWORDS: OXYGEN TOXICITY, OXYGEN CONSUMPTION, GLUTATHIONE, SUCCINATE HYDROGENASE, SULFHYDRYL GROUPS
77-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1366 DTIC #: ADA034898
TITLE: AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DURING DAY AND NIGHT TERRAIN FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL A. LEES, KENT A. KIMBALL, MARK A. HOFMANN, LEWIS W. STONE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TERRAIN FLYING, BOTH DAY AND NIGHT, NOW IS AN ARMY AVIATION TACTICAL REQUIREMENT. THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION COMPARED TERRAIN FLIGHT DURING LOW LEVEL (LL) AND NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) PROFILES FOR: (1) DAY FLIGHT WITH THE UNAIDED EYE; (2) NIGHT FLIGHT WITH THE UNAIDED EYE; (3) NIGHT FLIGHT USING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. DATA WERE ACQUIRED THROUGH THE USE OF THE HELICOPTER-IN-FLIGHT MONITORING SYSTEM (HIMS). THE TOTAL SETS OF IN-FLIGHT MEASURES WERE ANALYZED SEPARATELY FOR BOTH LL AND NOE WITH FURTHER ANALYSIS ON THE SUBSETS OF PILOT CONTROL VARIABLES AND AIRCRAFT STATUS VARIABLES. MULTIPLE DISCRIMINATE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES WERE USED TO DETERMINE WHICH MEASURES BEST DISCRIMINATED BETWEEN VISUAL CONDITIONS. FOR THE LL FLIGHT PROFILES, THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT PERFORMANCE FACTORS DESCRIBING AIR SPEED AND THE FREQUENCY OF SMALL CONTROL INPUTS BEST DISCRIMINATED BETWEEN VISUAL CONDITIONS. FOR NOE FLIGHT PROFILES, IT WAS DETERMINED THAT PERFORMANCE FACTORS MEASURING SEVERITY OF ROLL ANGLES, AND THE FREQUENCY AND MAGNITUDE OF CONTROL INPUT, BEST DISCRIMINATED BETWEEN THE THREE VISUAL CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, TERRAIN FLIGHT, DAY-NIGHT, IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT, LOW LEVEL FLIGHT, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT (NOE), MULTIPLE DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS
77-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1423 DTIC #: ADA035757
TITLE: MEASUREMENT OF AVIATOR VISUAL PERFORMANCE AND WORKLOAD DURING HELICOPTER OPERATIONS
AUTHOR(s): RONALD R. SIMMONS, KENT A. KIMBALL, JAMIE J. DIAZ
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT WAS INITIATED TO REVIEW THE TECHNIQUES AND MODIFICATIONS DEVELOPED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY FOR ASSESSING VISUAL PERFORMANCE/WORK-LOAD OF PILOTS DURING HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. ALTHOUGH THE CORNEAL REFLECTION TECHNIQUE FOR GATHERING EYE MOVEMENT DATA IS NOT NEW, INNOVATIVE MODIFICATIONS HAD TO BE DEVELOPED TO PERMIT ACCURATE DATA COLLECTION IN THIS FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT. THIS STUDY REPORTS ON THESE TECHNIQUES, MODIFICATIONS, AND APPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: CORNEAL REFLECTION, VISUAL WORKLOAD, PILOT PERFORMANCE, HELICOPTER VISUAL DATA, METHODOLOGY, EYE MOVEMENT RECORDING, HELICOPTER IN-FLIGHT MONITORING, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
77-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1901 DTIC #: ADA223294
TITLE: THE IN VIVO DYNAMIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE CANINE SPINAL CORD
AUTHOR(s): Y. KING LIU, K. B. CHANDRAN, J. K. WICKSTROM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A WAVE PROPAGATION STUDY WAS COMPLETED TO DETERMINE THE IN VIVO DYNAMIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE DURA MATER IN MONGREL DOGS. A PORTION OF THE THORACIC SPINAL CORD WAS EXPOSED BY LAMINECTOMY. THE DOG WAS ARTIFICIALLY RESPIRED AFTER ITS MUSCLES WERE PARALYZED TO PREVENT ANY JERK REFLEX INITIATED BY THE SPINAL CORD DURING THE EXPERIMENT. IN THE PRESSURE WAVE EXPERIMENTS, SINUSOIDAL PRESSURE SIGNALS WERE INDUCED ON THE IN VIVO AND IN SITU SPINAL CORD WITH A PROBE ATTACHED TO AN ELECTROMAGNETIC VIBRATOR. AT TWO OTHER LOCATIONS, SIGNALS WERE MONITORED BY PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS PRESSED GENTLY AGAINST THE CORD. THE SPEED OF THE WAVE PROPAGATION WAS DETERMINED AT VARIOUS FREQUENCIES FROM THE MEASURED TIME LAG AND THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TRANSDUCERS.
KEYWORDS: SPINAL CORD, DURA MATER, PRESSURE WAVE, AXIAL WAVE, TORSIONAL WAVE, ELASTIC MODULI, IN VIVO, DYNAMIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES
77-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 412 DTIC #: ADA036600
TITLE: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE OXYGEN USE RATES IN U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT. PART I - RU-21H
AUTHOR(s): FRANK S. PETTYJOHN, MARY J. MEIER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCURATE INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME (IMV) IS REQUIRED FOR U.S. ARMY FIXED- AND ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT OXYGEN SYSTEM DESIGN. THIS INITIAL STUDY EVALUATED OXYGEN USAGE RATES OF U.S. ARMY AIRCREW CONDUCTING OPERATIONAL MISSIONS AT ALTITUDES OF 19,000 TO 25,000 FEET FLYING RU-21H TWIN TURBO-PROPELLER DRIVEN UNDERPRESSURIZED AIRCRAFT. INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME (IMV) WAS CALCULATED FROM THE CREW DILUTOR DEMAND OXYGEN REGULATOR PRESSURE GAUGE AND TIMED MISSION PROFILES. THE IMV RESULTS WERE CONSISTENT WITH CONSIDERATION OF THE LIMITED ACCURACY OF THE PRESSURE GAUGE THROUGH 56 FLIGHTS WITH 112 PILOT AND COPILOT CREWMEMBERS. THE AVERAGE IMV WAS 8.09 ± 2.14 STANDARD DEVIATION (SD), LITERS PER MINUTE (LPM) AT NORMAL TEMPERATURE (70 DEGREES F), PRESSURE (760 MM HG) AND DRY (NTPD). THE RANGE OF IMV WAS 4.47 TO 13.25 LPM NTPD PER CREWMAN. THE UPPER LIMIT EXCEEDS THE CURRENT MILITARY DESIGN SPECIFICATION OF 13.12 LPM NTPD INDICATING AN INADEQUATE SAFETY MARGIN FOR LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT OXYGEN SYSTEMS, OXYGEN DESIGN STANDARDS, INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUMES, RU-21H AIRCRAFT, PILOT WORKLOAD
77-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3027 DTIC #: ADA037621
TITLE: AEROMEDICAL EVALUATION OF UH-1 INTERNAL ADVANCED PERSONNEL RESCUE HOISTS WESTERN GEAR CORPORATION HOIST MODELS 42277R1 AND 42305R1, BREEZE CORPORATION HOIST ECP-720 MODIFICATION
AUTHOR(s): FRANK S. PETTYJOHN, TERRY E. GEE, LLOYD A. AKERS, GEORGE P. RICE, WILLIAM F. CARROLL, PIERRE ALLEMOND, STEPHEN M. BAILEY, RAYMOND T. BURDEN, THOMAS G. HARRISON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS TASKED TO PROVIDE AERO-MEDICAL EVALUATION OF ADVANCED HIGH PERFORMANCE HELICOPTER PERSONNEL RESCUE HOISTS. PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF INCREASED HOIST SPEED WERE EVALUATED AND PROVEN TO BE MINIMAL AT SPEEDS OF 500 FEET PER MINUTE. AVAILABLE HELICOPTER ELECTRICAL POWER PROVIDES SPEED UP TO 250 FEET PER MINUTE UNDER LOAD LIMITATION. STATE-OF-THE-ART "OFF THE SHELF" RESCUE HOISTS WERE SOUGHT TO PROVIDE IMMEDIATE RELIEF OF THE CURRENT "LIFE OR DEATH" RESTRICTION OF THE U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER AIR AMBULANCE UNITS. SAFETY, CONTINUOUS CYCLE FUNCTION, IMPROVED SPEED AND INCREASED OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES WERE SPECIFICALLY EVALUATED. THE WESTERN GEAR CORPORATION TWO-SPEED HOIST MET THE DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS.
KEYWORDS: ELECTRICAL HOIST, HELICOPTER RESCUE HOIST, RESCUE, AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION
77-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2929 DTIC #: ADA039854
TITLE: USE OF INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUMES IN EVALUATION OF ROTARY- AND FIXED-WING PILOT WORKLOAD
AUTHOR(s): FRANK S. PETTYJOHN, RODERICK J. MCNEIL, LLOYD A. AKERS, JAMES M. FABER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INSPIRATORY MINUTE VOLUME (IMV) MEASUREMENTS BY MUELLER RESPIROMETER WERE UTILIZED IN THE EVALUATION OF U.S. ARMY AIRCREW WORKLOAD AND STRESS IN HELICOPTER AND FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT. THE IMV DATA OBTAINED DEMONSTRATES A SIGNIFICANT STRESS AND/OR WORKLOAD LEVEL OF THE AVIATOR IN PERFORMANCE OF HELICOPTER DAY NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE), NIGHT NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NNOE), AND WITH THE USE OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES (NVD). IMV OF 20.05 TO 38.11 LITERS PER MINUTE NTPD WERE OBTAINED DURING THE PER-FORMANCE OF THESE COMBAT OPERATIONAL TECHNIQUES. IMV DETERMINATION IN-FLIGHT IS CONSIDERED A VALUABLE CLINICAL TOOL IN THE ASSESSMENT OF AIRCREW STRESS AND/OR WORKLOAD.
KEYWORDS: ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, TERRAIN FLIGHT, DAY-NIGHT, IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT, LOW LEVEL FLIGHT, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT (NOE), MULTIPLE DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS
77-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 644 DTIC #: ADA039855
TITLE: AEROMEDICAL EVALUATION OF THE ARMY MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATOR (AMSOG) SYSTEMS
AUTHOR(s): FRANK S. PETTYJOHN, RODERICK J. MCNEIL, LLOYD A. AKERS, GEORGE P. RICE, CHARLES F. PIPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MOLECULAR SIEVE TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN CONSIDERED AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF OXYGEN FOR U.S. ARMY OPERATIONAL FIXED- AND ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. WITH THE CONSTRAINTS OF WEIGHT, SIZE, AND ELECTRICAL POWER, THE ARMY MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATOR (AMSOG) APPEARED TO MEET OPERATIONAL NEEDS. INITIAL DESIGN WAS PREDICATED ON DIRECT REPLACEMENT OF CURRENT OXYGEN EQUIPMENT FOR THE TWO-MAN CREW OV-1 MOHAWK SURVEILLANCE AIRCRAFT. INITIAL BENCH AND HYPOBARIC CHAMBER TESTING DEMONSTRATES A CAPABILITY TO PROVIDE 90-94 PERCENT OXYGEN AT SEA LEVEL USING ENGINE BLEED OR COMPRESSED AIR AT 40 PSIG, 20 TO 22 LITERS PER MINUTE (LPM), NORMAL TEMPERATURE 70 DEGREES F, PRESSURE 760 TORR, DRY (NTPD). NINETY-FOUR PERCENT (94%) OXYGEN IS EXPECTED TO SUPPORT BOTH PHYSIOLOGIC NEEDS AND PROVIDE DENITROGENATION CAPABILITIES FOR U.S. ARMY AIRCREW. ARGON IS CONCENTRATED TO LEVELS OF 6-8 PERCENT AND IS CONSIDERED TO BE LOW; HOWEVER, PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS HAVE NOT BEEN FULLY DEFINED. IN-FLIGHT STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY EVALUATION ARE CONTINUING.
KEYWORDS: MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATOR, OXYGEN, AIRCRAFT OXYGEN SYSTEM, ARGON, DENITROGENATION, HELICOPTER OXYGEN SYSTEMS, OXYGEN PHYSIOLOGY
77-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1783 DTIC #: ADA040025
TITLE: COMPARISON OF OCULOMOTOR PERFORMANCE OF MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR AVIATOR DURING VFR HELICOPTER FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): MARK A. HOFMANN, THOMAS L. FREZELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS INVESTIGATION PROVIDES DATA CONCERNING THE VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF SIX BINOCULAR ARMY AVIATORS AND ONE MONOCULAR ARMY AVIATOR DURING 11 FLIGHT MANEUVERS. ALL MANEUVERS WERE PERFORMED IN A JUH-1H HELICOPTER AND VISUAL DATA WAS ACQUIRED BY MEANS OF A CORNEAL REFLECTION TECHNIQUE. DATA WAS RECORDED ON VIDEO TAPE AND 16MM FILM. THIRTEEN VISUAL AREAS WERE USED TO INCLUDE: EIGHT WINDSCREEN SECTORS; TWO SIDE WINDOWS AND CHINBUBBLES; AND AN INSIDE COCKPIT SECTOR. DATA PRESENTED INCLUDE PERCENTAGE OF TIME SPENT IN EACH SECTOR, AVERAGE DWELL TIME PER SECTOR, AND SECTOR TRANSITION (PERMUTATION) VALUES. IN ADDITION TO THE OBJECTIVE DATA, A DISCUSSION OF THE RETAINING PERIOD FOR THE MONOCULAR AVIATOR WAS PROVIDED. THE DATA REVEALED THAT, IN GENERAL, BOTH THE MONOCULAR AVIATOR AND BINOCULAR AVIATORS USED THE SAME VISUAL SECTORS. HOWEVER, THE TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF TIME THEY SPENT IN THESE SECTORS WERE OFTEN DIFFERENT AND SO WERE THE DWELL TIMES. THE MOST DRAMATIC DIFFERENCES IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE APPEARED WHEN AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT WAS IN THE DIRECTION OF THE MONOCULAR AVIATOR'S VISUAL DEFICIENCY AND IN TERMS OF THE TIME SPENT INSIDE THE COCKPIT. THE MONOCULAR AVIATOR WAS FOUND TO PERFORM ALL MANEUVERS IN A MOST ACCEPTABLE MANNER.
KEYWORDS: EYE MOVEMENT RECORDING, VISUAL WORKLOAD, PILOT PERFORMANCE, HELICOPTER VISUAL DATA, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
77-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 992 DTIC #: ADA043435
TITLE: SUBJECTIVE RATINGS OF ANNOYANCE BY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT NOISE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, PAUL D. SCHOMER, ROBERT T. CAMP, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SUBJECTIVE RATINGS OF ANNOYANCE CAUSED BY HELICOPTER NOISE RELATIVE TO THAT CAUSED BY FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT WERE OBTAINED. COMPARISON OF THE SUBJECTIVE RATINGS WITH VARIOUS PHYSICAL PREDICTORS OF ANNOYANCE INDICATED THAT THE INTEGRATED A-WEIGHTED LEVEL (DBA) PREDICTED AS WELL AS ANY OF THE PREDICTORS WITH THE D2-WEIGHTED LEVEL AND EPNL ALMOST EQUIVALENT. THE B-WEIGHTED LEVEL AND C-WEIGHTED LEVEL DID NOT PREDICT AS WELL. NO CORRECTION FACTOR FOR THE IMPULSIVE CHARACTER (BLADE SLAP) OF THE HELI-COPTER NOISE WAS REQUIRED. NO SUBSTANTIAL PENALTY FOR HELICOPTERS COMPARED TO FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT NOISE WAS REQUIRED.
KEYWORDS: ANNOYANCE, HELICOPTER NOISE, ACOUSTICS, PSYCHOACOUSTICS, LAND USE PLANNING
77-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2628 DTIC #: ADA041249
TITLE: VISUAL AND OPTICAL ANALYSES OF XM-29 AND M-24 PROTECTIVE MASKS
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY, ISAAC BEHAR, WUN C. CHIOU, FRANK F. HOLLY, EMERY R. SPRING, CAROL T. BUCHA, HAL CHAIKIN, CAROLE A. SHERRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: USAARL WAS TASKED TO PROVIDE MEDICAL GUIDANCE AND ASSESSMENT RELATIVE TO VISUAL AND OPTICAL ASPECTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE XM-29 PROTECTIVE MASK. IN FULFILLMENT OF THIS RESPONSIBILITY, COMPLETE OPTICAL AND VISUAL TESTS HAVE BEEN COMPLETED ON THE NEW MASK PRIOR TO ITS VALIDATION. TO PROVIDE BASELINE AND COMPARISON INFORMATION, IDENTICAL OPTICAL TESTING ALSO WAS PERFORMED ON THE M-24 AVIATOR'S PROTECTIVE MASK, AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE TESTING WAS COMPLETED WITH THE XM-29 MASK, THE M-24 MASK, AND UNOBSTRUCTED VISION. OF THE 13 OPTICAL AND VISUAL TESTS USED, PERFORMANCE OF THE XM-29 MASK WAS INFERIOR TO THE M-24 MASK ON 8 OF THEM; EQUIVALENT PERFORMANCE WAS OBTAINED WITH THE TWO MASKS ON 4 TESTS, WHILE THE XM-29 MASK WAS BETTER ON 1 TEST. SEVERAL OF THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES ARE UNACCEPTABLE IN THE PRESENT DESIGN CONFIGURATION OF THE XM-29 MASK. RECOMMENDATIONS ARE MADE WHICH SHOULD BE CONSIDERED PRIOR TO VALIDATION OF A NEW PROTECTIVE MASK.
KEYWORDS: XM-29 PROTECTIVE MASK, M-24 PROTECTIVE MASK, OPTICAL TESTING, VISUAL TESTING
77-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 455 DTIC #: ADA042031
TITLE: FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE OF IMPULSE NOISE ATTENUATION
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, ROBERT T. CAMP, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO USE A SINGLE AUDITORY VALUE OF ATTENUATION TO ASSESS THE HAZARD TO HEARING FROM EXPOSURE TO HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE AND TO ESTABLISH MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE IMPULSE NOISE EXPOSURE LEVELS. THIS PROCEDURE IGNORES THE INTERACTION OF THE ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEARING PROTECTOR AND THE ENERGY DENSITY SPECTRUM OF THE IMPULSE. THIS REPORT DEMONSTRATED THAT ERRORS AS LARGE AS 17 DB CAN RESULT FROM FAILING TO ACCOUNT FOR THIS INTERACTION.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, ACOUSTICS, HEARING PROTECTORS, ATTENUATION
77-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1174 DTIC #: ADA223296
TITLE: OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LASER SAFETY DEVICES
AUTHOR(s): WUN C. CHIOU
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX TYPES OF LASER PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR WERE EVALUATED IN TERMS OF THEIR OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS. THESE SIX TYPES COVER THE PROTECTION FOR ALMOST ENTIRE VISUAL SPECTRUM. TYPE GG-9 AND TYPE OG530 CAN BE USED TO PROTECT THE HE-N (NITROGEN) LASER (@ 335 NM), TYPE OG-590 AND RG-610 ARE FOR ARGON LASER @ 500 NM). TYPE BG-18 IS FOR RUBY LASER (@ 694 NM) AND TYPE KG-3 ARE FOR ND: GLASS LASER (@ 1060 NM) OR CO2 LASER (@ 10600 NM). THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS ARE INVESTIGATED BY MEANS OF AVERAGE AND FULL SPECTRAL TRANS-MITTANCE AS WELL AS THEIR CORRESPONDING CIE CHROMATICITY COORDINATE VALUES. RESULTS SUGGESTED THAT ONE TYPE OF THE PROTECTIVE DEVICE SHOULD BE USED ONLY FOR THE SPECIFIC LASER. FURTHERMORE, THE DEVICE SHOULD NOT BE USED WHEN A DETECTION OF A CHROMATIC DISPLAY OR LIGHT SOURCE IS REQUIRED.
KEYWORDS: LASER SAFETY DEVICES, PROTECTIVE EYEWEAR, OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS, CIE CHROMATICITY EVALUATION
77-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 421 DTIC #: ADA047801
TITLE: TOXICOLOGIC GAS EVALUATION OF THE UTILITY TACTICAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (UH-60)
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD L. SCHUMAKER, GARY D. POLLARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCUMULATION OF TOXIC GASES IN THE AIRCRAFT ENVIRONMENT CAN PRODUCE A CRITICAL OPERATIONAL HAZARD FOR THE AIRCREW. IN ADDITION TO OBVIOUS SYMPTOMS, SUCH AS BURNING AND IRRITATION OF MUCOUS MEMBRANES AND DIFFICULTY IN BREATHING, OTHER MORE SUBTLE EFFECTS ARE NOTED AS A GENERAL DECREMENT IN PERFORMANCE. THIS STUDY EVALUATES TOXIC GAS ACCUMULATION AS A RESULT OF AIRCRAFT ENGINE OPERATION AND TOXIC PRODUCTS GENERATED BY ARMAMENT/WEAPONS FIRING IN THE UTILITY TACTICAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (SIKORSKY UH-60) HELICOPTER. ONBOARD MASS SPECTROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS WAS UTILIZED TO IDENTIFY TOXIC COMPOUNDS DURING A DETAILED SERIES OF AIRCRAFT OPERATIONAL MANEUVERS. CARBON MONOXIDE (CO), NITROGEN DIOXIDE (NO2), NITRIC OXIDE (NO), SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO2), AND HYDROGEN CYANIDE (HCN) WERE WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITS. HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S) WAS FOUND ON RANDOM SAMPLES TO EXCEED THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION (OSHA) STANDARDS. TECHNIQUES TO EVALUATE H2S ONLINE ARE BEING DEVELOPED CONTINUOUSLY TO QUANTIFY THIS TOXIC PRODUCT.
KEYWORDS: UTTAS (UH-60), TOXIC GASES, WEAPONS FIRING, OSHA STANDARDS, MASS SPECTROMETER
77-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1565 DTIC #: ADA061705
TITLE: INCIDENCE AND COST OF ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS IN REGULAR ARMY AIRCRAFT OVER A 5-YEAR STUDY PERIOD
AUTHOR(s): W. CARROLL HIXSON, EMIL SPEZIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS A SUMMARY ACCOUNT OF THE RESULTS OF A JOINT ARMY/NAVY STUDY OF ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS THAT OCCURRED IN REGULAR ARMY AVIATION OVER A 5-YEAR PERIOD. STATISTICAL DATA ARE PRESENTED THAT INDICATE SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IN HELICOPTERS IS A SIGNIFICANT FLIGHT HAZARD VERY COMPARABLE IN MAGNITUDE TO THE THREAT GENERALLY ACCEPTED AS BEING PRESENT WITH MILITARY OPERATION OF FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT. OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ACCIDENTS THAT OCCURRED IN ROTARY-WING (RW) AIRCRAFT OVER THE STUDY PERIOD, ORIENTATION ERROR ACCOUNTED FOR APPROXIMATELY 7.4 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL, 16.5 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FATAL ACCIDENTS, 15.8 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF FATALITIES, 9.4 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF NONFATAL INJURIES, AND 10.3 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL AIRCRAFT DOLLAR DAMAGE COSTS. THE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH AN ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENT THAT OCCURRED IN A RW AIRCRAFT ALSO WAS MOST SIGNIFICANT IN THAT 35 PERCENT OF THESE ACCIDENTS WERE FATAL. THE STUDY ALSO PROVIDES QUANTITATIVE DATA TO VALIDATE THE HIGH ACCIDENT RISK (NOT COMBAT LOSSES) OF COMBAT-ORIENTED FLIGHT OPERATIONS. FOR AIRCRAFT OF ALL TYPES, THE MEAN ACCIDENT RATE (ACCIDENTS PER 100,000 FLIGHT HOURS) IN VIETNAM WAS APPROXIMATELY 2.4 TIMES GREATER THAN THE RATE ELSEWHERE FOR ACCIDENTS OF ALL TYPES, 2.1 TIMES GREATER FOR PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS, AND 3.3 TIMES GREATER FOR ORIENTATION-ERROR ACCIDENTS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS, PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, ACCIDENT STATISTICS
77-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 831 DTIC #: ADA055204
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) HELICOPTER FLYING ON PILOT BLOOD AND URINE BIOCHEMICALS
AUTHOR(s): DAVID B. ANDERSON, RODERICK J. MCNEIL, MARTHA L. PITTS, DOROLYN A. PEREZ-POVEDA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SELECTED BLOOD AND URINE CHEMISTRIES WERE COMPARED IN HELICOPTER PILOTS FLYING ALTERNATELY NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) AND ROUTINE FLIGHT PROFILES. THE NOE FLIGHTS RESULTED IN SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER URINARY CATECHOLAMINE EXCRETION (P<.05), SERUM URIC ACID (P<.05), AND BLOOD LACTIC ACID (P<0.1). PREFLIGHT CORTISOL WAS SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER THAN POSTFLIGHT (P<.01), AND POSTFLIGHT CATECHOLAMINE EXCRETION RATE WAS HIGHER THAN DURING THE 3-HOUR POSTFLIGHT SAMPLE PERIOD (P<.01). THE BIOCHEMICAL RESULTS ARE CONSISTENT WITH THE REPORTS THAT NOE FLIGHT IS PHYSICALLY MORE DEMANDING IN TERMS OF MUSCULAR STRAIN. THE INCREASED CATECHOLAMINE EXCRETION MAY INDICATE THE PERCEPTION OF NOE FLIGHT AS A MORE DEMANDING AND STRESSFUL ACTIVITY THAN FLIGHT AT HIGHER ALTITUDES. IN LIGHT OF PREVIOUS WORK, THE HIGHER SERUM URIC ACID LEVELS PRIOR TO NOE FLIGHT MAY PROVIDE A MEASURE OF THE PILOT'S PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION AND POSSIBLE PERFORMANCE DURING NOE FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER FLIGHT, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE), AVIATOR STRESS, BLOOD AND URINE CHEMISTRIES, CATECHOLAMINES, CORTISOL, URIC ACID, LACTIC ACID, CHOLESTEROL
77-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 674 DTIC #: ADA052771
TITLE: PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED HELICOPTER FLIGHT MISSIONS: AN ASSESSMENT OF PUPILLOGRAPHIC DATA
AUTHOR(s): DAVID B. ANDERSON, WUN C. CHIOU
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX ARMY AVIATORS SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN A STUDY OF VARIOUS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTENDED HELICOPTER FLIGHT MISSIONS. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF THE INITIAL PUPILLOGRAPHIC DATA COLLECTED IN THIS STUDY AS WELL AS THE PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED AND THE RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS. IT WAS SHOWN THAT THE WAVEFORM CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PUPILLARY REFLEX RESPONSE TO LIGHT WERE IRREGULAR. FURTHERMORE, THE BLINKING FREQUENCY INCREASED AND THE PUPILLARY AMPLITUDE VARIED AS A FUNCTION OF LOADED FLIGHT TASK. RESULTS ALSO REVEALED THAT THE AVERAGE PUPILLARY DIAMETER WAS SMALLER IN THE MORNING THAN IN THE EVENING. THIS REPORT RECOMMENDS THE FUTURE USE OF PUPILLOGRAPHY IN WHICH AN EVALUATION OF PILOT ALERTNESS IS NEEDED.
KEYWORDS: PUPILLOGRAPHY, FLIGHT FATIGUE, PUPIL RESPONSE TO LIGHT, PUPIL DIAMETER, BLINKING FREQUENCY
78-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 600 DTIC #: ADA050032
TITLE: COMPARISON OF ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES FOR ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC DATA
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ELECTROMYOGRAPHY HAS BEEN EMPLOYED EFFECTIVELY TO ESTIMATE THE STRESS ENCOUNTERED BY THE FOREARM FLEXOR MUSCLES IN PERFORMING A VARIETY OF FUNCTIONS IN THE STATIC ENVIRONMENT. SUCH ANALYSIS PROVIDES THE BASIS FOR MODIFICATION OF A MAN-MACHINE SYSTEM IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE THE PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUAL TASKS BY REDUCING MUSCLE STRESS. MYRIAD ANALYSIS METHODS HAVE BEEN PROPOSED AND EMPLOYED TO CONVERT RAW ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC DATA INTO NUMERICAL INDICES OF STRESS AND MORE SPECIFICALLY, MUSCLE WORK. HOWEVER, THE TYPE OF ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE APPLIED TO THE DATA CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE OUTCOME OF THE EXPERIMENT. IN THIS STUDY FOUR METHODS OF ANALYSIS ARE EMPLOYED TO SIMULTANEOUSLY PROCESS ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC DATA. THE METHODS OF ANALYSIS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: 1. INTEGRATED EMG (THREE SEPARATE TIME CONSTANTS). 2. ROOT MEAN SQUARE VOLTAGE. 3. PEAK HEIGHT DISCRIMINATION (THREE LEVEL). 4. TURNS COUNTING (TWO METHODS). MECHANICAL STRESS INPUT AS APPLIED TO THE ARM OF THE SUBJECTS INCLUDES STATIC LOAD AND VIBRATION. THE STUDY REVEALS THE COMPARATIVE SENSITIVITY OF EACH OF THE TECH-NIQUES TO CHANGES IN EMG RESULTING FROM CHANGES IN STATIC AND DYNAMIC LOAD ON THE MUSCLES. THE CONCLUSIONS OF THE STUDY ARE: 1. THE TOTAL INTEGRATED ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC OUTPUT AND THE RMS VALUE OF THE ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC OUTPUT ARE BOTH LINEAR FUNCTIONS OF APPLIED STRESS. 2. WITHIN THE RANGE OF INTEGRATION TIME CONSTANT EVALUATED (0.1-1.0 MSEC), THE INTEGRATED ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY VERSUS APPLIED STRESS CURVE REMAINS HIGHLY LINEAR. 3. THE PEAK HEIGHT DISCRIMINATION TECHNIQUE AND THE TURNS AMPLITUDE HISTOGRAM ARE BOTH HIGHLY SENSITIVE TO ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC CHANGES INDUCED BY VIBRATORY STIMULI. 4. PEAK HEIGHT DISCRIMINATION AND TURNS COUNTING TECHNIQUES HAVE A VERY NARROW LINEAR DYNAMIC RANGE AND ARE NOT WELL SUITED TO STUDIES INVOLVING STRESS VARIATIONS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF VALUES.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMYOGRAPHY, COMPUTER ANALYSIS, VIBRATION, SURFACE ELECTRODES, TONIC VIBRATION REFLEX
78-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1041 DTIC #: ADA050033
TITLE: HELMET COLD CONDITIONING: CORRELATION OF STRUCTURAL TEMPERATURES IN ACTUAL AND SIMULATED COLD ENVIRONMENTS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. JOHNSON, STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EXPERIMENT WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL), TO CORRELATE THE HELMET THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS FOUND IN COLD TEMPERATURE CONDITIONING AS REQUIRED BY CURRENT IMPACT TEST METHODOLOGIES--AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) STANDARD Z90.1 AND THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (DOT) MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARD (MVS NO. 218, MOTORCYCLE HELMET 49CSR571.218)--AND THE THERMAL CHARACTERISTICS WHICH OCCUR DURING ACTUAL USE BY THE WEARER IN A COLD ENVIRONMENT. FOUR TYPES OF HELMETS WERE USED IN THIS EVALUATION: SLING SUSPENSION, FORM-FIT, STANDARD MOTORCYCLE, AND SHORT MOTORCYCLE HELMETS. TEMPERATURES WERE TAKEN WITHIN THE HELMET ON TOP OF THE EXTERIOR SURFACE OF THE SHELL AND THE CRUSHABLE LINER, AT THE CENTER OF THE CRUSHABLE LINER, AND AT THE CENTER OF THE COMFORT LINER. DATA FROM THIS EXPERIMENT WAS PLOTTED GRAPHICALLY AND YIELDED THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION: 1) TEMPERATURES OF HELMETS PRECONDITIONED AND TESTED ACCORDING TO ANSI STANDARD Z90.1 AND DOTMVS 218 DO NOT CORRELATE WITH TEMPERATURES OF IDENTICAL HELMETS USED IN THE COLD ENVIRONMENT; 2) THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN HELMET STRUCTURE TEMPERATURE FOLLOWING ANSI Z90.1 AND DOTMVS 218 COLD CONDITIONING AND TESTING, AND SIMULATED COLD CLIMATE USE, IS DEPENDENT UPON HELMET STRUCTURE TYPE AND THE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE WHICH EXISTED DURING THE SIMULATED COLD CLIMATE USE; 3) THE SLOPE OF THE TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS (TEMPERATURES VERSUS DEPTH IN THE HELMET STRUCTURE FOR SIMULATED COLD CLIMATE USE) WHEN COMPARED TO ANSI Z90.1 AND DOTMVS 218 IMPACT TEST CONDITIONS, WERE OPPOSITE IN DIRECTION.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, COLD CONDITIONING, COLD WEATHER CHARACTERISTICS, IMPACT TESTING, TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS
78-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1242 DTIC #: ADA055038
TITLE: VISUAL WORKLOAD OF COPILOT/NAVIGATOR DURING TERRAIN FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL G. SANDERS, RONALD R. SIMMONS, MARK A. HOFMANN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EMPHASIS ON AVIATOR WORKLOAD HAS BEEN OF PRIMARY CONCERN TO THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY SINCE THE INCORPORATION OF LOW ALTITUDE TERRAIN FLIGHT TECHNIQUES INTO THE HELICOPTER TACTICS REPERTORY. SINCE NAVIGATION IS A PARTICULARLY ACUTE PROBLEM AT LOW ALTITUDES, THIS PROJECT EXAMINED THE VISUAL WORKLOAD OF THE NAVIGATOR/COPILOT DURING TERRAIN FLIGHT (NAP-OF-THE-EARTH, CONTOUR, AND LOW LEVEL) IN A UH-1H HELICOPTER. THE NAVIGATOR'S TASK WAS TO: (1) PERFORM A MAP STUDY OF THE PRESCRIBED COURSE, (2) DIRECT THE PILOT DURING THE FLIGHT AS TO THE DIRECTION OF FLIGHT, ALTITUDE, AND AIRSPEED DESIRED TO TRANSVERSE THE COURSE, AND (3) IDENTIFY HOVER POINTS AND CHECK-POINTS ALONG THE ROUTE WHICH WERE GIVEN TO THE NAVIGATOR IN TERMS OF SIX DIGIT GRID COORDINATES. VISUAL PERFORMANCE WAS MEASURED VIA A MODIFIED NAC EYE MARK RECORDER USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH A LOCAM HIGH SPEED CAMERA. THIS TECHNIQUE PROVIDED THE MEANS TO OBJECTIVELY RECORD AND ANALYZE THE NAVIGATOR'S VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH THE EXAMINATION OF: (1) VISUAL TIME INSIDE THE COCKPIT ON FLIGHT AND ENGINE INSTRUMENTS, (2) TIME INSIDE THE COCKPIT ON THE MAP OR OTHER NAVIGATIONAL AIDS, AND (3) TIME OUTSIDE THE COCKPIT IN VARIOUS WINDSCREEN SECTORS.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL PERFORMANCE, WORKLOAD, NAVIGATION, TERRAIN FLIGHT, ROTARY-WING FLIGHT
78-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2416 DTIC #: ADA055424
TITLE: VISUAL PERFORMANCE/WORKLOAD OF HELICOPTER PILOTS DURING INSTRUMENT FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): RONALD R. SIMMONS, MICHAEL A. LEES, KENT A. KIMBALL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FLIGHT UNDER INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR) IS REPORTED TO BE ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO AVIATOR FATIGUE DURING HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. THIS STUDY WAS INITIATED TO COLLECT VISUAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE DATA IN AN ATTEMPT TO INVESTIGATE AND STUDY THE GENERAL VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF AVIATORS DURING IFR CONDITIONS. TWO GROUPS OF AVIATORS, WITH VARIED EXPERIENCE LEVELS, WERE THE SUBJECTS. A NAC EYE MARK RECORDER AND THE HELICOPTER IN-FLIGHT MONITORING SYSTEM WERE UTILIZED TO COLLECT THE REQUIRED DATA. THE RESULTS INDICATED, AMONG OTHER THINGS, THAT PILOT SUBJECTIVE OPINION DOES NOT AGREE WITH OBJECTIVE DATA. ADDITIONALLY, THE ALTITUDE INDICATOR AND RADIO COMPASS COMPRISED OVER 60 PERCENT OF THE PILOTS' TOTAL VISUAL WORKLOAD WHILE THE AIRCRAFT'S STATUS GAUGES WERE MONITORED LESS THAN 10 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL TIME. THESE DATA SHOULD PROVIDE INVALUABLE INFORMATION CONCERNING THE VISUAL REQUIREMENTS OF PILOTS FOR SAFE HELICOPTER OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: PILOT PERFORMANCE, VISUAL WORKLOAD, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, INSTRUMENT FLIGHT, HELICOPTER IN-FLIGHT MONITORING SYSTEM
78-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1700 DTIC #: ADA055212
TITLE: THE INTERACTION OF CARBON-MONOXIDE AND ALTITUDE ON AVIATOR PERFORMANCE: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE
AUTHOR(s): JOSEPH C. DENNISTON, FRANK S. PETTYJOHN, JAMES K. BOYTER, JOHN K. KELLIHER, BRUCE F. HIOTT, CHARLES F. PIPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A REAPPRAISAL OF THE INTERACTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND ALTITUDE IS PRESENTED IN LIGHT OF CURRENT CONCEPTS OF THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF LOW LEVEL EXPOSURE TO CARBON MONOXIDE. THE REVIEW INCLUDES A DISCUSSION OF: (1) THE POTENTIAL SOURCES OF CARBON MONOXIDE; (2) THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT, AND ELIMINATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE; (3) THE EFFECTS OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON HUMAN HEALTH AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION; (4) THE INTERACTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE AND ALTITUDE, AND RESULTING HYPOXIA; (5) THE CONCEPT OF EQUIVALENT PHYSIOLOGICAL ALTITUDES; (6) PREDICTABLE EFFECTS OF TRANSIENT ELEVATION IN CARBON MONOXIDE; (7) LIMITS OF CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE; AND (8) THE BASIC PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CHANGES OCCURRING WITH HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA AND/OR CARBON MONOXIDE HYPOXIA.
KEYWORDS: CARBON MONOXIDE, ALTITUDE, HYPOXIA, OXYGEN, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE
78-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1173 DTIC #: ADA069202
TITLE: A PORCINE BIOASSAY METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF THERMALLY PROTECTIVE FABRICS: A CLINICAL GRADING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS L. WACHTEL, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A CLINICAL GRADING SYSTEM OF SEVERITY OF CUTANEOUS BURN WAS DEVELOPED IN A PORCINE CUTANEOUS BURN BIOASSAY MODEL USING A FLAME THERMAL SOURCE. FROM SURFACE APPEARANCE, COLOR, SENSATION, TACTILE RESPONSE, TENACITY OF HAIR ANCHORING, AND APPEARANCE ON CUT SECTION, A PROGRESSION OF THE SEVERITY OF BURN INJURY WAS DEVELOPED AND DOCUMENTED WITH SERIAL STILL PHOTOGRAPHS, HIGH-SPEED CINEPHOTOMACROGRAPHY AND CLINICAL DESCRIPTIONS. VARIATIONS IN THIS GRADING SCHEME WERE REQUIRED FOR SKIN PROTECTED OR PARTIALLY PROTECTED WITH FABRICS, BLACKENED WITH STOVE POLISH, OR DEPRIVED OF ITS CIRCULATION.
KEYWORDS: BURNS, TEST METHODS, PORCINE SKIN, AVIATION SAFETY, BIOASSAY
78-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 979 DTIC #: ADA067351
TITLE: EVALUATION OF FOUR THERMALLY PROTECTIVE FABRICS USING THE USAARL BIOASSAY METHOD
AUTHOR(s): FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, THOMAS L. WATCHEL, GEORGE R. MCCAHAN, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UNITED STATES ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) PORCINE CUTANEOUS BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE WAS USED TO DETERMINE WHAT MITIGATING EFFECT FOUR THERMALLY PROTECTIVE FLIGHT SUIT FABRICS WOULD HAVE ON FIRE-INDUCED SKIN DAMAGE. THE FABRICS WERE 4.8 OZ TWILL WEAVE NOMEX ARAMIDE, 4.5 OZ STABILIZED TWILL WEAVE POLY-BENZIMIDAZOLE, A 4.8 OZ PLAIN WEAVE EXPERIMENTAL HIGH TEMPERATURE POLYMER, AND A 4.8 OZ PLAIN WEAVE NOMEX ARAMIDE. EACH FABRIC SAMPLE WAS ASSAYED 20 TIMES IN EACH OF FOUR CONFIGURATIONS: AS A SINGLE LAYER IN CONTACT WITH THE SKIN; AS A SINGLE LAYER WITH 6.35 MM (ONE-FOURTH INCH) AIR GAP BETWEEN FABRIC AND SKIN; IN CONJUNCTION WITH A COTTON T-SHIRT WITH NO AIR GAPS; AND FINALLY, IN CONJUNCTION WITH A T-SHIRT WITH A 6.35 MM AIR GAP BETWEEN T-SHIRT AND FABRIC. BARE SKIN WAS USED AS A CONTROL.
KEYWORDS: THERMALLY PROTECTIVE FABRICS, BURN PROTECTION, SAFETY, SKIN, BIOASSAY, FLIGHT SUITS, SWINE
78-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1453 DTIC #: ADA066990
TITLE: A PORCINE BIOASSAY STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FIBER AND DYE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS (FDP) ON BURN WOUND HEALING
AUTHOR(s): FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, THOMAS L. WATCHEL, GEORGE R. MCCAHAN, JR., STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: UPON EXPOSURE TO THE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT OF AN AIRCRAFT FIRE, MANY FIRE RETARDANT FABRICS OFF-GAS FIBER AND DYE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS (FDP). CONDENSATION OF THESE PRODUCTS ON HUMAN SKIN RAISES QUESTIONS CONCERNING POSSIBLE DELETERIOUS EFFECTS ON BURN WOUND HEALING. A PORCINE BIOASSAY WAS USED TO STUDY THE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF FDP. SELECTED AREAS OF LIVING SKIN, PROTECTED BY DYED AROMATIC POLYAMIDES AND POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE FABRICS, WERE EXPOSED TO A THERMAL SOURCE ADJUSTED TO SIMULATE A POSTCRASH JP-4 FUEL FIRE. BURN SITES CONTAMINATED WITH FDP WERE EVALUATED BY CLINICAL OBSERVATION AND HISTOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES. HEALING OF THE BURN WOUND WAS FOLLOWED BY RECORDING TIME TO BEGIN EPITHELIALIZATION, TIME TO CLOSURE OF AN OPEN WOUND, AND THE AMOUNT AND TYPE OF CICATRIX FORMATION. THE EXPERIMENT SHOWED THAT EACH FABRIC HAS UNIQUE OFF-GASSING PRODUCTS. THE GREATEST AMOUNT OF FDP WAS DEPOSITED ON THE SKIN WHEN THE SKIN WAS COVERED BY A SINGLE LAYER OF SHELL FABRIC SEPARATED BY A 6.35 MM AIR GAP. THE PRESENCE OF AN INTERVENING COTTON T-SHIRT DECREASED THE AMOUNT OF FDP DEPOSITED ON THE SKIN. WE FOUND NO EVIDENCE THAT FDP CAUSED ALTERATIONS IN WOUND HEALING.
KEYWORDS: SKIN, SWINE, SAFETY, FLIGHT SUITS, PROTECTIVE FABRICS, BURN WOUND HEALING, DYE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, FIBER DEGRADATION PRODUCTS
78-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2406 DTIC #: ADA074735
TITLE: A PORCINE BIOASSAY METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF THERMALLY PROTECTIVE FABRICS: A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BURN DEPTH GRADING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, THOMAS L. WATCHEL, WALTER P. TREVETHAN, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR., R. J. BROWN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND BURN DEPTH GRADING SYSTEM THAT CAN BE EMPLOYED IN A PORCINE BIOASSAY OF THERMAL INJURY IS DESCRIBED. BIOPSY SPECIMENS TAKEN FROM BURN SITES, INCLUDING BOTH BURNED AND NORMAL SKIN WERE FIXED IN UNBUFFERED FORMALIN, EMBEDDED IN PARAPLAST, SECTIONED AT 6-7 MICRONS, AND STAINED USING A NAVAL AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY MODIFICATION OF AN ARMED FORCES INSTITUTE OF PATHOLOGY HEMATOXYLIN AND EOSIN METHOD. COMPLETED SLIDES WERE GRADED BY A PATHOLOGIST USING A SCALE OF FROM 0 FOR NO THERMAL DAMAGE, TO 10 FOR THERMAL DAMAGE INTO THE SUBCUTANEOUS FAT.
KEYWORDS: PORCINE BURNS, HISTOPATHOLOGY, BURN GRADING, BURN DEPTH
78-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 770 DTIC #: ADA058016
TITLE: AN EVALUATION OF PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR WORKLOAD DURING A HELICOPTER HOVER MANEUVER
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL G. SANDERS, RAYMOND T. BURDEN, JR., R. R. SIMMONS, M. A. LEES, K. A. KIMBALL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STABILITY AUGMENTATION SYSTEMS ARE PURPORTED TO REDUCE PILOT WORKLOAD DURING HOVER, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH, AND IFR MANEUVERS. THE CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECT EXAMINES A METHOD OF AIDING THE MEDEVAC PILOT IN PERFORMING A HOVER MANEUVER WHILE PER-HAPS REDUCING WORKLOAD. A MODULAR, FOUR-AXES STABILITY AUGMENTATION SYSTEM (MINISTAB) WITH INTEGRATED RATE ATTITUDE AND HEADING RETENTION WAS INSTALLED ON THE USAARL JUH-1H HELICOPTER. PARTICIPATING PERSONNEL IN THE PROJECT WERE NINE U.S. ARMY AVIATORS WITH A TOTAL AVERAGE OF 1,172 FLIGHT HOURS. THE AVIATORS HOVERED AT 30 FEET ABOVE GROUND LEVEL FOR 5 MINUTES UNDER EACH OF THE FOLLOWING FLIGHT CONTROL CON-DITIONS: (1) UNAIDED--"NORMAL" HOVER WITH VISUAL FLIGHT RULE CONDITIONS, (2) USING FORCE TRIM, AND (3) USING THE MINISTAB.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, ROTARY-WING HELICOPTER, STABILITY AUGMENTATION SYSTEM (SAS), AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, WORKLOAD, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, MEDEVAC HOVER
78-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1051 DTIC #: ADA066946
TITLE: MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF SKIN BURNS INDUCED BY SIMULATED POSTCRASH FIRES AS AIDS IN THERMAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING DESIGN AND SELECTION
AUTHOR(s): FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, THOMAS L. WACHTEL, STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DESIGN AND SELECTION OF THERMAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING TAKES INTO ACCOUNT MANY FACTORS, E.G., APPEARANCE, COMFORT, DURABILITY, COST, AND THERMAL PROTECTIVE CAPABILITY. TO AID IN DETERMINING THE APPROPRIATE BALANCE AMONG THESE FACTORS, THERMAL PROTECTIVE CAPABILITY MUST BE MEASURED IN A QUANTITATIVE AND CLINICALLY MEANINGFUL WAY. TO PROVIDE SUCH A VALID ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL PROTECTIVE CAPABILITY, TWO MATHEMATICAL MODELS WERE DEVELOPED TO PREDICT SKIN BURN DAMAGE BASED ON DATA DERIVED FROM 95 DOMESTIC WHITE PIGS EXPOSED TO SIMULATED POSTCRASH FIRES. THE FIRST MODEL, A MULTI-DISCRIMINATE STATISTICAL MODEL DERIVED FROM EXPERIMENTAL DATA, WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF MANY VARIABLES, E.G., INCIDENT HEAT FLUX, EXPOSURE TIME, INITIAL SKIN TEMPERATURE, AND COLOR OF THE SKIN.
KEYWORDS: SWINE, SKIN, BURNS, SIMULATED POSTCRASH FIRES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, COMPUTER SIMULATION, THERMALLY PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, FLIGHT SUITS, HEAT TRANSFER
79-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1130 DTIC #: ADA062486
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION FATIGUE-RELATED ACCIDENTS, 1971-1977
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER, YVONNA F. JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN ACCIDENT DATA SURVEY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE HOW FREQUENTLY AVIATOR CREW FATIGUE MAY HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO U.S. ARMY AVIATION ACCIDENTS FROM 1971 TO 1977. ALL ACCIDENT REPORTS IN THE U.S. ARMY AGENCY FOR AVIATION SAFETY (USAAAVS) DATABASE WERE REVIEWED. AVIATOR FATIGUE WAS DEEMED TO BE A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN 42 ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS WHICH RESULTED IN A TOTAL OF 51 FATALITIES AND 63 PERSONNEL INJURIES. FATIGUE CONTRIBUTED TO 10 FIXED-WING ACCIDENTS, RESULTING IN THREE FATALITIES AND FIVE INJURIES. THIS PAPER CATEGORIZES THESE FATIGUE-RELATED ACCIDENTS BY AIRCRAFT AND MISSION TYPE AND BY TIME OF DAY AND DAY OF WEEK OF THE ACCIDENT. IT ALSO TABULATES PILOT ACTIVITIES PRIOR TO THE ACCIDENTS WHICH PROMOTE THE LIKELIHOOD OF PILOT FATIGUE CONTRIBUTIONS. THE PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT COSTS OF THESE ACCIDENTS TO THE ARMY ARE ESTIMATED, AND THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SUCH ACCIDENTS TO THE TOTAL U.S. ARMY AVIATION ACCIDENT PICTURE IS ASSESSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION ACCIDENTS, AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATOR WORK SCHEDULES, AVIATOR FATIGUE, MILITARY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS
79-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 678 DTIC #: ADA056415
TITLE: HIGH-FREQUENCY HEARING LOSS INCURRED BY EXPOSURE TO LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES K. BURDICK, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, ROBERT T. CAMP, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DAMAGE-RISK CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO CONTINUOUS NOISE ARE EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF A-WEIGHTED LEVELS RATHER THAN UNWEIGHTED, ABSOLUTE SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS. A-WEIGHTING DEEMPHASIZES OR REDUCES THE LEVELS OF LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE. DAMAGE-RISK CRITERIA USING A-WEIGHTED LEVELS ASSUME THAT HIGH-INTENSITY, LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE IS NOT AS HAZARDOUS TO HEARING AS HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH FREQUENCY NOISE. GROUPS OF CHINCHILLAS AND HUMANS WERE EXPOSED TO OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE TO TEST THIS ASSUMPTION. CHINCHILLAS EXPOSED TO LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE INCURRED PERMANENT HIGH-FREQUENCY HEARING LOSSES AND HUMANS EXPOSED TO LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE FOR A SHORT DURATION INCURRED TEMPORARY HIGH-FREQUENCY THRESHOLD SHIFTS. THE EXPERIMENTS INDICATE THAT HIGH-INTENSITY, LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE MAY BE A HAZARD TO HEARING THAT WAS PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED AND RAISE QUESTIONS CONCERNING THE ADEQUACY OF CURRENT DAMAGE-RISK CRITERIA TO DEAL EFFECTIVELY WITH LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE-RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
79-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2533 DTIC #: ADA082964
TITLE: A FIRE SIMULATOR/SHUTTER SYSTEM FOR TESTING PROTECTIVE FABRICS AND CALIBRATING THERMAL SENSORS
AUTHOR(s): F. S. KNOX, III, P. W. SAUERMILCH, T. L. WACHTEL, G. R. MCCAHAN, JR., W. P. TREVETHAN, C. B. LUM, R. J. BROWN, L. A. ALFORD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, CALIBRATION, AND USE OF A JP-4 FUELED, SHUTTERED FURNACE IS DESCRIBED. BASED ON A NASA DESIGN, THIS FURNACE SIMULATES THE RADIATIVE AND CON-VECTIVE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT OF A POSTCRASH FIRE IN ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. HEAT FLUXES RANGED FROM 0.5 TO 3.6 ±3 PERCENT CALORIES PER SQUARE CENTIMETER PER SECOND WITH STEADY-STATE FURNACE WALL TEMPERATURES FROM 519° C (967° F) TO 1353° C (2450° F) AND A RADIATIVE/TOTAL FLUX RATIO OF APPROXIMATELY 0.9. A PNEUMATICALLY-PROPELLED, WATER COOLED SHUTTER, MOUNTED IN A ROLLING ANIMAL CARRIER, CONTROLLED THE EXPOSURE OF PIGS AND THERMAL SENSORS TO THE FIRE. AN ELECTRONIC DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL SYSTEM ALSO IS DESCRIBED. THIS SYSTEM AUTOMATICALLY CONTROLLED THE OPENING AND CLOSING OF THE SHUTTER AND PROVIDED STRIP CHART AND FM MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDS OF EXPOSURE TIME, FURNACE WALL TEMPERATURE, HEAT FLUX, AND SENSOR OUTPUT. SOURCES OF ERROR INCLUDING NONUNIFORMITY OF FLAME FRONT AND SHUTTER DYNAMICS ARE DISCUSSED. METHODS OF ANIMAL HANDLING, BURN GRADING, AND PHOTOGRAPHIC DOCUMENTATION ARE INTRODUCED ALONG WITH A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF SOME NINE EXPERIMENTAL PROTOCOLS CARRIED OUT USING THIS FIRE SIMULATOR SHUTTER SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: POSTCRASH FIRE, FIRE SIMULATOR, PORCINE BURN, BIOASSAY METHODS, FABRIC TEST METHODS, THERMALL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, THERMAL SENSOR CALIBRATION
79-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 836 DTIC #: ADA069271
TITLE: HOW TO MEASURE THE BURN-PREVENTIVE CAPABILITY OF NONFLAMMABLE TEXTILES: A COMPARISON OF THE USAARL PORCINE BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE WITH MATHEMATICAL MODELS
AUTHOR(s): FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, THOMAS L. WACHTEL, STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NONFLAMMABLE FABRICS ARE USED EXTENSIVELY AS AN INSULATING THERMAL BARRIER TO PROTECT THE WEARER FROM INJURY FROM AN EXTRINSIC THERMAL SOURCE. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) PORCINE CUTANEOUS BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE HAS BEEN USED TO DETERMINE THE BURN PREVENTION CAPABILITIES OF NONFLAMMABLE FABRICS. THE RESULTS OF THIS TECHNIQUE CORRELATE WELL WITH CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS, BUT ARE LOGISTICALLY DIFFICULT AND EXPENSIVE TO CONDUCT. THE IDEAL METHOD FOR TESTING FABRIC SAMPLES WOULD BE TO USE A PHYSICAL THERMAL SENSOR TO MEASURE THE HEAT FLUX TRANSMITTED THROUGH OR EMANATING FROM A FABRIC AND CONVERT THIS MEASURED HEAT FLUX TO A PREDICTED BURN DEPTH. THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE DATA FROM OVER 1500 BURN SITES ON 95 DOMESTIC WHITE PIGS IN WHICH THE BIOASSAY METHOD WAS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH CALORIMETERS EXPOSED TO THE SAME FIRE. TWO MATHEMATICAL MODELS, ONE ANALYTIC AND THE OTHER EMPIRICAL, ARE DESCRIBED. THE RESULTS OF THESE MODELS ARE COMPARED WITH THE RESULTS OF THE BIOASSAY TECHNIQUE IN THE EVALUATION OF FOUR NONFLAMMABLE FABRICS. THE COMPARISON SHOWS THAT THE MODELS ARE EFFICIENT TOOLS FOR ROUTINE EVALUATION OF NONFLAMMABLE FABRICS. THE MODELS PROVIDE A BASIS FROM WHICH TO DEVELOP BETTER TEST METHODS FOR CHILDREN'S SLEEPWEAR, NURSING HOME TEXTILES, AND OTHER THERMALLY PROTECTIVE FABRICS.
KEYWORDS: SWINE, SKIN, BURNS, SIMULATED POSTCRASH FIRES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, COMPUTER SIMULATION, THERMALLY PROTECTIVE CLOTHING, FLIGHT SUITS, HEAT TRANSFER
79-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 772 DTIC #: ADA955945
TITLE: THRESHOLD SHIFTS IN CHINCHILLAS EXPOSED TO OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE CENTERED AT 63 AND 1000 HZ FOR 3 DAYS
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES K. BURDICK, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, ROBERT T. CAMP, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AUDIOGRAMS WERE OBTAINED ON EIGHT BINAURAL CHINCHILLAS TRAINED ON A SHUTTLEBOX AVOIDANCE PROCEDURE. FOUR OF THE ANIMALS WERE EXPOSED TO THREE SUCCESSIVE LEVELS OF AN OCTAVE BAND OF NOISE CENTERED AT 63 HZ: 100 DB SPL (74 DBA), 110 DB SPL (84 DBA), AND 120 DB SPL (94 DBA). THE OTHER FOUR ANIMALS ALSO WERE EXPOSED TO THREE SUCCESSIVE LEVELS OF AN OCTAVE BAND OF NOISE CENTERED AT 1000 HZ: 75 DB SPL (75 DBA), 85 DB SPL (85 DBA), AND 95 DB SPL (95 DBA). ALL EXPOSURE DURATIONS WERE 72 H. LITTLE THRESHOLD SHIFT (TS) RESULTED FROM THE LOWER TWO EXPOSURE LEVELS IN THE 63-HZ NOISE BAND. AT THE 120 DB SPL (94 DBA) EXPOSURE LEVELS, MAXIMUM TS OF 43 DB OCCURRED AT 2000 HZ. PERMANENT THRESHOLD SHIFTS (PTSS) OF 16 DB AT 2000 HZ AND 11 DB AT 1400 HZ WERE FOUND. FOR THE 1000-HZ EXPOSURES, TSS OF 20, 45, AND 61 DB WERE FOUND AT THE SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURE LEVELS AT 1400 HZ. THE 95 DB SPL (95 DBA) EXPOSURE LEVEL RESULTED IN PTSS OF 6 DB AT 1400 HZ AND 9 DB AT 2000 HZ. THE MAJOR RESULTS WERE: (1) A HIGH-FREQUENCY HEARING LOSS TO A LOW-FREQUENCY NOISE. (2) NOISE BANDS MATCHED WITHIN 1 DBA WERE NOT EQUALLY HAZARDOUS AS DICTATED BY DAMAGE-RISK CRITERIA. THE 63-HZ NOISE BAND PRODUCED NEARLY TWICE THE PTS OF THE 1000-HZ NOISE BAND.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE-RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
79-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 514 DTIC #: ADA067951
TITLE: NORMAL BLOOD CHEMISTRY VALUES FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS ANALYZED BY THE SEQUENTIAL MULTIPLE CHANNEL ANALYZER COMPUTER (SMAC-20)
AUTHOR(s): RUSSELL L. JOHNSON, TERRY GEE, FRANK PETTYJOHN.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEQUENTIAL MULTIPLE CHANNEL ANALYZER COMPUTERS ARE RAPIDLY BECOMING COMMON DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS OF BOTH PHYSICIANS AND VETERINARIANS IN MEDICAL AND RESEARCH FACILITIES. THIS INCREASED USE REQUIRES A REAPPRAISAL OF NORMAL SERUM VALUES PRESENTLY ESTABLISHED FOR STANDARD DIAGNOSTIC TESTS. THIS REPORT ESTABLISHES NORMAL SERUM VALUES FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS TO INCLUDE DOGS, MICE, MINIATURE SWINE, AND HORSES. IN ADDITION, COMPARISONS ARE MADE BETWEEN AGE, SEX, AND AGE AND SEX IN THE DOG TO SHOW PROBABLE DISCREPANCIES IN THE USE OF STANDARD NORMAL VALUES.
KEYWORDS: BLOOD CHEMISTRY, NORMAL SERUM VALUES, MULTIPLE SERUM TESTING, SEQUENTIAL MULTIPLE CHANNEL ANALYZER COMPUTER
79-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 993 DTIC #: ADA071701
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL INFORMATION DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL A. LEES, MICHAEL G. SANDERS, RAYMOND T. BURDEN, JR., KENT A. KIMBALL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO EVALUATE A METHOD OF DISPLAYING INFORMATION WHICH PERMITS RAPID TRANSMISSION OF FLIGHT DATA TO THE OPERATOR UNDER THREE VIEWING CONDITIONS: (1) DAY FLIGHTS WITH THE UNAIDED EYE, (2) NIGHT FLIGHTS WITH THE UNAIDED EYE, AND (3) NIGHT FLIGHTS USING THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (40 DEGREES FIELD-OF-VIEW FOCUSED AT INFINITY). INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM THE ANALYSES OF AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DATA DEMONSTRATED THE POTENTIAL OF PRESENTING FLIGHT INFORMATION TO THE AIRCREW VIA PROTOTYPE DISPLAYS FOR ALL VIEWING MODES.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTATION, OPTICS, MAN-MACHINE RELATIONS, DISPLAYS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), AIRCRAFT, TERRAIN FLIGHT
79-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3580 DTIC #: ADA071359
TITLE: HEAD AIMING/TRACKING ACCURACY IN A HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, JOHN C. JOHNSON, HEBER JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS EXPERIMENT WAS CONDUCTED TO MEASURE MAN'S HEAD AIMING/TRACKING CAPABILITY USING A HELMET MOUNTED SIGHTING DEVICE. THE INFLUENCES OF TARGET SPEED, HELMET SUSPENSION TYPES, AND HELMET WEIGHING PARAMETERS ON HEAD AIMING/TRACKING WERE INVESTIGATED. IF THE AIMING/TRACKING ACCURACY WAS SENSITIVE TO MANIPULATION OF THESE MAN-MACHINE INTERFACE PARAMETERS, THEN IT WOULD SEEM TO INDICATE THAT IMPROVED AIMING/TRACKING ACCURACY COULD BE OBTAINED BY IMPROVING THE INTERFACE. THE FACTORS ANALYZED WERE EYE DOMINANCE, HELMET WEIGHING, TARGET SPEED, AND HELMET SUSPENSION. THE EYE DOMINANCE, HELMET WEIGHING, AND TARGET SPEED FACTORS WERE STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT; HOWEVER, THE ONLY FACTOR OF PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE WAS TARGET SPEED. A SUBJECT AIMING AT A STATIC TARGET WITH HIS HEAD HAD A RMS ERROR OF ABOUT 3 MILLIRADIANS. WHEN THE TARGET BEGAN TO MOVE 4 DEGREES/SECOND, THE ERROR INCREASED TO ABOUT 10.5 MILLIRADIANS. WHEN THE SUBJECT BEGAN TO VIBRATE TOO, THE ERROR INCREASED TO 13 MILLIRADIANS. WHEN THE TARGET SPEED DOUBLED, THE VIBRATING ERROR INCREASED TO 16.8 MILLIRADIANS.
KEYWORDS: HEAD AIMING, HEAD TRACKING, HELMET DISPLAYS, VISUALLY COUPLED SYSTEMS, AIRCRAFTS HELMETS, EYE/DOMINANCE, HELMET WEIGHTING
79-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2459 DTIC #: ADA071882
TITLE: A HUMAN PERFORMANCE/WORKLOAD EVALUATION OF THE AN/PVS-5 BIFOCAL NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): LEWIS W. STONE, MICHAEL G. SANDERS, DAVID D. GLICK, ROGER W. WILEY, KENT A. KIMBALL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EIGHT EXPERIENCED U.S. ARMY AVIATORS PERFORMED VARIOUS MANEUVERS IN AN INSTRUMENTED HELICOPTER TO TEST THE RELATIVE USABILITY OF TWO BIFOCALLY CONFIGURED NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. BOTH CONFIGURATIONS WERE STATISTICALLY BETTER THAN THE UNMODIFIED ARRANGEMENT WHEN LOOKING AT A PILOT'S ABILITY TO HOLD A PRECISE ALTITUDE AT NIGHT. THE SUBJECTIVE DATA, SUPPORTED BY FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OBSERVED BETWEEN THE TWO BIFOCALS, FURTHER SUGGESTED THAT A 24 PERCENT BIFOCAL VERSION WAS MORE DESIRABLE THAN A 14 PERCENT CONFIGURATION. THE INFERENCE IS THAT THE REDUCED INSIDE FIELD-OF-VIEW PRESENTED BY THE 14 PERCENT BIFOCAL INTERFERES WITH A PILOT'S ABILITY TO RAPIDLY LOCATE INSTRUMENTS ONCE HE HAS DIRECTED HIS ATTENTION INSIDE THE COCKPIT.
KEYWORDS: ATTENUATION MEASUREMENTS, TYPE I EARMUFFS, TYPE II EARMUFFS, REAL-EAR ATTENUATION MEASURES
79-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2873 DTIC #: ADA074541
TITLE: THE MEASUREMENT OF MAN-HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF EXTENDED FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS AND AVIATION FATIGUE
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL A. LEES, LEWIS W. STONE, HEBER D. JONES, KENT A. KIMBALL, DAVID B. ANDERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FIELD COMMANDERS HAVE LONG BEEN CONCERNED ABOUT THE IMPACT OF FATIGUE ON AVIATOR EFFECTIVENESS, ESPECIALLY WHERE AVIATORS ARE CALLED UPON TO FLY NUMEROUS SUCCESSIVE STRESS-RELATED MISSIONS (E.G., COMBAT AND/OR RESCUE WORK). AT PRESENT THERE IS LITTLE SPECIFIC INFORMATION UPON WHICH THE COMMANDER CAN BASE HIS CREW REST DECISIONS. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) SOUGHT TO ANSWER THIS NEED BY OBSERVING PILOTS IN AN ACTUAL FLIGHT SITUATION. IN THIS STUDY SIX PILOTS FLEW IN A HELICOPTER FOR 11.5 HOURS PER DAY FOR 5 DAYS WITH 3.5 HOURS OF SLEEP PER DAY. DATA COLLECTION INCLUDED BIOCHEMICAL, VISUAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND IN-FLIGHT MEASUREMENTS. THIS REPORT INCLUDES A CRITICAL LITERATURE REVIEW AND DESCRIBES THE METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY. IT IS INTENDED TO SERVE AS A DETAILED BACKGROUND FOR THE ANALYSES TO FOLLOW.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR FATIGUE, MAN-HELICOPTER SYSTEMS, IN-FLIGHT DATA ACQUISITION, EXTENDED HELICOPTER FLIGHT
79-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 769 DTIC #: ADA075610
TITLE: A DIRECT MEASURE OF CRT IMAGE QUALITY
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, HARRY L. TASK, VICTOR C. ARNOLD, JAMES H. BRINDLE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A DIRECT MEASURING TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING THE IMAGE QUALITY OF RASTER-SCANNED CATHODE-RAY TUBE (CRT) DISPLAYS. THIS TECHNIQUE IS BASED ON THE MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF) THEORY AND HUMAN VISUAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DATA. THE RATIONALE FOR THE TECHNIQUE IS DISCUSSED FROM A THEORETICAL AS WELL AS FUNCTIONAL VIEWPOINT. THE INSTRUMENTATION NECESSARY TO OBTAIN THESE MEASURES IN MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC MODES IS DISCUSSED. DATA OBTAINED USING THIS MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE ARE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH THE THEORETICAL PERFORMANCE OF THE DISPLAYS. THE IMAGE QUALITY OF THE NEW CRT DISPLAYS PROCURED FOR THE U.S. ARMY'S ADVANCED ATTACK HELICOPTER IS BEING SPECIFIED AND TESTED USING THIS DIRECT MEASURING TECHNIQUE.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, IMAGE QUALITY, TELEVISION, SINE-WAVE ANALYSIS, MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF), CATHODE-RAY TUBE (CRT)
80-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1550 DTIC #: ADA083736
TITLE: AEROMEDICAL ASPECTS OF CH-47C HELICOPTER SELF-DEPLOYMENT (OPERATION NORTHERN LEAP)
AUTHOR(s): LAWRENCE R. WHITEHURST, AARON W. SCHOPPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN AUGUST 1979, THE U.S. ARMY ACCOMPLISHED ITS FIRST TRANS-ATLANTIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT. FOUR CH-47C HELICOPTERS DEPARTED FORT CARSON, COLORADO, AND LANDED IN HEIDELBERG, GERMANY, WITH INTERMEDIATE STOPS IN IOWA, PENNSYLVANIA, MAINE, CANADA, GREENLAND, ICELAND, AND ENGLAND. A FLIGHT SURGEON ACCOMPANIED THE MISSION TO PROVIDE MEDICAL SUPPORT AND ASSESS AIRCREW WORKLOAD, STRESS, AND FATIGUE. DIRECT OBSERVATION, INTERVIEWS, AND QUESTIONNAIRES WERE USED TO GATHER DATA. RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS WERE EXPERIENCED BY APPROXIMATELY 50 PERCENT OF THE MISSION CREW DURING THE 14-DAY JOURNEY. THESE WERE ATTRIBUTED TO WIDE CLIMATE VARIATIONS AND INADEQUATE CREW REST DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE MISSION. DAILY PREFLIGHT QUESTIONNAIRES SHOWED HIGHEST LEVELS OF STRESS OCCURRED AT THE START OF THE MISSION AND DECREASED TO A CONSTANT LEVEL ONCE THE MISSION WAS UNDERWAY. DAILY POSTFLIGHT DATA DEMONSTRATED THAT COCKPIT WORKLOAD INCREASED APPRECIABLY WITH DETERIORATION OF WEATHER DURING THE LATTER PART OF THE MISSION. TIME AT THE FLIGHT CONTROLS AND MISSION CONDITIONS DURING FLIGHT WERE FOUND TO BE THE GREATEST CONTRIBUTORS TO PILOT FATIGUE; WHEREAS, CREW CHIEFS REPORTED FREQUENT TIME ZONE CHANGES AND POOR FACILITIES AT STOPOVER POINTS TO BE THEIR GREATEST CAUSES OF FATIGUE. THE RESULTS DEMONSTRATED THE FEASIBILITY OF SELF-DEPLOYMENT AND THE NEED FOR MEDICAL SUPPORT OF SUCH MISSIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, CANONICAL CORRELATION, REGRESSION ANALYSIS, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS, FATIGUE, HUMAN FACTORS, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, SELF-IMPOSED STRESS, SELF-DEPLOYMENT, COCKPIT WORKLOAD, OVERWATER OPERATIONS, WEATHER
80-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1435 DTIC #: ADA089085
TITLE: CONFERENCING AND TELECONFERENCING IN THREE COMMUNICATION MODES AS A FUNCTION OF THE NUMBER OF CONFEREES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER, ALPHONSE CHAPANIS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NINE GROUPS OF 2, 3, AND 4 STUDENTS EACH, 27 GROUPS IN ALL, DISCUSSED TOPICS FACE-TO-FACE OR IN ONE OF TWO TELECONFERENCE MODES: TELETYPE AND TELEVOICE. EACH GROUP USED ONLY 1 OF THE 3 COMMUNICATION MODES TO SOLVE A DIFFERENT PROBLEM ON EACH OF 3 SUCCESSIVE DAYS. EACH PROBLEM ENCOURAGED OPINIONATED DISCUSSION AND REQUIRED THE GROUP TO ARRIVE AT A CONSENSUS ABOUT CERTAIN TOPICAL ISSUES. GROUP SIZE HAD NO EFFECT ON TIME TO SOLUTION OR ON THE SOLUTIONS THEMSELVES, BUT AN INCREASE IN GROUP SIZE RESULTED IN AN INCREASE IN ALMOST EVERY GROUP MEASURE OF COMMUNICATION. THE LARGER GROUPS USED MORE MESSAGES, MORE WORDS, COMMUNICATED FASTER, AND EXHIBITED GREATER RELATIVE VARIABILITY AMONG THE NUMBERS OF MESSAGES GENERATED BY THE INDIVIDUALS WITHIN GROUPS THAN DID THE SMALLER GROUPS. EQUIVALENT SOLUTIONS ALSO WERE REACHED IN ALL COMMUNICATION MODES, BUT SUBJECTS IN FACE-TO-FACE CONFERENCES USED MORE MESSAGES AND WORDS THAN DID SUBJECTS IN EITHER OF THE TELECOMMUNICATION MODES. COMMUNICATION RATES WERE MUCH HIGHER AND SOLUTIONS WERE REACHED MUCH FASTER IN THE TWO CONFERENCE MODES THAT HAD A VOICE CHANNEL, I.E., FACE-TO-FACE AND TELEVOICE, THAN IN THE TELETYPE MODE. FEW PRACTICE EFFECTS WERE FOUND.
KEYWORDS: COMMUNICATION, CONFERENCE BEHAVIOR, GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING, PSYCHOLINGUISTICS, TELECONFERENCING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, TELETYPEWRITER COMMUNICATION, TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION
80-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 508 DTIC #: ADA086252
TITLE: COMMON PROBLEMS IN THE MEDICAL CARE OF PILOTS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): LAWRENCE R. WHITEHURST
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FAMILY PHYSICIANS NEED TO HAVE AN INCREASED AWARENESS OF THE MEDICAL NEEDS OF PILOTS. A CLOSE, TRUSTING RELATIONSHIP IS ESSENTIAL. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION MUST BE GIVEN WHEN PRESCRIBING MEDICATIONS. HYPOXIA IS A SPECIAL PROBLEM FOR PILOTS WITH CARDIOVASCULAR AND/OR RESPIRATORY DISEASES. SEVERAL MEDICAL PROBLEMS MAY OCCUR BECAUSE OF RAPID CHANGES IN BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, INCLUDING BAROTITIS MEDIA, WHICH IS BEST TREATED IN FLIGHT. MINOR AILMENTS, USE OF ALCOHOL AND SMOKING MAY BECOME SERIOUS PROBLEMS FOR AVIATORS, THEREFORE PATIENT EDUCATION IS IMPORTANT.
KEYWORDS: PRIVATE PILOT, HYPOXIA, CARDIOVASCULAR, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, ALLERGIC RHINITIS
80-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 834 DTIC #: ADA084409
TITLE: ATTENUATION VARIATION OBTAINED WITH TRAINING WHILE UTILIZING AN IN-THE-EAR PROTECTIVE DEVICE
AUTHOR(s): JEROD L. GOLDSTEIN, BARBARA MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DETERMINE THE IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING IN THE USE OF A SPECIFIC HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICE, THE E.A.R. EARPLUG, WHICH IS CONSIDERED A UNIVERSAL FIT HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICE. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY INDICATED THAT TRAINING IN THE USE OF E.A.R. EARPLUG IS IMPORTANT AND MUST BE CONTINUALLY EMPHASIZED TO PROVIDE MAXIMAL ATTENUATION WITH THE E.A.R. EARPLUG.
KEYWORDS: ATTENUATION, IN-THE-EAR HEARING PROTECTORS, TRAINING, HEARING LOSS, FITTING PROCEDURES
80-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 842 DTIC #: ADA090750
TITLE: SPH-4 HELMET DAMAGE AND HEAD INJURY CORRELATION
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE A. SLOBODNIK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HUMAN TOLERANCE TO HEAD IMPACT WAS ASSESSED BY CORRELATING THE FORCE LEVELS REQUIRED TO DUPLICATE DAMAGE SEEN IN 12 SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMETS RETRIEVED FROM U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER CRASHES WITH RESULTING HEAD INJURY. HEAD INJURY OCCURRED AT PEAK ACCELERATION LEVELS FAR BELOW 400 G, WHICH IS THE VALUE CURRENTLY USED BY THE U.S. ARMY AS THE PASS-FAIL CRITERION IN EVALUATING THE IMPACT ATTENUATION PERFORMANCE OF PROSPECTIVE AIRCREW HELMETS. CONCUSSIVE HEAD INJURIES OCCURRED BELOW SEVERITY INDEX VALUES OF 1500 AND BELOW HEAD INJURY CRITERION VALUES OF 1000. THESE ARE CONSIDERED CONCUSSIVE THRESHOLD VALUES BY THE NATIONAL OPERATING COMMITTEE ON STANDARDS FOR ATHLETIC EQUIPMENT AND BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, RESPECTIVELY.
KEYWORDS: HELMET DAMAGE, CRASH DAMAGE SIMULATION, HEAD IMPACT TOLERANCE, HELMET IMPACT TESTS, CONCUSSION, UNCONSCIOUSNESS
80-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2224 DTIC #: ADA090751
TITLE: EVALUATION OF ARMY AVIATOR HUMAN FACTORS (FATIGUE) IN A HIGH THREAT ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): CHESTER E. DUNCAN, MICHAEL G. SANDERS, KENT A. KIMBALL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: QUESTIONNAIRE DATA RECEIVED FROM STUDENT AND INSTRUCTOR PILOTS LOCATED AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, INDICATE SIGNIFICANT LEVELS OF FATIGUE WHEN FLYING IN DIFFERENT FLIGHT ALTITUDES AND PROFILES; THE LOWER THE ALTITUDE FLOWN, THE MORE RAPIDLY PILOTS EXPERIENCE FATIGUE. THESE DATA SUGGEST NIGHT STANDARD FLIGHT IS 1.4 TIMES AS FATIGUING AS DAY STAN-DARD FLIGHT; DAY TERRAIN FLIGHT IS 1.3 TIMES AS FATIGUING AS DAY STANDARD FLIGHT; AND NIGHT TERRAIN FLIGHT, THE MOST DIFFICULT FLIGHT PROFILE EXAMINED, IS 1.97 TIMES AS FATIGU-ING AS DAY STANDARD FLIGHT. ARMY REGULATION 95-1, 1 JANUARY 1980, SETS A MAXIMUM OF 140 HOURS PER MONTH PER AVIATOR OF DAY FLIGHT IN A COMBAT ENVIRONMENT. EXISTING DOCTRINE EMPHASIZES NAP-OF-THE-EARTH TECHNIQUES, AND IF SO ACCOMPLISHED FOR 140 HOURS COULD POSSIBLY RESULT IN AN UNSAFE AND SEVERELY FATIGUED HELICOPTER PILOT. FIELD COMMANDERS UTILIZING THE GUIDELINES PRESENTED IN THIS REPORT MAY ORGANIZE AND MORE EFFECTIVELY CONTINUE THEIR MISSION IN ARMY AVIATION.
KEYWORDS: FATIGUE FACTOR, DAY STANDARD FLIGHT, DAY TERRAIN FLIGHT, NIGHT STANDARD FLIGHT, NIGHT TERRAIN FLIGHT
81-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7936 DTIC #: ADA096552
TITLE: AEROMEDICAL FACTORS IN AVIATOR FATIGUE, CREW WORK/REST SCHEDULES, AND EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER, JAMES N. FAGG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INFLUENCE OF AVIATOR FATIGUE ON SUSTAINED FLIGHT OPERATIONS IS AN IMPORTANT AEROMEDICAL TOPIC. AVAILABLE RESEARCH DATA ON THE TOPIC ARE EITHER IN SHORT SUPPLY OR ARE SCATTERED THROUGHOUT DIVERSE PRINTED SOURCES AND ARE DIFFICULT TO TAP WHEN QUESTIONS OF THEIR APPLICATION TO OPERATIONAL DECISIONS ARE POSED. THIS ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS 224 REFERENCES CONTAINING RESEARCH DATA, CONCEPTUAL POSITION PAPERS, AND DIFFERENT METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO STUDYING AVIATOR FATIGUE, AVIATION CREW WORK-REST SCHEDULES, AND EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS. THE BIBLIOGRAPHY CONTAINS AN INDEX WHICH CATEGORIZES THE REFERENCES INTO SUCH CATEGORIES AS: (1) CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS AND JET LAG; (2) PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT OF PERFORMANCE; (3) HELICOPTER, TRANSPORT, AND CIVILIAN FLIGHT OPERATIONS; (4) CREW WORK/REST SCHEDULES; AND (5) BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICES OF FATIGUE. THE BASIC PERIOD OF COVERAGE IS 1940-1980.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR FATIGUE, AVIATOR WORKLOAD, AVIATION CREW FATIGUE, PILOT WORK-REST SCHEDULES, PILOT STRESS, FLIGHT SURGEONS' ROLE, AEROMEDICINE, EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS, SUSTAINED OPERATIONS, JET LAG, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, FATIGUE, BIBLIOGRAPHY
81-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 507 DTIC #: ADA106818
TITLE: WHEN THE GRAND TOUR'S A GRIND. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AMERICANS ARE TRAVELING MORE AND, IN THE VIEW OF MANY OBSERVERS, ENJOYING IT LESS. MODERN JET TRAVEL, ALONG WITH THE NECESSITY OR DESIRE TO SEE AS MANY TOURIST SIGHTS OR CONDUCT AS MANY BUSINESS MEETINGS AS POSSIBLE IN A SINGLE DAY, SERVE TO CREATE A WELL-DEFINED BUT OFTEN OVERLOOKED SYMPTOM COMPLEX CALLED TRAVEL STRESS. TRAVEL STRESS IS THE COMPLEX INTERACTION OF A NUMBER OF ENVIRONMENTAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS. DISRUPTIONS IN THE TRAVELER'S CIRCADIAN RHYTHM, CHANGES IN DIETARY STIMULANTS AND ALCOHOL, AND THE PRESSURE OF TRYING TO GET THE MOST FOR ONE'S TRAVEL DOLLAR IMPACT THE HEALTH AND THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TRAVELER. THIS PAPER OUTLINES PROVEN AND PRACTICAL PRETRAVEL PREVENTION TECHNIQUES AND ENROUTE THERAPY.
KEYWORDS: CIRCADIAN RHYTHM, TRAVEL STRESS, JET LAG, DEPLOYMENT
81-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1857 DTIC #: ADA098533
TITLE: VIBRATION IN A HELMET MOUNTED SIGHT (HMS) USING MECHANICAL LINKAGE
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. JOHNSON, DAVID B. PRISER, ROBERT W. VERONA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH AIRCRAFT VIBRATION WAS COUPLED TO A CREWMAN'S FLIGHT HELMET BY THE MECHANICAL LINKAGE OF A HELMET-MOUNTED SIGHT (FIRE CONTROL SUBSYSTEM, HELMET DIRECTED, XM-128). TWO VARIATIONS OF THE SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET WERE TESTED: 1. SPH-4 WITH STANDARD WEB SUS-PENSION; 2. SPH-4 WITH A FORMFIT FOAM LINER SUSPENSION. THE SYSTEM WAS TESTED IN THE FRONT SEAT OF AN AH-1S "COBRA" HELICOPTER. FIVE FLIGHT CONDITIONS WERE USED IN THE EXPERIMENT: 1. HOVER; 2. 40KN; 3. 80 KN; 4. 120KN; AND 5. STANDARD LEFT TURN. TWO CONDITIONS OF THE HELMET-MOUNTED CONTROL LINKAGE WERE TESTED: 1. CONNECTED AND 2. DISCONNECTED. A TRIAXIAL ACCELEROMETER WAS MOUNTED ON TOP OF THE FLIGHT HELMET TO MEASURE VIBRATION. THE DATA WERE ANALYZED USING A FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM ANALYZER AND A DESKTOP COMPUTER. THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE: 1. BOTH HELMETS VIBRATE MORE WITH THE SIGHT ATTACHED. 2. THE RESPONSE TO THE SIGHT COUPLED VIBRATION OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 DIFFERED FROM THAT OF THE FORM-FIT SPH-4. 3. THE FORM FIT SPH-4 HELMET VIBRATED MORE IN A NARROW BAND CENTERED AT ABOUT 30 HZ. 4. THE STANDARD SPH-4 HELMET VIBRATED MORE OVER A WIDE BAND OF FREQUENCIES ABOVE 30 HZ. BASED ON A REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE WITH RESPECT TO KNOWN OR PROBABLE PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EFFECTS OF VIBRATION, WE CONCLUDED THAT THE SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN VIBRATION OF THE HELMET CAUSED BY THE MECHANICAL SIGHT LINKAGE MAY BE EXPECTED TO DEGRADE PILOT/GUNNER VISUAL PERFORMANCE AND HEARING ACUITY, AND INCREASE FATIGUE RATE TO SOME EXTENT. INSUFFICIENT DATA CURRENTLY IS AVAILABLE TO PREDICT THE MAGNITUDE OF PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION WHICH COULD RESULT FROM INCREASES IN HELMET VIBRATIONS.
KEYWORDS: VIBRATION, HELMET MOUNTED SIGHT, ROTARY-WING HELICOPTER, FOURIER ANALYSIS, AH-1 COBRA, FLIGHT HELMETS, SPECTRAL ANALYSIS, VISION
81-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 591 DTIC #: ADA102198
TITLE: HELICOPTER CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEMS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN PREVENTING THERMAL INJURY. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP, PIERRE ALLEMOND, DAVID H. KARNEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN 1968, THE UNITED STATES ARMY COMMITTED ITSELF TO A GOAL OF ELIMINATING POST-CRASH FIRES IN SURVIVABLE HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS. NEW HELICOPTERS MANUFACTURED AFTER 1970 WERE EQUIPPED WITH A CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEM, AND AN EXTENSIVE RETROFIT PROGRAM OF OLDER AIRCRAFT WAS BEGUN. THIS PAPER REVIEWS ALL ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS DURING THE PERIOD 1968-1976 AND CLASSIFIES THEM BY SURVIVABILITY AND WHETHER OR NOT THE AIRCRAFT WAS EQUIPPED WITH A CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEM. ACCIDENT-ASSOCIATED FATALITIES AND INJURIES WERE RECLASSIFIED AS TO THE PRIMARY INJURY INVOLVED AND ITS RELA-TIONSHIP TO THE EXISTENCE OF ANY POSTCRASH FIRE. THE DIRECT COSTS INVOLVED IN THE CARE OF THERMAL FATALITIES AND THERMAL INJURIES WERE CALCULATED USING THE MOST CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATES. IT IS SHOWN THAT THE HELICOPTER CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEM ESSENTIALLY ELIMINATED POSTCRASH FATALITIES AND INJURIES IN ACCIDENTS INVOLVING HELICOPTERS EQUIPPED WITH THE NEW SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: FIRE, HELICOPTER, CRASHWORTHINESS, BURN PREVENTION, FUEL CONTAMINANT
81-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1069 DTIC #: ADA108131
TITLE: VIBRATION LEVELS IN ARMY HELICOPTER--MEASUREMENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND DATA
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. JOHNSON, DAVID B. PRISER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WE REVIEWED LITERATURE ON VIBRATION LEVELS FOUND IN CURRENTLY-FIELDED HELICOPTERS IN ORDER TO PREPARE A COMPARATIVE SUMMARY OF VIBRATION EXPOSURE LEVELS AT CREW STATIONS AND OF THE TEST METHODS USED TO MEASURE THESE LEVELS. THIS EFFECT WAS INITIATED AT THE REQUEST OF THE AIR STANDARDIZATION COORDINATING COMMITTEE (ASCC) WORKING PARTY 61 AND BECAUSE OF THE WIDE VARIETY OF METHODS USED IN DATA CAPTURE AND INSTRUMENTATION DOCUMENTATION. SOURCES IN LITERATURE REVIEWED INCLUDED TECHNICAL REPORTS OF U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND PAPERS IN OPEN LITERATURE. ARTICLES WERE REVIEWED BASED UPON THREE CRITERIA: (1) QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF VIBRATION IN CURRENTLY-FIELDED U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WINGED AIRCRAFT, (2) ARTICLE CONTENTS ARE UNCLASSIFIED AND AVAILABLE FOR PUBLICATION IN OPEN LITERATURE, AND (3) ARTICLE DESCRIBES HUMAN EXPOSURE LEVELS IN AIRCRAFT VIBRATION.
KEYWORDS: VIBRATION, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, HELICOPTERS, ARMY AIRCRAFT, COCKPITS, SEATS, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ACCELEROMETERS
81-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 820 DTIC #: ADA221421
TITLE: OPERATOR'S MANUAL FOR VARIABLE WEIGHT, VARIABLE CG HELMET SIMULATOR. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CRAIG M. SVOBODA, JAMES C. WARRICK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A VARIABLE WEIGHT, VARIABLE CG HELMET SIMULATOR HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO MEASURE THE EFFECT OF U.S. ARMY HEADGEAR ON MUSCLE LOADING AND FATIGUE. THE HELMET SIMULATOR CONSISTS OF TWO WEIGHT CONCEALMENT BOXES ATTACHED TO OPPOSITE SIDES OF A SUPPORTING HEAD WHICH IN TURN IS MOUNTED ON THE WEARER'S HEAD BY A SUSPENSION SYSTEM TAKEN FROM AN SPH-4 HELMET. THE WEIGHT AND CG CAN BE ALTERED BY POSITIONING VARIABLE WEIGHTS WITHIN THE CONCEALMENT BOXES.
KEYWORDS: HELMET SIMULATOR, VARIABLE HELMET WEIGHT, VARIABLE HELMET CENTER OF GRAVITY, SPH-4 HELMET
82-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 752 DTIC #: ADA111880
TITLE: DIRECT AND NEIGHBORING SENSITIVITY CHANGES PRODUCED BY RED AND BLUE-WHITE ADAPTING FIELDS
AUTHOR(s): FRANKLIN F. HOLLY, VIRGIL R. ROGERS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OBSERVERS VIEWED ARMY INSTRUMENT PANEL LIGHTING RED AND AIR FORCE INSTRUMENT PANEL LIGHTING BLUE-WHITE ADAPTATION FIELDS AND THEIR THRESHOLDS WERE DETERMINED BOTH WITHIN THE ADAPATATION FIELD AND OUTSIDE OF IT. IN SOME CASES, THRESHOLDS WERE DETERMINED WHILE THE ADAPTATION FIELD WAS STILL ON AND IN OTHER CASES THEY WERE DETER-MINED AFTER THE ADAPTATION FIELDS HAD BEEN OFF FOR 10 SECONDS. ALSO, SOME TRIALS WERE PERFORMED UNDER OTHERWISE TOTALLY DARK AMBIENT CONDITIONS AND OTHER TRIALS WERE PERFORMED UNDER AN AMBIENT ILLUMINATION WHICH SIMULATED THAT PRODUCED BY A FULL MOON ON A CLEAR NIGHT. IT WAS FOUND THAT UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS OF TOTAL DARKNESS THRESHOLDS WERE LOWER WITH THE RED ADAPTATION FIELD THAN WITH THE BLUE-WHITE. WITH THE FULL MOON AMBIENT ILLUMINATION THE RESULTS WERE MORE VARIED. WHEN THE TRIALS WERE PERFORMED AFTER THE ADAPTATION FIELD HAD BEEN TURNED OFF, THERE WERE GENERALLY NO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE THRESHOLDS PRODUCED BY THE RED ADAPTATION FIELD AND THOSE PRODUCED BY THE BLUE-WHITE ADAPTATION FIELD. ON THE OTHER HAND, WHEN TRIALS WERE PERFORMED WITH THE ADAPTATION FIELD STILL ON, THERE WAS AN INTER-ACTION SUCH THAT THRESHOLDS WERE LOWER WITH THE BLUE-WHITE FIELD AT THE SMALLEST ADAPTATION FIELD INTENSITIES OR WITH THE RED FIELD AT THE GREATEST ADAPTATION FIELD INTENSITIES. THE RESULTS WERE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR AIRCRAFT LIGHTING AND THE POSSIBLE ROLES PLAYED BY STRAY LIGHT AND OTHER UNDERLYING PROCESSES.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT LIGHTING, DARK ADAPTATION, RED LIGHTING, BLUE-WHITE LIGHTING
82-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 963 DTIC #: ADA113610
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF U.S. ARMY AVIATION MISHAP INJURY PATTERNS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. HICKS, BILLY H. ADAMS, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT ADVANCES IN U.S. ARMY PROCEDURES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF PERSONNEL INJURIES RESULTING FROM AIRCRAFT MISHAPS ARE REVIEWED. MISHAP INJURY DATA REQUIREMENTS BASED ON THE NEEDS OF RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE ANALYSES ARE DISCUSSED. THE REQUIREMENT FOR THESE ANALYSES TO SUPPORT ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT DECISIONS THAT WILL IMPLEMENT REMEDIAL PROGRAMS TO CORRECT IDENTIFIED CRASHWORTHINESS DEFICIENCIES IS DISCUSSED. THIS PAPER SUMMARIZES THE U.S. ARMY PROCESS FOR GATHERING AVIATION MISHAP INJURY DATA, DESCRIBES MODIFICATIONS TO PROCEDURES AND CODES FOR RECORDING INJURY DATA, AND PROVIDES EXAMPLES OF USE OF THE DATA RESULTING IN FLEETWIDE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT MISHAP, INJURY, ACCIDENT REPORTING, CRASHWORTHINESS, INJURY CODING
82-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2020 DTIC #: ADA221134
TITLE: STUDIES OF AURAL NONLINERAITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF AUDITORY FATIGUE. PART II: EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODS IN NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN ERDREICH, LINDA ERDREICH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS A TUTORIAL ON EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODS WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCES TO POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO STUDYING NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
82-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2072 DTIC #: ADA117428
TITLE: OSCILLATIONS IN THE VISUAL RESPONSE TO PULSED STIMULI
AUTHOR(s): FRANKLIN F. HOLLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DUNLAP (1915) REPORTED A PHENOMENON IN WHICH A SINGLE PHOTIC PULSE, PRESENTED IN THE PERIPHERY UNDER MESOPIC CONDITIONS, IS PERCEIVED AS TWO SEQUENTIAL FLASHES. THE PRESENT WORK INDICATES THAT THIS DOUBLE-FLASH EFFECT IS BUT A SPECIAL CASE OF A CLASS OF AUTO-OSCILLATORY PHENOMENA OCCURRING AT A FREQUENCY IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF 10 HZ. FLICKER STUDIES BY SEVERAL INVESTIGATORS (E.G., DE LANGE, 1958) HAVE INDI-CATED A RESONANCE (TEMPORAL MTF PEAK) AT APPROXIMATELY 10 HZ. IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE FREQUENCY OF THE OSCILLATORY PHENOMENA DESCRIBED HERE RESULTS FROM THE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THE NETWORK RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS PEAK. IT ALSO IS BELIEVED THAT THESE PHENOMENA ARE RELATED TO THE OSCILLATORY POTENTIALS WHICH HAVE BEEN RECORDED FROM RETINA AND CORTEX. THE IMPETUS FOR THIS WORK WAS PROVIDED BY THE NEED TO EXPLICATE CERTAIN OSCILLATORY PHENOMENA WHICH HAD BEEN NOTED IN THE COURSE OF EVALUATING PROPOSED LIGHTING SYSTEMS ON NEW ARMY HELICOPTERS.
KEYWORDS: TEMPORAL RESPONSE, AUTO-OSCILLATION, DOUBLE-FLASH EFFECT
82-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1078 DTIC #: ADA119237
TITLE: PURSUIT ROTOR TRACKING PERFORMANCE IN CONJUNCTION WITH EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): LEWIS W. STONE, GERALD P. KRUEGER, WILLIAM R. HOLT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX U.S. ARMY INITIAL ENTRY ROTARY-WING SCHOOL GRADUATES PARTICIPATED AS SUBJECTS IN A WEEK-LONG STUDY TO EXAMINE THE EFFECTS OF EXTENDED SIMULATED HELICOPTER OPERATIONS ON PURSUIT TRACKING SKILLS. USING A PHOTOELECTRIC ROTARY PURSUIT DEVICE, THREE FIXED PATTERNS (A SQUARE, A CIRCLE, AND A TRIANGLE) WERE PRESENTED TO EACH SUBJECT THREE TIMES DAILY FOR 5 DAYS. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS REVEALED A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN SUBJECT PERFORMANCE BETWEEN PATTERNS. IT ALSO REVEALED A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN PERFORMANCE OVER DAYS ON ONE OF THE PATTERNS--THE TRIANGLE. THE THREAD WOVEN THROUGH THESE RESULTS SEEMED TO BE ONE OF RELATIVE COMPLEXITY. IT SUGGESTED THAT THE EFFECTS OF SUSTAINED OPERATIONS INTERFERED WITH THE AVIATOR'S ABILITY TO FULLY INTEGRATE HIS MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS IN ORDER TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF A MORE COMPLEX TASK.
KEYWORDS: TRACKING, PURSUIT, FATIGUE, ROTARY PURSUIT, AVIATOR FATIGUE, PSYCHOMOTOR
82-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2556 DTIC #: ADA120597
TITLE: PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SCANNING TECHNIQUES USE BY U.S. COAST GUARD LOOKOUTS DURING SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSIONS
AUTHOR(s): N. JOAN BLACKWELL, RONALD R. SIMMONS, JIMMIE R. WATSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS RESEARCH WAS A COOPERATIVE STUDY UNDERTAKEN BY THE U.S. COAST GUARD RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER (USCG R&D) AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL). EYE PERFORMANCE DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM COAST GUARD PERSONNEL PERFORMING AS LOOKOUTS DURING SIMULATED SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSIONS ON HH-3F HELICOPTERS, A 210-FOOT CUTTER, AND AN 82-FOOT CUTTER. VISUAL PERFORMANCE WAS MEASURED BY MEANS OF NAC EYE MARK RECORDER SYSTEMS DURING THE WINTER 1981 VISUAL DETECTION EXPERIMENT CONDUCTED BY THE USCG R&D CENTER IN THE GULF OF MEXICO OFF OF PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA, DURING JANUARY AND FEBRUARY 1981. THE VISUAL PERFORMANCE MEASURES WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE SCANNING PATTERNS UTILIZED BY THE VARIOUS LOOKOUTS. BASED UPON THIS INITIAL STUDY, IT APPEARS THAT MOST PERSONNEL SPEND ABOUT ONE-HALF OF SEARCH TIME ON ONLY ONE SEGMENT OF THEIR TOTAL ASSIGNED VIEWING AREA. FOR EXAMPLE, PILOTS AND COPILOTS SPEND MOST OF THEIR TIME LOOKING OUT THEIR RESPECTIVE FRONT WINDOWS. FOR THE SURFACE VESSELS, THE SUBJECTS SEEMED TO DISPLAY THE CONDITION TERMED "EYE LOCK" ---THAT IS, A LOOKOUT WOULD POSITION HIS EYES AND KEEP THEM STATIONARY, ALLOWING THE MOVEMENT OF THE SEARCH VESSEL TO DICTATE HIS SCAN PATH. THE SCANNER PATTERNS PRESCRIBED IN THE U.S. COAST GUARD TRAINING MANUALS WERE USED INFREQUENTLY; RATHER THE OBSERVERS FOLLOWED THE OUTLINE OF STRUCTURES WITHIN THEIR FIELDS-OF-VIEW.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL PERFORMANCE, SCANNING TECHNIQUES, DEGRADED TARGETS, GEOMETRIC GUIDES
82-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3914 DTIC #: ADA120501
TITLE: COMPARISON OF HELICOPTER COPILOT WORKLOAD WHILE USING THREE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS DURING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, GERALD P. KRUEGER, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THREE DIFFERENT GENERIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS WERE EXAMINED FOR THEIR EFFECTS ON HELICOPTER COPILOT/NAVIGATOR WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE DURING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) FLIGHT. THE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS EXAMINED WERE: (1) THE CONVENTIONAL 1:50,000 SCALE TOPOGRAPHIC HAND-HELD MAP; (2) A DOPPLER NAVIGATION SYSTEM IN CON-JUNCTION WITH A HAND-HELD MAP; AND (3) A PROJECTED MAP SYSTEM DRIVEN BY DOPPLER SIGNALS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A HAND-HELD MAP. EIGHTEEN PILOTS PERFORMED COPILOT/ NAVIGATOR DUTIES IN AN ARMY JU-1H UTILITY HELICOPTER FLOWN BY A LABORATORY RESEARCH PILOT. DATA COLLECTED INCLUDED MEASURES OF NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE, PILOT-COPILOT COMMUNICATIONS, AND COPILOT/NAVIGATOR EYE MOVEMENTS.
KEYWORDS: NAVIGATION DISPLAYS, NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, NAVIGATION AIDS, NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE, NAVIGATION AVIONICS, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) NAVIGATION, NAVIGATION WORKLOAD, VISUAL WORKLOAD, HELICOPTER CO-PILOT WORKLOAD, COMMUNICATION WORKLOAD, NAVIGATION COMMUNICATION
82-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1393 DTIC #: ADA121502
TITLE: PERFORMANCE IMPACT OF CURRENT UNITED STATES AND UNITED KINGDOM AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLES
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE E. HAMILTON, DENNIS FOLDS, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX MALE VOLUNTEERS FROM THE GRADUATE ENTRY LEVEL FLIGHT PROGRAM AT THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION CENTER (USAAVNC), FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ABILITY OF HELICOPTER PILOTS TO FLY WHILE WEARING CHEMICAL DEFENSE (CD) ENSEMBLES IN HOT WEATHER. EACH SUBJECT FLEW ON THREE SEPARATE DAYS, WEARING A DIFFERENT ENSEMBLE EACH DAY. THE ENSEMBLES TESTED WERE THE UNITED STATES ARMY AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, THE UNITED KINGDOM AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, AND THE UNITED STATES STANDARD FLIGHT SUIT UNIFORM. WHILE SUBJECTS MADE STATISTICALLY LARGER HEADING ERRORS WHILE WEARING THE U.S. CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, NO OPERATIONALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE WERE SEEN. IT ALSO WAS CONCLUDED THAT A PILOT'S PERFORMANCE WAS NOT AN INDICATOR OF HEAT STRESS.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, HELICOPTER, PERFORMANCE, US CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, UK CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
82-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 406 DTIC #: ADA120596
TITLE: CATHODE-RAY-TUBE RASTER LINE SELECTOR WITH HORIZONTAL MODULATION CAPABILITY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN H. HAPGOOD, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SIMPLE AND INEXPENSIVE CIRCUIT WHICH PROVIDES A METHOD OF SELECTING THE NUMBER AND POSITION OF ACTIVE RASTER LINES VISIBLE ON A CRT DISPLAY IS PRESENTED. REQUIRING INPUTS OF VERTICAL DRIVE AND HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SYNC SIGNALS, THE CIRCUIT PRODUCES AN OUTPUT WHICH CAN BE FED DIRECTLY INTO THE VIDEO INPUT OF THE DISPLAY.
KEYWORDS: RASTER LINE SELECTOR, CATHODE-RAY-TUBE (CRT), MODULATION
83-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3190 DTIC #: ADA121151
TITLE: MODIFIED FACEPLATE FOR AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LACK OF PERIPHERAL VISION WHILE FLYING WITH THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG) WAS A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN AN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT. BECAUSE OF THIS ACCIDENT, A MODIFIED FACEPLATE (MFP) FOR NVG WAS CONFIGURED TO ALLOW PILOTS UNAIDED LATERAL AND LOWER VISION. TWENTY MFP NVG WERE WORN DURING FLIGHT BY 47 NVG-QUALIFIED AVIATORS FOR AN AVERAGE OF 18 HOURS PER AVIATOR. THE AVERAGE RECORDED FLIGHT HOURS FOR EACH OF THE 20 MFP NVG WAS 43.5 HOURS.
KEYWORDS: AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), MODIFIED NVG FACEPLATE, NVG FIELD OF VIEW, FLIGHT SAFETY
83-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1829 DTIC #: ADA121763
TITLE: THRESHOLD SHIFTS AND COCHLEAR INJURY IN CHINCHILLA EXPOSED TO OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE CENTERED AT 63 AND 100 HZ FOR 9 DAYS
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES K. BURDICK, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, C.E., HARGETT, JR., ROGER P. HAMERNIK, DONALD HENDERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF A-WEIGHTED SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS IN HEARING CONSERVATION CRITERIA IS BASED ON SCANT DATA FROM LOW FREQUENCY EXPOSURES. THIS STUDY CONTRIBUTES ADDITIONAL DATA FROM EXPOSURE TO LOW FREQUENCY NOISE AND ATTEMPTS TO RELATE IT TO DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA. AUDIOGRAMS WERE OBTAINED ON 16 BINAURAL CHINCHILLAS USING A SHUTTLE BOX AVOIDANCE PROCEDURE. THE CHINCHILLAS THEN WERE EXPOSED IN GROUPS TO ONE OF THE FOLLOWING NOISE CONDITIONS FOR 9 DAYS. EIGHT ANIMALS WERE EXPOSED TO AN OCTAVE BAND NOISE CENTERED AT 1000 HZ: FOUR WERE EXPOSED AT AN INTENSITY LEVEL OF 85 DB SPL (85 DBA) AND FOUR AT AN INTENSITY LEVEL OF 95 DB SPL (95 DBA). THE 85-DB EXPOSURE PRODUCED A TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT OF 46 DB AT 1.4 KHZ WITH NO PERMANENT THRES-HOLD SHIFT. THE 95-DB EXPOSURE PRODUCED A COMPOUND THRESHOLD SHIFT OF 60 DB AT 1.4 KHZ AND A PEAK PERMANENT THRESHOLD SHIFT OF 28 DB AT 2.0 KHZ.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
83-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 579 DTIC #: ADA121351
TITLE: HEARING LOSS FROM LOW FREQUENCY NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES K. BURDICK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AUDITORY DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA (DRC) DEFINING EXPOSURE TO CONTINUOUS NOISES SPECIFIES THE INTENSITY LEVELS OF NOISE IN TERMS OF A-WEIGHTED LEVELS. A SERIES OF STUDIES WERE UNDERTAKEN TO INVESTIGATE THE SUITABILITY OF USING A-WEIGHTED INTENSITY LEVELS IN FORMULATING THE DRC. GROUPS OF CHINCHILLAS WERE EXPOSED TO OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE WITH CENTER FREQUENCIES OF 31.5-, 63-, 125-, 250-, AND 1000-HZ. BANDS OF NOISE WITH CENTER FREQUENCIES BELOW 500 HZ PRODUCED MAXIMUM THRESHOLD SHIFTS THREE TO SEVEN OCTAVES ABOVE THE CENTER FREQUENCY OF THE NOISE BAND. THIS SHARPLY CONTRASTS WITH THE FINDINGS THAT BANDS OF NOISE WITH CENTER FREQUENCIES OF 500 HZ AND HIGHER, PRODUCE MAXIMUM SHIFTS OF ONE TO ONE AND ONE-HALF OCTAVES ABOVE THE CENTER FREQUENCY OF THE NOISE BAND. THE GENERAL FINDING WAS THAT LOW FREQUENCY NOISE PRODUCES HIGH-FREQUENCY HEARING LOSS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
83-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 620 DTIC #: ADA221095
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SMEAR IN CRT DISPLAYS DUE TO SCAN RATE AND PHOSPHOR PERSISTENCE
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JACOB BECHER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INCREASE IN THE USE OF CATHODE-RAY-TUBE (CRT) DISPLAYS FOR TARGET DETECTION AND RECOGNITION HAS PLACED AN EMPHASIS ON THE ABILITY OF THESE DISPLAYS TO ACCURATELY REPRODUCE AMPLITUDE AND PHASE INFORMATION FOR DYNAMIC TARGETS. THIS ANALYSIS INVESTIGATES THE THEORETICAL DYNAMIC IMAGE DEGRADATION OCCURRING AT THE DISPLAY AS A RESULT OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE TARGET/SENSOR RELATIVE VELOCITY, THE CRT SYSTEM SCAN RATE, AND THE PERSISTENCE OF THE DISPLAY PHOSPHOR. EXPRESSIONS ARE DEVELOPED TO ALLOW COMPARISON OF PHOSPHORS ON THE BASIS OF MODULATION LOSS DUE TO TARGET/SENSOR MOTION. A MODEL IS DEVELOPED WHICH EQUATES A TARGET HAVING A SPATIAL FREQUENCY (S) AND MOVING WITH A HORIZONTAL SPEED (V) TO A STATIONARY TARGET WITH A SINUSOIDAL VARY-ING INTENSITY OF FREQUENCY, FT, EQUAL TO SV. THE MODEL IDENTIFIES PHOSPHOR PERSISTENCE AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION LOSS AND PREDICTS SEVERAL IMAGE ARTIFACTS SUCH AS "FREEZING" AND APPARENT MOTION REVERSAL.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE SMEAR, SCAN RATE, PHOSPHER PERSISTENCE, CATHODE-RAY TUBE
83-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1270 DTIC #: ADA121956
TITLE: PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE IMPOSED HEAT STRESS ON ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE E. HAMILTON, RONALD R. SIMMONS, KENT A. KIMBALL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING WAS CONDUCTED WITH SIX ARMY AVIATORS BEFORE AND AFTER FLIGHTS IN A UH-1H HELICOPTER WHILE WEARING STANDARD FLIGHT SUITS, U.S. OR UK AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLES. ADDITIONAL TESTING ON NONFLIGHT DAYS WAS CONDUCTED TO PROVIDE A BASELINE FOR EVALUATION. TESTS CONSISTED OF ENCODE/DECODE PROBLEMS, MATH PROBLEMS, LOGICAL REASONING PROBLEMS, TARGET DETECTION PROBLEMS, AND A FOUR-CHOICE REACTION TIME TEST.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS, CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, US CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, UK CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
83-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1678 DTIC #: ADA125616
TITLE: PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS DURING THE WEAR OF THE U.S. AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE E. HAMILTON, LILIANA ZAPATA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL (AS OPPOSED TO PHYSIOLOGICAL) EFFECTS OF WEARING A U.S. AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE WERE EVALUATED USING 12 MALE AND 12 FEMALE VOLUNTEERS. HALF OF THE MALES AND HALF OF THE FEMALES WORE CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLES WHILE THE REST WORE STANDARD U.S. FLIGHT SUITS AS CONTROLS. ALL SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED TESTS OF COGNITION (MATH, LOGICAL REASONING, TARGET DETECTION, AND REACTION TIME) BEFORE AND AFTER 6 HOURS OF WEAR IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT. IN ADDITION, SUBJECTS RATED THEIR MOOD BEFORE AND AFTER WEAR. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT WEARING THE ENSEMBLE IN AN UNDEMANDING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADED AFFECT (MOOD AND ACTIVATION LEVELS), SLIGHTLY DECREASED ACCURACY, AND SUBSTANTIALLY DECREASED REACTION TIMES, ESPECIALLY THE FEMALES. THE MOST SERIOUS IMPACT OF THE ENSEMBLE WOULD SEEM TO BE A DECREASE IN MORALE AMONG FEMALES.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, US CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, UK CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
83-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 842 DTIC #: ADA163266
TITLE: TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFTS PRODUCED BY EXPOSURE TO LOW-FREQUENCY NOISES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN H. MILLS, J. DAVID OSGUTHORPE, C. K. BURDICK, J. H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: GROUPS OF HUMAN SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED FOR 8 OR 24 HOURS TO AN OCTAVE-BAND NOISE CENTERED AT 63, 125, OR 250 HZ. FOR A 24-HOUR EXPOSURE AT 84 DBA, TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFTS (TTS) INCREASED FOR 8-12 HOURS AND THEN EITHER DECREASED OR REMAINED CONSTANT. ALTHOUGH TTS WAS LESS THAN 20 DB, COMPLETE RECOVERY FOR MANY OF THE SUBJECTS REQUIRED AS LONG AS 48 HOURS. ACCORDINGLY, THE HIGHER LEVEL EXPOSURE WHICH WAS PLANNED AT 94 DBA FOR 24 HOURS WAS REDUCED TO 90 DBA FOR 8 HOURS. FOR THIS CONDITION, TTS INCREASED THROUGHOUT THE 8-HOUR EXPOSURE. TTS FROM THE 90 DBA NOISE FOR 8 HOURS EXCEEDED THE TTS PRODUCED BY THE 84 DBA; HOWEVER, RECOVERY FROM THE 24-HOUR EXPOSURE REQUIRED AS LONG AS 48 HOURS, WHEREAS RECOVERY FROM THE 8-HOUR EXPOSURE REQUIRED ONLY 12-24 HOURS. THUS, THE TIME FOR RECOVERY IS DETERMINED IN PART BY THE DURATION OF EXPOSURE. TTS WAS NOT ALWAYS MAXIMAL 1/2-1 OCTAVE ABOVE THE BAND OF NOISE, BUT WAS MAXIMAL IN THE FREQUENCY REGIONS OF BETTER AUDITORY SENSITIVITY (350 TO 750 HZ). FOR THE 250 HZ CONDITION, TTS INCREASED ABOUT 1.5 DB PER DB INCREASE IN NOISE LEVEL, WHEREAS FOR THE 63- AND 125-HZ CONDITIONS TTS INCREASED LESS THAN 1 DB PER DB INCREASE IN NOISE LEVEL. MORE DATA ARE NEEDED TO SPECIFY THE RELATION BETWEEN TTS AND THE LEVEL OF LOW-FREQUENCY NOISES.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, ACOUSTICS
83-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 986 DTIC #: ADA129694
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF THE SWINE AS A LARGE ANIMAL MODEL FOR NOISE RESEARCH
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL ETTINGER, DENNIS L. CURD, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES AN ATTEMPT TO DEVELOP THE SWINE AS A LARGE ANIMAL MODEL TO BE USED IN RESEARCH ON NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS. ANIMALS WERE TRAINED TO PERFORM IN A "YES-NO" SIGNAL DETECTION PARADIGM FOR HEAT AS A POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT. RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE ANIMALS CAN LEARN THIS TASK; HOWEVER, THE METHOD FAILED TO PRODUCE AN AUDIOGRAM. THIS WAS ATTRIBUTED TO A FAILURE TO INDUCE AN ADEQUATE MOTIVATIONAL LEVEL IN THE SUBJECTS.
KEYWORDS: ANIMAL AUDIOMETRY, HEARING, ANIMAL LEARNING, ACOUSTICS
83-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2230 DTIC #: ADA130279
TITLE: IMPACT AND VIBRATION TESTING OF A MODIFIED UH-1 CREW SEAT
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., JOHN C. JOHNSON, JOHN H. WELLS, HEINRICH KNOCHE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE GERMAN AIR FORCE HAS DEVELOPED A MODIFIED UH-1 PILOT SEAT DESIGNED TO IMPROVE COMFORT BY INCREASING SUPPORT TO THE THIGH AND LOWER BACK, PROVIDING BETTER VIBRATION DAMPENING AND INCREASING COLD WEATHER COMFORT. THIS SEAT WAS TESTED FOR VIBRATION DAMPENING, PILOT ACCEPTANCE, AND IMPACT TOLERANCE IN A SIDE-BY-SIDE TEST WITH THE STANDARD UH-1 SEAT. THE MODIFIED SEAT IS MORE COMFORTABLE THAN THE STANDARD UH-1 SEAT. THE MODIFIED SEAT PROVIDES BETTER IMPACT PROTECTION THAN THE STANDARD SEAT, PROVIDED THAT THE SEAT FRAME AND RESTRAINT SYSTEM DO NOT TEAR LOOSE. THE MODIFIED SEAT DOES NOT PROVIDE BETTER VIBRATION DAMPENING THAN THE STANDARD UH-1 SEAT.
KEYWORDS: IMPACT, VIBRATION, UH-1, BACK PAIN, ACCELEROMETER
83-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 590 DTIC #: ADA130676
TITLE: ATTENUATION VARIATION OBTAINED WITH SUBJECT FIT OF THE SIGMA ENGINEERING TRIPLE-FLANGE INSERT HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICE
AUTHOR(s): JEROD L. GOLDSTEIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SOUND ATTENUATION PROVIDED BY A PREFORMED TRIPLE-FLANGE INSERT HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICE WAS DETERMINED WHEN THE USER HAD NO FITTING INSTRUCTIONS OR TRAINING IN THE USE OF THE DEVICE. THIS SITUATION DOES OCCUR IN MANY INSTANCES AMONG U.S. ARMY PERSONNEL. THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY INDICATE THAT THE LACK OF TRAINING IN THE USE OF SIGMA ENGINEERING TRIPLE-FLANGE EARPLUG REDUCES THE AVAILABLE SOUND ATTENUA-TION PROVIDED BY THE EARPLUG BY APPROXIMATELY 5 DB AT MOST FREQUENCIES. FURTHER-MORE, THE ATTENUATION WAS MORE VARIABLE THAN THAT FOUND IN THE "EXPERIMENTER FIT" GROUP OF SUBJECTS TESTED. ADEQUATE FITTING INSTRUCTIONS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED AND ISSUED WITH THE HEARING PROTECTORS. USERS SHOULD BE TRAINED IN THE USE OF THE DEVICE.
KEYWORDS: ATTENUATION, IN-THE-EAR PROTECTORS, TRAINING, HEARING LOSS, FITTING, PROCEDURES
83-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1465 DTIC #: ADA132069
TITLE: EXTENT OF HEARING LOSS AMONG ARMY AVIATORS AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA
AUTHOR(s): LESLIE J. PETERS, HELEN FORD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY PROVIDED HEARING THRESHOLD DATA FOR ARMY AVIATORS STATIONED AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, FROM FEBRUARY THROUGH AUGUST 1982. THE MEAN PURE TONE THRESHOLDS WERE FOUND TO BE IMPROVED WHEN COMPARED TO DATA GATHERED BY WALDEN AND MCCURDY IN 1971. THIS IMPROVEMENT PARTIALLY WAS ATTRIBUTED TO REDESIGN OF THE AVIATION HELMET AND INCREASED AWARENESS AND COMPLIANCE WITH HEARING CONSERVATION MEASURES. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT TIGHTER ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS ALSO CONTRIBUTED TO THE REDUCED THRESHOLD VALUES. THIS STUDY FURTHER INDICATED THAT, FOR FORT RUCKER AVIATORS, THERE EXIST THREE THRESHOLD REGIONS CORRELATED WITH FLIGHT HOURS: 50-400 FLIGHT HOURS, 401-3000 FLIGHT HOURS, AND 3001-6000 FLIGHT HOURS. EACH REGION HAS A SPECIFIC RANGE OF HEARING LOSS MEASURED BY COMPARING 2000 AND 4000 HZ THRESHOLDS FOR THE LEFT EAR. ANYONE FALLING OUTSIDE THE THRESHOLD RANGE FOR HER/HIS RESPECTIVE REGION COULD BE IDENTIFIED FOR POSSIBLE FOLLOW-UP PROCEDURES.
KEYWORDS: HEARING LOSS, AVIATION, HEARING CONSERVATION
83-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1561 DTIC #: ADA132498
TITLE: HELICOPTER IN-FLIGHT MONITORING SYSTEM---SECOND GENERATION (HIMS II)
AUTHOR(s): HEBER D. JONES, J. ALAN LEWIS, ALFORD A. HIGDON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PRESENTED IS A DESCRIPTION OF A COMPUTERIZED AIRBORNE DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM USED TO MEASURE PILOT PERFORMANCE IN A UH-1 HELICOPTER. THE UNIT CAN RECORD APPROXIMATELY 20 AIRCRAFT PARAMETERS IN ADDITION TO OTHER EXPERIMENTAL DATA. THIS REPORT ALSO CAN SERVE AS AN OPERATOR'S MANUAL FOR THE SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: COMPUTER, AIRBORNE DATA ACQUISITION, IN-FLIGHT DATA, AIRCRAFT MONITORING, PILOT PERFORMANCE
83-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1306 DTIC #: ADA134828
TITLE: IMPACT RESPONSE OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, ALBERT I. KING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWELVE IMPACT TESTS ON INSTRUMENTED HUMAN CADAVERS WERE PERFORMED AT WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY TO COMPARE THE LOAD ATTENUATING CAPABILITY OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP WITH THAT OF THE STANDARD RIGID EARCUP USED IN SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMETS. SPH-4 HELMETED CADAVERS WERE DROPPED FROM HEIGHTS VARYING FROM 1.17 TO 2.03 METERS SO AS TO RECEIVE A DIRECT IMPACT TO THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE EARCUPS. LOADS WERE MEASURED AT THE IMPACT SURFACE AND ACCELERATIONS WERE MEASURED THROUGH A TRIAXIAL ACCELEROMETER MOUNTED TO THE CADAVER'S MAXILLA. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA SHOWS A SIGNIFICANT DECREASE IN BOTH PEAK LOAD AND ACCELERATION IN THE Y AXIS FOR THE ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP EQUIPPED HELMETS OVER THOSE MEASURED FOR THE STANDARD EARCUP EQUIPPED HELMETS.
KEYWORDS: FLIGHT HELMET, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, HEAD INJURY, EARCUP
84-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 715 DTIC #: ADA138014
TITLE: UH-60 SHOULDER HARNESS LEAD-IN STRAP FAILURE ANALYSIS
AUTHOR(s): TED A. HUNDLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SHOULDER HARNESS LEAD-IN STRAP FAILURES HAVE OCCURRED IN SEVERAL UH-60 BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS WITH CREWMEMBERS BEING INJURED AS A RESULT. AN INVESTIGATION INTO POSSIBLE FAILURE CAUSES WAS CONDUCTED. THE TWO MOST LIKELY CAUSES FOUND WERE INCORRECT INSTALLATION OF THE SEAT INSERT GUIDE AND AN INCREASE IN STRESS IN THE LEAD-IN STRAP CAUSED BY THE RADIUS OF BEND AT THE POINT WHERE THE STRAP PASSES THROUGH THE SEAT BACK. TESTS SHOWED THAT INCORRECT INSTALLATION OF THE SEAT INSERT GUIDE CAUSED A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN THE FAILURE LOAD OF THE WEBBING. TESTS ALSO SHOWED THAT A REDUCTION IN FAILURE LOAD OCCURRED WHEN THE WEBBING WAS PULLED OVER A RADIUSED CORNER. THE FIRST PROBLEM WAS SOLVED BY REMOVING AND REINSTALLING THE SEAT INSERT GUIDES. THE SECOND PROBLEM CAN BE DEALT WITH BY USING A HIGHER-STRENGTH LEAD-IN STRAP.
KEYWORDS: RESTRAINT HARNESS FAILURE, SHOULDER HARNESS FAILURE, BLACKHAWK ACCIDENTS, WEBBING, CRASHWORTHINESS
84-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 550 DTIC #: ADA138042
TITLE: COMPARISON OF REAL-EAR ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 EARCUP AND A PROTOTYPE CRUSHABLE EARCUP
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, WILLIAM R. NELSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR'S HELMET IN THE ARMY IS TO PROVIDE HEARING PROTECTION, VOICE COMMUNICATIONS, AND HEAD PROTECTION AGAINST IMPACT. EFFORTS HAVE BEEN MADE RECENTLY TO IMPROVE IMPACT PROTECTION IN THE REGION OF THE EARCUP. IN 1977, USAARL CONTRACTED WITH SIMULA INCORPORATED TO DEVELOP AN EARCUP WHICH WOULD PROVIDE GREATER ENERGY ABSORPTION ON IMPACT AND STILL PROVIDE SOUND ATTENUATION EQUIVALENT TO THE CURRENT STANDARD EARCUP. A PROTOTYPE HAS BEEN SUBMITTED FOR EVALUATION OF NOISE ATTENUATION AND COMPARISON TO THE CURRENT STANDARD EARCUP. THE CRUSHABLE EARCUP WAS FOUND TO PROVIDE GREATER HEARING PROTECTION AT MOST TEST FREQUENCIES.
KEYWORDS: EARCUP, EAR PROTECTION, HEARING PROTECTION, IMPACT PROTECTION, SOUND ATTENUATION, REAL-EAR ATTENUATION, SPH-4 HELMET, CRUSHABLE EARCUP, NOISE ATTENUATION
84-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1325 DTIC #: ADA138126
TITLE: EFFECTS OF EXTENDED USE OF AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES ON HELICOPTER PILOTS' PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): LEWIS W. STONE, CHESTER E. DUNCAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF EXTENDED USE OF AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG) WERE INVESTIGATED BY OBSERVING 10 NVG HELICOPTER INSTRUCTOR PILOTS DURING TWO 6-HOUR MISSIONS. EACH MISSION CONSISTED OF THREE 2-HOUR FLIGHTS DURING WHICH PILOT CONTROL INPUTS AND AIRCRAFT STATUS VARIABLES WERE RECORDED IN FLIGHT. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE COMPLETED BEFORE THE FIRST MISSION AND AFTER THE NVG MISSION. IN ORDER TO EXAMINE FOR A CARRYOVER EFFECT, SUBJECTS WERE FLOWN IN A CROSSOVER DESIGN IN WHICH HALF OF THE AVIATORS FLEW NVG ON THE FIRST MISSION, THE OTHER HALF ON THE SECOND. ONLY THE OUT OF-GROUND-EFFECT HOVER SHOWED A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT CARRYOVER EFFECT; THAT IS, SUBJECTS WHO FLEW NAKED EYE BEFORE NVG DEMONSTRATED A GREATER ABSOLUTE DIFFERENCE IN HOVER FLIGHT PERFORMANCE VARIABILITY THAN THOSE WHO FLEW NAKED EYE AFTER NVG FLIGHT. IN THE TRAFFIC PATTERN (FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT), THERE WAS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VISUAL CONDITIONS ONLY. THE POSTFLIGHT QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES REVEALED A CONCERN OVER WHAT WAS DESCRIBED AS A "LACK OF CONCENTRATION" AND A "DECLINE OF MENTAL ALERTNESS." SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS REACTIONS WERE REPORTED. NONE OF THE THREE MANEUVERS ANALYZED REVEALED A SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE ACROSS FLIGHTS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), AVIATOR FATIGUE, CROSSOVER ANALYSIS, WORKLOAD, AVIATOR WORKLOAD, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE
84-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 849 DTIC #: ADA139717
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE AUDIOGRAM OF THE GUINEA PIG FOR THRESHOLD SHIFT STUDIES
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS COMPERATORE, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STUDIES OF NOISE INDUCED THRESHOLD SHIFT IN GUINEA PIGS REQUIRE A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE AUDIOGRAM WHICH MEETS THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: IT MUST BE RELIABLE AND PERMIT THE DETERMINATION OF THRESHOLD AT 8 TO 12 FREQUENCIES IN A SINGLE SESSION LASTING LESS THAN 1 HOUR. A CONDITIONED SUPPRESSION PROCEDURE WAS ADOPTED TO MEET THESE REQUIREMENTS. THREE GUINEA PIGS WERE TRAINED AND A SERIES OF AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED ON EACH. THE AUDIOGRAMS WERE FOUND TO BE RELIABLE AND IN GOOD AGREEMENT WITH PUBLISHED AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED BY OTHER METHODS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE EXPOSURE, HEARING, GUINEA PIG, AUDIOMETRY
84-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1131 DTIC #: ADA143535
TITLE: EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE AND OXYGEN MASKS ON ATTENUATION AND INTELLIGIBILITY WHEN WORN WITH THE SPH-4 HELMET
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, LESLIE J. PETERS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UTILIZATION OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT BY TODAY'S SOLDIER IS ESSENTIAL TO ENHANCE AND ENSURE HIS ABILITY TO PERFORM ON THE BATTLEFIELD. HOWEVER, A GIVEN PERSONAL PROTECTIVE SYSTEM MAY INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF ANOTHER. THIS INVESTIGATION EVALUATED THE EFFECTS OF THREE CHEMICAL DEFENSE MASKS ON SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY AND REAL-EAR ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. THE EFFECTS OF TWO OXYGEN MASKS ON SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY ALSO WERE INVESTIGATED.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASKS, NOISE ATTENUATION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, OXYGEN MASKS
84-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1328 DTIC #: ADA140634
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT EVALUATION OF TWO MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION SYSTEMS IN U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT (JUH-1H, JU-21G)
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. CHAFFIN, JR., BRUCE F. HIOTT, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH USING HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS OXYGEN SYSTEMS HAVE ENCOURAGED THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION SYSTEMS FOR USE ABOARD AIRCRAFT. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES THE IN-FLIGHT STATIC PERFOR-MANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO SUCH OXYGEN CONCENTRATORS INSTALLED IN A JU-21G FIXED-WING, TWIN-ENGINE TURBOPROPELLER AIRCRAFT AND A JUH-1H TURBINE-POWERED HELICOPTER.
KEYWORDS: MOLECULAR SIEVE, ZEOLITE, PRESSURE SWING, OXYGEN CONCENTRATORS, PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
84-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 816 DTIC #: ADA142124
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROPRESSOR BASED AUDIOMETER FOR THRESHOLD SHIFT STUDIES
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., RON MARROW, WILLIAM R. NELSON, ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN ORDER TO PERMIT THE COLLECTION OF DATA ON HEARING THRESHOLD SHIFT RESULTING FROM FIRING ARMY WEAPONS, A MULTICHANNEL MICROPROCESSOR-CONTROLLED AUDIOMETER WAS DEVELOPED. THE SYSTEM FEATURES FOUR SYNCHRONIZED CHANNELS FOR DETERMINING HEARING THRESHOLDS BY A FIXED FREQUENCY, FIX TEST-TIME VON BEKESY TRACKING METHOD. NON-STANDARD, NOISE EXCLUDING HEADSETS WERE DEVELOPED AS PART OF THE SYSTEM. BIOLOGICAL CALIBRATION OF THE SYSTEM WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY COMPARISON TO A CLINICAL AUDIOMETER AND A VALIDATION TEST WAS COMPLETED TO DEMONSTRATE SYSTEM ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY. THE RESULTS INDICATE THE SYSTEM IS AS ACCURATE AS, AND MORE RELIABLE THAN, THE CLINICAL AUDIOMETER.
KEYWORDS: ACOUSTICS, AUDIOMETRY, HEARING, THRESHOLD SHIFTS, MICROPROCESSOR
84-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 967 DTIC #: ADA144179
TITLE: ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY EVALUATION
AUTHOR(s): TED A. HUNDLEY, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CONCEPT OF USING THE INTEGRAL STRUCTURE OF A NOISE-ATTENUATING EARCUP AS A "LOAD-LIMITING" OR ENERGY-ABSORBING DEVICE IS EXPLORED IN THIS REPORT. THE STANDARD EARCUP OF THE ARMY'S SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET IS A VERY RIGID STRUCTURE WHICH REQUIRES A FORCE OF APPROXIMATELY 22,000 NEWTONS TO CAUSE IT TO DEFORM, A FORCE LEVEL THREE TIMES GREATER THAN THE CRUSHING STRENGTH OF THE SKULL. FIFTEEN DIFFERENT "CRUSHABLE" EARCUPS WERE CONSTRUCTED AND EVALUATED FOR NOISE ATTENUATION TO DETERMINE THEIR SUITABILITY FOR PROTOTYPE CONSTRUCTION. THREE EARCUPS WERE SELECTED FOR THE "CRUSHABILITY" EVALUATION. THE CORRUGATED ALUMINUM EARCUP WAS SELECTED AS THE BEST OF THE THREE EVALUATED. THE ALUMINUM EARCUP WAS MODIFIED TO LOWER THE COST AND TO INCREASE THE CRUSHING DEPTH TO NEARLY 2 CM. THE FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING A "CRUSHABLE" EARCUP WITH SIMILAR NOISE ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS TO THE EXISTING ARMY SPH-4 EARCUP WAS DEMONSTRATED.
KEYWORDS: EARCUP, ENERGY-ABSORBING EARCUP, CRUSHABLE EARCUP, SOUND-ATTENUATING EARCUP, METAL EARCUP
84-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 323 DTIC #: ADA144198
TITLE: AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR VIDEO SIGNALS OF SCENES OF VARYING ILLUMINATION LEVELS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN H. HAPGOOD, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A TYPE OF AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL CIRCUIT USEFUL FOR ENHANCEMENT OF VIDEO SIGNALS OF SCENES OF VARYING LIGHT ILLUMINATION LEVELS IS DESCRIBED. A DC VOLTAGE DEVELOPED FROM THE PEAK-TO-PEAK INPUT SIGNAL CONTROLS THE EFFECTIVE GAIN OF A VIDEO AMPLIFIER IN A NONSTANDARD METHOD USING A STEP-FUNCTION CONTROL VOLTAGE.
KEYWORDS: LOW-LIGHT-LEVEL TELEVISION (LLLTV), AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL (AGC), VIDEO AMPLIFIER
84-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1697 DTIC #: ADA145208
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRIC COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT FOR LARGE AND SMALL PERSONNEL WEARING A TRAINING, WARM-WEATHER CLOTHING CONFIGURATION
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, DAVID O. COTE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO ASSESS PHYSICAL AVIATOR-COCKPIT REACH COMPATIBILITIES, EIGHT SMALL SUBJECTS 146.9 TO 162.5 CM IN STATURE AND EIGHT TALL SUBJECTS 182.3 TO 194.5 CM IN STATURE WERE PLACED IN THE COCKPITS OF ALL CURRENT U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS (EXCEPT AH-64) AND FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT. SUBJECTS WERE DRESSED IN THE WARM WEATHER TRAINING UNIFORM OF U.S. ARMY AVIATORS AND WERE REQUESTED TO OPERATE ALL PRIMARY CONTROLS AND INSTRUCTOR-PILOT DESIGNATED CRITICAL SWITCHES, KNOBS, ETC., WITH THE SHOULDER HARNESS IN THE UNLOCKED POSITION. HELMETED HEAD CLEARANCE ALSO WAS EVALUATED.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY, AIRCRAFT, HELICOPTERS, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
84-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1659 DTIC #: ADA145472
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRIC COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT FOR LARGE AND SMALL PERSONNEL WEARING A COLD WEATHER, ARMORED VEST, CHEMICAL DEFENSE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING CONFIGURATION
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, AARON W. SCHOPPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS SEQUEL TO AN EARLIER REPORT UPON INDIVIDUALS WEARING A WARM WEATHER UNIFORM PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF AN ANTHROPOMETRIC COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION CON-DUCTED WITH INDIVIDUALS WEARING A "WORST-CASE" TACTICAL CLOTHING CONFIGURATION; I.E., A COMBINATION OF COLD WEATHER, ARMORED VEST, AND CHEMICAL DEFENSE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. SUBJECTS CORRESPONDING IN STATURE TO THE UPPERMOST AND LOWERMOST 5TH PERCENTILES OF THE ARMY MALE POPULATION WERE PLACED IN THE COCKPITS OF ALL CURRENT U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS (EXCEPT AH-64) AND FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, AND REQUESTED TO DEMONSTRATE CRITICAL OPERATIONAL REACHES WITH THE SHOULDER HARNESS UNLOCKED.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, AIRCRAFT, COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY, CHEMICAL DEFENSE, COLD WEATHER CLOTHING, HELICOPTERS, FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
84-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 626 DTIC #: ADA148693
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF MODIFIED SPECTACLES ON THE FIELD-OF-VIEW OF THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ESTABLISH THE EFFECT OF WEARING MODIFIED AVIATOR SPECTACLES, EITHER FOR LASER PROTECTION OR REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION, ON THE FIELD-OF-VIEW AVAILABLE WITH THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHT-ING SYSTEM. THE DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE AVAILABLE FIELD WERE FOUND TO BE HELMET FIT, EYE FIXATION DIRECTION, AND EYE RELIEF DISTANCE. THE STUDY CONCLUDED THAT WHEN THESE FACTORS ARE OPTIMIZED, THE WEARING OF THE MODIFIED SPECTACLES DOES NOT RESULT IN A LOSS OF FIELD-OF-VIEW.
KEYWORDS: MODIFIED SPECTACLES, FIELD-OF-VIEW, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU), INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS)
85-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1717 DTIC #: ADA148674
TITLE: SPH-4 U.S. ARMY FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE 1972-1983
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS E. READING, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., ARTHUR C. SIPPO, JOSEPH R. LICINA, AARON W. SCHOPPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INJURY DATA WAS OBTAINED FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FOR THE OCCUPANTS OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT WHO WERE BOTH WEARING AVIATOR HELMETS AND INVOLVED IN DUTY-RELATED AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS FROM THE PERIOD BEGINNING ON 1 JANUARY 1972 AND ENDING ON 31 DECEMBER 1982. THE INJURY DATA WAS CORRELATED WITH THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE HELMETS INVOLVED WHICH HAD BEEN OBTAINED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY UNDER THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM. THE HELMET PERFORMANCE WAS EVALUATED FOR FUTURE HELMET DESIGNS. FOR CONSISTENCY, ONLY THE 208 SPH-4S IN THE DATABASE WERE FULLY ANALYZED. AN APPENDIX CONTAINS A LIMITED ANALYSIS OF THE APH-5S PERFORMANCE. IT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED THAT NO COMBAT DAMAGED HELMETS ARE DISCUSSED OR ANALYZED IN THIS REPORT, I.E., NO SHRAPNEL OR BULLET DAMAGE IS COVERED.
KEYWORDS: SPH-4, HEAD INJURY, APH-5, AVIATOR HELMET, CRUSHABLE EARCUPS, CHINSTRAP, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, FACIAL INJURY, ENERGY ATTENUATION, HELMET VISOR, FOAM COMPRESSION, PROTECTIVE VISOR, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, ALSERP
85-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 860 DTIC #: ADA153848
TITLE: EFFECTS OF XM-40 CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASK ON REAL-EAR ATTENUATION AND SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM R. NELSON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CHEMICAL DEFENSE (CD) MEASURES DEPEND PRIMARILY ON THE USE OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT. ADEQUATE PROTECTION ONLY CAN BE ACHIEVED IF EACH ITEM IN THE CD ENSEMBLE IS COMPATIBLE WITH EVERY OTHER ITEM. THE DESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF EACH COMPONENT MUST GIVE CONSIDERATION TO ITS IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ALL ITEMS. THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE EFFECTS OF THE XM-40 CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE (CP) MASK ON THE PROTECTIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. BASED ON THE RESULTS IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE XM-40 COMPROMISED THE NOISE ATTENUATION AND SPEECH COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS OF THE SPH-4.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASK, REAL-EAR ATTENUATION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, NOISE, AVIATOR HELMET, SPH-4, MICROPHONE POSITION, HEARING CONSERVATION, VOICE COMMUNICATION
85-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4185 DTIC #: ADA161230
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF IMPULSE INTENSITY AND THE NUMBER OF IMPULSES ON HEARING AND COCHLEAR PATHOLOGY IN THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, RICHARD J. SALVI, C. E. HARGETT, JR., GEORGE TURRENTINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FORTY-ONE CHINCHILLAS, DIVIDED INTO SEVEN GROUPS, WERE EXPOSED TO 1, 10, OR 100 NOISE IMPULSES HAVING PEAK INTENSITIES OF 131 DB, 135 DB, 139 DB, OR 147 DB. HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED IN EACH ANIMAL PRIOR TO EXPOSURE USING AN AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING PROCEDURE. THRESHOLD SHIFTS WERE MONITORED AT REGULAR INTERVALS OVER A 30-DAY POSTEXPOSURE PERIOD. A SURFACE PREPARATION OF THE COCHLEAR SENSORY EPITHELIA WAS PERFORMED APPROXIMATELY 90 DAYS AFTER EXPOSURE. THERE WAS GENERALLY AN ORDERLY RELATION BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF PERMANENT THRESHOLD SHIFT AND THE SEVERITY OF EXPOSURE, AND A GENERAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN AVERAGED HISTOLOGICAL DATA AND THE AUDIO-METRIC DATA. DETAILED RELATIONS BETWEEN TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT THRESHOLD SHIFT, COCHLEAR PATHOLOGY, AND EXPOSURE VARIABLES ARE DISCUSSED, AS ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DATA TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE CRITERIA. ALL TABULATED INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL DATA, AVERAGED GROUP DATA, AND INDIVIDUAL COCHLEOGRAMS ARE PRESENTED IN APPENDIXES A THROUGH D.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
85-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2112 DTIC #: ADA161234
TITLE: HELICOPTER-REFERENCED SINGLE CONTROL, CENTER-POSITION FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF MALES AND FEMALES
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, GEORGE R. MASTROIANNI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN RESPONSE TO THE NEED FOR REEVALUATION OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CRITERIA CONTAINED IN THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL STANDARDS FOR FLYING DUTY, AN ASSESSMENT WAS MADE OF HELICOPTER-CONTROL-REFERENCED FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF A SAMPLE OF ARMY MALES AND FEMALES. MALES (N=74) RANGED FROM 159 CM THROUGH 196 CM IN STATURE; FEMALES (N=66) RANGED FROM 152 CM THROUGH 183 CM. THE FORCE-EXERTION DATA WERE COMPARED TO VALUES CITED IN MIL-H-8501A AS UPPER FORCE LIMITS FOR THE DESIGN OF HELICOPTER CONTROLS. THE FOCUSES OF THE ANALYSES WERE UPON THE FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF INDIVIDUALS 167 CM (65.7 INCHES) AND BELOW IN STATURE SINCE, BY VIRTUE OF THEIR RELATIVELY SMALL SIZE, THEY REPRESENT THE PORTION OF THE POPULATION WHICH ARE MOST APT TO EVIDENCE INABILITIES TO EXERT FORCES WHICH EQUAL OR EXCEED CONTROL FORCE DESIGN LIMITS.
KEYWORDS: STRENGTH, MALE, FEMALE, AIRCRAFT CONTROLS, HELICOPTER CONTROLS, CONTROL FORCE REQUIREMENT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
85-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 957 DTIC #: ADA161164
TITLE: DYNAMICS OF HEAD PROTECTION (IMPACT PROTECTION COMPARISON OF THE SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET TO A COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMET)
AUTHOR(s): R. FRED ROLSTEN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMPACT PROTECTION PROVIDED BY A COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMET IS EVALUATED IN THIS REPORT. THE MOTORCYCLE HELMET UTILIZES AN EXPANDED PLASTIC FOAM LINER OF 12 MM THICKNESS, WHICH IS LESS THAN THAT USED IN MOST MOTORCYCLE HELMETS MADE IN THIS COUNTRY TODAY. THE THICKNESS OF THE FOAM IS IDENTICAL TO THAT USED IN THE U.S. ARMY AVIATOR'S STANDARD SOUND PROTECTIVE HELMET NO. 4 (SPH-4). THE IMPACT PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE COMMERCIAL HELMET IS COMPARED TO THE PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. A TOTAL OF 16 METAL HEADFORM IMPACTS (8 FOR EACH OF TWO HELMETS) WERE CONDUCTED USING IMPACT VELOCITIES RANGING FROM 4.2 TO 6.9 METERS PER SECOND. BY MEASURING THE REACTION FORCE OF THE HELMETED-HEADFORM IMPACTS AS WELL AS THE DECELERATION OF THE HEADFORM, WE CONCLUDED THAT THE HELMETS PERMITTED TRANSMISSION OF INJURIOUS FORCES AT ALL LEVELS OF ENERGY BEYOND 4.5 MPS CONTACT VELOCITY. THE IMPORTANCE OF INCREASING THE THICKNESS OF THE PLASTIC FOAM LINER IN EXPERIMENTAL SPH-4 HELMETS IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE DECELERATION FORCE MEASURED IN THE HEAD-FORM IS DEMONSTRATED. EVALUATIONS OF THIS NATURE PROVIDE THE NECESSARY DATABASE FOR DEVELOPING HELMET IMPACT TEST STANDARDS AS WELL AS AN AWARENESS OF THE GOOD AND BAD FEATURES OF CRASH HELMET DESIGN, REGARDLESS OF THE HELMET TYPE OR THE ORIGIN OF MANUFACTURE.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HEADFORM ACCELERATION, HELMET IMPACT TESTING, HELMET IMPACT TEST STANDARDS, HEAD IMPACT TOLERANCE
85-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 879 DTIC #: ADA161218
TITLE: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY DETERMINED WITH THE SPATIAL BANDWIDTH EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE: THRESHOLD, SUPRATHESHOLD, AND SPATIOTEMPORAL MEASUREMENTS
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY, THOMAS H. HARDING, MICHAEL G. GRIBLER, ALBERT W. KIRBY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS WERE OBTAINED FROM NORMAL SUBJECTS USING A SPATIAL BANDWIDTH EQUALIZATION (SBE) TECHNIQUE AND THE MORE CONVENTIONAL DISPLAY METHOD. STATIC SENSITIVITY MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED WITH THE TWO METHODS WERE IN GOOD AGREEMENT. HOWEVER, WHEN THE PATTERNS WERE COUNTERPHASE FLICKERED, SENSITIVITY TO THE LOWER SPATIAL FREQUENCIES SENSITIVITY MEASURED WITH THE SBE TECHNIQUE WAS SLIGHTLY DEPRESSED. THE SBE METHOD ALSO WAS USED TO INVESTIGATE SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION WITH STATIC AND FLICKERING GRATINGS. IN GENERAL, THE PERCEPTION OF CONTRAST WAS INDEPENDENT OF SPATIAL FREQUENCY CONTENT OF THE STIMULUS, ESPECIALLY WITH INCREASING CONTRAST LEVELS AND FLICKER FREQUENCIES. THESE STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT THE SBE TECHNIQUE IS AN ACCEPTABLE METHOD TO ASSESS STATIC CONTRAST SENSITIVITY AND SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL BANDWIDTH EQUALIZATION, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION, SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
85-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 450 DTIC #: ADA161162
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE ON SPATIAL FREQUENCY RESPONSIBILITY IN THE CAT VISUAL SYSTEM. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): T. H. HARDING, A. W. KIRBY, R. W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL-EVOKED RESPONSES TO COUNTERPHASED GRATINGS WERE RECORDED FROM AREA 17 OF CAT VISUAL CORTEX BEFORE AND AFTER DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP) ADMINISTRATION. DFP PRODUCED EFFECTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED FOLLOWING PHYSOSTIGMINE SULFATE ADMINISTRATION, IN THAT RESPONSES TO LOW SPATIAL FREQUENCIES WERE PREFERENTIALLY REDUCED. THE TIME COURSE OF THE EFFECTS WAS QUITE DIFFERENT FOR THE TWO TYPES OF DRUGS, AND FOR HIGH DOSES OF DFP RESPONSES TO ALL SPATIAL FREQUENCIES WERE APPROXIMATELY UNIFORMLY DEPRESSED OR ABOLISHED.
KEYWORDS: DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP), ORGANOPHOSPHATE, ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE, CAT
85-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 395 DTIC #: ADA161163
TITLE: A CHOLINERGIC SENSITIVE CHANNEL IN THE CAT VISUAL SYSTEM TUNED TO LOW SPATIAL FREQUENCIES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): T. H. HARDING, R. W. WILEY, A. W. KIRBY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUALLY EVOKED RESPONSES TO COUNTERPHASED GRATINGS WERE RECORDED FROM THE CAT VISUAL CORTEX BEFORE AND AFTER PHYSOSTIGMINE ADMINISTRATION. PHYSOSTIGMINE MARKEDLY REDUCED THE RESPONSES TO LOW SPATIAL FREQUENCIES, BUT MINIMALLY AFFECTED THE RESPONSE TO HIGH FREQUENCIES. THIS EFFECT IS CONSIDERED CHOLINERGIC SINCE IT COULD BE REVERSED BY ATROPINE. THESE RESULTS SUPPORT AT LEAST A TWO-CHANNEL MODEL OF SPATIAL FREQUENCY RESPONSIVITY.
KEYWORDS: PHYSOSTIGMINE, CARBAMATE, VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE, CAT
85-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 637 DTIC #: ADA161192
TITLE: HELICOPTER COPILOT WORKLOAD DURING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, GERALD P. KRUEGER, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, A DOPPLER RADAR SYSTEM AND A PROJECTED MAP SYSTEM, AND A HAND-HELD MAP WERE EXAMINED FOR THEIR EFFECTS ON COPILOT/NAVIGATOR WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE. THE AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS REDUCED THE NUMBER OF NAVIGATION ERRORS AND THE SIZE OF DEVIATIONS FROM INTENDED TRACK. THE DOPPLER SYSTEM REDUCED THE TIME DEVOTED TO NAVIGATING AND THE NUMBER OF VERBAL NAVIGATION MESSAGES EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE PILOT AND COPILOT. THE PROJECTED MAP SYSTEM REDUCED VISUAL WORKLOAD. HOWEVER, WITH ALL THREE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF THE COPILOTS' TIME WAS SPENT ON NAVIGATION TASKS, LESS THAN 10 PERCENT OF THEIR TIME WAS VISUAL "FREE TIME" THAT COULD BE USED FOR OTHER TASKS, AND GREATER THAN 20 PERCENT OF THE AIRCREW'S TIME WAS OCCUPIED WITH NAVIGATION COMMUNICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: NONE
85-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 783 DTIC #: ADA161165
TITLE: AVIATOR PERFORMANCE IN WEEK-LONG EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER, RICHARD N. ARMSTRONG, RONALD R. CISCO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PSYCHOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL CORRELATES OF AVIATOR CREW PERFORMANCE, STRESS, AND FATIGUE WERE MEASURED IN A WEEK-LONG FLIGHT SCHEDULE IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR. THREE TWO-MAN CREWS OF ROTARY-WING AVIATORS PERFORMED 14 HOURS OF PRECISION INSTRUMENT FLIGHT ON EACH OF 4 SUCCESSIVE DAYS AND 10 HOURS ON THE 5TH DAY. MISSIONS INVOLVED REPETITIONS OF 2-HOUR STANDARDIZED DAY- AND NIGHT-FLIGHT PROFILES THAT WERE OCCASIONALLY INTERRUPTED BY SIMULATED EMERGENCIES. AVIATOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES INCLUDED MEETING ASSIGNED AIRSPEEDS, ALTITUDES, HEADINGS, TURN RATES, AND NAVIGATION REQUIREMENTS. PILOTS SLEPT 4 HOURS EACH NIGHT. BASELINE DATA WERE COLLECTED PRIOR TO, AND RECOVERY DATA AFTER, THE EXTENDED FLIGHT SCHEDULE. PILOTS MAINTAINED SIMULATOR FLIGHT PARAMETERS TO WITHIN ACCEPTABLE TOLERANCES OF ASSIGNED HEADINGS, AIRSPEEDS, AND ALTITUDES, EVEN INTO THE MORNING OF THE FOURTH DAY OF THE SCHEDULE. HOWEVER, COGNITIVE AND JUDGMENTAL ERRORS WERE MADE. EVEN THOUGH FLIGHT SUR-GEONS DEEMED THEM UNSAFE TO FLY BY THE 3RD NIGHT, PILOTS CONTINUED TO FLY WELL TO THE 5TH DAY.
KEYWORDS: MAN-MACHINE RELATIONS, MILITARY AIRCRAFT, PSYCHOLOGY, AVIATION MEDICINE, STRESS, SUSTAINED OPERATIONS, VOLUNTEERS, SIMULATOR
85-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 433 DTIC #: ADA161233
TITLE: BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE IN U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OF THE 222 FLIGHT HELMETS RETRIEVED FROM ARMY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS DURING 1971--79 UNDER THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM, 175 WERE SPH-4 HELMETS THAT WERE ANALYZED FOR PHYSICAL DAMAGE AND FOR THE RELATIONSHIP OF DAMAGE TO INJURY SUSTAINED BY THE WEARER. THIS ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT LATERAL IMPACTS RESULTED IN A SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER RATE OF SERIOUS INJURY (AIS>4) THAN IMPACTS TO OTHER REGIONS (68 VERSUS 46 PERCENT, P<(0.001). LATERAL IMPACTS YIELDED A HIGHER RATE OF BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE THAN IMPACTS TO OTHER AREAS OF THE HELMET (46 VERSUS 18 PERCENT, P<(0.001). IT IS CONCLUDED THAT LACK OF ENERGY-ABSORBING MATERIAL IN THE LATERAL PORTIONS OF THE HELMET CAUSES THE HIGH RATE OF BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE AND THE INCREASED PREVALENCE OF SEVERE INJURY ASSOCIATED WITH LATERAL IMPACTS. THE INCORPORATION OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP DESIGN IS RECOMMENDED TO REDUCE THE HIGH RATE OF SEVERE INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LATERAL IMPACTS.
KEYWORDS: SKULL FRACTURE, HEAD INJURY, SPH-4, IMPACT, BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE, CRUSHABLE EARCUP, US ARMY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, HELICOPTER
85-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 639 DTIC #: ADA161320
TITLE: SPINAL INJURY IN A U.S. ARMY LIGHT OBSERVATION HELICOPTER. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, GEORGE R. MASTROIANNI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL ACCIDENT REPORTS INVOLVING U.S. ARMY OH-58 HELICOPTERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL VELOCITY CHANGE AT IMPACT AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THIS KINEMATIC DATA TO THE PRODUCTION OF SPINAL INJURY. THIS ANALYSIS DETERMINED THAT SPINAL INJURY IS RELATED PRIMARILY TO VERTICAL VELOCITY CHANGE AT IMPACT AND IS RELATIVELY INDEPENDENT OF HORIZONTAL VELOCITY CHANGE. THE DRAMATIC INCREASE IN THE RATE OF SPINAL INJURY OCCURRING JUST ABOVE THE DESIGN SINK SPEED OF THE AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR (3.7 M/S) SUGGESTS THAT THE FUSELAGE AND SEAT PROVIDE LITTLE ADDITIONAL IMPACT ATTENUATION CAPABILITY ABOVE THAT OF THE GEAR ALONE. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT IF THIS AIRCRAFT WERE MODIFIED TO PROVIDE PROTECTION TO THE OCCUPANTS FOR IMPACTS UP TO 9.1 M/S (30 FT/S), APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPINAL INJURY INCURRED IN SURVIVABLE ACCIDENTS COULD BE SUBSTANTIALLY MITIGATED. THE INCORPORATION OF ENERGY ABSORBING SEATS IS RECOMMENDED.
KEYWORDS: US ARMY, HELICOPTER, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, SPINAL INJURY, IMPACT, CRASHWORTHINESS, OH-58 HELICOPTER
85-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 681 DTIC #: ADA161231
TITLE: HELICOPTER PILOT BACK PAIN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, THOMAS E. READING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BECAUSE OF THE HIGH PREVALENCE OF BACK PAIN EXPERIENCED BY U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER PILOTS, A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ASCERTAIN THE FEASIBILITY OF REPRODUCING THESE SYMPTOMS IN THE LABORATORY. A MOCK-UP OF A UH-1H SEAT AND CONTROL CONFIGURATION WAS MOUNTED TO A MULTIAXIS VIBRATION SIMULATOR (MAVS). ELEVEN SUBJECTS WERE TESTED ON THE APPARATUS FOR TWO 120-MINUTE PERIODS. DURING ONE PERIOD, THE MAVS WAS PROGRAMMED TO REPRODUCE VIBRATIONS RECORDED FROM A UH-1H IN CRUISE FLIGHT. THE SUBJECTS RECEIVED NO VIBRATION DURING THE OTHER TEST PERIOD. ALL SUBJECTS REPORTED BACK PAIN WHICH THEY DESCRIBED AS IDENTICAL TO THE PAIN THEY EXPERIENCE DURING FLIGHT, DURING ONE OR MORE OF THEIR TEST PERIODS. THERE WAS NO STATISTICAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VIBRATION AND NONVIBRATION TEST CONDITIONS (P>0.05) IN TERMS OF TIME OF ONSET OF PAIN OR INTENSITY OF PAIN AS MEASURED BY A VISUAL ANALOG SCALE. IT APPEARS THE VIBRATION AT THE FREQUENCIES AND AMPLITUDES TESTED PLAYS LITTLE OR NO ROLE IN THE ETIOLOGY OF THE BACK SYMPTOMS REPORTED BY THESE PILOTS. IT IS PROPOSED THAT THE PRIMARY ETIOLOGICAL FACTOR FOR THESE SYMPTOMS IS THE POOR POSTURE PILOTS ARE OBLIGED TO ASSUME FOR EXTENDED PERIODS WHILE OPERATING HELICOPTERS.
KEYWORDS: NONE
85-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1851 DTIC #: ADA162526
TITLE: DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE ADEQUACY OF HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR USE WITH THE M198, 155MM TOWED HOWITZER
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, RON H. MARROW, R. W. MCCONNELL, JR., ILIA LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD, YANCY Y. PHILLIPS, ROBERT HENDERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PEAK SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS OF THE M198, 155MM HOWITZER FIRING THE M203 PROPELLING CHARGE ARE FAR IN EXCESS OF THE EXPOSURE LIMITS SET FORTH IN THE ARMY HEARING CONSERVATION CRITERIA. THE LEVELS ARE OF A SUFFICIENT MAGNITUDE THAT THERE IS SERIOUS QUESTION WHETHER ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION IS AVAILABLE. THIS STUDY PROVIDES DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR THE ADEQUACY OF THE E-A-R EARPLUG TO PROTECT AGAINST THE IMPULSE NOISE OF THE M198/M203. FIFTY-NINE VOLUNTEERS WERE EXPOSED TO A PROGRESSION OF IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS PRODUCED BY THE M198 AND TESTED FOR TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE THRESHOLD SHIFT EXHIBITED BY 95 PERCENT OF THE VOLUNTEERS WAS WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITS AFTER EXPOSURE TO 12 ROUNDS OF M203 CHARGE. THIS FINDING IS INTERPRETED TO MEAN THAT THESE EARPLUGS PROVIDE ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION. IN ADDITION, VOLUNTEERS WERE EVALUATED FOR EVIDENCE OF LARYNGEAL INJURY AND INTESTINAL INJURY. NONE WAS FOUND.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING LOSS, ACOUSTICS, HEARING CONSERVATION
86-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 813 DTIC #: ADA167408
TITLE: A CHINCHILLA RESTRAINT SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): C. E. HARGETT, JR., JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., DENNIS L. CURD, MELVIN CARRIER, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, ROBERT J. JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A RESTRAINT SYSTEM IS DESCRIBED THAT USES THE CHINCHILLA'S NATURAL BEHAVIOR TO ACCOMPLISH POSITIVE POSITIONING RELATIVE TO THE SOUND SOURCE FOR THE EXPOSURE OF RESEARCH SUBJECTS TO HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE. PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE SYSTEM IN USE AND DETAILED DRAWINGS FOR CONSTRUCTION ARE INCLUDED. USING THIS SYSTEM, 108 CHINCHILLAS WERE EXPOSED WITHOUT MISHAP.
KEYWORDS: CHINCHILLA, RESTRAINT SYSTEM, IMPULSE NOISE, NATURAL BEHAVIOR
86-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 693 DTIC #: ADA167407
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF CYCLOPLEGIA ON THE VISUAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, ISAAC BEHAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY ASSESSMENT IS ONE OF SEVERAL EMERGENT TECHNIQUES BEING CONSIDERED FOR INCLUSION IN A VISUAL STANDARDS BATTERY FOR THE ARMY, PARTICULARLY FOR THE EVALUATION OF ARMY AVIATORS. SINCE A CYCLOPLEGIC REFRACTION IS REQUIRED FOR INITIAL SELECTION OF CANDIDATES FOR CLASS I AND CLASS IA FLYING DUTY, IT IS IMPORTANT TO DETERMINE WHAT EFFECT, IF ANY, CYCLOPLEGIA HAS ON THE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION. TWELVE SUBJECTS, OFFICERS IN PREPARATION FOR FLIGHT TRAINING, WHO HAD PASSED A RECENT CLASS I FLIGHT PHYSICAL, WERE TESTED. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS WERE OBTAINED UNDER NORMAL AMBIENT CONDITIONS AND IN THE PRESENCE OF A GLARE SOURCE, BOTH UNDER MANIFEST AND CYCLOPLEGIC CONDITIONS. CYCLOPLEGIA PRODUCED A SMALL REDUCTION IN CONTRAST SENSITIVITY UNDER NORMAL AMBIENT CONDITIONS, AND A GREATER REDUCTION UNDER GLARE CONDITIONS. FOR BOTH CONDITIONS, THE CYCLOPLEGIA EFFECT WAS GREATER FOR THE HIGHER SPATIAL FREQUENCY GRATINGS THAN FOR THE LOWER.
KEYWORDS: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION, CYCLOPEGIA, GLARE, VISION
86-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 434 DTIC #: ADA167406
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR EARCUPS INTENDED FOR USE IN THE SPH-4 HELMET
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM R. NELSON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STUDIES AT USAARL HAVE DEMONSTRATED SIGNIFICANT PROBLEMS WITH IMPACT PROTECTION IN THE AREA OF THE EARCUP OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. EFFORTS TO DEVELOP A CRUSHABLE EARCUP THAT WILL ATTENUATE IMPACT HAVE RESULTED IN DEVELOPMENT OF TWO CANDIDATE EARCUPS. THIS STUDY COMPARES THE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TWO PROTOTYPES TO THOSE OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 EARCUP AND A PROPOSED REPLACEMENT EARCUP IDENTIFIED AS THE MK-1564. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT BOTH CRUSHABLE CUPS WILL PROVIDE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY EQUAL TO OR BETTER THAN THE STANDARD CUP.
KEYWORDS: CRUSHABLE EARCUPS, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, NOISE, SPH-4, AVIATOR HELMET, VOICE COMMUNICATION, MK-1564, EARPHONES
86-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2066 DTIC #: ADA221658
TITLE: THE BUSHBABY OPTIC NERVE: FIBER COUNT AND FIBER DIAMETER SPECTRUM
AUTHOR(s): JIM E. FULBROOK, LORETTA PETERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE NUMBER, PERCENT MYELINATED, DENSITY, AND SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF OPTIC NERVE AXONS IN THE BUSHBABY "GALAGO CRASSICAUDATUS," WERE ESTIMATED FROM A PARTIAL AREAL SURVEY OF CROSS-SECTIONED TISSUE EXAMINED BY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. THE AVERAGE OF THE DATA OBTAINED BY TWO EXPERIMENTERS YIELDED A TOTAL FIBER ESTIMATE OF 384,500 (±19,200). UNMYELINATED AXONS COMPRISED 2.8 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION. THE FIBER DENSITY BETWEEN PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL OPTIC NERVE SAMPLES WAS HOMOGENEOUS AND ESTIMATED TO BE 376 FIBERS PER 1000UM2. AXON SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS WERE DISTRIBUTED UNIMODALLY FROM 0.17-4.3 MICRONS (MODE=0.7). UNMYELINATED AXONS RANGED IN SIZE FROM 0.17 TO 1.24 MICRONS (MODE 0=.41). THE COMPARATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED IN VIEW OF THE BUSHBABY AS MODEL FOR STUDIES OF HUMAN SCOTOPIC VISION.
KEYWORDS: NEUROANATOMY, ULTRASTRUCTURAL NEUROANATOMY, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, OPTIC NERVE, BUSHBABY, GALAGO CRASSICAUDATUS, VISION, AXON DIAMETER SPECTRUM, IMAGE ANALYSIS
86-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1006 DTIC #: ADA221203
TITLE: CONCEPT PROPOSAL FOR AN AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): JIM E. FULBROOK, BRUCE E. LEIBRECHT, DAVID J. WALSH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR HAS BEEN DESIGNED AT USAARL TO SUPPLEMENT NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) TRAINING FOR GROUND UNITS. THIS REPORT DISCUSSES THE SPECIFICATIONS, CHARACTERISTICS, APPLICATIONS, BENEFITS, AND COSTS OF THE AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR PROTOTYPE.
KEYWORDS: AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR, TRAINING SIMULATOR
86-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5683 DTIC #: ADA202906
TITLE: THE ROLE OF PEAK PRESSURE IN DETERMINING THE AUDITORY HAZARD OF IMPULSE NOISE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, RICHARD J. SALVI, C. E. HARGETT, JR., GEORGE TURRENTINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MOST CURRENT DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA (DRC) FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE ARE WRITTEN IN TERMS OF PEAK PRESSURE AS THE PRIMARY INDEX OF TRAUMATIC POTENTIAL OR HAZARD ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AN IMPULSE NOISE. SINCE THE PEAK PRESSURE IS ONLY ONE OF MANY PARAMETERS OF AN IMPULSE, THERE IS A QUESTION WHETHER OR NOT A DRC BASED ON PEAK PRESSURE CAN REFLECT ACCURATELY THE HAZARD TO HEARING POSED BY IMPULSE NOISE. THE EXPERIMENTS DESCRIBED IN THE REPORT WERE DESIGNED TO DETERMINE WHETHER PEAK PRESSURE IS AN ADEQUATE QUANTIFIER FOR AN IMPULSE NOISE DRC.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
86-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 637 DTIC #: ADA191656
TITLE: SEATED EYE POSITIONS AND ANTHROPOMETRIC EXTREMES OF AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, AARON W. SCHOPPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEATED EYE POSITIONS OF PERSONNEL IN THE 1ST TO 5TH PERCENTILE RANGE AND THE 95TH TO 99TH PERCENTILE RANGE FOR MALE STATURE WERE EXAMINED IN SIX U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS TO DETERMINE IF THEIR SEATED EYE POSITIONS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF INSTRUCTOR PILOTS. IN ADDITION, THE ZERO AZIMUTH, OUTSIDE-THE-COCKPIT FIELD-OF-VIEW OF ANTHROPOMETRICALLY EXTREME PERSONNEL AND INSTRUCTOR PILOTS WAS MEASURED. LARGE DIFFERENCES IN VIEWING ANGLES WERE ALSO OBSERVED IN ALL AIRCRAFT. HOWEVER, IN THE CASE OF PERSONNEL IN THE 1ST TO 5TH PERCENTILE RANGE FOR MALE STATURE, THE DIFFERENCES WERE TO THEIR ADVANTAGE. IN THE CASE OF PERSONNEL IN THE 95TH TO 99TH PERCENTILE FOR MALE STATURE, FIELD-OF-VIEW WAS CONSIDERABLY DECREASED IN SOME AIRCRAFT. FURTHER STUDY IS NEEDED TO DETERMINE WHAT EFFECTS THE REDUCED FIELD-OF-VIEW FOR TALL PERSONNEL MAY HAVE ON FLYING PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: SEATED EYE POSITIONS, DESIGN EYE HEIGHT, DESIGN EYE POSITIONS, ANTHROPOMETRY, HELICOPTERS, ARMY AVIATION, VISUAL ANGLES, SEAT POSITIONS
86-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2232 DTIC #: ADA191657
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT CONTROL FORCE INPUTS FOR THE U.S. ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER DURING "HYDRAULICS-ON" AND "HYDRAULICS-OFF" APPROACHES AND LANDINGS
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, JOHN H. WELLS, LEON R. KAYLOR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE IS LITTLE INFORMATION AVAILABLE REGARDING THE MAGNITUDE OF FORCE INPUT TO HELICOPTER CONTROLS UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS. ACCORDINGLY, 12 MALE U.S. ARMY AVIATORS EACH FLEW SIX NORMAL AND SIX SIMULATED EMERGENCY CONDITION ("HYDRAULICS-OFF") APPROACHES AND LANDINGS IN AN ARMY JUH-1 UTILITY HELICOPTER. BECAUSE THERE EXISTED CONCERN THAT FORCES APPLIED MIGHT VARY SUBSTANTIALLY WITH FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, THE AVIATORS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE STUDY WERE SOLICITED FROM TWO GROUPS DIFFERING WIDELY IN THE NUMBER OF HOURS FLOWN. THE SIX LESS-EXPERIENCED AVIATORS HAD BETWEEN 170 AND 200 HOURS OF FLIGHT TIME (MEAN = 183), AND THE SIX MORE-EXPERIENCED AVIATORS HAD BETWEEN 1300 AND 2750 HOURS OF FLIGHT TIME (MEAN = 2250). THE THREE PRINCIPAL CONTROLS OF THE AIRCRAFT (CYCLIC, COLLECTIVE, AND PEDALS) WERE STRAIN-GAGE INSTRUMENTED. THE OUTPUTS RECORDED DURING THE LAST 60 SECONDS OF FLIGHT PRIOR TO EACH TOUCHDOWN WERE STUDIED. ANALYSES OF VARIANCE UNDERTAKEN ON THE MEANS OF FORCES RECORDED DURING SUCCESSIVE 5-SECOND INTERVALS REVEALED SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNITUDE OF THE FORCES APPLIED AS A FUNCTION OF HYDRAULICS CONDITION AND TIME-TO-TOUCHDOWN; I.E., FORCES DIFFERENTIALLY INCREASED AS TOUCHDOWN NEARED DURING HYDRAULICS-OFF APPROACHES.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT CONTROLS, HELICOPTER CONTROLS, CONTROL FORCE REQUIREMENT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS, STRENGTH, MALE, FEMALE
86-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 674 DTIC #: ADA192017
TITLE: IMPROVED DESIGN CRITERIA FOR CRASH HELMETS
AUTHOR(s): R. FRED ROLSTEN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMET WAS IMPACT EVALUATED. THE MOTORCYCLE HELMET'S IMPACT PROTECTION IS COMPARED TO THAT OF THE SPH-4, THE STANDARD ARMY AVIATOR'S HELMET. DROP TESTS, RANGING FROM 0.91- TO 2.44-METERS, WERE USED FOR THE HELMET TESTING BY MEANS OF A HELMET/HEADFORM FREE-FALL DEVICE. THE TWO EXAMPLES OF THE HELMET WERE SUBJECTED TO 16 DROP TESTS. TWO OF THESE DROP TESTS RESULTED IN A HIGH LEVEL OF TRANSMITTED FORCE AND ACCELERATION WHICH FOCUSES ON THE INADEQUATE PROTECTION TO PREVENT CONCUSSION OR SERIOUS INJURY AT ALL ENERGY LEVELS GREATER THAN PRODUCED AT A 1-METER DROP HEIGHT. THE TESTED HELMETS COULD BE CHANGED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE PROTECTION BY DOUBLING THE THICKNESS OF THE LINER.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HELMET IMPACT TESTING, HEAD IMPACT TOLERANCE
86-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 12090 DTIC #: ADA221504
TITLE: SMOKING AND SOLDIER PERFORMANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK N. DYER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCH WAS REVIEWED ON SMOKING AS IT RELATES TO SOLDIER PERFORMANCE FOR THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND. THIS LITERATURE REVIEW RESULTED FROM AN UNSOLICITED PROPOSAL SUBMITTED BY RESEARCH SOLUTIONS, INCORPORATED, IN RESPONSE TO THE BOARD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE COMMAND. RESEARCH ON SMOKING AND OTHER NICOTINE EFFECTS WAS INCLUDED IN THE REVIEW. THE RESEARCH REVIEWED WAS RELATED TO POSITION DISCLOSURE IN COMBAT; THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY AND ENDURANCE; THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES; THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON AROUSAL AND ABILITY TO DEAL WITH STRESS, PAIN, AND FEAR; SMOKING-INDUCED HORMONAL CHANGES; THE EFFECTS OF TOBACCO DEPRIVATION; SMOKING-DISEASE RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND ABSENTEEISM; SMOKING AND ABUSE OF OTHER SUBSTANCES, DELINQUENCY, AND ACCIDENTS; AND ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SMOKING AND OTHER FACTORS OF POTENTIAL RELEVANCE TO SOLDIER PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: SMOKING, TOBACCO USE, NICOTINE, SOLDIER PERFORMANCE, VISION, VISUAL ACCOMODATION, SCOTOPIC SENSITIVITY, HEARING, VIGILANGE, RAPID INFORMATION PROCESSING, LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING, DRUG ABUSE, DELINQUENCY, PROMISCUITY, DRIVING ACCIDENTS, ABSENTEEISM
86-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1650 DTIC #: ADA174909
TITLE: SOME EFFECTS OF ANTICHOLINESTERASE DRUGS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES ON EXTRARETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS OF APLYSIA CALIFORNICA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES P. APLAND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: APLYSIA EXTRARETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR (ERP) CELLS R2, LPL1, AND VPN WERE USED AS MODELS OF PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. THE EARLY STEPS OF LIGHT TRANSDUCTION IN APLYSIA ERP CELLS ARE VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE PROPOSED IN THE CALCIUM SCHEME FOR VERTEBRATE ROD OUTER SEGMENTS. THE EFFECTS OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES ON PHOTO-RESPONSES IN APLYSIA WERE INVESTIGATED BY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS. BATH APPLICATION OF DIISOPROPYL FLOUROPHOSPHATE (DFP), A POTENT IRREVERSIBLE ORGANOPHOSPHATE-TYPE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR, CONSISTENTLY DECREASED THE MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE OF THE PHOTORESPONSE ELICITED BY FLASHING A LIGHT ON APLYSIA ERP CELLS. DFP DID NOT CHANGE MEMBRANE RESISTANCE, NOR DID IT CHANGE THE REVERSAL POTENTIAL FOR THE PHOTORESPONSE. PHYSOSTIGMINE, A REVERSIBLE CARBAMATE-TYPE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR, DEPRESSED BOTH PHOTORESPONSE AMPLITUDE AND MEMBRANE RESISTANCE. ATTENUATION OF PHOTORESPONSE WAS DOSE-DEPENDENT WITH BOTH DFP AND PHYSOSTIGMINE AND WAS COMPLETELY REVERSED BY WASHING OUT THE DRUGS. PHYSOSTIGMINE WAS LESS POTENT. BOTH DRUGS CAUSED DEPOLARIZATION OF THE RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (RMP). PYRIDOSTIGMINE, ANOTHER REVERSIBLE CARBAMATE-TYPE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR, HAD NO EFFECT ON PHOTORESPONSE OR MEMBRANE RESISTANCE AT FIVE TIMES THE CONCENTRATION USED FOR PHYSOSTIGMINE. BATH APPLICATION OF CARBACHOL, WHICH WOULD MIMIC A BUILDUP OF ACETYLCHOLINE (ACH) FOLLOWING CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION, CAUSED A PERSISTENT HYPERPOLARIZATION OF RMP. CARBACHOL CAUSED ATTENUATION OF BOTH PHOTORESPONSE AND MEMBRANE RESISTANCE. PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT DFP INHIBITS NA, K-ATPASE. DEPOLARIZATION AFTER TREATMENT OF ERP CELLS WITH 10-3M OUABAIN, SUGGESTS THAT THIS DEPOLARIZATION IS NOT CAUSED BY NA PUMP INHIBITION. THE MUSCARINIC ACH RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST ATROPINE BLOCKED THE PHOTO-RESPONSE ATTENUATION CAUSED BY THE DFP. ATROPINE DID NOT BLOCK THE ATTENUATION OF PHOTORESPONSE AND MEMBRANE RESISTANCE CAUSED BY PHYSOSTIGMINE AND CARBACHOL. CALCIUM-FREE, HIGH-MAGNESIUM SEA WATER, WHICH BLOCKS RELEASE OF ACH AND OTHER NEUROTRANSMITTERS, DID NOT BLOCK THE ATTENUATION OF PHOTORESPONSE CAUSED BY DFP.
KEYWORDS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES, CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS, PHOTORECEPTORS, VISION, ANIMAL MODEL, APLYSIA
87-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 765 DTIC #: ADA181203
TITLE: HEAD MOVEMENTS DURING CONTOUR FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH, WILLIAM R. HOLT, JOHN K. CROSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS HEAD MOVEMENT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO MEASURE PILOT HEAD ROTATIONAL MOVEMENTS DURING CONTOUR FLIGHTS. THE HEAD MOVEMENT DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM FIVE SUBJECTS AS EACH FLEW A MODIFIED UH-1M OVER A 15-MILE CONTOUR COURSE. THE SUBJECT PILOTS ALSO WERE REQUIRED TO VISUALLY SEARCH FOR "ENEMY" AIRCRAFT WHILE FLYING THE CONTOUR COURSE. A HELMET-MOUNTED SIGHT WAS USED TO MEASURE THE PILOTS' HEAD MOVEMENTS. THE HEAD POSITION DATA INDICATE THE PILOTS LOOKED FORWARD MOST OF THE TIME, EVEN THOUGH THE SCENARIO REQUIRED A BROAD RANGE OF HEAD MOVEMENTS. THE DATA ALSO SUGGEST PURE HEAD-NECK MOVEMENTS WITHOUT TORSO PARTICIPATION. THE HEAD VELOCITY DATA INDICATE SYMMETRICAL AZIMUTH AND ELEVATION HEAD MOVEMENT COMPONENTS. APPROXIMATELY 97 PERCENT OF THE HEAD MOVEMENTS WERE EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN 120 DEGREES/SEC, ALTHOUGH SOME MOVEMENTS EXCEEDED 200 DEGREES/SEC.
KEYWORDS: HEAD TRACKING, CONTOUR FLIGHT, HEAD VELOCITY, VISUALLY COUPLED SYSTEM (VCS)
87-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 758 DTIC #: ADA181430
TITLE: CONTROLLING IMPULSE NOISE HAZARDS: PROGRAMMATIC MODEL FOR DEVELOPING VALIDATED EXPOSURE STANDARDS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BLAST-PRODUCING WEAPONS SUCH AS ARTILLERY CANNONS, MORTARS, AND ROCKETS CAN PRODUCE SERIOUS HEARING LOSS AMONG COMBAT TROOPS. EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF THE RISKS OF HEARING LOSS REQUIRES REALISTIC, VALID STANDARDS FOR NOISE HAZARD EVALUATION AND MATERIEL DESIGN. UNFORTUNATELY, CURRENT ARMY STANDARDS FOR IMPULSE NOISE ARE NEITHER FOUNDED ON A THOROUGH SCIENTIFIC DATABASE NOR VALIDATED FOR OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS. THESE LIMITATIONS MAKE IT DIFFICULT TO BALANCE THE REQUIREMENT FOR IMPROVED WEAPONS AGAINST THE NEED TO PROTECT CREWMEMBERS' HEARING. IN SUPPORT OF THE ARMY'S HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROGRAM, A MULTIPHASE RESEARCH MODEL HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATION FOR VALID IMPULSE NOISE STANDARDS. THE MODEL CONSTITUTES A BLUEPRINT OF THE PROGRAMMATIC BUILDING BLOCKS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF REALISTIC, EFFECTIVE STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO A BROAD SPECTRUM OF WEAPONS. LABORATORY AND FIELD RESEARCH METHODS ARE USED TO ESTABLISH A SYSTEMATIC, COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE RELATING AUDITORY INJURY TO CRITICAL NOISE PARAMETERS. THE MODEL CULMINATES IN VALIDATION OF NEW STANDARDS UNDER REALISTIC FIELD CONDITIONS. IMPLEMENTING THE MODEL REQUIRES LONG-TERM RESEARCH COMMITMENTS IN EXECUTING THE PROGRAM. ONCE ESTABLISHED, THE NEW NOISE EXPOSURE STANDARDS CAN BE TRANSLATED INTO HEARING CONSERVATION STANDARDS, MATERIEL DESIGN STANDARDS, AND NOISE HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES. THESE NEW WEAPONS WHICH ARE, AT THE SAME TIME, SAFER AND MORE EFFECTIVE.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, BLAST OVERPRESSURE
87-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 465 DTIC #: ADA181199
TITLE: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH SPEED PERSONNEL PARACHUTING: MEDICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ISSUES
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WEHRLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT REVIEWS THE MEDICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ISSUES OF HIGH SPEED, LOW ALTITUDE PARACHUTING. ACCIDENT AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA ARE REVIEWED. THE DEARTH OF EXPERIMENTAL/OPERATIONAL DATA RELATED TO THESE ISSUES IS NOTED.
KEYWORDS: PERSONNEL PARACHUTES, PARACHUTING, MEDICAL ISSUES, HUMAN ACCELERATION TOLERANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL ISSUES, PARACHUTE JUMPING, PARACHUTISTS
87-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2163 DTIC #: ADA181391
TITLE: THE COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM (CEMES) PROJECT PHASE I REPORT
AUTHOR(s): DOUGLAS E. LANDON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM (DESIGNATED CEMES: COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM) DESIGNED TO DIAGNOSE AND TREAT HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK UNDER BATTLEFIELD CONDITIONS IS BEING CONDUCTED. THIS REPORT OUTLINES THE PROJECT'S RATIONALE AND DOCUMENTS THE MAJOR DESIGN CONCEPTS UNDERLYING THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF CEMES. THE PROJECT IS BEING CONDUCTED IN TWO PHASES. THE FIRST PHASE HAS BEEN COMPLETED, CONSISTING OF THE DESIGN OF A BASIC CEMES THAT CAN DIAG-NOSE HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK AND SIMULATE FLUID INFUSION TREATMENTS. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES THE INTERIM PROGRESS OF THIS PROJECT AT PHASE I.
KEYWORDS: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, EXPERT SYSTEM, MEDICINE, MEDICAL, AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS
87-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1304 DTIC #: ADA191615
TITLE: MEASUREMENT OF GUNNER HEAD ACCELERATION DURING FIRING OF HIGH IMPULSE GUNS ON LIGHTWEIGHT ARMORED VEHICLES AND THE ASSESSMENT OF GUNNER TOLERANCE TO SUCH IMPACT
AUTHOR(s): TED A. HUNDLEY, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PROVIDES GUNNER HEAD ACCELERATION DATA FROM THE LIVE FIRING OF 105 MM AND 152 MM TURRET GUNS ON THE M-551 AND M-60 TANKS. THE HEAD ACCELERATIONS WERE MEASURED WITH A GUNNER VOLUNTEER AND WITH AN ANTHROPOMORPHIC DUMMY IN STATIONARY TANKS. THE HEAD ACCELERATION VALUES RANGED FROM 4 GS IN THE HEAVY M-60 TANK UP TO 14 GS IN THE LIGHT M-551 TANK. A COMPARISON OF THESE ACCELERATION LEVELS TO THE KNOWN HUMAN TOLERANCE DATA INDICATES NO PROBLEM FOR SINGLE EXPOSURES FOR MOST GUNNERS, BUT IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOME GUNNERS WILL EXPERIENCE HEADACHES AND NECK STRAIN. THE EFFECT OF REPEATED EXPOSURES AT THE 14 G LEVEL IS NOT KNOWN AND FURTHER RESEARCH IS RECOMMENDED.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 684 DTIC #: ADA191616
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE U.S. ARMY FITTING PROGRAM FOR THE INTEGRATED HELMET UNIT OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN, DANIEL W. GOWER, JR., JOSEPH R. LICINA, JOHN V. BARSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE FITTING PROGRAM FOR THE INTEGRATED HELMET UNIT FOR THE AH-64 DEVELOPED AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY IS DOCUMENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF TRAINING AND FIELD UNIT FITTING PROGRAMS ARE OUTLINED.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1002 DTIC #: ADA191652
TITLE: DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE ADEQUACY OF HEARING PROTECTION FOR USE WITH THE VIPER
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DURING DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING IT WAS DETERMINED THAT THE VIPER ANTITANK WEAPON PRODUCED IMPULSE NOISE WHICH EXCEEDED THE MAXIMUM LEVELS PERMITTED BY MIL-STD-1474. IN ORDER TO PROCEED WITH OPERATIONAL TESTS, IT WAS NECESSARY TO DETERMINED WHETHER ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION COULD BE PROVIDED. THIS STUDY INVOLVED THE EXPOSURE OF 38 VOLUNTEERS TO TWO ROUNDS OF VIPER FIRED IN RAPID SUCCESSION WHILE WEARING EARTM EARPLUGS. THE AVERAGE EXPOSURE PEAK LEVEL WAS 181 DB SPL. AUDIOGRAMS WERE TAKEN BEFORE AND AFTER EXPOSURE. NO DETECTABLE CHANGES IN HEARING WERE OBSERVED IN THE GROUP OF VOLUNTEERS. FROM THIS, IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT EARTM EARPLUGS PROVIDE ADEQUATE PROTECTION FOR AT LEAST TWO ROUNDS OF VIPER.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING LOSS, ACOUSTICS, HEARING CONSERVATION
87-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2585 DTIC #: ADA199583
TITLE: COMPENDIUM OF U.S. ARMY VISUAL MEDICAL FITNESS STANDARDS
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WALSH, RICHARD R. LEVINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT REVIEWS VISION STANDARDS PERTAINING TO ENTRY ONTO ACTIVE DUTY, RETENTION, AND MOBILIZATION OF OFFICER AND ENLISTED PERSONNEL IN THE U.S. ARMY. IT ALSO CONTAINS CURRENT VISION REQUIREMENTS FOR EACH ENLISTED AND WARRANT OFFICER MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTY (MOS) AND COMMISSIONED OFFICER SPECIALTY SKILL IDENTIFIER (SSI). ALSO SUMMARIZED ARE "SPECIAL" VISION STANDARDS WITH APPLICATION EITHER TO ALL PERSONNEL, TO A SPECIFIC SUBGROUP, OR A SELECT FEW. THESE INCLUDE, AS EXAMPLES, PARTICULAR VISION REQUIREMENTS FOR FLYING DUTY, MARINE DIVING, MILITARY DRIVER'S LICENSING, SPECIAL OPERATIONS TRAINING AND ASSIGNMENT, AND ADMISSION TO THE U.S. MILITARY ACADEMY, RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS, AND OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL. ALL STANDARDS ARE REFERENCED TO THEIR APPROPRIATE GOVERNING PUBLISHED REGULATION. CONFUSION WITHIN AND CONTRADICTIONS TO EXISTING REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS ARE DISCUSSED AS APPROPRIATE.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5217 DTIC #: ADA191617
TITLE: AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES IN AN ARMORED DIVISION
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, JOHN K. CROSLEY, DUDLEY R. PRICE, GERALD BENTLEY, PATRICK LEAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY AND MILITARY EFFECTIVENESS OF WEARING CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL ARMOR ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS FROM EIGHT BATTALIONS OF AN ARMORED DIVISION AT FORT HOOD WORE EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES (SCLS) OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS. DURING THIS PERIOD, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SUBJECTIVE MEASURES WERE OBTAINED, ALONG WITH LOGISTICAL AND PERSONNEL SUPPORT INFORMATION. THREE TYPES OF SCLS WERE WORN: HIGH, MEDIUM, AND LOW WATER CONTENT LENSES. SUBJECTS FOLLOWED THEIR NORMAL TRAINING SCHEDULE IN GARRISON AND ON TRAINING RANGES. SEVENTY-FOUR PERCENT OF THOSE SUCCESSFULLY FITTED WITH SCLS WORE THEIR LENSES FOR THE DURATION OF THE STUDY, WHEN ADMINISTRATIVE LOSSES WERE FACTORED OUT.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 773 DTIC #: ADA191654
TITLE: DARK ADAPTATION AND RECOVERY FROM LIGHT ADAPTATION: SMOKERS VERSUS NON-SMOKERS
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SINCE THE PUBLISHED DATA CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON VISUAL SENSITIVITY AT NIGHT ARE INCONSISTENT, A NEW STUDY WAS INITIATED TO INVESTIGATE THIS QUESTION. THIRTY ARMY AVIATORS BETWEEN THE AGES OF 19 AND 39 VOLUNTEERED TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS STUDY. OF THE SUBJECTS, 15 SMOKED AND 15 WERE NONSMOKERS. EACH SUBJECT WAS SEATED IN A LIGHT-CONTROLLED ROOM AND EXPOSED TO A STANDARDIZED BRIGHT LIGHT FOR 5 MINUTES. IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE BRIGHT LIGHT WAS EXTINGUISHED, THE SUBJECT'S VISUAL SENSITIVITY WAS TESTED BY GRADUALLY INCREASING THE INTENSITY OF A TEST LIGHT UNTIL THE SUBJECT COULD SEE IT. THIS WAS CONTINUED OVER A PERIOD OF 35 MINUTES BY WHICH TIME THE SUBJECTS HAD REACHED THEIR MAXIMUM LIGHT SENSITIVITY. EACH SUBJECT THEN WORE A PAIR OF AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES FOR 5 MINUTES AFTER WHICH HIS VISUAL SENSITIVITY AGAIN WAS TESTED FOR 20 MINUTES.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1475 DTIC #: ADA191653
TITLE: SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE CONTROL FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF MALES AND FEMALES VERSUS HELICOPTER CONTROL FORCE DESIGN LIMITS
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, GEORGE R. MASTROIANNI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY STANDARDS AND DESIGN GUIDELINES DO NOT CONSIDER THE POTENTIAL FOR DEGRADATION IN THE MAGNITUDE OF FORCE WHICH CAN BE APPLIED BY A CREWMEMBER OR OPERATOR AS THE RESULT OF HAVING TO PERFORM MORE THAN ONE CONTROL INPUT AT THE SAME TIME. IN ASSESSING HELICOPTER-CONTROL-REFERENCED STRENGTH CAPABILITIES AS A PART OF AN OVERALL PROGRAM TO UPDATE MEDICAL STANDARDS FOR U.S. ARMY FLYING DUTY, 130 SUBJECTS PERFORMED MAXIMAL VOLUNTARY EXERTIONS ON EACH OF THE THREE PRIMARY HELICOPTER CONTROLS (CYCLIC, COLLECTIVE, AND PEDALS). THESE EXERTIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN BOTH AS SEPARATE INPUTS TO SINGLE CONTROLS AND AS SIMULTANEOUSLY EXECUTED INPUTS TO ALL THREE CONTROLS.
KEYWORDS: STRENGTH, MALE, FEMALE, AIRCRAFT CONTROLS, HELICOPTER CONTROLS, CONTROL FORCE REQUIREMENT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
88-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2069 DTIC #: ADA193419
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN THE AH-64 APACHE MISSION SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL W. GOWER, MICHAEL G. LILIENTHAL, ROBERT S. KENNEDY, JENNIFER E. FOWLKES, DENNIS R. BALTZLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AS TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE IMPROVED VISUAL AND MOTION SYSTEMS IN OPERATIONAL FLIGHT TRAINERS AND WEAPONS TACTICS TRAINERS, THERE HAVE BEEN INCREASING REPORTS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO ONE OR MORE SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR WHILE IN A SIMULATOR, IMMEDIATELY POSTEXPOSURE, OR AT SOME LATER TIME FOLLOWING EXPOSURE. SOME PILOTS HAVE REPORTED WHILE DRIVING FOLLOWING POSTEXPOSURE, THEY HAVE HAD TO PULL OFF THE ROAD AND WAIT FOR SYMPTOMS TO SUBSIDE. INSTRUCTOR-OPERATORS HAVE REPORTED EXPERIENCING "THE ROOM SPINNING" WHEN THEY WENT TO BED. MORE CRITICAL IS THE POTENTIAL FOR IN-FLIGHT PROBLEMS DUE TO PROLONGED PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, CONDUCTED A FIELD SURVEY TO DOCUMENT THE EXTENT OF THE SIMULATOR SICKNESS PROBLEMS AT OPERATIONAL AH-64 SIMULATOR SITES. THE SIMULATOR SICKNESS INCIDENCE RATES AND THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED AND CORRELATIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, AND FLIGHT MODE ALSO ARE PRESENTED. THE STUDY REINFORCES THE NEED FOR CONTINUED RESEARCH RELATED TO SYSTEM DESIGN, TRAINING METHODS, AND CREW REST GUIDELINES BETWEEN SIMULATOR AND ACTUAL FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
88-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 591 DTIC #: ADA221118
TITLE: RECOVERY OF THE VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE IN THE CAT FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE, AN IRREVERSIBLE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, THOMAS H. HARDING, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSES (VER) TO COUNTERPHASED GRATINGS WERE RECORDED FROM AREA 17 OF CAT VISUAL VORTEX PRIOR TO AND FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF DIISOPROPYL-FLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP). THE VER AND ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE) ACTIVITY OF BLOOD, RETINA, AND VISUAL CORTEX WERE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY FOLLOWING DFP ADMINISTRATION. APPROXIMATELY 2 HOURS AFTER EXPOSURE TO 4 MG/KG DFP, THE VER BEGAN TO RECOVER AND IN SOME CATS RETURNED TO BASE LINE LEVELS. IN CONTRAST, BLOOD, RETINA, AND CORTEX ACHE ACTIVITY SHOWED LITTLE, IF ANY, TENDENCY FOR RECOVERY THROUGHOUT THE EXPERIMENT. SINCE ATROPINE SULFATE PROVIDED AT LEAST PARTIAL RECOVERY OF THE VER FOLLOWING DFP WITHOUT AFFECTING ACHE INHIBITION, AN ACCUMULATION OF ACETYLCHOLINE (ACH) PROBABLY IS INVOLVED IN THE INITIAL VISUAL LOSS. HOWEVER, RECOVERY OF THE VER OVER TIME WHILE ACHE REMAINED SEVERELY INHIBITED IMPLICATES MECHANISMS OTHER THAN, OR IN ADDITION TO, ACCUMULATION OF ACH AT RECEPTOR SITES.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE (VER), CATS, DIISOPROPYFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP), ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE), LAB ANIMALS, VISUAL FUNCTION
88-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1965 DTIC #: ADA198720
TITLE: DISORIENTATION ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS IN U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS 1 JANUARY 1980 TO 30 APRIL 1987
AUTHOR(s): PETER VYRNWY-JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCIDENT DATA WAS OBTAINED FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FOR ALL U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER SPATIAL DISORIENTATION ACCIDENTS WHICH OCCURRED DURING THE PERIOD BEGINNING ON 1 JANUARY 1980 AND ENDING ON 30 APRIL 1987. DURING THIS TIME, THERE WERE 129 ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY SPATIAL DISORIENTATION WHICH WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR 37 FATALITIES AND 56 DISABLING INJURIES. MAJOR CAUSAL FACTORS ARE ANALYZED AND RECOMMENDATIONS MADE FOR CHANGES IN AIRCREW TRAINING, EDUCATION, AND AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION. ALSO DISCUSSED ARE THE EFFECTS OF OPERATIONS UNDERTAKEN IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, STATISTICS, PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS, HELICOPTER INSTRUMENTATION
88-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 728 DTIC #: ADA198719
TITLE: COMPARISON OF THREE ANESTHETICS FOR CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): C. E. HARGETT, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, MELVIN CARRIER, JR., CAROL S. LANDON, IRVIN W. MCCONNELL, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ANESTHESIA TECHNIQUES WHICH SUCCESSFULLY INDUCE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA IN CHINCHILLA VILLEDERA ARE DESCRIBED AND COMPARED. TWO INJECTABLES, KETAMINE-ACEPROMAZINE AND KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, ARE COMPARED TO HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE ADMINISTERED BY MASK ONLY AND THE SAME MIXTURE ADMINISTERED BY INDUCTION CHAMBER UNTIL LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX AND THEN MASK. FORTY LABORATORY-RAISED ADULT CHINCHILLAS IN FOUR GROUPS WERE USED IN THIS STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE WEIGHTED AND DOSAGES CALCULATED AND ADMINISTERED. ALL ACHIEVED SURGICAL ANESTHESIA WITH NO DEATHS. TIME TO LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX, TIME TO SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, DURATION OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, TIME FROM END OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA TO STANDING UNAIDED, AND TOTAL TIME FROM ADMINISTRATION OF ANESTHESIA TO STANDING UNAIDED ARE DETAILED. FINDINGS INDICATE THAT THE DOSES EVALUATED OF KETAMINE-ACEPROMAZINE, KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, AND HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE ALL PROVIDE SAFE, DEPENDABLE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA.
KEYWORDS: CHINCHILLA, KETAMINE, XYLAZINE, ACEPROMAZINE, ANESTHESIA
88-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1836 DTIC #: ADA197650
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRY AND MASS DISTRIBUTION FOR HUMAN ANALOGUES, VOLUME I: MILITARY MALE AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): HARRY G. ARMSTRONG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ANTHROPOMETRIC AND MASS DISTRIBUTION DATA FOR USE IN CONSTRUCTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL HUMAN ANALOGUES---MATHEMATICAL MODELS OR TEST DUMMIES---ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REPORT. INCLUDED HERE ARE BODY DIMENSIONS, JOINT LOCATIONS, AND MASS DISTRIBUTION PROPERTIES APPROPRIATE FOR MODELING THE SMALL, MIDSIZE, AND LARGE MALE AVIATOR OF THE 1980S. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM: (1) 139 BODY DIMENSIONS OF STANDING AND SEATED MALES OBTAINED BY TRADITIONAL ANTHROPOMETRIC METHODS; (2) MASS DISTRIBUTION DATA FOR BODY SEGMENTS OBTAINED BY STEREOPHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES; AND (3) SKELETAL JOINT CENTERS OBTAINED BY ESTIMATION. THE ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA, GENERATED FROM MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS ON STATURE AND WEIGHT, ARE SUITABLE AS THE BASIS FOR MODELS TO BE USED IN TESTING RESPONSES TO IMPACT AND OTHER MECHANICAL FORCES; THEY ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR OTHER PURPOSES SUCH AS THE SIZING OF CLOTHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, OR WORKSPACE DESIGN.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, ANTHROPOLOGY, HUMAN MASS DISTRIBUTION, HUMAN LIMB PIVOT AXES, PILOT SIZE
88-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 683 DTIC #: ADA200429
TITLE: COMPARISON OF ARMY FLIGHT SCHOOL PERFORMANCE IN SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS
AUTHOR(s): RONALD J. EDWARDS, MICHAEL G. SANDERS, DUDLEY R. PRICE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON PERFORMANCE WERE EXAMINED IN THIS STUDY BY COMPARING FLIGHT SCHOOL PERFORMANCE IN GROUPS OF NONSMOKING AND SMOKING ARMY AVIATION STUDENTS. ACADEMIC AND IN-FLIGHT GRADES FOR FIVE PHASES OF INITIAL ENTRY ROTARY-WING (IERW) CLASSES BETWEEN JANUARY 1984 AND NOVEMBER 1986 WERE EXTRACTED FROM AVIATION CENTER RECORDS AND COMPARED TO THE STUDENT'S RESPONSES ON THE AUXILIARY QUESTIONNAIRE PORTION OF THE AVIATOR EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER, A COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE COLLECTED YEARLY FROM EVERY ARMY AVIATOR BY THE JOINT EFFORT OF THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AND THE AEROMEDICAL ACTIVITY. THERE WERE 2,025 STUDENTS WITH DATA SUFFICIENTLY COMPLETE AND ANALYSIS, WITH THE AVERAGE AGE OF 24.5 YEARS, AND WITH A RANK AND SEX DISTRIBUTION AS FOLLOWS: 96.3 PERCENT MALES, 3.7 PERCENT FEMALES; 53.2 PERCENT COMMISSIONED OFFICERS, 46.7 PERCENT WARRANT OFFICERS. THROUGH PAST STUDIES (1982) HAVE SHOWN 56 PERCENT OF ALL ARMY PERSONNEL WERE SMOKERS, STRICT CRITERIA DEFINING SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS IN THIS STUDY, PLUS RECENT DECREASES IN SMOKING RATES, PRODUCED A 15:85 RATION OF SMOKERS TO NONSMOKERS (RECENT QUITTERS AND THOSE WHO SMOKE LESS THAN ONE PACK/DAY WERE NOT INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS).
KEYWORDS: CIGARETTES, SMOKING, TOBACCO, FLIGHT TRAINING, PERFORMANCE
88-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 18524 DTIC #: ADA198688
TITLE: EFFECTS OF LOW AND HIGH OXYGEN TENSIONS AND RELATED RESPIRATORY CONDITIONS IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK N. DYER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCH WAS REVIEWED ON THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA, HYPEROXIA, HYPOCAPNIA, AND HYPERCAPNIA ON A LARGE NUMBER OF VISUAL AND OCULAR PROCESSES. THESE INCLUDED ABSOLUTE VISUAL SENSITIVITY, DARK ADAPTION, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, DEPTH PERCEPTION, STEREOPSIS, FIELDS OF PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL VISION, CRITICAL FLICKER/FUSION FREQUENCY, COLOR VISION, AFTERIMAGES, OTHER ENTOPIC PHENOMENA, PERSISTENCE OF VISION FOLLOWING ISCHEMIA, THE STANDING POTENTIAL, THE ELECTRORETINOGRAM, GANGLION CELL AND OPTIC-TRAIT RESPONSES, VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSES, OCULAR VESSELS, BLOOD FLOW, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, INTRAOCULAR OXYGEN, THE PUPIL, ACCOMMODATION, MYOPIA, THE CRYSTALLINE LENS, CONVERGENCE, HETEROPHORIA, READING, OTHER EYE MOVEMENTS, AND THE CORNEA. RESEARCH WAS ALSO REVIEWED ON THE POTENTIAL TOXIC EFFECTS OF HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION ON VISION. INTEGRATION OF THIS LARGE BODY OF RESEARCH INDICATED PROBABLE DIOPTIC CHANGES IN THE EYE DURING HYPOXIA THAT RESULTED FROM CHANGES IN BLOOD VOLUME ASSOCIATED WITH RETINAL VASODILATION. ONE POSSIBILITY IS THAT ANTERIOR CHAMBER "SHALLOWING" OCCURS DURING HYPOXIA BECAUSE OF INCREASED PRESSURE BEHIND THE LENS AND/OR REDUCED ANTERIOR CHAMBER PRESSURE. THIS MAY CAUSE INCREASES OF MYOPIA IN SOME CONDITIONS. SINCE RETINAL OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS INCREASE IN DARKNESS, A "NIGHT HYPOXIA" PROBABLY EXISTS THAT MAY LEAD TO "NIGHT MYOPIA" AS A RESULT OF THIS VASCULAR OXYGEN REGULATION WHICH LEADS TO DIOPTRIC "DEREGULATION." RESEARCH NEEDS RELATED TO THESE AND OTHER HYPOTHESES WERE IDENTIFIED ALONG WITH GAPS IN RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA AND HYPEROXIA ON VISION.
KEYWORDS: HYPOXIA, VISION, EYE, OXYGEN, HYPEROXIA, HYPERBARIC OXYGEN, HYPOCAPNIA, HYPERCAPNIA, CARBON MONOXIDE, RETINAL CIRCULATION, RETINAL VASODILATION, RETINAL VASOCONSTRICTION, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, INTRAOCULAR OXYGEN, PUPIL, CRYSTALLINE LENS, CORNEA
88-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 646 DTIC #: ADA200431
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF TWO COMPUTER IMPLEMENTED PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURES APPLIED TO REAL-EAR ATTENUATION TESTING (ANSI S12.6-1984)
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM R. NELSON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO ACOUSTICAL INSTRUMENTATION HAS SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED THE CAPABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY OF MODERN ACOUSTICAL LABORATORIES. THE NEED TO REPLACE OLD RECORDING ATTENUATORS USED IN REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION TESTING WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART INSTRUMENTATION PROMPTED THE COMBINATION OF A CMOS MULTIPLYING D/A CONVERTER CHIP (WHICH CAN ACCURATELY AND RELIABLY ATTENUATE AN ANALOG SIGNAL) AND A TABLE-TOP COMPUTER TO CONTROL THE D/A CHIP. THE COMPUTER ALSO WAS USED TO RECORD THE MEASUREMENT OF AUDITORY THRESHOLD, PERFORM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, AND PERMANENTLY STORE DATA. THE FLEXIBILITY OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ALLOWED THE CHOICE OF PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURE. CONSIDERATION WAS GIVEN TO TWO SUCH PROCEDURES, TRACKING AND METHOD OF ADJUSTMENT. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE IF ONE OF THESE PROCEDURES WOULD PRODUCE FASTER, MORE ACCURATE RESULTS.
KEYWORDS: ACOUSTICS, AUDIOMETRY, HEARING, THRESHOLD, PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURE, AUDITORY AQUITY
88-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 808 DTIC #: ADA200628
TITLE: THE TRIAGE PROCESS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TRIAGE IS A BASIC MEDICAL SKILL WHICH IS MOST COMMONLY APPLIED IN MASS DISASTER OR COMBAT SITUATIONS TO SORT CASUALTIES. THE NUMBER OF PATIENTS AND THE CARE REQUIRED EXCEEDS THE MEDICAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE, AND THE CARE RENDERED MUST BE GIVEN ON A RATIONAL AND PRIORITIZED BASIS. MOST PREVIOUS PUBLISHED SYSTEMS FOR DEALING WITH LARGE NUMBERS OF PATIENTS HAVE CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES BASED ON MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS. THIS APPROACH IS DIFFICULT FOR PARAMEDICAL PROVIDERS (SUCH AS PARAMEDICS, EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIANS, OR COMBAT MEDICS) TO IMPLEMENT WITHOUT ADDITIONAL MEDICAL TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE. THIS PAPER PRESENTS A SIMPLE INITIAL PATIENT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME BASED ONLY ON RECOGNITION OF SHOCK SYMPTOMS. THE BASIC MNEMONIC IS DESCRIBED FOR DELIVERY OF INITIAL CARE AT A DISASTER FIELD SITE. THE SCHEME IS SUITABLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION WITHOUT PHYSICIANS PRESENT UNTIL A HOSPITAL FACILITY IS REACHED. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRIAGE CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES REQUIRED AT VARIOUS POINTS IN THE RESCUE PROCESS ALSO ARE DISCUSSED. THE PAPER IS ONE OF A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON DISASTER MEDICAL MANAGEMENT ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN THE JANUARY 1986 EDITION OF TOPICS IN EMERGENCY MEDICINE BY ASPEN SYSTEMS CORPORATION.
KEYWORDS: TRIAGE, FIELD MEDICAL CARE, DISASTER MEDICINE, DISASTER, MASS CASUALTY, PARAMEDIC, EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN, MEDIC
88-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 673 DTIC #: ADA200432
TITLE: SPH-4 HELMET RETENTION ASSEMBLY REINFORCEMENT
AUTHOR(s): RONALD W. PALMER, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF A HELMET'S RETENTION ASSEMBLY IS TO KEEP THE HELMET FIRMLY AND SECURELY IN PLACE ON THE WEARER'S HEAD, THUS PREVENTING THE EXPOSURE OF THE CRANIUM TO DIRECT IMPACT. THE STANDARD SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY IS PRONE TO EXCESSIVE ELONGATION UNDER STRESS, AND ALLOWS EXCESSIVE HELMET DISPLACEMENT AND CRANIUM EXPOSURE. A MODIFIED SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY, REINFORCED WITH 0.75-IN. TUBULAR NYLON WEBBING, WAS MANUFACTURED IN THIS LABORATORY AND TESTED QUASISTATICALLY ON A TESTING MACHINE WHICH EXERTED A FORCE AT A CONSTANT SPEED. A STANDARD SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY ALSO WAS TESTED AS A CONTROL. THE REINFORCED RETENTION ASSEMBLY WITHSTOOD A 450-LB LOAD WITHOUT FAILURE. ELONGATION OF THE REINFORCED RETENTION ASSEMBLY, MEASURED AT 300-LB LOAD, WAS ALMOST 50 PERCENT LESS THAN THAT OF THE STANDARD RETENTION ASSEMBLY MEASURED AT THE SAME LOAD.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, RETENTION SYSTEM, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, CHINSTRAP
88-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1176 DTIC #: ADA200430
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF TWO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION STANDARDS AS APPLIED TO ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT: ISO 2631 VS. ADS 27
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS L. BREEN, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) STANDARDS, INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO) 2631 AND AERONAUTICAL DESIGN STANDARD 27 (ADS-27), WERE COMPARED USING VIBRATION SIGNATURES FROM THE UH-1 AND UH-60 HELICOPTERS. ISO 2631 IS A WIDELY USED WBV STANDARD WHICH ACCOUNTS FOR VARIABLES SUCH AS INTENSITY, DURATION OF EXPOSURE, FREQUENCY RANGE, AND VIBRATION IN ALL THREE ORTHOGONAL DIRECTIONS. ADS-27 IS A NEWER STANDARD DEVELOPED AT THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION SYSTEMS COMMAND (AVSCOM) FOR MEASURING WBV PRODUCED BY ROTARY-WINGED AIRCRAFT. AN ANALYSIS OF THE TWO VIBRATION SIGNATURE TYPES SHOWS WHEN VIBRATION LEVELS ARE MEASURED ON A PASS/FAIL PERFORMANCE CRITERIA, THE ADS-27 BECOMES THE MORE STRINGENT STANDARD; HOWEVER, ADS-27 FAILS TO ANSWER THE IMPORTANT HEALTH HAZARD QUESTIONS THAT ISO 2631 ATTEMPTS. ISO 2631 VIBRATION ACQUISITION TECHNIQUES WERE FOUND TO BE MORE SCIENTIFICALLY SOUND THAN THOSE PROPOSED BY THE ADS-27. THE USE OF BOTH STANDARDS MAY PROVE TO BE A MORE COMPLETE METHOD OF HELICOPTER WBV ASSESSMENT.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, SIGNATURES, STANDARDS, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, COMPARISION, ADS-27, ISO 2631, UH-60, UH-1
88-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1547 DTIC #: ADA203100
TITLE: POLYCARBONATE OPHTHALMIC LENSES FOR AMETROPIC ARMY AVIATORS USING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U.S. ARMY AVIATORS USE THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG) WITH A MODIFIED FACEPLATE WHICH ENABLES WEARING OF CORRECTIVE SPECTACLES, WHEN REQUIRED. THE NEXT GENERATION NVGS, THE AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), PERMIT SPECTACLE WEAR BY DESIGN. WITH ONLY GLASS LENSES AVAILABLE TO THE AVIATOR REQUIRING OPTICAL CORRECTION, THERE IS A POTENTIAL FOR EYE INJURY FROM BROKEN GLASS SHOULD THE GOGGLES ACCIDENTALLY BE DISPLACED. THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS STUDIES TO (1) COMPARE THE IMPACT RESISTANCE OF GLASS, CR-39 (PLASTIC), AND POLYCARBONATE LENSES TO SIMULATED NVG TUBES, (2) ESTABLISH THE APPROXIMATE FORCES NECESSARY TO CAUSE GLASS LENS BREAKAGE BY DISPLACED NVG TUBES, AND (3) DETERMINE THE PERFORMANCE OF POLYCARBONATE LENSES IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. RESULTS DEMONSTRATE THE SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN IMPACT-RESISTANCE AFFORDED BY POLYCARBONATE OPHTHALMIC LENSES, VERIFY THE RELATIVELY LOW FORCES NECESSARY TO CAUSE NVG DISPLACEMENT AND SUBSEQUENT GLASS LENS BREAKAGE, AND ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF PRESCRIBING POLYCARBONATE LENSES FOR USE BY AVIATION PERSONNEL.
KEYWORDS: POLYCARBONATE LENSES, OPHTHALMIC LENSES, SPECTACLE LENSES, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS)
88-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 284 DTIC #: ADA202984
TITLE: THE IMPACT OF THE U.S. ARMY'S AH-64 HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY ON FUTURE AVIATION HELMET DESIGN. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HISTORICALLY, THE GOAL OF AVIATION HELMET DESIGN HAS BEEN TO PRIMARILY PROVIDE IMPACT AND NOISE PROTECTION TO THE WEARER. IN 1984, THE U.S. ARMY FIELDED AN ADVANCED ATTACK HELICOPTER WHICH REQUIRED A NEW HELMET CONCEPT IN WHICH THE ROLE OF THE HELMET WAS EXPANDED TO PROVIDE A VISUALLY COUPLED INTERFACE BETWEEN THE AVIATOR AND THE AIRCRAFT. THIS NEW HELMET SYSTEM, THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), USES A HELMET FITTED WITH INFRARED (IR) EMITTERS AND A MONOCULAR DISPLAY. THE IR EMITTERS ALLOW A SLEWABLE IR IMAGING SENSOR, MOUNTED ON THE NOSE OF THE AIRCRAFT, TO BE SLAVED TO THE AVIATOR'S HEAD MOVEMENTS. IMAGERY FROM THIS SENSOR IS PRESENTED TO THE AVIATOR THROUGH THE HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY. THIS TYPE SYSTEM GENERATES SEVERAL CONCERNS, RECOGNIZED EARLY ON, BUT STILL UNRESOLVED. THESE AREAS INCLUDE QUESTIONS OF MONOCULAR VS. BINOCULAR IMAGERY, EYE DOMINANCE, AND BINOCULAR RIVALRY. ADDITIONALLY, THE TASK OF INTERFACING THE AVIATOR'S HEAD TO THE AIRCRAFT HAS INTRODUCED PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED PROBLEMS RELATING TO HEAD ANTHROPOMETRY AND FACIAL ANATOMY. THE FITTING PROCESS HAS BECOME A CRUCIAL FACTOR IN THE AVIATOR'S ABILITY TO INTERFACE WITH THE AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. THE DEVELOPMENT AND FIELDING OF THE IHADSS HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY HAVE EXPANDED THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE HELMET. IF HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS ARE THE DESIGN CHOICE OF FUTURE AIRCRAFT, IT WILL BE IMPERATIVE TO PLACE INCREASED EMPHASIS ON THE HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF THE HELMET.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), SPH-4, IHADSS
88-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2464 DTIC #: ADA202590
TITLE: THE COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM (CEMES) PROJECT: PHASE II REPORT
AUTHOR(s): DOUGLAS E. LANDON, GLENN W. MITCHELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF A COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM (DESIGNATED CEMES) HAS BEEN CONDUCTED. THIS REPORT OUTLINES THE PROJECT'S RATIONALE AND DOCUMENTS THE MAJOR DESIGN CONCEPTS UNDERLYING THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF CEMES. CEMES IS AN EXPERT SYSTEM DESIGNED TO PERFORM AUTOMATIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK WITH OR WITHOUT CONCURRENT CHEMICAL AGENT CONTAMINATION. ITS ANTICIPATED USE IS AS A FORWARD-AREA MEDICAL AID, OPERATING AUTOMATICALLY FOLLOWING INITIAL HANDS-ON FIRST-AID AND SYSTEM ATTACHMENT BY A MEDIC, MEDIC EXTENDER, OR PHYSICIAN. A LABORATORY PROTOTYPE CEMES HAS BEEN DESIGNED AND DEVELOPED AS A TOTALLY SELF-CONTAINED, CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM. IT MONITORS VITAL SIGNS THROUGH NONINVASIVE SENSORS AND DETERMINES A DIAGNOSIS THROUGH VITAL SIGN ANALYSIS. IT ANALYZES MEDICAL TRENDS BASED ON DIAGNOSTIC AND VITAL SIGN CHANGES, AND BOTH WARNS FOR AND GUARDS AGAINST CATASTROPHIC OR GRADUAL DETERIORATION IN CASUALTY CONDITION. CEMES ADVISES PERSONNEL AS TO WHEN TO INITIATE AN IV OR DRUG DELIVERY LINE, AND THEN AUTOMATICALLY MANAGES IV FLUID INFUSION AND PERIODIC OR CONTINUOUS DRUG TREATMENTS BASED ON CURRENT DIAGNOSIS AND TRENDS. CEMES MONITOR ITS OWN LOGISTICAL STATUS, ADVISING AS TO WHEN IV FLUID IS GETTING LOW AND BAG REPLACEMENT IS NECESSARY. IN ADDITION, THE LOGISTICAL ANALYSIS WATCHES FOR INOPERATIVE OR MALFUNCTIONING SENSORS TO FACILITATE DEGRADED MODE OPERATION. CEMES ALSO MAINTAINS A DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT HISTORY FOR EXAMINATION BY A PHYSICIAN AT A DEFINITIVE CARE FACILITY. A COLOR GRAPHICS DISPLAY IS USED TO PRESENT SYSTEM INFORMATION. SENSOR DATA IS SIMULATED THROUGH OFF-THE-SHELF PATIENT SIMULATORS AND CUSTOM-DESIGNED SIMULATION EQUIPMENT. IV FLUID INFUSION TREATMENT IS SIMULATED USING SMALL PUMPS, COLORED WATER, AND ACTUAL IV LINE TUBING THAT DELIVERS FLUID AT THE RATES PRESCRIBED BY CEMES.
KEYWORDS: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, EXPERT SYSTEM, MEDICINE, MEDICAL AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS
88-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2801 DTIC #: ADA202589
TITLE: SPH-4 U.S. ARMY FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE 1983-1987
AUTHOR(s): PETER VWYNRY-JONES, BERNARD LANOUE, DOUGLAS PRITTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INJURY DATA WAS OBTAINED FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FOR THE OCCUPANTS OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT WHO WERE WEARING AVIATOR HELMETS WHEN INVOLVED IN DUTY-RELATED AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS FROM THE PERIOD BEGINNING IN JUNE 1982 AND ENDING IN OCTOBER 1987. THE INJURY DATA WAS CORRELATED WITH THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE HELMETS INVOLVED WHICH HAS BEEN OBTAINED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY UNDER THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM. THE HELMET PERFORMANCE WAS EVALUATED WITH REGARD TO CURRENT INJURY PREVENTION CAPABILITIES AND POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR FUTURE HELMET DESIGNS. ALL HELMETS INVOLVED WERE INVOLVED IN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS EXCEPT ONE SPH-4 WHICH HAD BEEN DAMAGED BY SMALL ARMS FIRE.
KEYWORDS: SPH-4, HEAD INJURY, APH-5, AVIATOR HELMET, CRUSHABLE EARCUPS, CHINSTRAP, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, FACIAL INJURY, ENERGY ATTENTUATION, HELMET VISOR, FOAM COMPRESSION, ALSERP
88-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 917 DTIC #: ADA200433
TITLE: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY IN ARMY AVIATOR CANDIDATES: CYCLOPLEGIA EFFECTS AND POPULATION NORMS
AUTHOR(s): ISAAC BEHAR, WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, WALTER EGENMAIER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION REGARDING THREE ASPECTS OF SENSITIVITY TESTING OF AVIATOR CANDIDATES: 1) TO DETERMINE WHETHER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS (CSFS) OBTAINED WITH THE VISTECH VISUAL CONTRAST TEST SYSTEM (VCTS) ARE AFFECTED BY OCULAR CYCLOPLEGIA; 2) SINCE ARMY AVIATOR CANDIDATES DIFFER FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION BY BEING MORE HIGHLY SELECTED WITH RESPECT TO VISUAL AND REFRACTIVE STATUS, AND MORE HOMOGENOUS IN AGE AND IN AN AGE BRACKET WHEN VISION IS OPTIMAL, A SECOND PURPOSE WAS TO OBTAIN A LARGE NORMATIVE SAMPLE OF CSFS FOR ESTABLISHING FUTURE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY STANDARDS FOR THIS POPULATION; AND 3) TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE VCTS PROVIDES USEFUL CSFS UNDER CLINICAL SCREENING CONDITIONS IN A TIMELY AND SIMPLE MANNER. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THRESHOLDS WERE OBTAINED AT 5 SPATIAL FREQUENCIES FROM 106 AVIATOR CANDIDATES, PRIOR TO AND FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF A CYCLOPLEGIC. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS OBTAINED UNDER CYCLOPLEGIA REDUCED ABOUT 20 PERCENT. THE CSFS OF THE AVIATOR CANDIDATES ARE MUCH SUPERIOR THAN THE GENERAL POPULATION NORMS. THE VCTS PROVIDES USEFUL CSFS UNDER MILITARY SCREENING CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR CANDIDATES, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, CYCLOPLEGIA, VISION STANDARDS
88-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1164 DTIC #: ADA212554
TITLE: EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT AND RIGID CONTACT LENSES: OPERATIONAL EVALUATION AMONG ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WITH INCREASING TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEXITY IN ARMY AVIATION, THE ROLE OF VISION BECOMES MORE IMPORTANT. AVIATION SYSTEMS INCORPORATING SOPHISTICATED ELECTRO-OPTICAL DISPLAYS FREQUENTLY ARE DESIGNED WITHOUT PROVISION FOR USE BY SPECTACLE WEARING PILOTS. CONTACT LENSES OFFER A SOLUTION TO THE COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY ARMY AVIATORS, APPROXIMATELY 18 PERCENT OF WHOM WEAR CORRECTIVE LENSES. UNDER A WAIVER FROM THE SURGEON GENERAL, 44 HELICOPTER PILOTS PERFORMED FLYING DUTIES WHILE WEARING EXTENDED WEAR SOFT AND RIGID LENSES. SIX EXPERIENCED TEMPORARY DISCONTINUANCE OF WEAR (4-19 DAYS); SIX WITHDREW FROM THE STUDY. NO PILOT WAS GROUNDED DUE TO CONTACT LENS RELATED PROBLEMS. SUBJECTIVELY, EXTENDED WEAR CONTACT LENSES FAVORABLY AFFECTED JOB PERFORMANCE. THIS WAS THE FIRST MAJOR FIELD EVALUATION OF CONTACT LENSES IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION, AND EVENTUALLY WILL REPRESENT PART OF A LARGE DATABASE IN THIS UNIQUE ENVIRONMENT.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENS, HELICOPTER PILOTS, VISION CORRECTION, REFRACTIVE ERROR, OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, PERFORMANCE IMPACT, VISION
88-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 551 DTIC #: ADA221534
TITLE: TPL...INSTALLATION, FITTING, AND MAINTENANCE FOR THE SPH-4 HELMET (SCRIPT FOR TRAINING VIDEO)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN V. BARSON, DOUGLAS P. PRITTS, BERNARD A. LANOUE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE THERMOPLASTIC LINE (TPL™) WAS ACCEPTED BY THE U.S. ARMY FOR USE IN THE SPH-4 FLYER'S HELMET IN AUGUST 1988. THIS VIDEOTAPE DEMONSTRATES THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY'S TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSTALLING, FITTING, AND MAINTAINING THE TPL™ IN THE SPH-4. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE TPL™ SIZE SELECTION, INSTALLATION, FITTING OF THE PERFORMED TPL™, CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE TPL™.
KEYWORDS: TPL, HELMET, SPH-4, FIT, INSTALL
89-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 606 DTIC #: ADA203931
TITLE: ANOMALOUS RETINAL CORRESPONDENCE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER PRESENTS AN OVERVIEW OF ANOMALOUS RETINAL CORRESPONDENCE IN STRABISMUS. DEFINITIONS, CERTAIN TESTING TECHNIQUES, AND A REVIEW OF UNDERLYING THEORY ARE OUTLINED. IT IS CONCLUDED AT ARC IS NOT WELL UNDERSTOOD AND REPRESENTS AN AREA STILL OPEN FOR INVESTIGATION.
KEYWORDS: ANOMALOUS RETINAL CORRESPONDENCE, STRABISMUS, DIAGNOSIS, THERAPY, THEORIES
89-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 737 DTIC #: ADA205383
TITLE: THE EYES HAVE IT: CONTACT LENS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE OF ARMOR TROOPS
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, WILLIAM G. BACHMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONTACT LENSES, PARTICULARLY THE EXTENDED WEAR VARIETIES, OFFER AN APPEALING ALTERNATIVE FOR SOLVING EQUIPMENT COMPATIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS FACED BY SPECTACLE-WEARING SOLDIERS. THIS PAPER PRESENTS PERFORMANCE RESULTS FROM THE ARMY'S FIRST MAJOR FIELD INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT LENSES. THE STUDY EVALUATED EXTENDED-WEAR CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL ARMOR ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS (N=311) FROM EIGHT BATTALIONS OF THE 2D ARMORED DIVISION AT FORT HOOD, TEXAS, WORE CONTACT LENSES OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS. THEY PARTICIPATED FULLY IN THEIR UNITS' NORMAL ACTIVITIES, INCLUDING TRAINING IN GARRISON AND IN THE FIELD. IN RESPONSE TO QUESTIONNAIRES AT THE END OF THE STUDY, NEARLY ALL OF THE CONTACT LENSES WEARERS WERE HIGHLY OR MODERATELY CONFIDENT IN THEIR ABILITY TO SEE ADEQUATELY. MOST FELT THEY COULD SEE BETTER WITH THEIR CONTACT LENSES THAN WITH SPECTACLES. THE GREATER MAJORITY INDICATED THAT CONTACT LENSES HAD IMPROVED THEIR OVERALL JOB PERFORMANCE, PREFERRING CONTACT LENSES FOR A VARIETY OF MILITARY ACTIVITIES, OPERATIONAL SETTINGS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, ARMOR TROOPS, SUBJECTIVE PERFORMANCE, VISION, REFRACTIVE CORRECTION, EXTENDED CONTACT LENS WEAR
89-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 571 DTIC #: ADA205412
TITLE: INHALATION ANESTHESIA IN THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): C. E. HARGETT, JR., JEFFREY W. RECORD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INHALATION ANESTHESIA TECHNIQUES WHICH SUCCESSFULLY INDUCE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA IN CHINCHILLA VILLIDERA ARE DESCRIBED AND COMPARED. ISOFLURANE-NITROUS OXIDE AND HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE DELIVERED BY A NONREBREATHING SYSTEM ARE COMPARED TO HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE DELIVERED BY A SEMICLOSED SYSTEM. THIRTY-SIX LABORATORY RAISED ADULT CHINCHILLAS IN THREE GROUPS WERE USED IN THIS STUDY. ALL ACHIEVED SURGICAL ANESTHESIA WITH NO DEATHS. TIME TO LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX, TIME TO SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, DURATION OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, AND TIME FROM END OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA UNTIL STANDING UNAIDED WERE RECORDED. FINDINGS INDICATE THAT ISOFLURANE-NITROUS OXIDE DELIVERED BY A NONREBREATHING SYSTEM PROVIDES SUPERIOR RESULTS.
KEYWORDS: CHINCHILLA, ISOFLURANE, HALOTHANE, NONBREATHING, SEMICLOSED
89-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2899 DTIC #: ADA208586
TITLE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COGNITIVE ABILITY AND THE ICONIC PROCESSING OF SPATIAL AND IDENTITY INFORMATION
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION ESTABLISHED THE RELIABILITY OF A CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE WHICH SEPARATES SUBJECTS INTO GROUPS BASED ON INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ABILITY TO PROCESS SPATIAL LOCATION AND IDENTITY INFORMATION TACHISTOSCOPICALLY PRESENTED DISPLAYS. PERFORMANCE OF THE TWO GROUPS THEN WAS COMPARED ON AN ICONIC PROCESSING TASK WHICH REQUIRED THE SIMULTANEOUS PROCESSING OF BOTH LOCATION AND IDENTITY INFORMATION. RESULTS INDICATED THOSE SUBJECTS WHO PROCESS LOCATION INFORMATION WELL PERFORMED SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER ON THE AVERBACH-CORIELL BAR PROBE TASK THAN SUBJECTS WHO PROCESS IDENTITY INFORMATION WELL. SUBJECTS ALSO WERE ADMINISTERED A BATTERY OF COGNITIVE TESTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER DIFFERENCES AT THE ICONIC LEVEL ARE RELATED TO PERFORMANCE AT MORE MOLAR LEVELS OF RECOGNITION. RESULTS OF A SERIES OF CORRELATIONAL ANALYSES INDICATED THAT A RELATIONSHIP DOES NOT EXIST BETWEEN ICONIC ABILITY AND MORE MOLAR COGNITIVE ABILITIES.
KEYWORDS: ICONIC PROCESSING, COGNITIVE TESTS, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, SPATIAL LOCATION INFORMATION, IDENTITY INFORMATION
89-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1378 DTIC #: ADA208609
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF AVIATORS WITHIN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, THOMAS J. BURKE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWENTY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS ON 22,000 MALE FLIGHT SCHOOL APPLICANTS, 29,000 MALE AVIATORS, 800 FEMALE FLIGHT SCHOOL APPLICANTS, AND 600 FEMALE AVIATORS ARE RECORDED IN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY REGISTER (AEDR). SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR THE ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF THESE FOUR POPULATIONS, INCLUDING MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, AND THE 1, 5, 50, 95, AND 99 PERCENTILE VALUE, ARE REPORTED. THESE VALUES ARE REPORTED IN A TABULAR FORMAT WITH THE CORRESPONDING VALUES FROM FIVE OTHER DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDIES.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRICS, BODY MEASUREMENTS, AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER, AEDR
89-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 661 DTIC #: ADA210503
TITLE: COCKPIT LIGHTING COMPATIBILITY WITH IMAGE INTENSIFICATION NIGHT IMAGING SYSTEMS: ISSUES AND ANSWERS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, ROBERT W. VERONA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT IMAGING SYSTEMS BASED ON IMAGE INTENSIFICATION (I²) TUBES ARE A MAJOR FACTOR IN THE NIGHT OPERATION CAPABILITY OF U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. A MAJOR PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THESE SYSTEMS IS THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECT CAUSED BY INTERNAL COCKPIT LIGHTING. INSTRUMENT LAMPS, CAUTION LAMPS, UTILITY LIGHTS, AND OTHER LIGHT SOURCES INSIDE THE COCKPIT ACTIVATE THE BRIGHT SOURCE PROTECTION CONTROL CIRCUITS OF THE INTENSIFICATION TUBES, THEREBY REDUCING THEIR SENSITIVITY TO EXTERNAL NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION. IN 1986, A TRI-SERVICE SPECIFICATION, MIL-L-85762, "LIGHTING, AIRCRAFT, INTERIOR, NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM COMPATIBLE," WAS ADOPTED TO RESOLVE THE COCKPIT LIGHTING PROBLEMS. MIL-L-85762 DEFINES THE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES REQUIRED TO CERTIFY LIGHTING COMPONENTS AS "ANVIS COMPATIBLE." THE SPECIFICATION DOES NOT ADDRESS COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH AN/PVS-5 USAGE. ONGOING EFFORTS RELATED TO MIL-L-85762 INCLUDE CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGHTING INCOMPATIBILITIES IN CURRENT U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT, IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMS TO MODIFY THE LIGHTING IN INCOMPATIBLE COCKPITS, AND CERTIFICATION OF PROPOSED LIGHTING COMPONENTS FOR FUTURE AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. ADDITIONAL WORK HAS BEEN DONE TO PROVIDE "NEAR COMPATIBLE" SOLUTIONS TO LIGHTING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF AN/PVS-5 SYSTEMS.
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, COCKPIT LIGHTING, MIL-L-85762
89-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 562 DTIC #: ADA221152
TITLE: GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILES OF NORMAL AND RADIATION-EXPOSED RABBIT CORNEAS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PASSAGE OF GLUCOSE WITHIN THE CORNEA HAS BEEN THOUGHT TO OCCUR BY PASSIVE DIFFUSION PROCESSES. HOWEVER, CORNEAL GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILES HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED TO SUPPORT THIS NOTION. WHILE MICROFLUOROMETRIC METHODS OF METABOLITE ASSAY TYPICALLY HAVE BEEN USED AS A MEANS OF ASSESSING REGIONAL BRAIN METABOLISM, THIS UNIQUE METHODOLOGY OF TISSUE ISOLATION AND METABOLITE DETERMINATION HAS NOT PREVIOUSLY BEEN APPLIED TO THE CORNEA. SINCE THIS TECHNIQUE PERMITS METABOLITE QUANTIFICATION ON MICROGRAM-SIZED TISSUE SAMPLES, A COORDINATED CORNEAL GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILE CAN BE OBTAINED. TISSUE PREPARATION CONSISTED OF LIQUID NITROGEN FREEZING, CRYO-SECTIONING, AND FREEZE-DRYING, WITH STORAGE AT -20 DEGREES C. THE SECTIONS WERE THAWED UNDER VACUUM PUMP, SUBSECTIONED, WEIGHED, AND ASSAYED FOR GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION (BY DRY WEIGHT). THIS STUDY ESTABLISHED A GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILE OF THE EPITHELIUM, ANTERIOR STROMA, MIDSTROMA, POSTERIOR STROMA, AND ENDOTHELIUM FOR THE NORMAL PIGMENTED RABBIT CORNEA. A GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILE FOR UV RADIATION-EXPOSED RABBIT CORNEAS ALSO WAS DOCUMENTED. A UV RADIATION GLUCOSE PROFILE DATA INDICATE THE PRESENCE OF AN ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM CAPABLE OF DELIVERING GLUCOSE INTO THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM AGAINST A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT. THE PRESENCE OF A TRANSPORT SYSTEM THAT "PULLS" GLUCOSE THROUGH THE DEEPER CORNEAL LAYERS THUS WOULD MAKE EPITHELIUM INTEGRITY IMPORTANT FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF OVERALL CORNEAL VIABILITY.
KEYWORDS: ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CORNEA, GLUCOSE, PASSIVE DIFFUSION, UV RADIATION
89-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5199 DTIC #: ADA210504
TITLE: HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN CONTINUOUS/SUSTAINED OPERATIONS AND THE DEMANDS OF EXTENDED WORK/REST SCHEDULES: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY VOLUME II
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER, SUZANNE M. BARNES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SOCIETY INTENT UPON MAINTAINING HIGH PRODUCTIVITY LEVELS 24 HOURS PER DAY, AND ON PROVIDING A VARIETY OF SERVICES AROUND THE CLOCK, PRODUCED OCCUPATIONS AND CIRCUMSTANCES REQUIRING PROLONGED, CONTINUOUS WORK PERIODS. THE PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINED OR CONTINUOUS WORK HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT TOPIC IN INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY, AND IN PARTICULAR, IN THE MILITARY SCIENCES. THERE ARE SOME TRADITIONAL JOBS, CIRCUMSTANCES, AND EVEN SOME NEW OCCUPATIONS THAT INVOLVE PROLONGED, SUSTAINED WORK PERIODS WITHOUT REST, IN WHICH INDIVIDUAL WORKERS CONTINUE BEYOND THE NORMAL 8-TO-10 HOUR WORK DAY. IN MANY OF THESE SUSTAINED WORK SITUATIONS, THE TERMINATION POINT OF THE SHIFT IS UNKNOWN. SUCH ACTIVITIES USUALLY REQUIRE PROLONGED PHYSICAL STAMINA AND SUSTAINING HIGH LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND COGNITIVE EFFECTIVENESS. THESE CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS ARE OF TWO TYPES: FIRST, THERE ARE EXTENDED OPERATIONS, JOBS, OR TASKS THAT PROCEED CONTINUOUSLY WITH ONLY A SHORT BREAK OR BREAKS, BUT THAT OPERATE WITHIN A TYPICAL SHIFT SYSTEM FOR LENGTHY PERIODS, LONGER THAN A NORMAL DUTY DAY. THE WORKER KNOWS HE OR SHE WILL BE RELIEVED OR ABLE TO REST. SECOND, THERE ARE SUSTAINED OPERATIONS, PLANNED OR UNPLANNED, GOAL-ORIENTED, NONSTOP CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE/OPERATIONS WITHOUT ALLOWANCE FOR REST OR SLEEP, IN WHICH THE WORKER IS EXPECTED TO KEEP GOING AS LONG AS HE OR SHE CAN. BOTH HAVE VERY IMPORTANT WORKER PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIORAL IMPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR FATIGUE, BIBLIOGRAPHY, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, CONTINUOUS WORK, FATIGUE, JET LAG, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, SOLDIER PERFORMANCE, SUSTAINED OPERATIONS
89-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1014 DTIC #: ADA211552
TITLE: VISUAL ACUITY AND STEREOPSIS WITH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MEASUREMENTS OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE (STEREOPSIS AND VISUAL RESOLUTION) WERE ACQUIRED TO COMPARE RESULTS ACHIEVED USING UNAIDED MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR VIEWING, MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR VIEWING WITH THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, AND MODELS A AND B OF THE AN/PVS-7 BIOCULAR NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. ALL OF THE GOGGLES WERE EQUIPPED WITH SECOND GENERATION TUBES. USING A MODIFIED HOWARD-DOLMAN APPARATUS TO ASSESS STEREOPSIS, ALL OF THE GOGGLE-ASSISTED THRESHOLDS WERE VERY MUCH LARGER THAN STEREOSCOPIC THRESHOLDS ACHIEVED WITH UNAIDED BINOCULAR VISION. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT STEREOPSIS THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, REGARDLESS OF THE MODEL OR VIEWING CONDITION, IS ESSENTIALLY ELIMINATED AND EQUIVALENT TO THE THRESHOLD OBTAINED WITH UNAIDED MONOCULAR VIEWING. IN COMPARISON, SPATIAL RESOLUTION CAPABILITY WITH ALL OF THE GOGGLE SYSTEMS IS SUPERIOR TO PERFORMANCE WITH UNAIDED VISION. IN AGREEMENT WITH PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED DATA, VISUAL ACUITY WITH THE GOGGLES IS APPROXIMATELY 20/50, BUT ONLY FOR HIGH RESOLUTION TARGETS AND SIMULATED FULL MOON AMBIENT LIGHT LEVELS. AS LIGHT LEVELS DECREASE TO QUARTER MOON CONDITIONS OR TARGET CONTRASTS ARE REDUCED TO MORE REALISTIC VALUES, VISUAL SPATIAL RESOLUTION WITH THE GOGGLES IS MUCH POORER. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS INDICATES THAT A BIOCULAR NIGHT VISION SYSTEM CAUSES NO FURTHER VISUAL PENALTY ON STEREOPSIS OR VISUAL ACUITY THAN BINOCULAR OR MONOCULAR DESIGNS. FOR INFANTRY USE, ANY DIFFERENCES IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE AMONG MONOCULAR, BIOCULAR, AND BINOCULAR DESIGNS PROBABLY ARE NOT OPERATIONALLY MEANINGFUL.
KEYWORDS: DEPTH PERCEPTION, STEREOPSIS, VISUAL ACUITY, VISUAL CONTRAST, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
89-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3269 DTIC #: ADA211456
TITLE: VISUAL SURVEY OF INFANTRY TROOPS, PART I: VISUAL ACUITY, REFRACTIVE STATUS, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, AND VISUAL SKILLS
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WALSH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ESTABLISH A DATABASE CHARACTERIZING THE CURRENT VISUAL STATUS OF INFANTRYMEN. INDIVIDUALS SELECTED AS PARTICIPANTS FOR THIS STUDY WERE ACTIVE DUTY PERSONNEL UNDERGOING TRAINING TO RECEIVE MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTY (MOS) 11B20, INFANTRYMAN. THE VISUAL SURVEY TEST BATTERY INCLUDED MEASUREMENTS OF VISUAL ACUITY (HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST), REFRACTIVE ERROR, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, COLOR VISION, DISTANCE LATERAL PHORIA, STEREOPSIS, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, ISOLUMINANCE RESOLUTION, AND SIGHTING DOMINANCE. THIS REPORT REPRESENTS DATA COLLECTED FROM THE FOLLOWING TESTS/MEASUREMENTS: HIGH CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, DEPTH PERCEPTION, DISTANCE LATERAL PHORIA, AND COLOR VISION. OF THE 828 PARTICIPANTS, 95.6 PERCENT RATED E-1 (HIGHEST CLASSIFICATION) IN THE VISION CATEGORY OF THE PHYSICAL PROFILE SERIAL. AMONG ENTRY-LEVEL INFANTRYMEN, 33 PERCENT WERE SPECTACLE WEARERS. DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE VARIOUS VISUAL PARAMETERS ARE PRESENTED FOR THE TEST POPULATION AND FOR SELECTED SUBPOPULATIONS. IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTION/RETENTION STANDARDS AND FOR EQUIPMENT DESIGN ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, COLOR VISION, PHORIA, STEREOPSIS
89-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 698 DTIC #: ADA221535
TITLE: EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE OF THE RABBIT CORNEA. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED TO BE INVOLVED IN A NUMBER OF ADVERSE OCULAR EFFECTS. ONE ASPECT OF UVR-INDUCED CORNEAL STRESS ONLY RECENTLY DOCUMENTED IS AN ALTERATION OF EPITHELIAL ENERGY METABOLITE LEVELS. IN THIS STUDY, IN ORDER TO EXAMINE WAVELENGTH AND DOSE DEPENDENCY ISSUES CONCERNING METABOLIC EFFECTS ON UVR, EXPOSURES WERE MADE AT FOUR DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS (290, 300, 310, AND 360 NM) AND FIVE DIFFERENT RADIANT EXPOSURES (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, AND 0.25 J. CM²). PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE LEVELS OF RELATIVE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM WERE MONITORED IN VIVO BY RECORDING THE CORNEAL OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE WITH A MICROPOLAROGRAPHIC ELECTRODE. A PAIRED DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS DEMONSTRATED A DECREASE IN RELATIVE CORNEAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY THAT WAS BOTH WAVELENGTH- AND DOSE-DEPENDENT. THESE RELATIVE METABOLIC EFFECTS PROVIDE SOME INSIGHT TOWARD THE UNDERSTANDING OF UNDERLYING DAMAGE MECHANISMS, AND IMPLY A BROADER RADIANT ENERGY SUSCEPTIBILITY RANGE OF THE EYE THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT.
KEYWORDS: CORNEA, METABOLIC ACTIVITY, OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE, PROTECTION, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
89-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1115 DTIC #: ADA211783
TITLE: HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS OF NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS FLIGHT. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY AVIATION NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS GREATLY ENHANCE THE CAPABILITY TO OPERATE DURING PERIODS OF LOW ILLUMINATION. AFTER FLYING WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES, MOST AVIATORS ARE APPREHENSIVE ABOUT RETURNING TO UNAIDED NIGHT FLIGHT. CURRENT NIGHT VISION IMAGING DEVICES ALLOW AVIATORS TO FLYING DURING AMBIENT LIGHT CONDITIONS WHICH WOULD BE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE, WITH UNAIDED VISION. HOWEVER, THE VISUAL INPUT AFFORDED WITH THESE DEVICES DOES NOT APPROACH THAT EXPERIENCED USING THE UNENCUMBERED, UNAIDED EYE DURING PERIODS OF DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION. MANY VISUAL PARAMETERS, E.G., ACUITY, FIELD-OF-VIEW, DEPTH PERCEPTION, ETC., ARE COMPROMISED WHEN NIGHT VISION DEVICES ARE USED. THE INHERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF IMAGE INTENSIFICATION BASED SENSORS INTRODUCE NEW PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE INTERPRETATION OF VISUAL INFORMATION BASED ON DIFFERENT SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL CONTENT FROM THAT OF UNAIDED VISION.
KEYWORDS: NVG, ANVIS, IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, VISION
89-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 535 DTIC #: ADA212002
TITLE: EVALUATION OF SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY THROUGH A BONE-CONDUCTION SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): TED L. LANGFORD, BEN T. MOZO, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INTELLIGIBILITY OF SPEECH, DELIVERED VIA A BONE-CONDUCTION TRANSDUCER, WAS MEASURED UNDER SIMULATED COMBAT VEHICLE NOISE CONDITIONS AND COMPARED WITH THE SAME MEASUREMENTS MADE WITH A CONVENTIONAL, AIR-CONDUCTION SYSTEM. THE MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE FOR CONDITIONS IN WHICH THE EAR CANALS WERE OPEN AND IN WHICH THEY WERE OCCLUDED WITH PROTECTIVE EARPLUGS. THE USE OF BONE-CONDUCTION SYSTEMS LED TO A 25.3 DB IMPROVEMENT OVER THE CONVENTIONAL, AIR-CONDUCTION SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: BONE CONDUCTION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, OCCLUSION EFFECT, VOICE COMMUNICATION
89-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 662 DTIC #: ADA212053
TITLE: EFFECTS OF HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN CATS
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, ALFRED T. TOWNSEND, CAROLYN D. POPE, ROBERT G. STAFFORD, THOMAS H. HARDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECT OF HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY WAS ASSESSED IN 24 ADULT CATS. BLOOD SAMPLES WERE TAKEN BOTH BEFORE AND DURING THE COURSE OF HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY WAS DEPRESSED FROM 7 PERCENT TO 54 PERCENT (AVERAGE 19.5 PERCENT) IN 16 SUBJECTS, INCREASED IN 2 (9 PERCENT AND 11 PERCENT), AND WAS UNCHANGED IN THE OTHER 6. THE MEAN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE FOR THE ENTIRE POPULATION WAS A 12.3 PERCENT DECREASE. PSEUDOCHOLINESTERASE (BUTYRYL-CHOLINESTERASE) ACTIVITY WAS DEPRESSED FROM 7 PERCENT TO 24 PERCENT (AVERAGE 12.2 PERCENT) IN 19 SUBJECTS, AND WAS UNCHANGED IN THE OTHER 5. THE MEAN BUTYRYL-CHOLINESTERASE DEPRESSION FOR THE ENTIRE POPULATION WAS 11 PERCENT. THERE WAS NO APPARENT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE WEIGHT OR GENDER OF THE ANIMAL, OR THE LENGTH OF TIME ON HALOTHANE, AND THE AMOUNT OF DEPRESSION IN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY. NEITHER WAS THERE CLOSE AGREEMENT BETWEEN CHANGES IN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND BUTYRL-CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN A SINGLE CAT. THESE RESULTS DEMONSTRATE THAT HALOTHANE HAS AN INHIBITORY EFFECT ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN MANY CATS (96 PERCENT OF THOSE TESTED WHEN COUNTING EITHER ACETYL- OR BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE). THE LACK OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN CHANGES IN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN THE SAME ANIMAL SUGGESTS THAT THE MECHANISMS MAY BE DIFFERENT. IT REMAINS TO BE DETERMINED WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF ENZYME INHIBITION FOLLOWING HALOTHANE IS FUNCTIONALLY SIGNIFICANT.
KEYWORDS: ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, ANETHESIA, BLOOD, BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE, CATS, CHOLINESTERASE, CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION, HALOTHANE
89-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1038 DTIC #: ADA212673
TITLE: VISUAL ACUITY WITH AN/PVS-5A NIGHT VISION GOGGLES AND SIMULATED FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTIVE LENSES UNDER VARYING LEVELS OF BRIGHTNESS AND CONTRAST
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTION FROM TACTICAL NUCLEAR WEAPONS IS AN ISSUE OF CURRENT CONCERN IN ARMY AVIATION. AS A COUNTERMEASURE, THE ARMY IS CONSIDERING INCOR-PORATING PLZT GOGGLES/MATERIAL INTO THE OVERALL DESIGN OF THE AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM CURRENTLY UNDER DEVELOPMENT. BECAUSE PRESENT GENERATION FLASH-BLINDNESS MATERIAL PERMIT ABOUT 20 PERCENT LIGHT TRANSMISSION IN THE OPEN STATE (ABOUT THE SAME AS THE AVIATOR'S SUNGLASSES), FLYING WITH PLZT UNDER NORMAL DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS IS NOT EXPECTED TO IMPACT AVIATOR VISUAL PERFORMANCE ADVERSELY. FOR NIGHT MISSIONS, PLZT WOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH IMAGE INTENSIFICATION SYSTEMS (E.G., NIGHT VISION GOGGLES [NVGS]). PLACING PLZT BETWEEN THE NVG AND THE EYES WOULD LEAVE THE SENSITIVITY OF THE GOGGLE TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIGHTING UNAFFECTED; HOWEVER, THE LIGHT AVAILABLE FROM THE NVG COULD FURTHER DEGRADE ACUITY (AT BEST 20/50-20/60 WITH NVGS), A STUDY WAS PERFORMED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY FOLLOWING AN 80 PERCENT REDUCTION IN GOGGLE LUMINOUS OUTPUT (E.G., FROM WEARING PLZT IN ITS OPEN STATE). THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY DEMONSTRATE THAT VISUAL ACUITY WITH NVGS VARIES AS A FUNCTION OF BOTH AMBIENT ILLUMINATION AND TARGET CONTRAST. HOWEVER, THERE WERE NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN ACUITY ATTRIBUTABLE TO AN 80 PERCENT REDUCTION IN NVG OUTPUT. WHILE THESE RESULTS ARE ENCOURAGING, ADDITIONAL OPERATIONAL TESTING IS REQUIRED BEFORE DECIDING TO INCORPORATE PLZT OR ANY OTHER FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTIVE MATERIAL INTO THE AVIATOR'S HGU-56/P.
KEYWORDS: PLZT, NUCLEAR FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTION, AIRCREW EYE PROTECTION, VISUAL ACUITY EFFECTS
89-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5709 DTIC #: ADA221255
TITLE: EFFECTS OF THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE ANTIDOTE ATROPINE SULFATE ON HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE: A SIMULATOR STUDY
AUTHOR(s): RONALD R. SIMMONS, JOHN A. CALDWELL, ROBERT L. STEPHENS, LEWIS W. STONE, DAVID J. CARTER, ISAAC BEHAR, GLENN W. MITCHELL, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, HEBER D. JONES, PHILIP L. TAYLOR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ATROPINE IS FIELDED AS AN ANTIDOTE FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING WHERE CHEMICAL NERVE AGENTS ARE USED. HOWEVER, INAPPROPRIATE SELF-INJECTION MAY LEAD TO ANTICHOLINERGIC SIDE EFFECTS DETRIMENTAL TO AVIATORS IN FLIGHT. TO DETERMINE THE SCOPE AND MAGNITUDE OF THESE POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS, 12 MALE ARMY HELICOPTER PILOTS IN GOOD HEALTH FLEW SEVERAL MISSIONS IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR AFTER BEING INJECTED (I.M.) WITH EITHER A PLACEBO OR 2 MG OR 4 MG OF ATROPINE SULFATE. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ESSENTIALLY FOLLOWED THE CLASSIC MODEL. THE 2 MG DOSE OF ATROPINE CAUSED SMALL DEGRADATIONS ON SOME OF THE LABORATORY-COLLECTED MEASURES, BUT OFTEN DID NOT PRODUCE EFFECTS WHICH DIFFERED SIGNIFICANTLY FROM THOSE PRODUCED BY A PLACEBO DOSE. A 4 MG DOSE OF ATROPINE, HOWEVER, EXERTED A VARIETY OF STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS UPON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, TRACKING ACCURACY, AND CORTICAL EVOKED RESPONSES. THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS (BOTH SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE) SHOWED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN THE SUBJECTS' ABILITIES TO FLY THE SIMULATOR. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM OTHER TASKS IN THE STUDY SUGGEST, FURTHER, THE DECREMENTS IN FLIGHT PERFORMANCE RESULTED FROM A SLOWING OF BOTH INFORMATION AND PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE. ATROPINE EFFECTS WERE NOT OF SUFFICIENT MAGNITUDE TO PRECLUDE FURTHER RESEARCH UNDER ACTUAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: PHYSIOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, ATROPINE, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL, EEG
89-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 734 DTIC #: ADA214669
TITLE: EVALUATION OF TWO OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF EFFECTIVE AUDITORY STIMULUS LEVEL
AUTHOR(s): TED L. LANGFORD, BEN T. MOZO, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE AND THE 40-HZ COMPONENT OF THE AUDITORY MIDLATENCY RESPONSE WERE MEASURED IN HUMAN SUBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF STIMULUS FREQUENCY AND LEVEL TO DETERMINE WHETHER ONE OF THE TWO COULD BE USED TO PROVIDE A RELIABLE ESTIMATION OF THE AMOUNT OF ATTENUATION PROVIDED BY HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES IN SITUATIONS IN WHICH THE TIME AVAILABLE FOR MEASUREMENT IS RESTRICTED. UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE PRESENT EXPERIMENT, THE VARIABILITY OF THE DATA FOR BOTH TYPES OF MEASURE WAS TOO GREAT TO PERMIT A RELIABLE ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE STIMULUS LEVEL.
KEYWORDS: AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSE, AUDITORY MID-LATENCY RESPONSE, HEARING PROTECTORS, EFFECTIVE STIMULUS LEVEL
89-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 864 DTIC #: ADA215119
TITLE: AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN HARSH, PIETRO BADIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS (ERPS) WERE STUDIED IN SUBJECTS DEPRIVED OF SLEEP OVER A 48-HOUR TEST PERIOD TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DURATIONS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS ON ERP COMPONENTS AND TO DETERMINE WHETHER CHANGES IN THE ERP COMPONENTS WERE RELATED TO CHANGES IN PERFORMANCE. FORTY SUBJECTS WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EITHER AN EXPERIMENTAL (SLEEP DEPRIVED) GROUP (N=30) OR A CONTROL (NOT SLEEP DEPRIVED) GROUP (N=10). FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS, ERP AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES WERE OBTAINED IN 4-HOUR TEST BLOCKS THROUGHOUT THE 48-HOUR PERIOD. PERFORMANCE WAS ASSESSED USING THE WALTER REED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY. THE CONTROL SUBJECTS WERE TESTED AT THE SAME TIMES EXCEPT DURING DESIGNATED SLEEP PERIODS. BOTH PERFORMANCE AND EVOKED POTENTIAL MEASURES SHOWED SYSTEMATIC CHANGES OVER THE EXPERIMENTAL TEST PERIOD IN ASSOCIATION WITH SLEEP DEPRIVATION, TIME OF DAY, AND REPEATED TESTING. THE LATENCY OF THE N2 COMPONENT OF THE EVOKED POTENTIAL COVARIED WITH THROUGHPUT MEASURES ON THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY ACROSS THE 12 4-HOUR TEST BLOCKS OF THE EXPERIMENT. THESE DATA SUGGEST THAT ERPS REFLECT CENTRAL PROCESSES THAT CHANGE ACROSS THE SLEEP DEPRIVATION PERIOD AND THAT ERP MEASURES MIGHT BE USEFUL IN ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS SUCH AS SLEEP LOSS.
KEYWORDS: EVOKED POTENTIALS, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, PERFORMANCE, TRACKING, MONITORING
89-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2759 DTIC #: ADA214562
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN THE AH-1S (COBRA) FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL W. GOWER, JR., JENNIFER FOWLKES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED FIELD STUDIES OF OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SIMULATORS TO ASSESS THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO THE CONSTELLATION OF MOTION SICKNESS RELATED SYMPTOMS THAT OCCUR IN SIMULATORS DUE TO VISUAL REPRESENTATION, MOTION BASE REPRESENTATION, OR COMBINATION OF THE TWO REPRESENTATIONS OF FLIGHT. THE INCIDENCE RATES AND RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED. CORRELATIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS RECENT SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, CURRENT STATE OF HEALTH, OVERALL FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, MISSION SCENARIO, AND FLIGHT DYNAMICS ARE PRESENTED. THIS REPORT RANKS THE ARMY'S FLIGHT SIMULATORS IN COMPARISON TO THE 10 NAVY SIMULATORS STUDIED BY THE NAVAL TRAINING SYSTEMS CENTER, ORLANDO, FLORIDA. THE STUDY FURTHER REINFORCES THE NEED FOR STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND PERCEPTUAL REARRANGEMENT, ADAPTION/READAPTION, AND PILOT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATION. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SIMULATORS, AS WELL AS THOSE TRAINING GUIDELINES NECESSARY TO COPE WITH THIS PHENOMENON ALSO MUST BE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
89-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 488 DTIC #: ADA214670
TITLE: A SURVEY OF U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL, JAMES E. ADAMS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MEDICAL EQUIPMENT IS NECESSARY TO SUPPORT PATIENTS REQUIRING AIR TRANSPORTATION, BUT IT MAY NOT BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS MAY CAUSE ERRORS IN THE FUNCTIONING OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, OR THAT EQUIPMENT MAY BE INTERFERE WITH THE AIRCRAFT. MEDICAL EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN TESTED, PRIMARILY FOR FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, TO MILITARY STANDARDS BY THE U.S. AIR FORCE. THIS STUDY REPORTS 1986 AND 1987 SURVEYS WHICH DOCUMENTS THE USE OF SUCH EQUIPMENT ON U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION AIRCRAFT AND COMPARES ITEMS IN CURRENT USE TO THE U.S. AIR FORCE'S TEST RESULTS. OF THE 115 DIFFERENT NONISSUE ITEMS REPORTED IN USE, 32 HAVE BEEN FORMALLY EVALUATED, AND 9 OF THOSE WERE JUDGED UNACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON AIRCRAFT. ONLY TWO ITEMS REPORTED IN THE SURVEY WERE TESTED IN-FLIGHT IN HELICOPTERS. THE REMAINING 83 ITEMS HAVE NOT BEEN TESTED. HELICOPTERS HAVE UNIQUE REQUIREMENTS, AND THE U.S. ARMY HAS BEGUN A PROGRAM TO EVALUATE MEDICAL EQUIPMENT FOR HELICOPTER USE.
KEYWORDS: AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION, HELICOPTER AMBULANCE, MEDEVAC, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT TESTING
89-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1230 DTIC #: ADA215234
TITLE: SUSTAINED WORK, FATIGUE, SLEEP LOSS AND PERFORMANCE: A REVIEW OF THE ISSUES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUSTAINED WORK, FATIGUE, AND SLEEP LOSS AFFECT WORKER PERFORMANCE. THE REVIEW DESCRIBES FINDINGS RELATING TO SUSTAINED WORK STRESSES COMMONLY FOUND IN OUR ADVANCING TECHNOLOGICAL WORLD. RESEARCHERS REPORT DECREMENTS IN SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF FATIGUE, ESPECIALLY DURING AND FOLLOWING ONE OR MORE NIGHTS OF COMPLETE SLEEP LOSS, OR LONGER PERIODS OF REDUCED OR FRAGMENTED SLEEP. SLEEP LOSS APPEARS TO RESULT IN REDUCED REACTION TIME, DECREASED VIGILANCE, PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS, AND CHANGES IN AFFECT. SLEEP LOSS AND WORKLOAD INTERACT WITH CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN PRODUCING THEIR EFFECTS. THESE INTERACTIONS ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF STRESS IN WORK SITUATIONS REQUIRING SUSTAINED WORK IN CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS AND HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORETICAL MODELS OF SUSTAINED PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING. THIS REVIEW HIGHLIGHTS THE RESEARCH ISSUES OF 280+ MEMBERS OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPONSORED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL GROUP ON SUSTAINED AND CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: FATIGUE, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, SUSTAINED WORK, CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS
89-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 563 DTIC #: ADA215492
TITLE: ISOFLURANE ANESTHESIA IN THE OCTODON DEGUS
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY W. RECORD, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INHALATION ANESTHESIA FOR OCTODON DEGUS USING ISOFLURANE IN A NONREBREATHING SYSTEM IS DESCRIBED. TEN LABORATORY RAISED DEGUS WERE USED TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM PERCENTAGE OF ISOFLURANE TO MAINTAIN SURGICAL ANESTHESIA. TIME OF LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX, TIME OF LOSS OF TOEPINCH REFLEX, DURATION OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA AND TIME TO STANDING UNAIDED WERE RECORDED. FINDINGS INDICATE THAT 2 PERCENT ISOFLURANE WITH 1.5 LITERS PER MINUTE OF BOTH NITROUS OXIDE AND OXYGEN PROVIDE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA.
KEYWORDS: OCTODON DEGUS, ISOFLURANE, NONBREATHING, ANESTHESIA
89-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1053 DTIC #: ADA214895
TITLE: ATTENUATING THE LUMINOUS OUTPUT OF THE AN/PVS-5A NIGHT VISION GOGGLES AND ITS EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS IN COMBAT MAY BE SUBJECTED TO A VARIETY OF NOXIOUS LIGHT STIMULI. FILTERS AND OTHER EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES MAY BE USED TO COUNTER THESE THREATS. AT NIGHT, FILTERS MAY BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH IMAGE INTENSIFICATION DEVICES (E.G., NIGHT VISION GOGGLES) TO PROVIDE USEFUL LOW-LIGHT VISION AS WELL AS PROTECTION FROM DELETERIOUS LIGHT SOURCES (E.G., LASERS, PYROTECHNICS, NUCLEAR FIREBALLS, ETC.). TECHNOLOGIES MAY BE COMBINED IN A SINGLE, INTEGRATED HEAD GEAR UNIT. THE PRESENT STUDY WAS PERFORMED IN ORDER TO CONSIDER THE EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AFTER REDUCING NIGHT VISION GOGGLE LUMINOUS OUTPUT FROM 0-99 PERCENT. A RANGE OF TARGET CONTRASTS AND AMBIENT ILLUMINATION LEVELS WAS INVESTIGATED. AN/PVS-5A GOGGLES WERE SELECTED BASED UPON THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH CURRENT PHOSPHOR DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY AND THEIR CURRENT UBIQUITY WITHIN AVIATION UNITS. VISUAL ACUITY WAS ASSAYED BEHAVIORALLY BECAUSE OF ITS CRITICAL IMPORTANCE IN FLYING PERFORMANCE. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY PROVIDE NORMATIVE ACUITY DATA WITH GOGGLES ALONE AND DOCUMENT THE EFFECTS ON GOGGLE VISUAL ACUITY WITH REDUCED GOGGLE LUMINANCES AS MIGHT BE PRODUCED BY PROTECTIVE MATERIALS PLACED BETWEEN THE GOGGLES AND THE EYES.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NVG, VISUAL ACUITY, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, VISUAL PROTECTION
89-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2660 DTIC #: ADA214434
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN THE UH-60 (BLACK HAWK) FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL W. GOWER, JR., JENNIFER FOWLKES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED FIELD STUDIES OF OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SIMULATORS TO ASSESS THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO THE CONSTELLATION OF MOTION SICKNESS RELATED SYMPTOMS THAT OCCUR IN SIMULATORS DUE TO VISUAL REPRESENTATION, MOTION BASE REPRESENTATION, OR COMBINATION OF THE TWO REPRESENTATIONS OF FLIGHT. THE INCIDENCE RATERS AND RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED. CORRECTIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS RECENT SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, CURRENT STATE OF HEALTH, OVERALL FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, MISSION SCENARIO, AND FLIGHT DYNAMICS ARE PRESENTED. THIS REPORT RANKS THE ARMY'S FLIGHT SIMULATORS IN COMPARISON TO THE 10 NAVY SIMULATORS STUDIED BY THE NAVAL TRAINING SYSTEMS CENTER, ORLANDO, FLORIDA. THE STUDY FURTHER REINFORCES THE NEED FOR STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND PERCEPTUAL REARRANGEMENT, ADAPTION/READAPTION, AND PILOT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATION. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SIMULATORS, AS WELL AS THOSE TRAINING GUIDELINES NECESSARY TO COPE WITH THIS PHENOMENON ALSO MUST BE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
89-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 670 DTIC #: ADA214558
TITLE: EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE OF THE RABBIT CORNEA. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED TO BE INVOLVED IN A NUMBER OF ADVERSE OCULAR EFFECTS. ONE ASPECT OF UVR-INDUCED CORNEAL STRESS ONLY RECENTLY DOCUMENTED IS AN ALTERATION OF EPITHELIAL ENERGY METABOLITE LEVELS. IN THIS STUDY, IN ORDER TO EXAMINE WAVELENGTH AND DOSE DEPENDENCY ISSUES CONCERNING METABOLIC EFFECTS OF UVR, EXPOSURES WERE MADE AT FOUR DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS (290, 300, 310, AND 360 NM) AND FIVE DIFFERENT MEAN RADIATION EXPOSURES (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, AND 0.25 J.C-2). PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE LEVELS OF RELATIVE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM WERE MONITORED IN VIVO BY RECORDING THE CORNEAL OXYGEN UPTAKE WITH A MICROPOLAROGRAPHIC ELECTRODE. A PAIRED DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS DEMONSTRATED A DECREASE IN RELATIVE CORNEAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY THAT WAS BOTH WAVELENGTH- AND DOSE-DEPENDENT. THESE RELATIVE METABOLIC EFFECTS PROVIDE SOME INSIGHT TOWARD THE UNDERLYING DAMAGE MECHANISMS, AND IMPLY A BROADER RADIANT ENERGY SUSCEPTIBILITY RANGE OF THE EYE THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT.
KEYWORDS: ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP), CORNEAL EPITHELIUM, GLUCOSE, GLYCOGEN, METABOLITES, METABOLISM, MITOCHONDRIA, PHOSPHOCREATINE (PCR), ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR)
89-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2098 DTIC #: ADA215489
TITLE: EVALUATION OF HELMET RETENTION SYSTEMS USING A PENDULUM DEVICE
AUTHOR(s): PETER VYRNWY-JONES, CHARLES R. PASCAL, RONALD W. PALMER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THREE METHODS WERE EVALUATED FOR TESTING THE RETENTION AND ROTATION CHAR-ACTERISTICS OF AIRCREW HELMETS. TWO OF THESE EMPLOYED STATIC TECHNIQUES WITH AN ANTHROPOMETRIC HEADFORM AND HUMAN SUBJECTS. UNFORTUNATELY, THOUGH SIMPLE IN EXECUTION, THESE TESTS WERE INSENSITIVE TO THE MASS AND MASS DISTRIBUTION OF THE HELMETS. HOWEVER, THE THIRD METHOD, THE PENDULUM BEAM DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TESTING DEVICE PROVED TO BE A SIMPLE AND EFFICIENT MEANS OF DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN THE VARIOUS HELMETS. THIS METHOD SHOULD HAVE A ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF FUTURE U.S. ARMY AIRCREW HELMETS.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, RETENTION, ROTATION, LOSS, TESTING, DISPLACEMENT
89-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2262 DTIC #: ADA218214
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN A CH-47 (CHINOOK) FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL J. GOWER, JR., JENNIFER FOWKLES, DENNIS R. BALTZLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED FIELD STUDIES OF OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SIMULATORS TO ASSESS THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO THE CONSTELLATION OF MOTION SICKNESS RELATED SYMPTOMS THAT OCCUR IN SIMULATORS DUE TO VISUAL REPRESENTATION, MOTION BASE REPRESENTATION, OR COMBINATION OF THE TWO REPRESENTATIONS OF FLIGHT. THE INCIDENCE RATERS AND RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED. CORRECTIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS RECENT SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, CURRENT STATE OF HEALTH, OVERALL FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, MISSION SCENARIO, AND FLIGHT DYNAMICS ARE PRESENTED. THIS REPORT RANKS THE ARMY'S FLIGHT SIMULATORS IN COMPARISON TO THE 10 NAVY SIMULATORS STUDIED BY THE NAVAL TRAINING SYSTEMS CENTER, ORLANDO, FLORIDA. THE STUDY FURTHER REINFORCES THE NEED FOR STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND PERCEPTUAL REARRANGEMENT, ADAPTION/READAPTION, AND PILOT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATION. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SIMULATORS, AS WELL AS THOSE TRAINING GUIDELINES NECESSARY TO COPE WITH THIS PHENOMENON ALSO MUST BE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
89-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 610 DTIC #: ADA219489
TITLE: DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL ATTRITION IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): RONALD J. EDWARDS, DUDLEY R. PRICE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH U.S. ARMY AVIATORS ARE CAREFULLY SCREENED AT ENTRY, DISEASE DEVELOPS IN THE AVIATOR POPULATION WITH TIME. IMPROVING THE ABILITY TO PREDICT AND PREVENT SUCH DISEASES NECESSITATES PROPER ANALYSIS OF THEIR INCIDENCE. THIS INFORMATION CAN PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS IN SCREENING AND PREVENTION. A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF DISEASES FOR THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION POPULATION IS PRESENTED. THE FREQUENCY OF INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD) CODES LEADING TO DISQUALIFICATION FROM FLYING STATUS IS SUMMARIZED AND DISCUSSED. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE SCREENING CRITERIA AND FOR INTERVENTION PRACTICES ARE PROPOSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR HEALTH, FLIGHT PHYSICALS, MEDICAL RETENTION OF AVIATORS
89-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 9920 DTIC #: ADA218949
TITLE: PROBLEM ORIENTED DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TROPICAL DISEASES
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PROBLEM ORIENTED DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TROPICAL DISEASES WAS WRITTEN FOR PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIANS. THE TEXT DESCRIBES THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, SURVIVAL IN THE TROPICS, AND HEAT INJURY. TABLES ORGANIZING THE INCUBATION PERIOD AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF TROPICAL DISEASES ARE PROVIDED. THE REMAINING TEXT DISCUSSES TROPICAL DISEASES ORGANIZED BY ORGAN SYSTEM, SIGNS, AND SYMPTOMS. THE PURPOSE IS TO ASSIST PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIANS IN ARRIVING AT A LIMITED DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TROPICAL DISEASES BEFORE CONSULTING TROPICAL MEDICINE TEXTS AND INITIATING EMPIRIC THERAPY AND DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP.
KEYWORDS: TROPICAL DISEASES, TRAVEL MEDICINE
90-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 722 DTIC #: ADA219282
TITLE: SIX-MONTH EVALUATION OF EXTENDED WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES AMONG ARMORED TROOPS: PART I: CLINICAL FINDINGS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, JOHN K. CROSLEY, DUDLEY R. PRICE, PATRICK M. LEAS, GERALD A. BENTLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT ADDRESSES THE CLINICAL ASPECTS OF WEARING CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL MILITARY ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS IN AN ARMORED DIVISION WORE EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES (SCLS) OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS, PARTIC-IPATING FULLY IN THEIR UNITS' NORMAL ACTIVITIES. SEVENTY-FOUR PERCENT OF THOSE SUCCESSFULLY FITTED WITH SCLS WORE THEIR LENSES FOR THE DURATION OF THE STUDY, WHEN ADMINISTRATIVE LOSSES WERE FACTORED OUT. MORE THAN ONE-THIRD OF THE SCL WEARERS EXPERIENCED ONE OR MORE OCULAR CONDITIONS REQUIRING AT LEAST A TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF LENS WEAR. CORNEAL EDEMA AND CORNEAL STAINING OCCURRED RARELY AT CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT LEVELS. HIGHER THAN EXPECTED RATES OF CORNEAL VASCULARIZATION WERE MOST LIKELY INFLUENCED BY MEASUREMENT CRITERIA. RELATIVELY FREQUENT CONJUNCTIVAL INJECTION APPEARED TO BE LARGELY DUE TO LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, MILITARY ENVIRONMENTS, VISION CORRECTION, OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
90-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 497 DTIC #: ADA220169
TITLE: SIX-MONTH EVALUATION OF EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES AMONG ARMORED TROOPS: PART II: SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES BY PATIENTS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, JOHN K. CROSLEY, DUDLEY R. PRICE, PATRICK M. LEAS, GERALD A. BENTLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT ADDRESSES SUBJECTIVE PATIENT RESPONSES TO WEARING CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL MILITARY ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS IN AN ARMORED DIVISION WORE EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES (SCLS) OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS, PARTICIPATING FULLY IN THEIR UNITS' NORMAL ACTIVITIES. RESPONDING TO END-OF-STUDY QUESTIONNAIRES, MOST OF THE SCL WEARERS BELIEVED THAT THEY COULD SEE BETTER WITH THEIR SCLS THAN WITH SPECTACLES. THE GREAT MAJORITY INDICATED CONTACT LENSES HAD IMPROVED THEIR OVERALL PERFORMANCE, PREFERRING SCLS FOR A VARIETY OF MILITARY ACTIVITIES. SCL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL DIFFICULTIES WERE REPORTED FREQUENTLY FOR CONDITIONS INVOLVING DUST, WIND, AND SMOKE, WHEREAS SPECTACLE-RELATED PROBLEMS WERE COMMON ESPECIALLY IN THE CASE OF RAIN, DUST, HOT WEATHER, OR HIGH HUMIDITY. PROBLEMS REPORTED WITH HANDLING AND CLEANING CORRECTIVE LENSES WERE MORE COMMON AMONG SPECTACLE WEARERS THAN AMONG SCL WEARERS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, MILITARY ENVIRONMENTS, VISION CORRECTION, OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
90-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1497 DTIC #: ADA220893
TITLE: LASER PROTECTION WITH IMAGE INTENSIFIER NIGHT VISION DEVICES
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WALSH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CURRENT MILITARY RANGING AND TARGETING TECHNOLOGY EMPLOYS HIGH POWER LASER SYSTEMS. SINCE COHERENT (LASER) ENERGY WITH WAVELENGTHS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED CAN SERIOUSLY DAMAGE THE RETINA OF THE EYE, LASER RETINAL INJURY HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF MAN STUDIES. THE RESULTS OF THESE INVESTIGATIONS ARE USED BY VARIOUS AGENCIES TO RECOMMEND LASER EYE PROTECTION. IN THE AVIATION COMMUNITY, SINCE LASER PROTECTION HELMET VISORS ARE NOT COMPATIBLE WITH MOST COMMON NIGHT VISION DEVICES (NVDS), I.E., AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) AND AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), THE ONLY LASER PROTECTION CURRENTLY AFFORDED THE NVD AVIATOR IS A BARRIER-TYPE PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE DEVICE.
KEYWORDS: LASER, INJURY, PROTECTION, ANVIS, AVIATOR, NIGHT VISION
90-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 652 DTIC #: ADA221053
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE AND PHYSOSTIGMINE ON THE NEURAL PORTION OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, ALFRED T. TOWNSEND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CARBAMATES ARE CURRENTLY THE PRETREATMENT DRUGS OF CHOICE FOR PROTECTION AGAINST POSSIBLE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE. PYRIDOSTIGMINE DOES NOT CROSS THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER EASILY, AND THEREFORE PROVIDES NO CENTRAL PROTECTION. PHYSOSTIGMINE READILY ENTERS THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, BUT AS MIGHT BE EXPECTED, HAS STRONG CENTRAL EFFECTS. THESE EXPERIMENTS WERE DONE TO ACCESS THE ROLE OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE AND PHYSOSTIGMINE ON VISUAL PROCESSING IN A MAMMALIAN ANIMAL MODEL. THE RESULTS SHOW THAT PHYSOSTIGMINE HAS STRONG CENTRAL VISUAL EFFECTS WHICH OPERATIONALLY WOULD NOT BE ACCEPTABLE. PYRIDOSTIGMINE DOES NOT ENTER THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AFTER ACUTE ADMINISTRATION UNTIL VERY HIGH LEVELS OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS ARE REACHED. BASED UPON OUR LIMITED SAMPLE, CENTRAL VISUAL PROCESSING APPEARS NOT TO BE AFFECTED UNTIL INHIBITION OF BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE APPROACHES 80 PERCENT. THIS SHOULD PROVIDE AN ADEQUATE SAFETY MARGIN FOLLOWING PRETREATMENT WITH PYRIDOSTIGMINE. WE DID NOT INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF CHRONIC LOW DOSE PYRIDOSTIGMINE ADMINISTRATION ON SENSORY PROCESSING.
KEYWORDS: CARBAMATES, PYRDOSTIGMINE, PHYSOSTIGMINE, EVOKED POTENTIALS, CATS, VISUAL PROCESSING
90-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2107 DTIC #: ADA220953
TITLE: HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT PRIMER
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PRIMER PROVIDES AN INTRODUCTORY ORIENTATION TO THE HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROGRAM SUPPORTING THE U.S. ARMY'S MATERIEL ACQUISITION EFFORTS. THE DESCRIPTION OF TYPES AND EFFECTS OF HEALTH HAZARDS INCLUDES AN INVENTORY OF THOSE HAZARDS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN ARMY SYSTEMS. SUBSTANTIAL TEXT OUTLINES THE ORGANIZATIONS AND PROCESSES COMPRISING THE HHA SYSTEM, ALONG WITH AN EXPLANATION OF HOW THE SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO WORK. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK CHARACTERIZES THE STEPS INVOLVED IN PREPARING A HHA REPORT. A FINAL SECTION DESCRIBES THE PROGRAM CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY HHA-RELATED RESEARCH AND THE ORGANIZATIONS PERFORMING PERTINENT RESEARCH. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS INCLUDE A SUMMARY OF THE ARMY'S LIFE CYCLE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT MODEL, A LISTING OF HHA POINTS OF CONTACT, AND A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF RISK ASSESSMENT CODES.
KEYWORDS: HEALTH HAZARDS, MATERIEL ACQUISITION, MANPRINT, HEALTH HAZARDS RESEARCH
90-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1884 DTIC #: ADA220724
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE HEAD INJURY HAZARD DURING MILITARY PARACHUTING
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES R. PASCAL, JR., RONALD W. PALMER, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INCIDENCE OF HEAD INJURY DURING U.S. ARMY AIRBORNE TRAINING AND AIRBORNE OPERATIONS HAS DOUBLED IN RECENT YEARS. A NUMBER OF FACTORS ARE KNOWN TO CONTRIBUTE TO HEAD INJURIES INCURRED DURING AIRBORNE TRAINING/OPERATIONS. THESE FACTORS INCLUDE THE SMALL AMOUNT OF IMPACT PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE PASGT HELMET, SHORTCOMINGS IN TRAINING PROCEDURES, AND FAILURE OF TRAINED AIRBORNE TROOPS TO FOLLOW PROPER PROCEDURES WHEN JUMPING. OTHER FACTORS ARE INVOLVED AS WELL. THIS REPORT SHOWS, WITH RELATIVELY LITTLE MODIFICATION, THE IMPACT PROTECTION AND RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PASGT AIRBORNE HELMET CAN BE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED. ALSO, THIS REPORT EVALUATES A NUMBER OF FACTORS PRESENT IN AIRBORNE TRAINING AND OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HEAD INJURY AND EXPLAINS HOW TRAINING AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES CAN BE MODIFIED TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF REPEATED HEADSTRIKES AND SUBSEQUENT SERIOUS HEAD INJURIES.
KEYWORDS: HEAD INJURY, IMPACT PROTECTION, PASGT HELMET, OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS, HEADSTRIKES
90-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1499 DTIC #: ADA220801
TITLE: REDUCTION OF VARIANCE IN EXPERT PANEL ESTIMATES OF U.S. ARMY COMBAT VEHICLE CREW ENDURANCE
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EXPERT PANEL WAS ASSEMBLED TO EXPLORE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NOVEL METHOD FOR REDUCING THE VARIANCE OF FACE-TO-FACE GROUP ESTIMATES. THE PANEL'S TASK WAS TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ON ARMY AVIATION AND ARMOR COMBAT VEHICLE CREWS DURING REPRESENTATIVE COMBAT MISSIONS. THESE MISSIONS WERE CONSIDERED SEPARATELY FOR TWO LEVELS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. THE ESTIMATE-TALK-ESTIMATE METHOD WITH AN IMPARTIAL GROUP FACILITATOR WAS USED TO CONTROL THE PROCESS. THE RESULTS FROM THE PANEL DEMONSTRATED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS FACE-TO-FACE, CONSENSUS-BASED METHOD FOR REDUCING THE VARI-ANCE OF THEIR COMBINED ESTIMATES. THE OVERALL MEAN PERCENTAGE REDUCTION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIANCE WAS 39.8+0.8 PERCENT. THE PANEL COMPILED AN EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF PARAMETERS REQUIRED FOR COLLECTION DURING MILITARY FIELD TESTS TO FACILITATE INTEGRATION AND COMPARISON IN FUTURE DATABASES. THE PANEL ALSO DEVELOPED A LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS OF AN ACCURATE PREDICTIVE MODEL OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS ON U.S. ARMY COMBAT VEHICLE CREW ENDURANCE.
KEYWORDS: EXPERT PANEL, ENDURANCE, PREDICTION, CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION, GROUP PROCESS, MODELING, COMBAT VEHICLE CREWS
90-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1423 DTIC #: ADA229421
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A RUGGEDIZED HAND-HELD COMPUTER FOR PERFORMANCE TESTING IN OPERATIONAL SETTINGS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., CRAIG YOUNG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PORTABLE, RUGGEDIZED COMPUTERS, CAPABLE OF ADMINISTERING STANDARD AUTOMATED TESTS UNDER HARSH ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, HAVE BEEN NEEDED BY RESEARCHERS FOR MANY YEARS. PARTICULARLY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGISTS REQUIRE TOOLS WHICH WILL PERMIT THE TESTING OF SOLDIERS DURING OPERATIONALLY-RELEVANT FIELD EXERCISES WITHOUT PROBLEMS OF EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS. IN 1984, THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND SOUGHT TO ADDRESS THIS REQUIREMENT BY SPONSORING A SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATIVE RESEARCH (SBIR) EFFORT WITH PARAVANT COMPUTER SYSTEMS, INC. THE SBIR RESULTED IN THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE RHC-88, A NOTEBOOK-SIZED, MS-DOS-BASED, IBM COMPATIBLE COMPUTER WHICH OFFERS EXTENSIVE PROGRAMMING FLEXIBILITY IN A PORTABLE, EXPANDABLE, FIELD-HARDENED UNIT. WITH THE RHC-88, NOW IT IS POSSIBLE TO ADMINISTER A WIDE VARIETY OF COMPUTER-BASED TESTS IN THE LABORATORY AND IN THE FIELD.
KEYWORDS: PORTABLE RUGGEDIZED COMPUTERS, FIELD-HARDENED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEMS, HAND-HELD DATA COLLECTION DEVICES
90-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1154 DTIC #: ADA222935
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SPH-4 RETENTION SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. HINES, RONALD W. PALMER, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., ERNEST E. HILTZ
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IMPACT PROTECTION DURING A CRASH IS ONE OF THE PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF A FLIGHT HELMET. IN ORDER FOR THE HELMET TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE IMPACT PROTECTION, THE HELMET MUST REMAIN FIRMLY SECURED ON THE HEAD FOR THE ENTIRE DURATION OF THE CRASH SEQUENCE. IF THE HELMET IS DISPLACED ON THE HEAD OR COMES OFF THE HEAD DURING THE CRASH SEQUENCE, CRANIAL EXPOSURE AND SUBSEQUENT HEAD INJURY CAN OCCUR. PREVIOUS RESEARCH AT USAARL HAS SHOWN THE RETENTION ASSEMBLY OF THE SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET OFTEN ALLOWS EXCESSIVE HELMET ROTATION OR EVEN HELMET LOSS TO OCCUR DURING A CRASH. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A NEW SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY, THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS, WHICH WILL ALLEVIATE THE HELMET ROTATION/ HELMET LOSS PROBLEM. THE LOAD VERSUS ELONGATION UNDER LOAD AND COMFORT OF THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS WAS COMPARED TO THAT OF THE CURRENTLY USED STANDARD RETENTION HARNESS. THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS WAS STRONGER, STRETCHED LESS UNDER LOAD THAN THE STANDARD RETENTION HARNESS. COMFORT TESTING OF THE USAARL SHOWED THE MAJORITY (72 PERCENT) OF THOSE QUESTIONED PREFERRED THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS OVER THE STANDARD HARNESS.
KEYWORDS: IMPACT PROTECTION, HELMET, YOKE HARNESS, RETENTION HARNESS, RETENTION ASSEMBLY
90-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 862 DTIC #: ADA223226
TITLE: HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS OF NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS FLIGHT USING THERMAL IMAGING SYSTEMS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, ROBERT W. VERONA, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY AVIATION NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS ENHANCE THE AVIATOR'S CAPABILITY TO OPERATE EFFECTIVELY DURING PERIODS OF LOW ILLUMINATION, ADVERSE WEATHER, AND IN THE PRESENCE OF OBSCURANTS. CURRENT FIELDED SYSTEMS ALLOW AVIATORS TO CONDUCT TERRAIN FLIGHT DURING CONDITIONS WHICH WOULD BE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE, USING ONLY UNAIDED VISION. IN NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS, TRADE-OFFS ARE MADE THAT ENHANCE SOME VISUAL PARAMETERS AND COMPROMISE OTHERS. EXAMPLES OF VISUAL PARAMETERS WHICH ARE TRADED OFF INCLUDE ACUITY, FIELD-OF-VIEW, SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY, AND DEPTH PERCEPTION. COST, WEIGHT, AND SIZE CONSTRAINTS ALSO LEAD TO COMPROMISES BETWEEN AN IDEAL AND A VIABLE SYSTEM DESIGN. THERMAL IMAGING SENSORS INTRODUCE ENHANCED NIGHT VISION CAPABILITIES ALONG WITH NEW PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE INTERPRETATION OF VISUAL INFORMATION BASED ON SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS DIFFERING FROM THOSE PROVIDED BY UNAIDED VISION. IN ADDITION, THE MOUNTING OF THESE VISUAL DISPLAYS ONTO THE AVIATOR'S HELMET PROVOKES CONCERN REGARDING FATIGUE AND CRASH SAFETY, DUE TO INCREASED HEAD-SUPPORTED WEIGHT AND SHIFTS IN CENTER-OF-GRAVITY. HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF THERMAL NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS ARE IDENTIFIED AND DISCUSSED. THE ACCUMULATED ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE WITH U.S. ARMY AH-64 HELICOPTERS EQUIPPED WITH THE THERMAL PILOT'S NIGHT VISION SYSTEM AND THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM IS BRIEFLY REVIEWED.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION, FORWARD LOOKING INFRARED (FLIR), INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), PILOT'S NIGHT VISION SYSTEM (PNVS), THERMAL IMAGING
90-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 528 DTIC #: ADA223488
TITLE: VISUAL PROCESSING: IMPLICATIONS FOR HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JO LYNN CALDWELL, RHONDA L. CORNUM, ROBERT L. STEPHENS, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO COMPARE THE PERFORMANCE OF AH-64 (APACHE) PILOTS TO OTHER ARMY PILOTS ON VISUAL TASKS. EACH PILOT WAS GIVEN A TASK PRESENTED MONOCULARLY TO THE RIGHT EYE, A TASK PRESENTED MONOCULARLY TO THE LEFT EYE, AND A TASK PRESENTED TO BOTH EYES SIMULTANEOUSLY IN A DICHOPTIC TASK. RESULTS INDICATED NO PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE GROUP OF PILOTS ON THE DICHOPTIC TASK, BUT INDICATED BETTER PERFORMANCE ON THE LEFT MONOCULAR TASK FOR THE AH-64 PILOTS. THESE RESULTS INDICATE THAT AH-64 PILOTS WHO ARE REQUIRED TO SWITCH THEIR ATTENTION FROM THEIR LEFT EYES TO THEIR RIGHT EYES IN ORDER TO OBTAIN NEEDED INFORMATION ARE CAPABLE OF PROCESSING INFORMATION EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY USING ONLY ONE EYE. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE RESULTS FOR THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: DUAL PROCESSING, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, MONOCULAR TASKS
90-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1160 DTIC #: ADA224915
TITLE: VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF CONTACT LENS-CORRECTED AMETROPIC AVIATORS WITH THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, ISAAC BEHAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PRESENT STUDY INVESTIGATED THE USE OF EXTENDED WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES WITH THE APACHE AVIATOR'S M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK. VISUAL FUNCTIONS TESTS (HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, COLOR VISION), VISUALLY-BASED COGNITIVE TESTS, AND USER-COMFORT QUESTIONNAIRES WERE EMPLOYED WITH NORMALLY SIGHTED AVIATORS AND WITH AVIATORS FITTED WITH HYDROGEL SOFT CONTACT LENSES. TESTS WERE ADMINISTRATED SHORTLY BEFORE DONNING THE MASK, IMMEDIATELY AFTER DONNING THE MASK, AND AT HOURLY INTERVALS, OVER THE COURSE OF THE NEXT 4 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS MASK WEAR. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION (TEAR BREAK-UP TIME, TEAR PRODUCTION, SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION) WAS ASSESSED BEFORE DONNING THE MASK AND DIRECTLY AFTER ITS REMOVAL. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY INDICATED, FOR SOME SUBJECTS IN BOTH GROUPS, THE PRESENCE OF SUBJECTIVE DISCOMFORT (FROM THE M-43'S AIRFLOW AROUND THE EYES) AND MILDLY INCREASED CONJUNCTIVAL INJECTION ("REDNESS"). HOWEVER, NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN VISUAL FUNCTION, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, OR PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION WERE OBSERVED IN EITHER GROUP AS A RESULT OF WEARING THE MASK. THE DATA CONFIRM PREVIOUS WORK INDICATING ACCEPTABLE VISUAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE M-43 MASK AND INDICATE THAT EXTENDED WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES CAN BE WORN WITH THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK WITHOUT DEGRADING SELECTED ASPECTS OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, ARMY AVIATION, AH-64 APACHE
90-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1035 DTIC #: ADA227583
TITLE: PREVALENCE OF SPECTACLE WEAR AMONG U.S. ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
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
KEYWORDS: ADVANCED AVIONIC AND ELECTRO-OPTICAL SYSTEMS, PREVALENCE OF SPECTACLE WEAR, SPECTACLE INCOMPATIBILITY, SYSTEM/HARDWARE PLANNING
90-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1507 DTIC #: ADA288787
TITLE: CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DESYNCHRONOSIS, JET LAG, SHIFT LAG, AND COPING STRATEGIES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, GERALD P. KRUEGER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: JET LAG AND SHIFT LAG HAVE SIMILAR PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES, BUT SHIFT LAG IS A MORE COMPLEX PROBLEM. THE MOST SEVERE DESYNCHRONIZATION MAY BE EXPERIENCED BY AIRLINE PERSONNEL MAKING TRANSMERIDIAN FLIGHTS. COPING STRATEGIES FOR EASTWARD AND WESTWARD TRAVELERS AND FOR SHIFTWORKERS ARE RECOMMEND, AS ARE INTERVENTIONS INVOLVING MELATONIN.
KEYWORDS: CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, JET LAG, FATIGUE (PHYSIOLOGY), SLEEP DEPRIVATION
90-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 683 DTIC #: ADA230201
TITLE: VISUAL SURVEY OF APACHE AVIATORS (VISAA)
AUTHOR(s): ISAAC BEHAR, ROGER W. WILEY, RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH, DAVID J. WALSH, RHONDA L. S. CORNUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A THREE-PART STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ASSESS THE VISUAL STATUS OF AH-64 PILOTS. THE FIRST PART CONSISTED OF AN ANONYMOUS QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNED BY 58 FORT RUCKER INSTRUCTOR PILOTS. MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF THE PILOTS REGISTERED AT LEAST ONE VISUAL COMPLAINT (VISUAL DISCOMFORT, HEADACHE, DOUBLE VISION, BLURRED VISION, DISORIENTATION, OR AFTERIMAGES) ASSOCIATED WITH FLYING OR AFTER FLYING THE APACHE AIRCRAFT. MANY OF THEIR COMMENTS INDICATED THAT SYMPTOMS OCCURRED DURING LONG FLIGHT AND/OR FLYING WITH POOR QUALITY OR OUT-OF-FOCUS DISPLAY SYMBOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: AH-64, VISUAL PROBLEMS, DIOPTER FOCUS, VISUAL FUNCTION ASSESSMENT, AVIATOR VISION, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT
91-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 695 DTIC #: ADA231723
TITLE: EFFECT OF VIBRATION FREQUENCY AND ACCELERATION MAGNITUDE OF CHICKEN EMBRYOS ON VIABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT PHASE I
AUTHOR(s): LINDA C. TAGGART, NABIH M. ALEM, HELEN M. FREAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE IS LITTLE KNOWN ABOUT THE EFFECT OF VIBRATION ON DEVELOPING EMBRYOS. THE FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING AN AVIAN MODEL TO STUDY THIS EFFECT WAS ESTABLISHED FOR THIS STUDY. ONE HUNDRED CHICKEN EGGS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR TRAYS OF 25 EACH AND EXPOSED TO VIBRATION OF 1 HZ 0.25 G, 5 HZ 3 G, 10 HZ 3 G, AND A CONTROL OF NO VIBRATION. HATCH RATE WAS 0 PERCENT FOR 5 HZ, 12 PERCENT OF 10 HZ, AND 89 PERCENT OF THE 1 HZ EGGS THAT DID NOT CRACK DURING THE INCUBATION PERIOD. THE CONTROL HATCH RATE WAS 84 PERCENT.
KEYWORDS: VIBRATION, EMBRYOS, CHICKEN, EGGS, INCUBATION
91-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1939 DTIC #: ADA235647
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE LAERDAL SUCTION UNIT
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, RANDALL THOMAS, LARRY C. WOODRUM, HELEN M. FREAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LAERDAL SUCTION UNIT WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION OF AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT PROGRAM. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LAERDAL SUCTION UNIT PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS VALIDATED AS COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
91-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 591 DTIC #: ADA232373
TITLE: CONTACT LENSES IN THE U.S. ARMY ATTACK HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENT: AN INTERIM REPORT
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES HAVE HAD A MAJOR IMPACT ON MILITARY AVIATION. WHILE MODERN METHODS OF PROVIDING VISUAL INFORMATION VIA ELECTRO-OPTICS/VISIONICS SYSTEMS HAVE EXTENDED THE AVIATOR'S OPERATIONAL ENVELOPE, THESE DEVICES ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY INCOMPATIBLE WITH SPECTACLE WEAR. SINCE APPROXIMATELY 20 PERCENT OF ARMY AVIATORS ARE AMETROPIC (SPECTACLE WEARING), ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF PROVIDING A REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION NEED TO BE INVESTIGATED. ONE ALTERNATIVE BEING CONSIDERED IS THE USE OF A CONTACT LENS CORRECTION.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENS, AMETROPIC, VOLUNTEERS, AH-64, AVIATORS
91-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2141 DTIC #: ADA231885
TITLE: CODING MANUAL FOR THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS J. BURKE, RENEE KINGSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) IS AN AUTOMATED DATABASE WHICH ALLOWS ELECTRONIC STORAGE, ANALYSIS, AND RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION OF THE FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION (FDME). THE FDME CONSISTS OF A COMPLETED REPORT OF MEDICAL HISTORY STANDARD FOR (SF) 93), REPORT OF PHYSICAL EXAMINATION (SF 88), REPORT OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (SF 520) WITH THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM TRACING, AND FOR CERTAIN CLASSES OF FDME, ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON LIFESTYLE FACTORS AND FAMILY HISTORY. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA, PATIENT HISTORY, PHYSICIAN HISTORY, PHYSICAL FINDINGS, SCREENING TESTS, AND DIAGNOSES INFORMATION ARE INCLUDED ON THESE FORMS, EACH OF WHICH HAS A UNIQUE VALUE IN HEALTH CARE, ADMINISTRATION, AND RESEARCH, AND EACH OF WHICH MUST BE HANDLED DIFFERENTLY IN THE AEDR. DEMOGRAPHIC AND SCREENING TEST RESULTS ARE ENTERED DIRECTLY FORM THE FDME TO THE AEDR. HISTORY, PHYSICAL FINDINGS, AND DIAGNOSIS ARE TRANSLATED INTO A STANDARDIZED ALPHANUMERIC CODE, A MODIFICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD). BECAUSE OF THE UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MILITARY AVIATION ENVIRONMENT, THE ICD IS INADEQUATE TO SUPPORT ALL THE CLINICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RESEARCH FUNCTIONS OF THE AEDR. THE ICD HAS BEEN SUPPLEMENTED WITH ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC CODES TO PROVIDE EXTRA SPECIFICITY, CODES FOR PHYSICAL FINDINGS AND ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, AND CODES TO AUTOMATE THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS. THE CODES ARE PRESENTED AND DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER, FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION, DEMOGRAPHIC DATA, PATIENT HISTORY, PHYSICIAN HISTORY, PHYSICAL FINDINGS, SCREENING TESTS, DIAGNOSES, AEDR
91-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 986 DTIC #: ADA232723
TITLE: A TEST OF THE AMERICAN SAFETY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC. PREBREATHER/PORTABLE OXYGEN SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, ROBERT A. MITCHELL, VADANKUMAR M. PATEL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN RESPONSE TO A REQUEST FROM THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT PRODUCT MANAGER (ALSE-PM) OF THE AVIATION SYSTEMS COMMAND (AVSCOM), THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) CONDUCTED AN INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF THE PREBREATHER/PORTABLE OXYGEN SYSTEM (P/POS) MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN SAFETY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER OXYGEN SYSTEMS, HIGH ALTITUDE FLIGHT, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE
91-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2388 DTIC #: ADA233349
TITLE: THE AIRBAG AS A SUPPLEMENT TO STANDARD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN THE AH-1 AND AH-64 ATTACK HELICOPTERS AND ITS ROLE IN REDUCING HEAD STRIKES OF THE COPILOT/GUNNER, VOLUME I
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOHN V. BARSON, WILLIAM H. MUZZY, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION RECORDS OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER CRASHES SHOW INJURIES OF PILOTS DUE TO STRIKING A STRUCTURE INSIDE THE COCKPIT OUTNUMBER THOSE DUE TO EXCESSIVE ACCELERATIONS BY A FIVE-TO-ONE RATIO. THE TWO-VOLUME REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRBAGS IN REDUCING THE SEVERITY OF CONTACT INJURY TO THE GUNNER WHEN STRIKING THE GUNSIGHT. AIRBAG SYSTEMS WERE INSTALLED ON THE GUNSIGHTS IN SIMULATED COBRA AND APACHE COCKPITS, THEN SLED TESTED AT 7 AND 25 G.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAG, RESTRAINT, HEAD STRIKES, SLED TESTS, INJURIES, HELICOPTER CRASHES
91-6a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5816 DTIC #: ADA232907
TITLE: THE AIRBAG AS A SUPPLEMENT TO STANDARD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN THE AH-1 AND AH-64 ATTACK HELICOPTERS AND ITS ROLE IN REDUCING HEAD STRIKES OF THE COPILOT/GUNNER, VOLUME II
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOHN V. BARSON, WILLIAM H. MUZZY, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION RECORDS OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER CRASHES SHOW INJURIES OF PILOTS DUE TO STRIKING A STRUCTURE INSIDE THE COCKPIT OUTNUMBER THOSE DUE TO EXCESSIVE ACCELERATIONS BY A FIVE-TO-ONE RATIO. THE TWO-VOLUME REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRBAGS IN REDUCING THE SEVERITY OF CONTACT INJURY TO THE GUNNER WHEN STRIKING THE GUNSIGHT. AIRBAG SYSTEMS WERE INSTALLED ON THE GUNSIGHTS IN SIMULATED COBRA AND APACHE COCKPITS, THEN SLED TESTED AT 7 AND 25 G.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAG, RESTRAINT, HEAD STRIKES, SLED TESTS, INJURIES, HELICOPTER CRASHES
91-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3756 DTIC #: ADA240545
TITLE: CONCEPT EVALUATION OF THE UH-60 EXTERNALLY MOUNTED RESCUE HOIST
AUTHOR(s): JOSEPH R. LICINA, LARRY C. WOODRUM, DOUGLAS P. PRITTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CONCEPT EVALUATION OF AN EXTERNALLY MOUNTED RESCUE HOIST (EMRH) WAS PERFORMED WITH THE BREEZE EASTERN EMRH INSTALLED ON AN U.S. ARMY UH-60 HELICOPTER. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WAS CONDUCTED BETWEEN THE EMRH AND THE INTERNALLY MOUNTED RESCUE HOIST (IMRH) WHICH ASSESSED INITIAL INSPECTION, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, INSTALLATION, AND COMPATIBILITY WITH THE AIRCRAFT, PERFORMANCE, AND SAFETY. THE EMRH SHOWED SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT OVER THE IMRH CURRENTLY USED IN U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: RESCUE, MEDEVAC, HOIST, TEST AND EVALUATION
91-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 524 DTIC #: ADA233199
TITLE: MILITARY AVIATION: A CONTACT LENS REVIEW. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MILITARY AVIATION COMMUNITIES HAVE BENEFITTED FROM THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ELECTRO-OPTICAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS. ONE DRAWBACK THAT HAS EMERGED IS AN INCREASING SYSTEM INCOMPATIBILITY WITH TRADITIONAL SPECTACLE VISUAL CORRECTIONS. AN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION TO THE REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION PROBLEM THAT SOME SERVICES HAS BEEN INVESTIGATING IS THAT OF CONTACT LENS WEAR. SINCE THIS MUCH-DEBATED TOPIC IS CURRENTLY OF COMMAND INTEREST, A GENERAL OVERVIEW OF CONTACT LENS ISSUES IS PRESENTED AS A FRAMEWORK FOR FUTURE DISCUSSIONS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REVIEW, ARMY AVIATION, AEROMEDICAL ISSUES
91-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1266 DTIC #: ADA233518
TITLE: CONSPICUITY COMPARISON OF CURRENT AND PROPOSED U.S. ARMY WIRE MARKER DESIGNS
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN-FLIGHT WIRE STRIKES ARE A SERIOUS THREAT TO U.S. ARMY AVIATION DURING ALL-WEATHER DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. TO REDUCE THIS THREAT, THE AVIATION TRAINING COMMUNITY EMPLOYS A PASSIVE MARKING SYSTEM FOR INCREASING THE CONSPICUITY OF HIGH TENSION CABLES, ELECTRICAL POWER LINES, AND TELEPHONE WIRES. THIS SYSTEM USES INTERNATIONAL-ORANGE FIBERGLASS SPHERES HAVING A DIAMETER OF APPROXIMATELY 11.5 INCHES AND UTILIZING VARIOUS CONSPICUITY ENHANCING SCHEMES. THESE SPHERES ARE ATTACHED TO THE CABLES AND WIRES AT LOCATIONS HEAVILY USED BY AIRCRAFT. IN THIS STUDY, THE CONSPICUITY OF THE BASIC AND PROPOSED MODIFIED DESIGNS WERE INVESTIGATED AS A FUNCTION OF BACKGROUND, ILLUMINATION LEVEL (FOR BOTH DAY AND NIGHT WITH WEATHER EFFECTS), SUN (OR OTHER BRIGHT SOURCE) ANGLE, AND VIEWING SYSTEM (E.G., UNAIDED EYE, THERMAL SENSOR, OR IMAGE INTENSIFIER). WHILE NO DIFFERENCES AMONG DESIGNS WERE OBSERVED UNDER DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS, IMPROVED PERFORMANCE UNDER SEVERAL VIEWING/LIGHTING CONDITIONS WAS OBSERVED FOR TWO RETROREFLECTIVE POLYHEDRON DESIGNS UNDER TYPICAL AIRCRAFT LIGHTING CONDITIONS AT NIGHT. INCREASED DETECTION RANGES WERE NOTED BOTH WITH AND WITHOUT IMAGE INTENSIFICATION DEVICES AND UNDER AIRCRAFT LIGHTING CONDITIONS CHARACTERISTIC OF THE LOCAL AVIATION TRAINING ENVIRONMENT.
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), CONSPICUITY, WIRE MARKER, WIRE STRIKES, VISUAL DETECTION
91-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 922 DTIC #: ADA233011
TITLE: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EFFECTS ON THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SINCE MILITARY TROOPS ARE INVOLVED IN EXTENSIVE OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES WITH CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION, AND SINCE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) LASERS MAY PLAY A ROLE IN THE FUTURE MILITARY ENVIRONMENT, A THOROUGH UNDERSTANDING OF UVR DAMAGE MECHANISMS WOULD BE CRUCIAL TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERVENTION AND TREATMENT MODALITIES. THE PRESENT RESEARCH WAS DIRECTED AT QUANTIFYING POSSIBLE ALTERATIONS IN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY SECONDARY TO IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO UVR IN THE RABBIT.
KEYWORDS: UVR, CORNEAL EPITHELIUM, METABOLISM, GLUCOSE, OXYGEN
91-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2033 DTIC #: ADA233784
TITLE: SPH-4 AIRCREW HELMET IMPACT PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT 1970-1990
AUTHOR(s): RONALD W. PALMER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SOUND PROTECTIVE HELMET-4 (SPH-4), A DERIVATIVE OF THE NAVY SPH-3, HAS BEEN USED BY THE ARMY SINCE 1970. AS OUR KNOWLEDGE OF CRASH ENVIRONMENTS AND HUMAN IMPACT TOLERANCE HAS INCREASED THROUGH ANALYSES OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS AND LABORATORY RESEARCH, THE PERFORMANCE OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 HELMET HAS BEEN CONTINUOUSLY REAPPRAISED, AND THE HELMET'S SHELL, LINER, RETENTION, EARCUPS, AND SUSPENSION HAVE BEEN UPGRADED TO PROVIDE MORE IMPACT PROTECTION. THIS REPORT INCLUDES A DISCUSSION OF IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN THE SPH-4 HELMET AND THE EFFECTS THESE IMPROVEMENTS HAVE HAD ON ITS PERFORMANCE. THE SPH-4, SPH-4B, AND HGU-56/P ARE COMPARED IN TERMS OF MAJOR DESIGN FEATURES, IMPACT PROTECTION, AND RETENTION CAPABILITIES. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HELMET IMPACT TESTING METHODOLOGY USED AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, ALSO IS DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: SPH-4, HELMET, IMPACT, RETENTION, EARCUPS, HELMET ANALYSIS, HEAD INJURY
91-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 463 DTIC #: ADA233252
TITLE: CONTACT LENS ANTERIOR SURFACE PH. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT REPORTS OF CO2 ACCUMULATION UNDER HYDROGEL LENSES, PAIRED WITH THE DETECTION OF A DECREASE IN STROMAL PH FOLLOWING CONTACT LENS WEAR, HAVE HIGHLIGHTED THE POTENTIAL FOR TEAR PH ASSESSMENT AS A CLINICAL TOOL. THE IN SITU ANTERIOR HYDROGEL LENS SURFACE PH WAS MEASURED WITH A FLAT-SURFACED, SELF-REFERENCED PH ELECTRODE IN ORDER TO INDIRECTLY EVALUATE FLUID EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE PRECORNEAL TEAR FILM AND HYDROGEL LENSES. VOLUNTEER HUMAN SUBJECTS WERE FITTED WITH MODERATE WATER CONTENT (58%), DISPOSABLE EXTENDED WEAR HYDROGEL LENSES. MEASUREMENTS WERE RECORDED FROM THE LENS IN ITS PACKAGED STAGE (PH 6.99), FROM THE LENS IN SITU 5 MINUTES AFTER INITIAL LENS APPLICATION (PH 7.17), 24 HOURS LATER (PH 7.34), AND AT THE END OF 7 DAYS CON-TINUOUS CONTACT LENS WEAR (PH 7.43). POSSIBLE CORNEA-TEAR FILM-HYDROGEL LENS INTERACTIONS COULD EXPLAIN CERTAIN HYDROGEL LENS-ASSOCIATED CONTRAST SENSITIVITY DEFICITS AND TRANSIENT ENDOTHELIAL CHANGES.
KEYWORDS: HYDROGEL CONTACT LENSES, TEAR FILM PH, EXTENDED WEAR
91-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 297 DTIC #: ADA234592
TITLE: VISUAL AND FIELD-OF-VIEW EVALUATION OF THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK WITH PRESCRIPTION EYEPIECES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, RICHARD R. LEVINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS REQUESTED BY THE PROPONENT OF THE M-43 AVIATOR PROTECTIVE MASK TO CONDUCT A LABORATORY STUDY OF THE VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF EIGHT AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER PILOTS WEARING MASKS WITH "GLUE-ON" PRESCRIPTION LENSES. IN RESPONSE, SEVERAL VISUAL FUNCTIONS TESTS WERE CONDUCTED INCLUDING: HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY, HETEROPHORIA, FIXATION DISPARITY, AND STEREOPSIS AT BOTH NEAR AND FAR. IN ADDITION, VISUAL FIELD LOSSES OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM WERE EXAMINED. PERFORMANCE IN THE CORRECTIVE MASK WAS COMPARED TO THAT WITH HABITUAL CORRECTION, EITHER SPECTACLES OR CONTACT LENSES. THE RESULTS OF THE VISUAL FUNCTIONS TESTS INDICATED ACCEPTABLE PERFORMANCE ON ALL MEASURES EXCEPT FIXATION DISPARITY. THE HIGH DEGREE OF VARIABILITY FOUND ON THIS TEST SUGGESTED PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESCRIPTION LENSES OPTICAL DESIGN, NAMELY ITS HIGH RADIUS OF CURVATURE AND ITS ADDITIONAL THICKNESS. FIELD-OF-VIEW RESULTS INDICATED LOSSES IN VISUAL FIELD ABOVE THOSE OBTAINED WITH SPECTACLE CORRECTION, BUT COMPARABLE TO THAT FOUND WITH THE PLANO MASK. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING ARE RECOMMENDED.
KEYWORDS: M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK, AH-64, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, ARMY AVIATOR
91-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2244 DTIC #: ADA234593
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 10
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 10 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFEPAK® 10 PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS VALIDATED AS COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
91-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1689 DTIC #: ADA237641
TITLE: HUMAN FACTORS OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES: ANECDOTES FROM THE FIELD CONCERNING VISUAL ILLUSIONS AND OTHER EFFECTS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO INVESTIGATE THE BREATH OF VISUAL ILLUSIONS EXPERIENCED BY AVIATORS FLYING WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES (NVDS), AN OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DISTRIBUTED TO THE MILITARY HELICOPTER COMMUNITY IN THE FALL OF 1989. OF THE 242 RETURNED QUESTIONNAIRES, THERE WERE 221 NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) REPORTS AND 21 THERMAL IMAGING SYSTEM (FLIR) REPORTS. MOST SENSORY EVENTS OCCURRED AT NIGHT, DURING LOW ILLUMINATION, GOOD WEATHER, AND OVER VARIED TERRAIN. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS INCLUDED INEXPERIENCE, DIVISION OF ATTENTION, AND FATIGUE. FREQUENTLY REPORTED ILLUSIONS WERE MISJUDGMENTS OF DRIFT, CLEARANCE, HEIGHT ABOVE THE TERRAIN, AND ATTITUDE. ALSO REPORTED HERE WERE ILLUSIONS DUE TO EXTERNAL LIGHTS, AND DISTURBED DEPTH PERCEPTION CAUSED BY DIFFERENCES IN BRIGHTNESS BETWEEN NVG TUBES. OTHER RESPONDENTS CITED HARDWARE PROBLEMS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS. THERE WERE NO OBVIOUS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE EXPERIENCES OF NVG USERS AND FLIR USERS. ALTHOUGH INCIDENCE RATES CANNOT BE INTERRED FROM THESE DATA, THE VARIETY OF EXCERPTED AVIATOR ANECDOTES IN THIS REPORT WILL BE USEFUL TO ALL CONCERNED WITH THE HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY OF NVDS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION SAFETY, FLIR, ILLUSIONS, NIGHT VISION, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NVG, SPATIAL ORIENTATION, THERMAL IMAGING, VISUAL FUNCTION
91-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 407 DTIC #: ADA241819
TITLE: ATTENUATION PRODUCED BY FOAM EARPLUGS WORN BY CHINCHILLAS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, MELVIN CARRIER, JR., DENNIS L. CURD, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE ATTENUATION OF MODIFIED FOAM EARCUPS (NSN 6515-00-137-6345) WHEN WORN BY CHINCHILLA. SINCE THE EAR CANAL OF THE CHINCHILLA IS SMALLER THAN HUMAN, THE EARPLUGS WERE TRIMMED TO A DIAMETER OF 7.2 MM. THIS PROVIDED A GOOD FIT TO THE CHINCHILLA EAR CANAL. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE ATTENUATION WERE ADAPTED FROM ANSI STANDARD METHODS FOR DETERMINING ATTENUATION FOR HUMANS. THE AVERAGE ATTENUATION OF THE EARPLUGS FOR THE CHINCHILLA WAS GENERALLY HIGHER THAN FOR HUMANS; HOWEVER, THIS DIFFERENCE WAS NOT STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT.
KEYWORDS: HEARING PROTECTORS, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY
91-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 9962 DTIC #: ADA241966
TITLE: EFFECTS OF THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE ANTIDOTE ATROPINE SULFATE ON HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE: AN IN-FLIGHT STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., DAVID J. CARTER, ROBERT L. STEPHENS, LEWIS W. STONE, DARCELLE M. DELRIE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF 2 MG AND 4 MG INJECTIONS OF ATROPINE SULFATE ON HELICOPTER PILOTS WAS INVESTIGATED USING A SPECIALLY INSTRUMENTED UH-1H HELICOPTER AND SEVERAL LABORATORY TESTS. A COUNTERBALANCED, WITHIN-SUBJECTS DESIGN WAS EMPLOYED IN WHICH FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, VISION, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY, COGNITIVE SKILL, AND TRACKING PERFORMANCE WERE ASSESSED ON EACH OF THREE DIFFERENT DRUG ADMINISTRATION DAYS (PLA-CEBO, 2 MG, AND 4 MG) SEPARATED BY CONTROL DAYS.
KEYWORDS: ATROPINE (SULFATE), HELICOPTER PILOTS, SUBJECTIVE PILOT GRADING, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY (PAB), ZERO INPUT ANALYZER (ZITA), EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP), ELECTROENCEPHLOGRAM (EEG), UH-1
91-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2300 DTIC #: ADA239992
TITLE: THE HAZARD OF EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE AS A FUNCTION OF FREQUENCY
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., MELVIN CARRIER, JR., ILIA M LOMBA GAUTIER, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ENERGY SPECTRUM OF A NOISE IS KNOWN TO BE AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF A TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE. HOWEVER, EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT CONSIDER THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AN IMPULSE AS A VARIABLE IN THE EVALUATION OF THE HAZARDS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY THAT WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL THAT IMPULSIVE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES HAS IN CAUSING AUDITORY SYSTEM TRAUMA. ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN (118) CHINCHILLA, DIVIDED INTO 10 GROUPS WITH 5 TO 7 ANIMALS PER GROUP, WERE USED IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED AT 10 TEST FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 0.125 AND 8 KHZ ON EACH ANIMAL USING AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING PROCEDURES. QUANTITATIVE HISTOLOGY (COCHLEO-GRAMS) WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT AND PATTERN OF THE SENSORY CELL DAMAGE. THE NOISE EXPOSURE STIMULI CONSISTED OF SIX DIFFERENT COMPUTER-GENERATED NARROW BAND TONE BURSTS HAVING CENTER FREQUENCIES LOCATED AT 0.260, 0.775, 1.025, 1.350, 2.450, AND 3.550 KHZ. EACH NARROW BAND EXPOSURE STIMULUS WAS PRESENTED AT TWO TO FOUR DIFFERENT INTENSITIES. AN ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIOMETRIC AND HISTOLOGICAL DATA ALLOWED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION TO BE DERIVED. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION CLEARLY DEMONSTRATES THAT EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF IMPULSE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES IS NOT EQUALLY HAZARDOUS TO AUDITORY FUNCTION. COMPARISON OF THIS WEIGHING FUNCTION WITH THE A-WEIGHING FUNCTION SHOWED THAT A-WEIGHING OVERESTIMATES THE HAZARD FROM LOW FREQUENCY IMPULSES. VOLUME 1 OF THE REPORT DESCRIBES THE RESULTS. VOLUME 2 CONTAINS INDIVIDUAL THRESHOLD SHIFTS AND SENSORY CELL DATA.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
91-18a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7261 DTIC #: ADA240530
TITLE: THE HAZARD OF EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE AS A FUNCTION OF FREQUENCY. VOLUME 2
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., MELVIN CARRIER, JR., ILIA M LOMBA GAUTIER, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ENERGY SPECTRUM OF A NOISE IS KNOWN TO BE AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF A TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE. HOWEVER, EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT CONSIDER THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AN IMPULSE AS A VARIABLE IN THE EVALUATION OF THE HAZARDS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY THAT WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL THAT IMPULSIVE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES HAS IN CAUSING AUDITORY SYSTEM TRAUMA. ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN (118) CHINCHILLA, DIVIDED INTO 10 GROUPS WITH 5 TO 7 ANIMALS PER GROUP, WERE USED IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED AT 10 TEST FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 0.125 AND 8 KHZ ON EACH ANIMAL USING AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING PROCEDURES. QUANTITATIVE HISTOLOGY (COCHLEO-GRAMS) WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT AND PATTERN OF THE SENSORY CELL DAMAGE. THE NOISE EXPOSURE STIMULI CONSISTED OF SIX DIFFERENT COMPUTER-GENERATED NARROW BAND TONE BURSTS HAVING CENTER FREQUENCIES LOCATED AT 0.260, 0.775, 1.025, 1.350, 2.450, AND 3.550 KHZ. EACH NARROW BAND EXPOSURE STIMULUS WAS PRESENTED AT TWO TO FOUR DIFFERENT INTENSITIES. AN ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIOMETRIC AND HISTOLOGICAL DATA ALLOWED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION TO BE DERIVED. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION CLEARLY DEMONSTRATES THAT EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF IMPULSE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES IS NOT EQUALLY HAZARDOUS TO AUDITORY FUNCTION. COMPARISON OF THIS WEIGHING FUNCTION WITH THE A-WEIGHING FUNCTION SHOWED THAT A-WEIGHING OVERESTIMATES THE HAZARD FROM LOW FREQUENCY IMPULSES. VOLUME 1 OF THE REPORT DESCRIBES THE RESULTS. VOLUME 2 CONTAINS INDIVIDUAL THRESHOLD SHIFTS AND SENSORY CELL DATA.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
91-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1808 DTIC #: ADA242507
TITLE: SUSTAINED MILITARY PERFORMANCE IN CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS: COMBATANT FATIGUE, REST AND SLEEP NEEDS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY FORCES HAVE DEVELOPED SOPHISTICATED NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY AND OTHER BATTLEFIELD SENSORS, GIVING THEM THE CAPABILITY TO FIGHT THROUGH THE NIGHT. THESE INNOVATIONS BRING ABOUT THE TACTICAL DOCTRINE OF CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS (CONOPS): FIGHTING AROUND-THE-CLOCK FOR SUCCESSIVE DAYS, EVEN WEEKS AT A TIME. CONOPS COMBATANTS, ESPECIALLY 'NIGHT FIGHTERS' WHO WORK DURING DARKNESS AND REST DURING THE DAY, GET ONLY BRIEF, SCATTERED, FRAGMENTED SLEEP AND OFTEN ACCUMULATE SIGNIFICANT SLEEP DEBT. SUSTAINED WORKLOAD COMBINES WITH FATIGUE, ESPECIALLY AFTER ONE OR MORE NIGHTS OF COMPLETE SLEEP LOSS OR LONGER PERIODS OF REDUCED OR FRAGMENTED SLEEP, TO DEGRADE PERFORMANCE, PRODUCTIVITY, SAFETY, AND MISSION EFFECTIVENESS. SLEEP LOSS INTERACTS WITH WORKLOAD, RESULTING IN REDUCED REACTION TIME, DECREASED VIGILANCE, PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS, AND CHANGES IN AFFECT, ALL OF WHICH VARY ACCORDING TO CIRCADIAN RHYTHM TIME-OF-DAY EFFECTS. RESEARCH FINDINGS ON THE COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE AND SLEEP DEPRIVATION HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORETICAL MODELS OF SUSTAINED PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING. THIS CHAPTER REVIEWS THESE IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTS STRATEGIES FOR COMBATANTS WHO ENGAGE IN CONTINUOUS MILITARY OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: FATIGUE, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, SUSTAINED WORK, CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE, WORK-REST CYCLES, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, SOLDIER PERFORMANCE
91-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1665 DTIC #: ADA242997
TITLE: THE HAZARD OF EXPOSURE TO 2.075 KHZ CENTER FREQUENCY NARROW BAND IMPULSES
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., KEVIN BORDWELL, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE A. TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PREVIOUS STUDY BY PATTERSON ET AL., (1991), DERIVED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION FROM AUDIOMETRIC AND HISTOLOGICAL DATA GATHERED ON 118 CHINCHILLAS EXPOSED TO A VARIETY OF NARROW BAND IMPULSES AT VARIOUS PEAK INTENSITIES. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION CLEARLY DEMONSTRATED THAT EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF IMPULSE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES IS NOT EQUALLY HAZARDOUS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. HOWEVER, ON THE BASIS OF PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF A LARGE AMOUNT OF AUDIOMETRIC DATA OBTAINED FROM CHINCHILLAS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVEL BLAST WAVES (PATTERSON AND HAMERNIK, 1991), THERE APPEARED TO BE SOME INCONSISTENCIES BETWEEN THE NARROW BAND IMPULSE DATA AND THE BLAST WAVE DATA IN THE REGION OF 2.0 KHZ. TO RESOLVE THIS DISCREPANCY, TWO ADDITION GROUPS OF ANIMALS WERE EXPOSED TO NARROW BAND IMPULSES WITH A CENTER FREQUENCY OF 2.075 KHZ AND PEAK INTENSITIES OF 134 DB AND 139 DB. THE RESULTS OF THESE TWO ADDITIONAL GROUPS CONFIRM THE SHAPE OF THE ORIGINAL P-WEIGHING FUNCTION AND INDICATE THAT CHANGES MUST BE MADE IN OUR APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE BLAST WAVE DATA REFERRED TO ABOVE.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY
91-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1850 DTIC #: ADA243174
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF IMPULSE PRESENTATION ON HEARING TRAUMA IN THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., DENNIS L. CURD, LLIA LOMBA GAUTIER, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE A. TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT PROVIDE FOR ANY EXPLICIT MEANS FOR EVALUATING EXPOSURE FOR WHICH THE PEAK SPL OF THE IMPULSES VARIES IN ANY GIVEN EXPOSURE DAY. APPROACHES TO EVALUATING SUCH EXPOSURES HAVE INCLUDED THE APPLICATION OF A "PROPORTIONAL DOSE" METHOD SUCH AS USED WITH CONTINUOUS NOISE OR THE USE OF AN AVERAGE LEVEL. IMPLICIT IN THESE APPROACHES IS THE ASSUMPTION THAT THE ORDER IN WHICH A SEQUENCE OF VARIABLE INTENSITY IMPULSES IS PRESENTED IS NOT IMPORTANT. THIS SAME ASSUMPTION IS ALSO IMPLICIT IN ANY ENERGY-BASED EXPOSURE CRITERIA. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A PILOT EXPERIMENT DESIGNED TO TEST THE VALIDITY OF THIS ASSUMPTION. TWO GROUPS OF CHINCHILLAS WERE EXPOSED TO A SEQUENCE OF 100 IMPULSES. ONE GROUP RECEIVED 90 EXPOSURES AT 138-DB SPL IMPULSES FOLLOWED BY 10 IMPULSES AT 146-DB PEAK SPL IMPULSES; THE SECOND GROUP RECEIVED THE SAME SERIES OF IMPULSES BUT IN REVERSE ORDER. THE RESULTS FROM THESE TWO GROUPS WERE COMPARED TO THE RESULTS OF 100 EXPOSURES AT 147-DB PEAK SPL IMPULSES FROM A REPORT BY PATTERSON ET AL, (1986). THE 1390DB PEAK SPL EXPOSURES HAD THE SAME TOTAL ENERGY AS THE TWO VARIABLE INTENSITY EXPOSURES. THE RESULTS OF THE THREE EQUIVALENT ENERGY EXPOSURES SHOWED THAT EXPOSURES HAVING EQUAL ENERGIES COULD PRODUCE STATISTICALLY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HEARING TRAUMA. HOWEVER, WHILE THE MEAN DATA WERE VERY SUGGESTIVE IN SHOWING AN EFFECT OF THE PRESENTATION ORDER, THIS RESULT DID NOT HOLD UP TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS BECAUSE OF THE LARGE INTERSUBJECT VARIABILITY.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY
92-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 426 DTIC #: ADA244124
TITLE: RAPID ONSET OF SEVERE HEAT ILLNESS: A CASE REPORT. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS FLYING EXTENDED PERIODS IN HOT ENVIRONMENTS ARE KNOWN TO BE AT RISK FOR HEAT-RELATED ILLNESS. THE RISK WHEN WEARING CHEMICAL INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (IPE) IS INCREASED EVEN AT RELATIVELY WARM TEMPERATURES AND LIGHT WORKLOADS. IN THIS PAPER, WE REPORT THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF AN AVIATOR WHO HAD BEEN FLYING A UH-1H HELICOPTER UP TO 6H/D CLOTHED IN FULL IPE ON 6 CONSECUTIVE DAYS PRIOR TO THE SUDDEN ONSET OF HEAT ILLNESS. HIS PERFORMANCE DURING THE STUDY WAS NORMAL, AND NO CLEAR PHYSIOLOGICAL DERANGEMENTS WERE NOTED PRIOR TO HIS SYMPTOMS. THE RAPID EVOLUTION OF HIS SYMPTOMS AFTER VOICING NO COMPLAINTS PROVIDES A GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION OF THE DIFFICULT PREDICTABILITY AND INITIAL CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS OF THIS CONDITION.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS (PHYSIOLOGY), HEAT TOLERANCE, AVIATION PERSONNEL, HELICOPTERS, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
92-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 579 DTIC #: ADA244435
TITLE: EFFECT OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE ON MUSCARINIC AND GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID RECEPTORS IN VISUAL CORTEX OF CATS
AUTHOR(s): ALFRED T. TOWNSEND, DANNY K. ADAMS, JOSE B. LOPEZ, ALBERT W. KIRBY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ADMINISTRATION OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP), AN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS (OP) COMPOUND, IRREVERSIBLY INHIBITS ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE) AND RESULTS IN CHOLINERGIC HYPERACTIVITY. THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED MUSCARINIC AND GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA) RECEPTOR CHANGES IN VISUAL CORTEX OF CATS FOLLOWING AN ACUTE EXPOSURE TO DFP. A SINGLE ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF DFP (4 MG/KG) DECREASED THE NUMBER OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS AT 2, 10, AND 20 HOURS AFTER TREATMENT. GABA RECEPTORS WERE ELEVATED AT 2 AND 10 HOURS, BUT RETURNED TO WITHIN CONTROL LEVELS AT 20 HOURS. NO SIGNIFICANT ALTERATION IN MUSCARINIC OR GABA RECEPTOR AFFINITY WAS NOTED. IN ALL CASES, CORTICAL ACHE ACTIVITY WAS INHIBITED 60-90 PERCENT. THESE FINDINGS SHOW A DOWN REGULATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS AFTER DFP ASSOCIATED WITH LOW ACHE ACTIVITY. GABA RECEPTORS ALSO ARE ALTERED, AND MAY BE PART OF A COMPENSATORY MECHANISM TO COUNTERACT EXCESS CHOLINERGIC STIMULATION.
KEYWORDS: DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE, RECEPTORS, VISUAL CORTEX, ACHE
92-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 400 DTIC #: ADA248353
TITLE: EFFECTS OF PEAK PRESSURE AND ENERGY ON IMPULSES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PEAK PRESSURE HAS BEEN ONE OF THE KEY PARAMETERS OF IMPULSE NOISE USED TO ASSESS THE HAZARD TO HEARING. IT IS USED IN MOST INTERNATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE LIMITS. FRANCES USES AN A-WEIGHTED ENERGY LIMIT. THERE IS A ROUGH CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN PEAK PRESSURE AND THE HAZARD TO HEARING FOR A GIVEN TYPE OF IMPULSE NOISE. HOWEVER, WHEN THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMPULSES ARE COMPARED, THIS CORRESPONDENCE BREAKS DOWN. ONE OF THE ALTERNATE MEASURES OF IMPULSE INTENSITY IS WEIGHTED ENERGY. WEIGHTED ENERGY IS APPEALING FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS. IT DOES NOT DEPEND ON DETAILS OF THE PRESSURE-TIME HISTORY SUCH AS THE PEAK PRESSURE AND THE MORE COMMON DURATION MEASURES. IT SHOULD BE EASIER TO INTEGRATE WITH CONTINUOUS OR INTERMITTENT NOISE STANDARDS. IT SHOULD MAKE IT EASIER TO USE STANDARD HEARING PROTECTOR ATTENUATION TO ESTIMATE THE HAZARD WHEN A SPECIFIC HEARING PROTECTOR IS WORN. RESULTS OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLES AND REPORTS WILL BE DISCUSSED. THESE REPORTS LEAD TO THE CONCLUSION THAT WEIGHTED ENERGY IS A MORE POTENT DETERMINER OF HEARING HAZARD THAN PEAK PRESSURE IF SPECTRAL EFFECTS ARE CONTROLLED.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
92-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1995 DTIC #: ADA248352
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 100
AUTHOR(s): DARCELLE M. DELRIE, JOSEPH R. LICINA, JEFFREY D. HAUN, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 100 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFESTAT® 100 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2273 DTIC #: ADA248283
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 8
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 8 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFEPAK® 8 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2073 DTIC #: ADA248355
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 200
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 200 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFESTAT® 200 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2174 DTIC #: ADA248354
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IMED 927 INFUSION PUMP
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMED 927 INFUSION PUMP WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U. S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IMED 927 INFUSION PUMP PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 792 DTIC #: ADA248351
TITLE: SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DH-133A HELMET
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY, LINDA S. BARLOW
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORTS DOCUMENTS THE SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT OF THE STANDARD DH-132A HELMET. RESULTS INDICATE THE IMPROVED EXCEEDS THE ATTENUATION REQUIRED BY THE SPECIFICATION AT ALL TEST FREQUENCIES AND IS SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER THAN THE DH-132 AT MOST FREQUENCIES. A SPRING TENSION BAND BETWEEN THE EARCUPS IMPROVES EARCUP-TO-EARCUP HEAD RETENTION. A THERMOPLASTIC LINER IMPROVES STABILITY AND COMFORT. ALL OF THE IMPROVEMENTS ARE AVAILABLE IN KIT FORM FOR FIELD UPGRADE OF FIELDED DH-132A HELMETS.
KEYWORDS: SOUND ATTENTUATION, TANKER HELMET, HEARING THRESHOLDS
92-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1473 DTIC #: ADA248284
TITLE: VISUAL ACUITY WITH SECOND AND THIRD GENERATION NIGHT VISION GOGGLES OBTAINED FROM A NEW METHOD OF NIGHT SKY SIMULATION ACROSS A WIDE RANGE OF TARGET CONTRAST
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO STUDY THE PRIMARY FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE VISUAL ACUITY (VA) WITH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS). THESE FACTORS ARE: NIGHT SKY CONDITION, TARGET CONTRAST, AND NVG GENERATION. IMPROVED METHODS WERE USED TO SIMULATE THE NIGHT SKY AND TO CONTROL FOR DIFFERENCES IN TARGET CONTRAST WHICH RESULT FROM DISSIMILARITIES IN SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY BETWEEN NVG GENERATIONS. THE NEW SIMULATION METHOD USED COMBINATION OF SPECTRALLY FLAT (NEUTRAL DENSITY) AND WAVELENGTH SELECTIVE (BLUE GLASS) FILTERS TO REPRODUCE THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NIGHT SKY ACROSS THE ENTIRE NVG RESPONSE RANGE. BETWEEN-GENERATION DIFFERENCES IN TARGET CONTRAST WERE ELIMINATED BY WEIGHING THE INCIDENT RADIANT FLUX BY THE SENSITIVITY OF THE DETECTOR. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE DIFFERENCE IN VA BETWEEN THE TWO GENERATIONS WIDENS UNDER TWO CONDITIONS: (1) WHEN TARGET CONTRAST IS CONSTANT AND NIGHT SKY IRRADIANCE DECREASES, AND (2) WHEN NIGHT SKY IRRADIANCE IS CONSTANT AND TARGET CONTRAST DECREASES. FINALLY, BY COMPARING OUR RESULTS TO THOSE OF OTHER STUDIES, WE WERE ABLE TO CONCLUDE: (1) FOR BOTH SECOND AND THIRD GENERATION NVGS, OUR SIMULATION METHOD PRODUCES RESULTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED UNDER ACTUAL NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS, AND (2) FOR SECOND GENERATION NVGS, A SIMPLER AND LESS EXPENSIVE METHOD OF NIGHT SKY SIMULATION, I.E., USING NEURAL DENSITY FILTERS WITH A CATHODE RAY TUBE, PRODUCES RESULTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED WITH THE MORE ELABORATE METHOD USED IN THIS STUDY. WE WERE NOT ABLE TO CONCLUDE THAT THE SIMULATION METHOD USED IN THIS STUDY PRODUCES RESULTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED WITH INCANDESCENT SOURCES AND SPECTRALLY FLAT FILTERS, ESPECIALLY WHEN NIGHT SKY IRRADIANCE IS BELOW QUARTER MOON.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), FIELD-OF-VIEW, NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS, TARGET CONTRAST, NVG GENERATION, NIGHT SKY SIMULATION
92-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1236 DTIC #: ADA247470
TITLE: METHODS OF VISUAL SCANNING WITH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR SCANNING THE FLIGHT PATH AND COCKPIT INSTRUMENTS FOR PILOTS WEARING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) WHILE FLYING ARMY HELICOPTERS. THE IMPETUS FOR THIS REPORT WAS A TASK FORCE SPONSORED BY THE OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF OF THE ARMY FOR PLANS AND OPERATIONS, WHICH DETERMINED THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCANNING METHODS WAS THE ARMY'S TOP TRAINING PRIORITY FOR NIGHT HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. THE RECOMMENDED METHODS OF SCANNING WERE DERIVED FROM PUBLISHED SCIENTIFIC WORKS, INTERVIEWS WITH SCIENTISTS, AND INTERVIEW WITH AVIATORS FROM FIELD TACTICAL UNITS, TRAINING UNITS, AND FROM THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY. THE PROPOSED SCANNING METHODS RECOMMEND FREE SEARCH AS OPPOSED TO FORMALIZED SCAN PATTERNS. IN ADDITION, THEY PLACE EQUAL WEIGHT ON CREW COORDINATION AND INDIVIDUAL TECHNIQUE. THE PROPOSED METHODS STRESS ACTIONS TAKEN BEFORE FLIGHT, SUCH AS PREMISSION PLANNING AND NVG PREFLIGHT ADJUSTMENTS. FURTHERMORE, THE PROPOSED METHODS ARE INTENDED TO BUILD AN AWARENESS OF: NVG PERFORMANCE LIMITS, AND HOW TO MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE; COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WHILE SCANNING WITH NVGS, AND THE CONDITIONS WHICH ELICIT THEM; AND THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR SCANNING. SEPARATE SCANNING TECHNIQUES WERE DEVELOPED FOR INDIVIDUALS AND CREWS. IN ADDITION, THE RELEVANT SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE WAS REVIEWED.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), SCANNING, FREE SEARCH, FORMALIZED SCAN PATTERNS, CREW COORDINATION
92-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1574 DTIC #: ADA249633
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE SSCOR PACVAC PORTABLE SUCTION PUMP MODEL 10002
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SSCOR PORTABLE SUCTION PUMP MODEL 10002 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PACVAC PORTABLE SUCTION PUMP PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS VALIDATED AS COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 838 DTIC #: ADA249634
TITLE: RADIATED ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AND MEDICAL DEVICES GENERATE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS. ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI) CAN CAUSE FAULTY OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS OR MEDICAL DEVICES AND ENDANGER PATIENTS OR AIRCRAFT CREWMEMBERS. AN IN-FLIGHT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DESCRIBE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN TYPICAL OPERATIONS WITH U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS. BROADBAND ISOTROPIC FIELD SENSORS MEASURED ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM 5 KHZ TO 3 MHZ, 3 TO 500 MHZ, AND 0.5 MHZ TO 6 GHZ. FIELDS WERE MEASURED AT 0.5 M INTERVALS IN JOH-58A, JUH-1H, AND JUH-60A HELICOPTERS WITH SYSTEMS OFF, OPERATING RPM, 5-FOOT HOVER, 50-FOOT HOVER, AND CRUISE.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE, ELECTRIC FIELDS, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, EMI, EMC
92-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1635 DTIC #: ADA249637
TITLE: FIELD-OF-VIEW EVALUATION OF THE PREPLANNED PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT VISUAL CORRECTION OF THE M40 PROTECTIVE MASK
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, JOHN K. CROSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) OF A PROPOSED PREPLANNED PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT (P3I) VISUAL CORRECTION FOR THE M40 PROTECTIVE MASK. TWO PROTOTYPE MOUNTING BRACKETS FOR THE P3I VISUAL CORRECTION WERE USED IN THE INVESTIGATION: ONE WITH AN EYE WELL LOOP AND THE OTHER WITH A VELCROTM STRIP. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE PROPOSED P3I VISUAL CORRECTION PROVIDES THE SAME FOV AS ITS PREDECESSOR DESPITE ITS LARGER SIZE. THE FAILURE OF THE PROPOSED P3I VISUAL CORRECTION TO PROVIDE A LARGER FOV WAS DETERMINED TO BE EXCESSIVE VERTEX (EYE TO VISUAL CORRECTION) DISTANCE. IN ADDITION, IT WAS FOUND THAT THERE WAS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOVS OBTAINED WITH EITHER OF THE TWO MOUNTING BRACKETS. THE STUDY IDENTIFIED A PROBLEM OF EXCESSIVE VERTEX DISTANCE WHEN THE P3I VISUAL CORRECTION IS WORN INSIDE THE M40 MASK SIZES SMALL AND LARGE.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, PROTECTIVE MASK, VISUAL CORRECTION, PREPLANNED PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT, M40, M17, VERTEX DISTANCE
92-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2065 DTIC #: ADA248834
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE IVAC® VITAL CHECK MONITOR MODEL 4000AEE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IVAC® VITAL CHECK MONITOR MODEL 4000AEE WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IVAC® VITAL CHECK MONITOR MODEL 4000AEE WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK. HOWEVER, AMBIENT NOISE LEVELS IN THE HELICOPTER PREVENTED PROPER OPERATION OF THE MICROPHONE IN THE BLOOD PRESSURE CUFF WHICH RESULTED IN MEASUREMENT ERRORS.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2005 DTIC #: ADA249636
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PARAVANT RUGGEDIZED HAND HELD COMPUTER MODEL RHC-88
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PARAVANT RUGGEDIZED HAND HELD COMPUTER MODEL RHC-88 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PARAVANT RUGGEDIZED HAND HELD COMPUTER MODEL RHC-88 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3567 DTIC #: ADA248760
TITLE: COMPARABILITY OF TWO COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, ROBERT W. VERONA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY COMPARED TWO COMPUTERIZED COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS: A TYPICAL LABORATORY DESKTOP COMPUTER SYSTEM AND A RUGGEDIZED, HAND-HELD FIELD-PORTABLE SYSTEM. IDENTICAL COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SOFTWARE WAS INSTALL ON THE TWO DEVICES IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHETHER DIFFERENCES IN THE HARDWARE CONFIGURATIONS OF THE TWO DEVICES INFLUENCED MEASURES OF COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE. DATA WERE COLLECTED ON 24 SUBJECTS OVER A PERIOD OF 1 WEEK DURING WHICH SUBJECTS PERFORMED SIX COGNITIVE TASKS TWICE A DAY ON EACH OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEMS. RESULTS INDICATED A HIGH DEGREE OF SENSITIVITY OF THE COGNITIVE TESTS TO DAY AND SESSION EFFECTS. ALSO, THERE WERE TASKS IN WHICH THE TYPE OF DEVICE USED TO PRESENT STIMULI AND RECORD DATA INFLUENCED THE RESULTS OBTAINED. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO DEVICES IN TERMS OF THEIR DISPLAY CHARACTERISTICS SEEM TO ACCOUNT FOR THE DIFFERENCES.
KEYWORDS: COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, COMPUTERS, LCD, CRT DISPLAY
92-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 857 DTIC #: ADA248670
TITLE: AN EXPERIMENTAL BASIS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF AUDITORY SYSTEMS HAZARD FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ROGER P. HAMERNIK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ENERGY SPECTRUM OF A NOISE IS KNOWN TO BE AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE. HOWEVER, EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT CONSIDER THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AN IMPULSE AS A VARIABLE IN THE EVALUATION OF THE HAZARDS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. THIS REPORT RESENTS THE RESULTS OF THREE STUDIES THAT WERE DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL THAT IMPULSIVE ENERGY HAS IN CAUSING AUDITORY SYSTEM TRAUMA. FOUR HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE (475) CHINCHILLA WERE USED IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED ON EACH SUBJECT. IN THE FIRST STUDY, THE NOISE EXPOSURE STIMULI CONSISTED OF SIX DIFFERENT COMPUTER-GENERATED NARROW BAND TONE BURSTS HAVING CENTER FREQUENCIES LOCATED AT 0.260, 0.775, 1.025, 1.350, 2.450, AND 3.55 KHZ. EACH NARROW BAND EXPOSURE STIMULUS WAS PRESENTED AT TWO TO FOUR DIFFERENT INTENSITIES. AN ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIOMETRIC DATA ALLOWED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION TO BE DERIVED. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION DEEMPHASIZES LOW FREQUENCY ENERGY MORE THAN THE CONVENTIONAL A-WEIGHING FUNCTION. IN THE SECOND STUDY, THE EXPOSURES CONSISTED OF TWO TYPES OF BROAD BAND COMPUTER SYNTHESIZED IMPULSES. SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED TO 100 IMPULSES AT THE RATE OF 1-PER-3-SECONDS. EACH TYPE OF IMPULSE WAS PRESENTED AT 3 INTENSITIES. THE THIRD STUDY USED IMPULSES GENERATED BY THREE DIFFERENT DIAMETER SHOCK TUBES. SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED TO 1, 10, OR 100 IMPULSES AT ONE OF THREE INTENSITIES. THE RESULTS OF THE SECOND AND THIRD STUDIES WERE INTERPRETED USING THE WEIGHING FUNCTION DERIVED FROM THE FIRST STUDY. THE HEARING LOSS FROM ALL THREE STUDIES IN A LINEAR FUNCTION OF THE WEIGHTED SEL CALCULATED USING THE WEIGHING FUNCTION, DERIVED IN THE FIRST STUDY.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
92-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1943 DTIC #: ADA248538
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IMED VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 960A
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMED VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 960A WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IMED VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 960A WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1905 DTIC #: ADA251076
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE HUMAN TECHNOLOGY AMBULATORY CORTEMP RECORDER MODEL COR-24
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HUMAN TECHNOLOGY AMBULATORY CORTEMP RECORD MODEL COR-124 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60 HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE HUMAN TECHNOLOGY AMBULATORY CORTEMP RECORDER MODEL COR-125 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2051 DTIC #: ADA251078
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE OHIO MEDICAL TRANSPORT INCUBATOR MODEL AIR-VAC
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OHIO MEDICAL TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL AIR-VAC, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE OHIO MEDICAL TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL AIR-VAC, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1858 DTIC #: ADA251077
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 580+EE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 580+EE, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IVAC® MODEL 580+EE DID NOT PERFORM PROPERLY IN THE ALTITUDE CHAMBER, VIBRATION TEST, AND EXCESS ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS MAKE IT INELIGIBLE FOR AN AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE. THEREFORE, THE UNIT IS NOT CONSIDERED COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1863 DTIC #: ADA255919
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC CONTROLLER MODEL 280EE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC CONTROLLER, MODEL 280EE, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IVAC® MODEL 280EE DID NOT PERFORM PROPERLY IN THE ALTITUDE CHAMBER AND EXCESS ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS MAKE IT INELIGIBLE FOR AN AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE. THEREFORE, THE UNIT IS NOT CONSIDERED COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1030 DTIC #: ADA256235
TITLE: TRIAZOLAM AND TEMAZEPAN: ISSUES AND CONCERNS RELEVANT TO THE ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF HYPNOTICS IN ARMY AVIATION HAS BECOME AN OPTION FOR HELPING SOLDIERS SLEEP IN LESS THAN OPTIMAL ENVIRONMENTS AND IN UNUSUAL CIRCUMSTANCES, E.G., PREPARING FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANOTHER TIME ZONE, OR DURING HIGH INTENSITY COMBAT. THE CHOICE OF A HYPNOTIC FOR AVIATOR USE IS LIMITED SINCE A GROUNDING PERIOD IS NEEDED WHILE THE MEDICATION IS EFFECTIVE AND PERFORMANCE MAY BE COMPROMISED FOR SEVERAL HOURS POSTADMINISTRATION. THE TWO HYPNOTICS CURRENTLY USED BY THE AVIATION COMMUNITY ARE TEMAZEPAN (RESTORIL) DURING PEACE TIME AND TRIAZOLAM (HALCION) DURING WAR TIME. THE PRESENT PAPER BRIEFLY REVIEWS LABORATORY AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF THESE TWO HYPNOTICS. IN ADDITION, THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH MEDICATION ARE DISCUSSED AS WELL AS THE CURRENT ARMY POLICY CONCERNING THE USE OF SUCH MEDICATIONS. RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING STUDIES NEEDED TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF THESE MEDICATIONS ON PILOT PERFORMANCE ARE PROVIDED.
KEYWORDS: TRIAZOLAM, TAMAZEPAM, AVIATION
92-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2043 DTIC #: ADA255920
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS PERISTALTIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 1001
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS PERISTALTIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 1001, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/INCOMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/INCOMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS PERISTALTIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 1001, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1175 DTIC #: ADA255722
TITLE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND UH-60 COCKPIT TEMPERATURE
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT THORNTON, FRANK GUARDIANI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DATA HAS BEEN COLLECTED IN THE UH-60 HELICOPTER IN VARIOUS FLIGHT CONFIGURATIONS (HOVER, CONTOUR (250 FEET) AND CRUISE (650 FEET) TO RELATE THE THERMAL CONDITIONS FOUND IN THE COCKPIT TO DATA AVAILABLE TO COMMANDERS AND RESEARCHERS IN THE FIELD. THESE HAVE BEEN USED TO DEVELOP EQUATIONS TO USE IN FUTURE THERMAL MODELLING STUDIES, AND TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO INCREASE THE FIDELITY OF HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATIONS.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS, HELICOPTER
92-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1222 DTIC #: ADA255219
TITLE: PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE ANTIDOTES: A PERSPECTIVE
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE THREAT THAT ENEMY FORCES MAY USE CHEMICAL WARFARE AGAINST UNITED STATES MILITARY TROOPS HAS CAUSED THE MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY TO FIND EFFECTIVE ANTIDOTES. PARTICULARLY IN THE CASE OF NERVE AGENT POISONING, THE TIMELY USE OF ANTIDOTE THERAPIES REPRESENTS THE KEY TO SURVIVAL IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS. CURRENT TRAINING DOCTRINE INSTRUCTS SOLDIERS HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE SYMPTOMS OF NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE, AND THEN HOW TO COUNTERACT THE LIFE-THREATENING EFFECTS WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ATROPINE SULFATE AND PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE. HOWEVER, THESE COMPOUNDS CAN PRODUCE PERFORMANCE DEGRADING EFFECTS ON THEIR OWN EVEN WHEN NO CHEMICAL AGENT IS PRESENT. PARTICULARLY IN THE CASE OF THE AVIATOR, WHO IS EXPECTED TO EXERCISE VERY PRECISE CONTROL OVER AN INHERENTLY COMPLEX VEHICLE SUCH AS A HELICOPTER, THE IMPACT OF SELF-ADMINISTRATED ANTIDOTES SHOULD BE FULLY APPRECIATED. THE PRESENT REVIEW BRIEFLY SUMMARIZES WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE ACTIONS AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF BOTH ATROPINE AND PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE, AND RECOMMENDATION ARE MADE CONCERNING THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL RESEARCH.
KEYWORDS: ATROPINE (SULFATE), PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE (2-PAM CHLORIDE), CHEMICAL DEFENSE, ANTIDOTES, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, MILITARY PERFORMANCE
92-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2087 DTIC #: ADA255691
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR, MODEL LIFEPAK® 6S
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR LIFEPAK® 6S, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEBRILLATOR/MONITOR, MODEL LIFEPAK® 6S, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1774 DTIC #: ADA255943
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IMPACT PORTABLE ASPIRATOR MODEL 325M
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, LESLIE W. JOHNSON, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMPACT PORTABLE ASPIRATOR, MODEL 325M, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IMPACT PORTABLE ASPIRATOR, MODEL 325M, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2140 DTIC #: ADA255849
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE CATALYST RESEARCH OXYGEN MONITOR MODEL MINIOX III
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CATALYST RESEARCH OXYGEN MONITOR, MODEL MINIOX III, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE CATALYST RESEARCH OXYGEN MONITOR, MODEL MINIOX III, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1356 DTIC #: ADA256245
TITLE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPUTER SCORING AND SAFETY-PILOT GRADING OF FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., HEBER D. JONES, DAVID J. CARTER, J. LYNN CALDWELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THREE DIFFERENT MEASURES OF HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE WERE CORRELATED--TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER SCORES AND ONE TYPE OF SAFETY/INSTRUCTOR PILOT GRADES. RESULTS INDICATED THE TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER SCORES WERE BASICALLY INTERCHANGEABLE. THE DIRECTION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPUTER AND SAFETY-PILOT MEASURES WAS AS EXPECTED FOR 76 PERCENT OF THE MEASURES EXAMINED, BUT STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE WAS ATTAINED IN FEWER CASES (APPROXIMATELY 50 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL). REASONS FOR ANY NOTED DISCREPANCIES ARE DISCUSSED ALONG WITH FINDINGS ABOUT THE MOST STRONGLY ASSOCIATED MEASURES. THE COMPUTER SCORES AND SAFETY-PILOT GRADES WERE RELATED STRONGLY ENOUGH TO CONCLUDE THAT THEY WERE BOTH ACCURATELY MEASURING THE SAME TYPE OF PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: PILOTS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, COMPUTER SCORING
92-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1939 DTIC #: ADA258011
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE COROMETRICS MEDICAL SYSTEMS NEONATION MONITOR MODEL 506
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, BRENDAN SQUIRE, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE COROMETRICS MEDICAL SYSTEMS NEONATION MONITOR, MODEL 506, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT IN AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE COROMETRICS MEDICAL SYSTEMS NEONATAL MONITOR, MODEL 506, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U. S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 8702 DTIC #: ADA258502
TITLE: EFFECTS OF MICROCLIMATE COOLING ON PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE WHILE FLYING THE UH-60 HELICOPTER FLIGHT SIMULATOR IN NBC CONDITIONS IN A CONTROLLED HEAT ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT THORNTON, J. LYNN CALDWELL, FRANK GUARDIANI, JACQUELYN PEARSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF MICROCLIMATE COOLING ON AVIATOR PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGY IN NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL (NBC) INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (IPE) WERE EVALUATED IN THE USAARL UH-60 RESEARCH FLIGHT SIMULATOR. SIXTEEN MALE AVIATORS FLEW THE SIMULATOR IN TWO TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS, 95ºF AND 105ºF, BOTH AT 50 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY (RH). TWO THERMOELECTRIC CONDITIONING UNITS WERE USED, ONE PROVIDING COOLED BLOWN AIR, THE OTHER COOLED WATER TO THE AVIATORS.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, HEAT STRESS, AIRCREW PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLES, PSYSIOLOGY, HELICOPTER, HEART RATE, MICROCLIMATE COOLING, SLEEP
92-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2289 DTIC #: ADA258012
TITLE: EFFECTS OF TERFENADINE AND DIPHENHYDRAMINE ON BRAIN ACTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE IN A UH-60 FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, DARCELLE M. DELRIE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF TERFENADINE, DIPHENHYDRAMINE, AND A PLACEBO ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, RESTING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) ACTIVITY, AND AUDITORY AND VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL TASKS WERE INVESTIGATED. TWELVE MALE ARMY AVIATORS SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN A DOUBLE-BLIND, REPEATED MEASURES EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT NEITHER DIPHENHYDRAMINE NOR TERFENADINE EFFECTED FLIGHT PERFORMANCE. REGARDING RESTING EEG, DIPHENHYDRAMINE CAUSED A DECREASE OF ALPHA POWER AT ALL ELECTRODE SITES. FOR ALL SITES WITH THE EXCEPTION OF CZ, DIPHENHYDRAMINE ALSO CAUSED A DECREASE OF POWER IN THE BETA BAND. THE P300 COMPONENT OF THE AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL WAS UNAFFECTED BY EITHER OF THE DRUGS. THE AMPLITUDE OF THE VISUAL P300 WAS SUPPRESSED UNDER DIPHENHYDRAMINE RELATIVE TO PLACEBO WHILE THE LATENCY WAS UNAFFECTED. THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF MEASURING MULTIPLE ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE IN ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF A DRUG. WHILE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE WAS UNAFFECTED BY EITHER DRUG, THE INDICATIONS FROM MEASURES OF BRAIN ACTIVITY ARE THAT TERFENADINE IS MUCH LESS SEDATING. THEREFORE, IT IS A MORE ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE FOR THE TREATMENT OF ALLERGIC SYMPTOMS IN THE AVIATOR POPULATION OR IN ANY POPULATION WHERE COMPROMISED PERFORMANCE IS POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS.
KEYWORDS: ANTIHISTAMINES, HELICOPTER PILOTS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG), EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP)
92-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3858 DTIC #: ADA258585
TITLE: USAARL GUIDE FOR MAKING LABORATORY LIGHT MEASUREMENTS
AUTHOR(s): C. E. RASH, E. H. SNOOK, P. M. SENN, E. MCGOWIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PROVIDES THE BASIC INFORMATION REQUIRED TO PERFORM ROUTINE LIGHT MEASUREMENTS ENCOUNTERED IN THE LABORATORY ENVIRONMENT. TUTORIAL DISCUSSIONS ARE PROVIDED IN IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF MEASUREMENT REQUIRED, SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE INSTRUMENT(S), PERFORMING THE MEASUREMENT, MINIMIZING ERRORS, AND REPORTING THE DATA. APPENDICES PROVIDE LISTS OF THE LIGHT MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION AND LIGHT SOURCES AVAILABLE WITHIN USAARL, WITH A SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF EACH. IN ADDITION, SAFETY STEPS FOR THE PREVENTION OF PERSONAL INJURY AND EQUIPMENT DAMAGE ARE PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: RADIOMETRY, PHOTOMETRY, CONTRAST, TRANSMITTANCE
92-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7583 DTIC #: ADA260938
TITLE: THE USE OF EXTENDED WEAR CONTACT LENSES IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT: AN ARMYWIDE STUDY
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, RHONDA L. S. CORNUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STANDARD REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION OPTIONS FOR THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK HAVE PROVEN TO BE INCOMPATIBLE WITH THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU) COMPONENT OF THE AH-64 "APACHE" INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS). GLUE-ON AND OUTSERT PACKAGES PUSH THE HDU, THE MAXWELLIAN-VIEW VIRTUAL IMAGING SYSTEM, FAR ENOUGH FROM THE SPECTACLE-WEARING AVIATOR'S EYE TO SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE THE AVAILABLE FIELD-OF-VIEW. CONSEQUENTLY, PORTIONS OF CRITICAL PERIPHERAL INSTRUMENTATION AND WEAPON SYSTEM OVERLAYS CANNOT BE VISUALIZED. IN NOVEMBER 1988, THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) INITIATED THE AH-64 CONTACT LENS RESEARCH PROTOCOL TO PROVIDE BOTH AN INTERIM READINESS FIX AND TO DEVELOP A COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE ON CONTACT LENS WEAR IN A VARIETY OF ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, ARMY AVIATORS, FLIGHT SAFETY, CORNEAL PHYSIOLOGY, TEAR PRODUCTION, WATER CONTENT, CENTRAL CORNEAL THICKENING, STERILE ULCERS, ENDOTHELIAL
92-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5859 DTIC #: ADA259909
TITLE: EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE OF WEARING THE AVIATOR NBC ENSEMBLE WHILE FLYING THE UH-60 HELICOPTER FLIGHT SIMULATOR IN A CONTROLLED HEAT ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT THORNTON, J. LYNN CALDWELL, WAYNE CLARK, FRANK GUARDIANI, JOSE ROSARIO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF WEARING U.S. ARMY AVIATOR NBC INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (IPE) WERE EVALUATED IN THE USAARL UH-60 RESEARCH FLIGHT SIMULATOR. SIXTEEN MALE AVIATORS FLEW THE SIMULATOR IN FOUR TEST CONDITIONS: STANDARD FLIGHT SUIT AND COOL COCKPIT, STANDARD FLIGHT SUIT AND HOT COCKPIT, NBC IPE AND COOL COCKPIT, AND NBC IPE AND HOT COCKPIT. THE HOT CONDITION HAD A WBGT OF 30.6º C, THE COOL 17.9º C.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, HEAT STRESS, AIRCREW PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLES, PHYSIOLOGY, HELICOPTER, HEART RATE
93-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2027 DTIC #: ADA259222
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL VITAL SIGNS MONITOR, MODEL VSM 2
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL VITAL SIGNS MONITOR, MODEL VSM 2, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PHYSIO CONTROL VITAL SIGNS MONITOR, MODEL VSM 2, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 638 DTIC #: ADA259369
TITLE: FLIGHT HELMETS: HOW THEY WORK AND WHY YOU SHOULD WEAR ONE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, JOSEPH R. LICINA, JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FLIGHT HELMETS HAVE BEEN IN USE SINCE THE EARLY DAYS OF AVIATION, YET, DEBATE CONTINUES REGARDING THEIR BENEFIT. THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS IS HEAD INJURY, AND SEVERAL STUDIES HAVE CONCLUDED THAT HELMETS CAN PROVIDE SIGNIFICANT PROTECTION. THIS REVIEW CHRONICLES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN HELICOPTER CREW HELMET, AND PRESENT ARGUMENTS AND DATA SUPPORTING THEIR USE. THROUGHOUT HISTORY, MAN HAS WORN HEAD PROTECTION IN RESPONSE TO THE THREAT OF HEAD INJURY. SUCH ARMOR HAS LIMITATIONS AND DRAWBACKS, BUT IN HELICOPTER AVIATION, IT IS EFFECTIVE AND WORTHWHILE.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, FLIGHT SAFETY, HEAD INJURY, AVIATION MEDICINE
93-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 786 DTIC #: ADA259970
TITLE: HUMAN VISUAL LIMITATIONS ON SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION THROUGH ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT SUCCESS ON THE BATTLEFIELD UNDERSCORED THE TACTICAL ADVANTAGE OF NIGHT OPERATIONS AND IMAGE INTENSIFYING DEVICES. IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND BOTH THE BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS INHERENT IN THESE DEVICES. WHILE SEVERAL STUDIES HAVE FOCUSED ON SPATIAL RESOLUTION THRESHOLDS THROUGH IMAGE INTENSIFIERS, LESS IS KNOWN ABOUT VISUAL PERCEPTION AT SUPRATHRESHOLD LEVELS OF STIMULATION. SUCH INFORMATION IS NECESSARY TO ANTICIPATE AND PREDICT VISUAL PERFORMANCE UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS. IN THIS STUDY CONTRAST MATCHING WAS USED TO EVALUATE SUPRATHRESHOLD VISUAL PERCEPTION UNDER CONDITIONS WHICH SIMULATED THE LUMINANCE, CONTRAST, AND CHROMATICITY OF THIRD GENERATION IMAGE INTENSIFIERS CONTAINED IN THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS). THE APPARENT CONTRAST OF LETTERS IN THIS SIMULATED ANVIS ENVIRONMENT WAS REDUCED BY A FACTOR OF TWO WHEN COMPARED TO NORMAL PHOTOPIC LEVELS OF STIMULATION. THIS EFFECT WAS ATTRIBUTED TO LIMITATIONS OF THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM IN PROCESSING HIGHER SPATIAL FREQUENCIES AT LOW LIGHT LEVELS. THESE RESULTS HELP TO QUANTIFY AND DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN VISUAL AND ELECTRO-OPTICAL LIMITATIONS ON VISION THROUGH IMAGE INTENSIFIERS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, ANVIS, CONTRAST PERCEPTION
93-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 801 DTIC #: ADA259924
TITLE: AN AUTOMATED METHOD FOR DETERMINING MASS PROPERTIES
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL B. DEAVERS, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY PERFORMS MASS PROPERTIES TESTING WITH THE KSR330-60 MASS PROPERTIES INSTRUMENT (MPI). FOR MAN-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT, IT IS IMPORTANT TO DEFINE AND MEASURE THE MASS PROPERTIES IN ORDER TO ACCURATELY DEVELOP MATH MODELS, UNDERSTAND HUMAN PERFORMANCE IMPACTS, AND TO CONDUCT COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS. DETERMINING MASS PROPERTIES REQUIRES A THOROUGH THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE CENTER-OF-MASS AND MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA. THIS REPORT PROVIDES THE OPERATING THEORY AND PROCEDURES TO MEASURE MASS PROPERTIES WITH THE MPI.
KEYWORDS: CENTER-OF-MASS, MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA, IMPACTS, MAN-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT
93-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2390 DTIC #: ADA263033
TITLE: THE USE OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE VARIABLE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF DEGRADATION DURING PERIODS OF SUSTAINED WAKEFULNESS
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., ROBERT L. STEPHENS, JIM A. CHIARAMONTE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, SCOTT T. TRAST, ANGELIA D. MATTINGLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATION PERSONNEL OFTEN ENCOUNTER WORK SCHEDULES WHICH EITHER REQUIRE THE RAPID TRANSITION FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS OR DEMAND EXTENDED HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WORK. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE USEFULNESS OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT TEST IN THE STUDY OF VARIABLES SUCH AS ALERTNESS, SENSORY PROCESSING, REACTION TIME, AND COGNITIVE ABILITY. TO CHARACTERIZE THE STATE OF ALERTNESS AND COGNITIVE ABILITY OF SUBJECTS INVOLVED IN POSTPONING SLEEP FOR 60 CONSECUTIVE HOURS, 3 SPECIFIC TESTS WERE INCLUDED IN THIS ASSESSMENT BATTERY, EACH BASED ON EXISTING EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF THEIR ABILITY TO REFLECT SOME ASPECT OF ALERTNESS, SENSORY PROCESSING, AND COGNITIVE ABILITY. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS INVOLVING BRAIN RESPONSES TO AUDITORY STIMULATION IN THE MIDDLE LATENCY RESPONSE (MLRS) AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF RESTING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG) DATA WERE SELECTED AS TWO OF THE THREE TESTS COMPRISING THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY BATTERY. THE THIRD TEST COMPONENT ASSESSED THE STATUS OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION USING LOGICAL REASONING AND MANIKIN TESTS FROM THE WALTER REED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY (PAB). EIGHT MALE VOLUNTEERS BETWEEN 25 AND 30 YEARS OF AGE SERVED AS SUBJECTS. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE DATA WERE RECORDED DURING ONE DAY OF BASELINE, TWO CONSECUTIVE DAYS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION, AND 1 DAY OF RECOVERY.
KEYWORDS: EEG, MIDDLE LATENCY RESPONSE (MLR), WALTER REED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY (PAB), AMPLITUDE MORPHOLOGY, AREA, ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS), FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMATION (FFT), LOGICAL REASONGING TASK, MENTAL ROTATION TASK, DELTA, THETA, ALPHA, BETA ACTIVITY
93-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1374 DTIC #: ADA259886
TITLE: SOLAR-POWERED LIGHT EMITTING DIODE POWER LINE AVOIDANCE MARKER DESIGN
AUTHOR(s): ELLEN H. SNOOK, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN, RICHARD R. LEVINE, PARLEY P. JOHNSON, JAMES A. LEWIS, JOHN H. HAPGOOD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN-FLIGHT WIRE STRIKES ARE A CONSTANT THREAT TO U. S. ARMY AVIATION DURING ALL WEATHER, DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. DESPITE ROUTINE TRAINING ON WIRE AVOIDANCE TECHNIQUES, WIRE STRIKES CONTINUE TO OCCUR, WITH A MAJORITY OF THE MISHAPS HISTORICALLY OCCURRING DURING TRAINING AND MANEUVERING OVER FAMILIAR SITES. IN AN EFFORT TO INCREASE THE CONSPICUITY OF SUSPENDED CABLES AND WIRES, THE AVIATION TRAINING COMMUNITY AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, CURRENTLY EMPLOYS A PASSIVE WIRE MARKING SYSTEM WHICH CONSISTS OF INTERNATIONAL-ORANGE COLORED SPHERES SUSPENDED FROM CABLES AND WIRES IN HEAVILY TRAFFICKED AIRSPACE. DURING A PREVIOUS EVALUATION OF WIRE MARKER VISIBILITY, A SOLAR-POWERED WIRE MARKER DESIGN WAS DEVELOPED. THIS NEW DESIGN INCORPORATES RETROREFLECTIVE MATERIAL AND LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDS) TO PROVIDE A GREATER RANGE VISIBILITY AND DETECTABILITY DURING AIDED AND UNAIDED FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: WIRE MARKER, LIGHT EMITTING DIODE, SOLAR POWER, AIDED AND UNAIDED FLIGHTS
93-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2170 DTIC #: ADA262524
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE AIRBORNE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL 20-H
AUTHOR(s): BRENDAN E. SQUIRE, JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AIRBORNE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL 20-H, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE AIRBORNE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL 20-H, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2639 DTIC #: ADA259905
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT FIELD-OF-VIEW WITH ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS INVESTIGATION HAD FOUR MAJOR GOALS: (1) TO MEASURE THE IN-FLIGHT FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF AVIATORS (N=L05) USING THE AN/AVS-6 AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), (2) TO ASSESS THE DEGREE TO WHICH IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV RESTRICTIONS RESULT FROM IMPROPER USER ADJUSTMENTS AS OPPOSED TO EQUIPMENT LIMITATIONS, (3) TO DETERMINE WHICH EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS MIGHT BE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED FOV, AND (4) TO EVALUATE OPTIONS FOR OPTIMIZING IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT ONLY ABOUT 15 PERCENT OF AVIATORS ACTUALLY ACHIEVE A 40 DEGREE FOV WITH ANVIS DURING FLIGHT. THE FOVS WERE REDUCED MOSTLY BECAUSE OF EQUIPMENT LIMITATIONS, AND NOT BECAUSE OF USER MISADJUSTMENTS. SPECIFICALLY, THE FORE-AFT ADJUSTMENT OF THE ANVIS HELMET MOUNT LACK SUFFICIENT RANGE IN THE AFT DIRECTION. AMONG THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS STUDIES, ONLY TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS, HOURS IN CURRENT AIRCRAFT, HOURS IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS, AND AIRCRAFT TYPE ARE STATISTICALLY RELATED TO IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV. TOTAL NIGHT VISION GOGGLE FLIGHT HOURS, ANVIS FLIGHT HOURS, HELMET SIZE, TYPE OF HELMET LINER, AND SPECTACLE USE ARE NOT RELATED TO IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV. FINALLY, IT WAS DETERMINED THAT MOST AVIATORS COULD ACHIEVE A 40 DEGREE FOV IF EITHER OF TWO HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE: IMPROVING THE FORE-AFT ADJUSTMENT RANGE OF THE ANVIS MOUNT OR SWITCHING TO A DIFFERENT EYEPIECE WITH A GREAT EYE RELIEF.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, ANVIS, EYE RELIEF, VERTEX DISTANCE EYEPIECE, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE
93-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1413 DTIC #: ADA261259
TITLE: INTERPUPILLARY AND VERTEX DISTANCE EFFECTS ON FIELD-OF-VIEW AND ACUITY WITH ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES M. KING, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIRD GENERATION AVIATION NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEMS (ANVIS) EMPLOY VERTICAL, TILT, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, VERTEX DISTANCE, AND FOCUS ADJUSTMENTS. ANVIS FIELD-OF-VIEW IS NOMINALLY 40 DEGREES BUT CAN BE LIMITED BY ADJUSTMENTS. INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE EFFECTS ON ANVIS FIELD-OF-VIEW HAS BEEN COMPUTED, BUT SELDOM MEASURED. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF ACUITY LOSS AT THE PERIPHERY OF ANVIS FIELDS-OF-VIEW. FIELDS-OF-VIEW WERE MEASURED IN 10 SUBJECTS, ACUITIES IN 8. ANVIS WERE USED WITH A 10-FOOT WORKING DISTANCE. ACUITIES WERE MONOCULAR FIELDS-OF-VIEW DECREASED WITH DECENTRATION. AT THE 32 MM VERTEX DISTANCE, BINOCULAR AND MONOCULAR FIELDS-OF-VIEW WERE REDUCED AT OPTIMAL INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, AND DECREASED WITH INCREASING DECENTRATION. THE TOTAL HORIZONTAL FIELD-OF-VIEW AT 32 MM VERTEX DISTANCE WAS INCREASED BY INCREASING DECENTRATION, OFFSETTING THE REDUCTION CAUSED BY INCREASED VERTEX DISTANCE. ACUITY WAS RELATIVELY INSENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN VERTEX DISTANCE AND INTER-PUPILLARY DISTANCE, BUT WAS SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCED IN THE PERIPHERY OF THE FIELD-OF-VIEW, AND UNDER LOW CONTRAST.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, ACUITY, ANVIS, NIGHT VISION
93-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 520 DTIC #: ADA263011
TITLE: SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STANDARD DH-132A AND SPH-4 HELMETS WORN IN COMBINATION WITH STANDARD EARPLUGS
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, LINDA S. BARLOW, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS WERE COMPLETED ON THE STANDARD DH-132A AND SPH-4 HELMETS WORN IN COMBINATION WITH THE SINGLE FLANGE, TRIPLE FANGE, AND YELLOW/WHITE FOAM EARPLUGS USING ANSI STANDARD S12.6 "METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REAL-EAR ATTENUATION OF HEARING PROTECTORS." SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL HELMET/EARPLUG COMBINATIONS PROVIDE ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION FOR ARMY AVIATION NOISE ENVIRONMENTS. THE DH-132A/FOAM EARPLUG COMBINATION PROVIDES ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION FOR THE M1E1 AND M3 NOISE ENVIRONMENT. NOISE LEVELS PRODUCED BY THE M113 AT 30 MPH EXCEED PROTECTIVE CAPABILITIES OF ANY OF HEARING PROTECTOR CONDITIONS EVALUATED.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, EARPLUGS, REAL-EAR, PHYSICAL-EAR, SOUND ATTENTUATION
93-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2637 DTIC #: ADA265341
TITLE: THE AGING MILITARY AVIATOR: A REVIEW AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
AUTHOR(s): LEWIS W. STONE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STUDIES SUGGEST THAT AGING IS ANOTHER FACTOR WHICH MAY AFFECT PERFORMANCE OF MILITARY PILOTS. ALTHOUGH THESE AVIATORS GENERALLY ARE BETTER EDUCATED AND HEALTHIER THAN THEIR AGE PEERS IN THE GENERAL POPULATION, THEY, TOO, ARE SUBJECT TO INSIDIOUSLY DETERIORATING PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY SYSTEMS, A SLOWLY INCREASING LIKELIHOOD OF ACUTE PATHOLOGIES AND A GENERAL SLOWING WITH AGE--ALL WITHIN THE AGE RANGE OF MILITARY PILOTS. REDUCTIONS IN SOME PARAMETERS MIGHT BE OFFSET TO SOME DEGREE BY EXPERIENCE AND MATURITY; HOWEVER, AGE-RELATED CHANGES AND THE EFFECTS THEREFROM VARY MORE BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS IN ANY AGE GROUP THAN BETWEEN THE GROUPS THEMSELVES. BUT, THE REAL PROBLEM IS THAT WE STILL DO NOT KNOW WHAT EFFECT, IF ANY, AGE-RELATED CHANGES HAVE ON PERFORMANCE OF MILITARY AVIATORS. NEITHER IS THERE A CONCENTRATED EFFORT TO PROVIDE THE AGING PILOT WITH A COPING STRATEGY FOR THE APPROACHING SITUATION.
KEYWORDS: AGING, AVIATOR
93-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2035 DTIC #: ADA266896
TITLE: MONOGRAPH OF THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR CY 1991
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS MONOGRAPH WAS TO PROVIDE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS WITHIN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) OF SELECTED VARIABLES FROM AN AVIATORS' ANNUAL CLASS 2 OR CLASS 2A FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION (FDME) THAT WAS PERFORMED IN 1991. ONLY AVIATORS FROM A MAJOR ARMY COMPONENT WERE CONSIDERED, ACTIVE DUTY, RESERVE, OR NATIONAL GUARD. DESCRIPTIVE DATA ARE PRESENTED IN TABLES, WHICH NORMALLY ARE DEFINED BY COMPONENT, AGE GROUP, AND GENDER. DUE TO THE SMALL NUMBER OF FEMALE AVIATORS, SOME OF THE AGE-GROUP CELLS ARE SPARSELY POPULATED, ESPECIALLY WITHIN THE RESERVE COMPONENT. THE DATA WERE ORGANIZED INTO THREE AREAS: LABORATORY/CLINICAL, VISION, AND HEARING.
KEYWORDS: DATA STORAGE SYSTEM, AEDR, STATISTICAL DATA, FLIGHT PHYSICALS
93-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2762 DTIC #: ADA262957
TITLE: USER'S MANUAL FOR BRNSIM/BURNSIM: A BURN HAZARD ASSESSMENT MODEL
AUTHOR(s): F. S. KNOX, III, DENA BONETTI, CHRIS PERRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BURNSIM IS AN INTERACTIVE COMPUTER MODEL WHICH RUNS ON DEC MINICOMPUTERS (PDP 11 AND VAX), MACINTOSH AND IBM COMPATIBLE PCS. THE MODEL IS BASED ON THE WORK OF MORITZ AND HENRIQUES AT HARVARD, THE SURGERY DEPARTMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER; ALICE STOLL AT THE NAVAL AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER AND KNOX ET AL. AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. ITS DEVELOPMENT HAS BEEN FUNDED BY THE U.S. ARMY, THE U.S. AIR FORCE, AND DR. KNOX. THE MODEL PREDICTS TIME TO PAIN AND BURN DEPTH WHEN BARE SKIN IS EXPOSED TO ANY ARBITRARY TIME HISTORY OF HEAT FLUX. IT PREDICTS BURN DEPTH WITH REASONABLE ACCURACY FOR PIG AND HUMAN SKIN. A SOFTWARE MODULE TO INCLUDE CLOTHING BETWEEN THE THERMAL SOURCE AND THE SKIN HAS BEEN DEVELOPED, BUT NOT INTEGRATED WITH BURNSIM AND HAS NOT BEEN VALIDATED. BY USING SENSORS TO MEASURE HEAT FLUX BEHIND FABRIC IT HAS BEEN POSSIBLE TO USE BURNSIM TO EVALUATE THE INSULATING EFFECT OF CLOTHING. BURNSIM HAS BEEN USED IN THE LAST SEVERAL YEARS TO ASSESS THE BURN HAZARD ASSOCIATED WITH ROCKET PLUMES IN SIDE-BY-SIDE EJECTION SEATS, SHOULDER LAUNCHED WEAPONS, NUCLEAR FLASH AND LIVE FIRE. THIS MANUAL PROVIDES INFORMATION ON MODEL DEVELOPMENT, ITS INSTALLATION AND USE ON A PC.
KEYWORDS: BURNS, THERMAL PROTECTION, COMPUTER MODEL, BURN HAZARD PREDICTION
93-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 916 DTIC #: ADA264988
TITLE: CORRELATION OF HGU-56/P AIRCREW HELMET FITTING WITH HEAD ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, STEVEN P. PACQUETTE, HAROLD G. MOODY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY IS DEVELOPING AN AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM TO REPLACE THE CURRENT FLIGHT HELMETS. THE HGU-56/P FLIGHT HELMET IS PROPOSED IN SIX SIZES WITH A NEW FITTING METHOD BASED ON A NONSTANDARD MEASURE OF THE AVIATOR HEAD LENGTH. STANDARD ANTHROPOMETRIC HEAD MEASUREMENTS AND THE GENTEX CORPORATION FITTING METHOD FOR THE HGU-56/P FLIGHT HELMET ARE EVALUATED TO DETERMINE THE APPLICABILITY OF THE FITTING METHOD AND DISTRIBUTION OF HELMET SIZES REQUIRED TO FIT THE U.S. ARMY AVIATOR POPULATION.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRIC, FLIGHT HELMET, FITTING, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HGU-56/P
93-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1884 DTIC #: ADA267099
TITLE: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HELICOPTER CRASHWORTHINESS
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CRASHWORTHINESS CAN BE DEFINED AS THE ABILITY OF AN AIRCRAFT AND ITS INTERNAL SYSTEMS TO PROTECT OCCUPANTS FROM INJURY IN THE EVENT OF A CRASH. IN GENERAL, INJURY IN AIRCRAFT CRASHES CAN BE CONSIDERED TO ARISE FROM THREE DISTINCT SOURCES: (1) EXCESSIVE ACCELERATION FORCES, (2) DIRECT TRAUMA FROM CONTACT WITH HARD SURFACES, AND (3) EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SUCH AS FIRE, SMOKE, WATER, AND CHEMICALS RESULTING IN BURNS, DROWNING OR ASPHYXIATION. CONSEQUENTLY, EFFECTIVE CRASHWORTHINESS DESIGNS MUST CONSIDER ALL POSSIBLE SOURCES OF INJURY AND ELIMINATE OR MITIGATE AS MANY AS PRACTICAL FOR A GIVEN DESIGN IMPACT LIMIT. THIS INVOLVES CONSIDERATIONS OF (1) STRENGTH OF THE CONTAINER (COCKPIT AND CABIN), (2) ADEQUACY OF SEATS AND RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, (3) ENERGY ATTENUATION, (4) ELIMINATION OF INJURIOUS OBJECTS IN OCCUPANTS' LOCAL ENVIRON-MENT, AND (5) POSTCRASH FACTORS, PRINCIPALLY FIRE PREVENTION AND ADEQUACY OF ESCAPE ROUTES.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER, CRASHWORTHINESS, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, CRASH SURVIVAL
93-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2244 DTIC #: ADA267038
TITLE: ACTIVITY/REST PATTERNS OF INSTRUCTORS AND RATED STUDENT PILOTS DURING RAPID TRANSITIONS FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS AT THE EASTERN ARMY AVIATION TRAINING SITE
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JAMES A. CHIARAMONTE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, LEWIS W. STONE, GERALD L. HESS, KENNETH O. BOLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RAPID SHIFTS IN WORK SCHEDULES DEMAND THAT PILOTS AND AIRCREW QUICKLY ADAPT TO NEW SLEEP SCHEDULES. TRANSITIONS TO NIGHTTIME DUTIES LACKING PLANNED WORK/REST SCHEDULES CAN RESULT IN THE DELAY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE ADAPTION, FATIGUE, AND PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION (SHIFT LAG). THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF A NIGHT SHIFT COPING STRATEGY IN THE ADAPTION OF HELICOPTER PILOTS (UH-1) TO NIGHTTIME (2100 H TO 0100 H) FLYING SCHEDULES. DAILY ACTIVITY/REST RHYTHMS OF INSTRUCTOR AND RATED STUDENT PILOTS (IPS/ RSPS) WERE MONITORED 24 H PER DAY FOR A TOTAL OF 21 TO 28 DAYS USING INDIVIDUAL WRIST ACTIVITY MONITORS. RSP (N=6) LIVED IN DORMITORIES WITH COMPLETE BLOCKING OF DAYLIGHT (BELOW 10 LUX) AND REDUCED ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE UNTIL 1000 H. MEALS AND ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WERE SCHEDULED TO ALLOW RSPS THE OPPORTUNITY TO SLEEP UNTIL 1000 H AFTER NIGHT FLIGHTS. IPS LIVED IN PRIVATE HOMES AND WERE EXPECTED TO MEET ADMINISTRATIVE, ACADEMIC, AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTION DEMANDS. THROUGHOUT THE NVG COURSE, RSPS ELECTED TO RETIRE BETWEEN 0040-0200 H, TO RISE AT APPROXIMATELY 0900 H, AND TO DELAY MORNING DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE BETWEEN 0900-1000 H. THIS SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES RESULTS IN AN AVERAGE OF 7 H OF BEDREST UNDER BOTH DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME DUTY SCHEDULES. IN CONTRAST, IPS EXHIBITED VARIABLE RISE TIMES, USUALLY OCCURRING BETWEEN 0700 AND 0830 H DURING BOTH DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME DUTY SCHEDULES. AFTER NIGHT FLIGHTS, IPS EXHIBITED A DELAY OF BEDTIME (2 H) BUT FAILED TO CONSISTENTLY DELAY RISE TIMES. MORNING DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE TIME WAS ALSO VARIABLE BUT USUALLY OCCURRED BEFORE 09000 H. TOTAL BEDREST AFTER NIGHT FLIGHTS WAS SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED BY APPROXIMATELY 2 TO 3 H. THESE RESULTS ARE INTERPRETED IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF DELAYING RISING TIMES, BEDTIMES, AND MORNING DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE.
KEYWORDS: SHIFTWORK, SLEEP, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, NIGHT OPERATIONS
93-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 610 DTIC #: ADA265013
TITLE: AUTOMATICITY OF PROCESSING LOCATION VERSUS IDENTITY INFORMATION IN BRIEF VISUAL DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF AUTOMATICITY FOR PROCESSING INFORMATION FROM TACHISTOSCOPIC DISPLAYS WERE STUDIED USING THREE VARIATIONS OF THE PARTIAL REPORT PROCEDURE (AVERBACH AND CORIELL, 1961). PROCESSING OF BOTH SPATIAL AND IDENTITY INFORMATION IN LETTER DISPLAYS WAS ASSESSED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN INDEPENDENTLY. ANALYSES INDICATED FEATURE EXTRACTION IS A HIGHLY AUTOMATED PROCESS WHILE SPATIAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION IS A CONTROLLED PROCESS. IMPLICATIONS FOR SEPARATE PROCESSING PATHWAYS IN THE VISUAL SYSTEM ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING, TACHISTOSCOPIC
93-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1704 DTIC #: ADA267100
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE MEDICAL DATA ELECTRONICS ESCORT PATIENT MONITOR, MODEL E300A
AUTHOR(s): MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, JAMES E. BRUCKART, BRENDAN E. SQUIRE, LESLIE W. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MEDICAL DATA ELECTRONICS ESCORT PATIENT MONITOR, MODEL E300A, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE MEDICAL DATA ELECTRONICS ESCORT PATIENT MONITOR, MODEL E300A, DID NOT PERFORM PROPERLY IN THE VIBRATION TEST, HIGH TEMPERATURE OPERATION TEST, AND LOW TEMPERATURE OPERATION TEST. EXCESS ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS AND ELECTROMAGNET SUSCEPTIBILITY MAKE IT INELIGIBLE FOR AN AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE. THE UNIT IS NOT CONSIDERED COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1520 DTIC #: ADA267377
TITLE: MILITARY RESEARCH WITH CONTACT LENSES
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH ALL MILITARY AIR SERVICES HAVE STRICT VISION STANDARDS TO SELECT ONLY THE MOST PHYSICALLY QUALIFIED CANDIDATES, THE PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS AMONG AVIATORS IS QUITE SIGNIFICANT. RECENT ADVANTAGES IN HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS AND OTHER COCKPIT EQUIPMENT HAS RAISED COMPATIBILITY ISSUES WITH SPECTACLE CORRECTIONS. BECAUSE OF THESE COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS, MANY MILITARY SERVICES ARE CONSIDERING CONTACT LENSES AS A POSSIBLE REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION OPTION. IN THIS PAPER, THE NUMEROUS MILITARY LABORATORY-BASED AND FIELD TESTS OF CONTACT LENSES ARE REVIEWED. MILITARY CONTACT LENS RESEARCH HAS A HISTORY OF ALMOST 50 YEARS. IN GENERAL, THE RESULTS FROM THESE INVESTIGATIONS HAVE SUPPORTED THE ADOPTION OF POSITIVE CONTACT LENS POLICIES AND SEVERAL MILITARY DEPARTMENTS HAVE RECENTLY MODIFIED THEIR POLICIES TO ALLOW USE OF CONTACT LENSES BY AVIATION PERSONNEL. DIFFERENT LENS MATERIALS AND WEARING REGIMENS HAVE BEEN RECOMMENDED, AND THE DATA FAIL TO STRONGLY SUPPORT A PARTICULAR TYPE OVER ALL OTHERS. CLEARLY, SOME LENS TYPES ARE MORE APPROPRIATE FOR DIFFERENT MILITARY REQUIREMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REDUCED FIELD-OF-VIEW, LENS REFLECTIONS
93-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 417 DTIC #: ADA267084
TITLE: RATING OF HEARING PROTECTOR PERFORMANCE FOR IMPULSE NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL L. JOHNSON, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONCERN HAS OFTEN BEEN EXPRESSED THAT THE PERFORMANCE OF HEARING PROTECTORS IN STEADY NOISE MAY NOT APPLY TO THEIR PERFORMANCE IN IMPULSE NOISE. OUR CURRENT STUDIES, AS WELL AS OTHER STUDIES, SUPPORT THE FACT THAT THERE IS A LARGE DIFFERENCE IN PERFORMANCE. IN ALL CASES, THE PERFORMANCE OF A PROTECTOR IS MUCH BETTER FOR IMPULSE NOISE THAN FOR CONTINUOUS NOISE. FOR EXAMPLE, WE ARE OBTAINING AT LEAST 20 DB OF PROTECTION (NRR) OF ESSENTIALLY ZERO. WE BELIEVE THAT IS NOT THE NRR PROCEDURE AT FAULT; BUT THE FACT THAT, FOR IMPULSE NOISE, A-WEIGHING DOES NOT DISCRIMINATE ENOUGH AGAINST LOW-FREQUENCY ENERGY.
KEYWORDS: BLAST OVERPRESSURE, IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING PROTECTORS
93-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 681 DTIC #: ADA267378
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY, JOHN C. KOTULAK, ISAAC BEHAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE (PB) ON SELECTED VISUAL FUNCTION WERE MEASURED ON FOUR HEALTHY AVIATOR CANDIDATES. FOLLOWING A PRETREATMENT DAY DURING WHICH BASELINE MEASUREMENTS WERE COMPLETED, SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED CURRENTLY RECOMMENDED DOSES (30 MG, T.I.D.) OF PB FOR 3 DAYS DURING WHICH THEIR VISUAL FUNCTIONS WERE ASSESSED USING A REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN. SPATIAL RESOLUTION ABILITY WAS EVALUATED WITH HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY CHARTS AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY CHARTS AT THREE LUMINANCE LEVELS. DARK ADAPTION WAS EVALUATED BY MEASURING VISUAL THRESHOLDS FOR 40 MINUTES AFTER A STANDARDIZED RETINAL PHOTOPIGMENT BLEACH. ALSO, REFRACTIVE ERROR AND SEVERAL OCULOMOTOR FUNCTIONS (LATERAL PHORIA, FUSIONAL VERGENCE, ACCOMMODATIVE AMPLITUDE, AND PUPIL SIZE) WERE MEASURED. ON DAYS THAT THE SUBJECTS INGESTED PB, ONLY REFRACTIVE ERROR AND PUPIL DIAMETER WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT, AND THESE ONLY MINIMALLY. WE CONCLUDE THAT THE USE OF PB AT DOCTRINAL DOSES WILL NOT SIGNIFICANTLY COMPROMISE AN AVIATOR'S VISUAL ABILITY.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL RESOLUTION, OCULOMETER FUNCTION, VISUAL SENSITIVITY
93-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1653 DTIC #: ADA269121
TITLE: LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE LITTON MODEL F15E MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): BRANDAN E. SQUIRE, JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, LESLIE W. JOHNSTON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LITTON MODEL F15E MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LITTON MODEL F15E PERFORMED PROPERLY IN THE TEST ENVIRONMENTS. IT CONSISTENTLY PRODUCED HIGH CONCENTRATION (GREATER THAN 90 PERCENT) OXYGEN AT AN OUTPUT FLOW OF 27 LPM. THE UNIT PRODUCES A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF NOISE WHILE OPERATING. THE UNIT IS SUSCEPTIBLE TO RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE FROM 40-41 MHZ AND SOME BROADBAND EMISSIONS EXCEEDED THE TEST CRITERIA.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1546 DTIC #: ADA269967
TITLE: LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE ESSEX MODEL 60C-0037-2 MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): BRENDAN E. SQUIRE, JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN E. QUATTLEBAUM, LESLIE W. JOHNSTON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ESSEX MODEL 60C-0037-2 MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE ESSEX MODEL 60C-0037-2 PERFORMED PROPERLY IN THE TEST ENVIRONMENTS. THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION PRODUCED BY THE UNIT DEPENDS ON THE COMPRESSED AIR PRESSURE, OXYGEN FLOW, AND VENT PRESSURE. A SEPARATE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ANALYZER WOULD BE REQUIRED TO DETERMINE THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION FOR PATIENT USE. THE UNIT PRODUCES A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF NOISE WHILE OPERATING.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 666 DTIC #: ADA269550
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR AMONG U.S. AIRCREW MEMBERS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION BRANCH IS MAKING FINAL FUNDING AND PLANNING DECISIONS ON THE FIELDING OF CONTACT LENS PROGRAM FOR ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS. THIS REPORT STRATIFIES THE PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR BY AVIATION DUTY POSITION, SERVICE COMPONENT, AND RANK. THERE IS AN INCREASING PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR IN THE HIGHER RANKING AIRCREW MEMBERS, PARALLELING INCREASING AGE WITH RANK PROMOTION. COMPARING SERVICE COMPONENTS, THE PREVALENCE IS HIGHER IN THE RESERVE COMPONENT AND CIVILIAN FORCES THAN ACTIVE DUTY FORCES. WITHIN THE AVIATOR SERVICE COMPONENT COHORTS, THERE HAS BEEN A SIGNIFICANT UPWARD TREND IN THE ANNUAL PERIOD PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR FROM 1986 THROUGH 1992, ESPECIALLY IN THE ARMY RESERVE AND NATIONAL GUARD COHORTS. THIS UPWARD TREND MAY BE RELATED TO THE OBSERVED UPWARD TREND IN THE AVERAGE AGE OF ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS AS A GROUP FROM 1986 THROUGH 1992.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, AVIATION PERSONNEL, AVIATION MEDICINE, DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, AEDR
93-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1369 DTIC #: ADA269304
TITLE: USING CONTROLLED DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE AND SLEEP TIMING IN THE PREVENTION OF SHIFT LAG DURING NIGHT OPERATIONS
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN THE ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY, NIGHT OPERATIONS ARE A SIGNIFICANT COMPONENT OF COMBAT AND TRAINING MISSIONS. MISSION REQUIREMENTS OFTEN NECESSITATE AN INITIAL SHIFT FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS WITH 24 TO 48 HOURS. RAPID SHIFTS FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME WORK, AND NIGHTTIME TO DAYTIME SLEEP USUALLY RESULT IN LOSS OF SLEEP, DEGRADATION OF ALERTNESS, INCREASED FATIGUE, AND REDUCED WORK EFFECTIVENESS. THESE SYMPTOMS ARE REFERRED TO AS "SHIFT LAG" BECAUSE THE BODY'S PHYSIOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT LAGS BEHIND THE RAPID SHIFT TO THE NEW WORK SCHEDULE. RESEARCH ON SHIFTWORK PROVIDE A VARIETY OF APPROACHES TO AVOID THE DETERIORATION OF PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF SHIFTWORKERS. SHIFT LAG PREVENTION PLANS MAY CONSIDER THE SPEED OF SHIFTWORK ROTATION, THE DURATION OF EACH SHIFT, AGE OF WORKERS, PHYSICAL STRENGTH ASSOCIATED WITH WORK DEMANDS, DIET, TIMING OF SLEEP, AND IN SOME CASES, THE USE OF DRUGS TO INDUCE SLEEP AND ATTEMPT TO RESYNCHRONIZE THE BODY'S INTERNAL BIOLOGICAL CLOCK. HOWEVER, THE USE OF CONTROLLED TIMING OF DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE AND SLEEP SCHEDULES ARE OF OVERRIDING IMPORTANCE. IN THE ARMY AVIATION CONTEXT, CONSEQUENCES OF SHIFTS TO NOCTURNAL WORK SCHEDULES WITHOUT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A SHIFT-LAG PREVENTION PLAN RECENTLY HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED. THIS WORK REVIEWS THE MECHANISM OF BIOLOGICAL TIMING IN HUMANS, THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL LIGHTING, AND SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIES METHODS OF PREVENTING SLEEP LOSS AND FATIGUE DURING THE TRANSITION FROM DAYLIGHT TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS. THIS DETAILED TREATMENT OF SHIFT LAG COUNTERMEASURES IS PRESENTED WITH THE PURPOSE OF PROVIDING UNIT COMMANDERS, FLIGHT SURGEONS, SAFETY OFFICERS, PILOTS, AIR CREW, AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL WITH ENOUGH INFORMATION TO DESIGN GENERAL OR INDIVIDUAL STRATEGIES RELEVANT TO SPECIFIC DEMANDS IMPOSED BY MISSION OBJECTIVES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: SHIFT-LAG COUNTERMEASURES, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, COPING STRATEGIES, SHIFTWORK, NIGHT OPERATIONS
93-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 587 DTIC #: ADA269117
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF SEATING AND RESTRAINT LIMITATIONS RESTRICTING TOTAL BODY WEIGHT FOR AIRCREW AND PASSENGERS ON U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (ALSE) AND CRASHWORTHY SEATING PROTECT THE CREW AND PASSENGERS IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT. IF THE USER EXCEEDS THE DESIGN WEIGHT OR SIZE RANGE FOR PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, IT MAY NOT FUNCTION PROPERLY. THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHANGES IN BODY WEIGHT AND RELEVANT ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES WERE EVALUATED FOR SOLDIER AND AVIATOR GROUPS. CURRENT ALSE AND AIRCRAFT RESTRAINTS WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE LARGEST AVAILABLE SIZES. EACH AIRCRAFT SEAT WAS EVALUATED TO DETERMINE THE CRASH STRENGTH AND MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WEIGHT FOR A GIVEN CRASH PULSE.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, RESTRAINT, AIRCREW, HELICOPTERS, AIRCRAFT SEATS, SURVIVAL VEST
93-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 739 DTIC #: ADA270946
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF INJURY SEVERITY CAUSED BY FLIGHT MOTOR OVERPRESSURE OF THE JAVELIN ANTIARMOR MISSILE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE JAVELIN IS AN ANTIARMOR MISSILE SYSTEM DESIGNED TO REPLACE THE DRAGON. A RARE MALFUNCTION OF THE MISSILE INVOLVES OVERPRESSURE OF THE FLIGHT MOTOR. DATA ON THE NUMBER, MASS, AND VELOCITY OF LARGE DEBRIS ITEM WAS DETERMINED BY SIMULATION OF THE MALFUNCTION. THIS REPORT REVIEWS THE SEVERITY OF INJURIES TO THE GUNNER OR ASSISTANT GUNNER EXPECTED FROM A MALFUNCTION.
KEYWORDS: JAVELIN, MISSILE, OVERPRESSURE, INJURY, BLAST
93-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1060 DTIC #: ADA271968
TITLE: CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF U.S. ARMY AIRCREW WITH THE FINDING OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, PAUL V. CELIO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U.S. ARMY AIRCREW WITH A HISTORY OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION WERE IDENTIFIED BY CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY, FOLLOWED BY CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY, IN THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR THE PERIOD 1 JANUARY 1988 TO 1 AUGUST 1992. EIGHTY-TWO AIRCREW MET THESE CRITERIA. THEIR ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES WERE SUMMARIZED. THE POSITIVE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF CARDIAC CALCIFICATIONS FOR PREDICTING ANY DEGREE OF CORONARY ARTERY OCCLUSION WAS 82.9 PERCENT. THE FRAMINGHAM RISK INDEX, TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL, CHOLESTEROL/HDL-CHOLESTEROL RATION, AND RESULTS OF THE GRADED EXERCISE TREADMILL TEST AND THALLIUM SCAN WERE NOT SIGNIFICANT FACTORS IN PREDICTING THE ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOME WHEN CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS WERE PRESENT. AIRCREW IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM SHOULD BE EXAMINED FOR CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION BY CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY AND REFERRED FOR CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY IF CALCIFICATIONS ARE SEEN.
KEYWORDS: FLUOROSCOPY, CORONARY DISEASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASES, AEDR
93-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1522 DTIC #: ADA271690
TITLE: REVIEW OF USING CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY IN SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HISTORY OF METHODS TO FIND CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION IS REVIEWED. IMAGE-INTENSIFIED CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY IS THE CURRENT METHOD IN GENERAL USE FOR FINDING CORONARY ARTERY CALIFICATIONS. THE TECHNIQUE OF CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY IS REVIEW IN DETAIL. THE FINDINGS OF CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES FOR SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC POPULATIONS WITH CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS ARE ANALYZED. THERE IS A STRONG ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE FINDING OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION AND THE FINDING OF ANATOMIC CORONARY ARTERY OCCLUSIONS REGARDLESS OF THE PATIENT'S AGE OR OUTCOME OF OTHER CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE TESTS. PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS ARE AT A THREE-FOLD INCREASED RISK FOR PREMATURE MORTALITY WHEN FOLLOWED OVER A 5-YEAR PERIOD. CLINICIANS SHOULD EXAMINE PATIENTS FOR CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION IN STRATIFIED CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM.
KEYWORDS: CORONARY, FLUOROSCOPY, CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY, ANGIOGRAPHY, SYMPTOMATIC, ASYMPTOMATIC, CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS
93-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 575 DTIC #: ADA273107
TITLE: EFFECT OF PHOTOPERIOD ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY AND MELATONIN CONCENTRATIONS IN ADULT CATS
AUTHOR(s): AL T. TOWNSEND, ALBERT W. KIRBY, CAROLYN D. POPE, GEORGE EVANS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WE STUDIED THE EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON PLASMA MELATONIN (MEL) CONCENTRATIONS, BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE (BUCHE), AND BLOOD ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE) ACTIVITY IN SEVEN ADULT CATS. CATS WERE EXPOSED TO A 14:10 DARK-LIGHT (LD) CYCLE WITH LIGHTS ON FROM 0630 TO 2030 FOR 3 MONTHS BEFORE BLOOD SAMPLING. BLOOD SAMPLES WERE OBTAINED EVERY 4 HOURS FOR UP TO 52 HOURS BY REPEATED VENIPUNCTURE OF THE JUGULAR VEIN IN THREE ANIMALS, WHILE 4 ANIMALS HAD INDWELLING CATHETERS IMPLANTED PRIOR TO SAMPLING. ALL ANIMALS WERE HANDLED REPEATEDLY FOR SEVERAL WEEKS PRIOR TO THE STUDY TO MINIMIZE STRESS. MEL CONCENTRATIONS WERE MEASURED IN PLASMA BY RADIO-IMMUNOASSAY. PLASMA BUCHE ACTIVITY AND WHOLE BLOOD ACHE ACTIVITY WERE DETERMINED FROM THE SAME BLOOD SAMPLES. IN ALL OF THE ANIMALS, MEAN MEL CONCENTRATIONS WERE HIGHER DURING THE DARK PERIOD OF THE LD CYCLE, WHILE PLASMA BUCHE AND BLOOD ACHE ACTIVITY HAD NO OBSERVABLE CHANGE IN RESPONSE TO THE LD CYCLE. THESE FINDINGS INDICATE THAT MEL SECRETION, BUT NOT BUCHE AND ACHE ACTIVITY IN CATS, IS RESPONSIVE TO CHANGES IN PHOTOPERIOD. UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, SECRETION OF MEL MAY BE USED AS A CONTROL MARKER FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL RHYTHMICITY IN CATS WHEN STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON OTHER COMPOUNDS.
KEYWORDS: CHOLINESTERASES, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, MELATONIN, PHOTOPERIOD
93-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1099 DTIC #: ADA273250
TITLE: PROJECTED EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRBAG SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESPITE SIGNIFICANT ADVANCES IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION, CRASHWORTHINESS, AND INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, HEAD AND TORSO INJURIES CONTINUE TO CAUSE DEATH AND DISABLING INJURIES IN SURVIVABLE ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS. MOST OF THESE INJURIES ARE CAUSED BY THE OCCUPANT STRIKING INTERNAL STRUCTURES. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO REVIEW ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENT RECORDS TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF FATAL AND DISABLING INJURIES IN PILOTS AND COPILOTS THAT COULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF AN AIRBAG SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAIN SYSTEM INTO U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER COCKPITS.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAG, RESTRAINT SYSTEM, HELICOPTER, COCKPITS, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, AIRFRAMES
93-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1228 DTIC #: ADA273739
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF SLEEP SCORED FROM ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH TO SLEEP SCORED BY WRIST ACTIGRAPHY
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DURING MILITARY OPERATIONS, IT HAS BEEN FOUND THAT SOLDIERS OFTEN ARE REQUIRED TO WORK FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME WITHOUT REST. IN ORDER TO ASSIST COMMANDERS IN DETERMINING HOW MUCH REST SOLDIERS RECEIVE, VARIOUS METHODS OF MONITORING ACTIVITY HAVE BEEN USED. ONE UNOBTRUSIVE METHOD IS TO USE WRIST ACTIVITY MONITORS (WAMS) TO DETERMINE HOW LONG SOLDIERS ARE REQUIRED TO WORK WITH LITTLE OR NO SLEEP. THIS STUDY COMPARED DATA FROM TRADITIONALLY SCORED SLEEP USING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHS (EEGS) TO DATA FROM WAMS TO DETERMINE THE ABILITY OF WAMS TO DETERMINE THE ABILITY OF WAMS TO MEASURE SLEEP. BASED ON THIS LIMITED COMPARISON STUDY, IT APPEARS THAT THE WAM IS A GOOD INSTRUMENT TO USE TO ESTIMATE SLEEP TIME WHEN AN EEG IS NOT POSSIBLE. THE PERCENT AGREEMENT BETWEEN WAM SLEEP TIME AND EEG SLEEP TIME IS VERY HIGH,WITH AN AVERAGE OF ALMOST 89 PERCENT. THE ERROR TENDED TO BE IN THE DIRECTION OF OVERESTIMATION OF SLEEP BY THE WAM. ALSO, THE CURRENT METHOD OF SCORING (USING A SET CUTOFF OF COUNTS) IS A SUITABLE METHOD, HOWEVER, AN OVERESTIMATION OF SLEEP WILL MOST LIKELY OCCUR WHEN THIS METHOD IS USED. THEREFORE, WHENEVER ACTIGRAPHS ARE USED, A CONSERVATIVE INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA IS TO DISCUSS "REST TIME" INSTEAD IF "SLEEP TIME." IN ADDITION, THE QUALITY OF SLEEP AS DETERMINED BY NORMAL EEG SLEEP STAGING CANNOT BE ASSESSED BY WAM.
KEYWORDS: SLEEP, WAM, WRIST MONITOR, ACTIVITY
93-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1794 DTIC #: ADA274589
TITLE: MONOGRAPH OF THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR CY 1988
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS MONOGRAPH IS TO PROVIDE THE READER WITH DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FROM THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR). DATA ARE PRESENTED FOR CLASS 2/2A FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS (FDMES) BASED ON INFORMATION RECEIVED BY THE AEDR DURING CALENDAR YEAR 1988. IT IS OUR PURPOSE TO PROVIDE THESE DATA WITH LITTLE DISCUSSION AS TO ENCOURAGE COMPARISON WITH OTHER MONOGRAPHS.
KEYWORDS: MONOGRAPH, DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS, HYPERTENSION, HYPERCHOLESTEROL, AVIATOR
93-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 8053 DTIC #: ADA274351
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M916A1 TRUCK TRACTOR
AUTHOR(s): AL W. MORAN, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT ARE REQUIRED TO BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HEALTH HAZARDS TO THEIR CREWMEMBERS. A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED ON THE M916A1 TRUCK TRAILER BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY. TESTS WERE CONDUCTED AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND, OVER PAVED SURFACE, CROSS-COUNTRY, AND BELGIAN BLOCK TERRAIN TYPES. THE M916A1 WAS TESTED BOBTAIL (NO TRAILER), UNLOADED, AND LOADED CONFIGURATIONS FOR EACH OF THE TEST TERRAINS. THE RESULTS OF THESE TESTS SHOW THE LOWEST TOLERANCE LEVELS WERE EXPERIENCED ON THE BELGIAN BLOCK COURSE, WITH LESS SEVERE WBV OCCURRING ON THE CROSS-COUNTRY COURSE, FOLLOWED BY THE PRIMARY TERRAIN COURSE. THE RESULTS ALSO SHOW THE PASSENGER EXPOSURE LIMITS WERE CONSISTENTLY LOWER THAN THE DRIVER'S. THEREFORE, THE HHA RECOMMENDATION FOR THE M916A1, OPERATING IN ITS INTENDED ENVIRONMENT, IS THAT WBV BE LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING PASSENGER EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR EACH TEST CONDITION: WBV IS NOT TO EXCEED 17.1 HOURS IN ANY 24-HOUR PERIOD ON THE PAVED SURFACES FOR ALL CONFIGURATIONS. EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR THE CROSS-COUNTRY TERRAIN ARE 5.5, 5.2, AND 6.1 HOURS IN ANY 24-HOUR PERIOD FOR THE BOBTAIL, UNLOADED, AND LOADED CONFIGURATIONS, RESPECTIVELY. FOR THE BELGIAN BLOCK TERRAIN, WBV IN ANY 24-HOUR PERIOD SHOULD NOT EXCEED 1 HOUR FOR BOTH BOBTAIL AND UNLOADED CONDITIONS AND 2 HOURS FOR THE LOADED CONFIGURATION.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
93-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1740 DTIC #: ADA274400
TITLE: MONOGRAPH OF THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR CY 1992
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS MONOGRAPH IS TO PROVIDE THE READER WITH DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FROM THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR). DATA ARE PRESENTED FOR CLASS 2/2A FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS (FDME) BASED ON INFORMATION RECEIVED BY THE AEDR DURING CALENDAR YEAR 1992. IT IS OUR PURPOSE TO PROVIDE THESE DATA WITH LITTLE DISCUSSION SO AS TO ENCOURAGE COMPARISONS WITH OTHER MONOGRAPHS.
KEYWORDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASES, LABORATORY FINDINGS, DEMOGRAPHICS, AEDR
93-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5756 DTIC #: ADA276459
TITLE: EVALUATION OF INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION PROFILES FOR U.S. ARMY ROTORCRAFT POSITION LIGHTING ADAPTED FOR IMAGE INTENSIFIER OPERATIONS
AUTHOR(s): ELLEN H. SNOOK, CLARENCE E. RASH, MALCOLM N. COLBERT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS WITH IMAGE INTENSIFIER (I )DEVICES AND COCKPIT/INTERIOR LIGHTING HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED AND WELL DOCUMENTED. HOWEVER, I COMPATIBILITY WITH POSITION/EXTERIOR LIGHTING IS ONLY IN THE EARLY STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. IN THE ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY, ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO REDUCE THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF POSITION LIGHT INTENSITY ON I DEVICES BY OPERATING LIGHTS IN DIM MODE OR BY MASKING LIGHTS. IN THESE MODIFIED LIGHTING CONFIGURATIONS, REQUIREMENTS IN FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) REGULATIONS ARE NOT ALWAYS SATISFIED. IN THIS INVESTIGATION, THE INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION PROFILES FOR CURRENTLY EMPLOYED LIGHTING STRATEGIES WERE EVALUATED. FURTHER SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE ENTIRE POSITION LIGHT SYSTEM, AS A WHOLE, IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED IN ORDER TO DETERMINE ALL FACTORS THAT MAY HAVE IMPACT ON THE MODIFICATION OF EXTERIOR LIGHTING AND/OR REQUIREMENTS. EXTERNAL LIGHTING MUST BE ACCEPTABLE IN BOTH THE CIVILIAN/MILITARY AVIATION ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE INTENSIFIER, ROTORCRAFT POSITION LIGHTING, FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS (FAR)
93-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2129 DTIC #: ADA277121
TITLE: ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF CRASHWORTHINESS STANDARDS ON MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY EVENTS IN THE U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING MISHAPS
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH TREMENDOUS STRIDES HAVE BEEN MADE IN AIRCRAFT RELIABILITY AND AVIATION SAFETY OVER THE PAST FEW DECADES, AIRCRAFT CONTINUE TO CRASH WITH ALARMING REGULARITY. INDEED, IT WOULD BE EXTREMELY NAIVE TO MAINTAIN THAT THE GOAL OF ZERO CRASH RATE IS REALISTICALLY ACHIEVABLE IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUE FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS WHERE NOT ONLY ARE THE FLIGHT REGIMES INHERENTLY MORE RISKY BUT, THERE ALSO IS THE ADDED RISK OF CRASHING DUE TO HOSTILE ACTION. IN CONSIDERATION OF THESE FACTORS, AIRCRAFT SHOULD BE DESIGNED TO AFFORD OCCUPANTS THE GREATEST LEVEL OF PROTECTION PRACTICAL IN THE EVENT OF A CRASH. ALTHOUGH SUCH DESIGN FEATURES HAVE BEEN PROVEN TO BE EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE IN REDUCING MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY, THE AIRCRAFT OPERATOR MAY PAY A PENALTY OF INCREASED WEIGHT AND ADDED COST. CONSEQUENTLY, THE DEGREE OF CRASHWORTHINESS DESIGNED INTO AN AIRCRAFT MUST BE A TRADEOFF BETWEEN ECONOMICS, AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE, AND THE PERCEIVED RISK.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTERS, CRASHWORTHINESS, MORBIDITY, MORTALITY, IMPACT
94-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 516 DTIC #: ADA274185
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INDEXING THE AEDR DOCUMENT LASER OPTIC ARCHIVE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, ROBERT E. POST
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) IS A FAMILY OF DATABASES STORING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ARMY AIRCREW. THE COMPONENTS ARE ADMINISTRATIVELY LINKED BY SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER (SSN). A NEW COMPONENT IS AN UPGRADE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT MICROFICHE ARCHIVE TO LASER OPTIC CD-ROM. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL ACTIVITY REQUESTED ASSISTANCE IN CREATING AN INDEXING SCHEME FOR THE NEW SYSTEM. THEY WANTED TO USE A SINGLE SSN DIGIT, THE DISKS TO FILL AT A UNIFORM RATE, AND TO KEEP THE SAME AIRCREW MEMBER ON THE SAME DISK EVEN IF MULTIPLE ENTRIES WERE MADE FOR THE SAME PATIENT. THE SSN OF EACH CASE IN THE MICROFICHE ARCHIVE WAS EXTRACTED AS A REFERENCE POPULATION. ANALYSIS OF THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF DECIMAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SSN DIGITS SHOWED THE LAST SSN DIGIT WOULD MEET THE STATE REQUIREMENTS. ANY OF THE FIRST FIVE SSN DIGITS SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR INDEXING.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATORS, AIRCREW, INCIDENCE, SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS, ARCHIVE, AEDR
94-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 593 DTIC #: ADA274711
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INCIDENCE AND OUTCOMES OF AVIATOR FLYING EVALUATION BOARDS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) IS A FAMILY OF DATABASES STORING HISTORY AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION ON ARMY AIR CREWMEMBERS. THE AEDR LACKS SOME AVIATION CAREER ENDPOINTS, ONE BEING THE OUTCOME OF FLYING EVALUATION BOARDS (FEBS) FOR NONMEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS. THE OUTCOMES OF 170 NEW FEB ACTIONS FROM 1985 THROUGH 1992 IN ACTIVE DUTY AND U.S. ARMY RESERVE AVIATORS WERE REVIEWED. THE OVERALL INCIDENCE WAS 1.13 PER 1,000 AVIATOR-YEARS. AVIATORS AGED 25 THROUGH 29 WERE TWICE AS LIKELY TO UNDERGO FEB ACTIONS. THE LIKELIHOOD OF RESTORATION TO FLYING DUTIES AFTER FEB WAS SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER IF THE FEB WAS FOR HABITS, CHARACTER, AND MOTIVATION, THAN IF THE FEB WAS FOR POOR FLYING PROFICIENCY OR FAILURE TO FOLLOW FLIGHT RULES. MANY NONMEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS LEADING TO FEB REQUIRE MEDICAL EVALUATION TO RULE OUT UNDERLYING MENTAL DISORDERS.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATORS, AIRCREW, INCIDENCE, FLYING EVALUATION BOARDS, AEDR
94-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1363 DTIC #: ADA276954
TITLE: UNIT SPECIFIC CREW REST STRATEGIES: PHASE I EVALUATION OF THE 1/212TH AVIATION BATTALION DURING SHIFTWORK TRANSITIONS
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JAMES A. CHIARAMONTE, KATHY L. LAWHORN, LAWRENCE W. ALLAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ARMY AVIATION COMMANDERS ARE DEEPLY CONCERNED WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CREW REST STRATEGIES WHICH ARE BOTH PRACTICAL AND EFFECTIVE. MAINTAINING PEAK PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS ROTATING FROM ONE WORK SHIFT TO ANOTHER IS OF PARAMOUNT CONCERN. GENERAL GUIDELINES OFTEN PROVIDE APPROPRIATE INFORMATION, BUT NOT PROVIDE STRATEGIES OR SPECIFIC SCHEDULES OF CREW REST TAILORED TO THE UNIT'S SPECIFIC MISSION DEMANDS, ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, AND STRENGTH. A COMPLEMENT TO GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS AND GUIDELINES IS THE USE OF UNIT-SPECIFIC CREW REST STRATEGIES. THIS CONCEPT INVOLVES A TWO-PHASE PROCESS. IN PHASE ONE, THE UNIT'S EXISTING RESPONSE TO A CHARACTERISTIC MISSION OR TRAINING EXERCISE IS EVALUATED BY DETERMINING THE AMOUNT OF REST OBTAINED BY A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF CREW MEMBERS. THE RESULTS OF PHASE I EVALUATIONS PROVIDE DESCRIPTIVE QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION OF DAILY REST PERIODS, AND THE IMPACT OF MISSION DRIVEN WORK SCHEDULES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON CREW REST QUALITY. PHASE II PROVIDES RHYTHMS, SLEEP/WAKE CYCLES, SHIFTWORK SCHEDULES, AND METHODS FOR REGULATING THE BODY'S BIOLOGICAL CLOCK TO PREVENT SLEEP LOSS DURING A CHARACTERISTIC MISSION. THIS REPORT CONTAINS A SUMMATION OF THE RESULTS OF A PHASE I EVALUATION OF SHIFTWORK SCHEDULES USED BY THE 1/212 ARMY AVIATION TRAINING BATTALION AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA. SHIFTWORK SCHEDULES USED BY THE 1/212TH AVIATORS AND AIRCREW INCLUDED SHIFTS FROM DAYLIGHT TO EARLY MORNING, TO NIGHTTIME AND TO AFTERNOON DUTY HOURS. THE OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF THE CREW REST EVALUATION STUDY WAS TWOFOLD: 1) TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF CREW REST OF RAPID TRANSITIONS FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME AND EARLY MORNING DUTY HOURS; AND 2) TO PROVIDE THE COMMANDER OF THE 1/212TH WITH RECOMMENDATIONS THAT WOULD UPDATE THE UNIT'S PRESENTLY USED CREW REST STRATEGY.
KEYWORDS: PSYCHOLOGY, MILITARY AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS
94-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 797 DTIC #: ADA275901
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF U.S. ARMY AVIATORS STRATIFIED BY GENDER AND COMPONENT OF SERVICE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) CONTAINS INFORMATION ON THE HISTORY AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS. AS A REFERENCE FOR AEDR USERS AND CUSTOMERS, THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS WAS EXTRACTED. THE DATA WERE TABULATED BY AGE, GENDER, AND COMPONENT OF SERVICE FOR CALENDAR YEARS 1986 THROUGH 1992. AEDR RESEARCHERS CAN USE THE TABLES TO CALCULATE ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATES, ANNUAL PERIOD PREVALENCE RATES, AND OTHER RATES BASED ON AVIATOR-YEARS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE STRATIFIED BY AGE, GENDER, AND/OR COMPONENT. AEROMEDICAL RESOURCE, POLICY AND STANDARDS MANAGERS CAN USE THE TABLES FOR PLANNING AND FUNDING AVIATOR HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATORS, AIRCREW, AGE DISTRIBUTION, AEDR
94-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 6762 DTIC #: ADA277457
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M915A2 TRUCK TRAILER
AUTHOR(s): AL W. MORAN, TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT ARE REQUIRED TO BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HEALTH HAZARDS TO THEIR CREWMEMBERS. A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED ON THE M915A2 TRUCK TRAILER BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY. TESTS WERE CONDUCTED AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND, OVER PAVED SURFACE, CROSS-COUNTY, AND BELGIAN BLOCK TERRAIN TYPES. THE M915A2 WAS TESTED IN BOBTAIL (NO TRAILER), UNLOADED, AND LOADED CONFIGURATIONS FOR EACH OF THE TEST TERRAINS. THE RESULTS OF THESE TESTS SHOW THE LOWEST TOLERANCE LEVELS, IN GENERAL, WERE EXPERIENCED ON THE CROSS-COUNTY COURSE WITH LESS SEVER WBV OCCURRING ON THE BELGIAN BLOCK COURSE, FOLLOWED BY THE PRIMARY TERRAIN COURSE.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, TOLERANCE, EXPOSURE LIMITS
94-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 544 DTIC #: ADA277533
TITLE: PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION: UH-60Q EXTERNAL RESCUE HOIST AND CARGO LOAD-METER
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF CAPABILITY DEMONSTRATIONS FOR OPERATING THE EXTERNAL HOIST AND CARGO. THE EXTERNAL RESCUE HOIST IS ELECTRICALLY OPERATED AND INCLUDES A DIGITAL INDICATION OF THE CABLE PAYOUT. HOIST OPERATIONS WERE ACCOMPLISHED WITH MANIKINS IN STOKES AND SKEDO LITTERS. EXTERNAL CARGO LOADING OPERATIONS WERE COMPLETED LIFTING A 1,200-LB. EXTERNAL LOAD. EXTERNAL HOIST AND CARGO OPERATIONS CAN BE COMPLETED IN THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT WITH A TYPICAL MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK CREW. THE HOIST OPERATOR IS NOT ABLE TO OPERATE THE HOIST FROM THE CREW SEAT. HE HAS TO PUSH THE LITTER CLEAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TIRE AND PULL THE WEIGHT OF THE LITTER AFT TO LOAD IT INTO THE AIRCRAFT. THE EXTERNAL CARGO LOADING PROCEDURES ESSENTIALLY ARE UNCHANGED WITH THE ADDITION OF THE CARGO LOADMETER. THE AIRCRAFT CREW STATED THAT THE LOADMETER PROVIDED VALUABLE INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF THE EXTERNAL LOAD.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, CARGO HOOK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, TESTING, EXTERNAL RESCUE HOIST
94-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1001 DTIC #: ADA276634
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE UH-60Q: LITTER LIFT AND SEATING PLAN
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED FOR DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE LOADING THE LITTER LIFT SYSTEM AND DISCUSS CONCEPTS FOR CREW AND PASSENGER SEATING. THE LITTER SYSTEM IN THE AIRCRAFT CONSISTS OF TWO MECHANICAL LIFTS CAPABLE OF ACCOMMODATING A TOTAL OF SIX LITTER OR SIX AMBULATORY PATIENTS. THE PREFERRED LOADING ORDER FOR THE LIFTS IS UPPER, MIDDLE, LOWER. THE MOST SERIOUSLY INJURED PATIENT SHOULD BE PLACED IN THE MIDDLE POSITION AND LEAST SERIOUS IN THE UPPER POSITION. THE TIME REQUIRED TO LOAD SIX LITTER PATIENTS VARIED FROM 230 TO 268 SECONDS. THE MIDDLE CREW SEAT PROVED A SIGNIFICANT ENCUMBRANCE IN LOADING LITTERS. INADEQUATE VERTICAL CLEARANCE IS PROVIDED WITH THE CURRENT LIFT MECHANISM. REDESIGN OF THE LIFT PANS AND ELIMINATION OF THE AMBULATORY SEAT BACKRESTS WILL IMPROVE VERTICAL CLEARANCE. THERE SHOULD BE A PROCEDURE TO USE THE LITTER RACKS IF THE LIFT MECHANISM FAILS. THE CURRENT RESTRAINT HARDWARE IS NOT DURABLE AND SLOWED LOADING OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, TESTING, LITTER EVACUATION
94-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 653 DTIC #: ADA277002
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE UH-60Q: MEDICAL SUCTION SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF PERFORMANCE TEST ON THE MEDICAL SUCTION SYSTEM INSTALLED ON THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, TESTING
94-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 675 DTIC #: ADA276983
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF UH-60Q: MEDICAL OXYGEN SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF PERFORMANCE TESTS ON THE MEDICAL OXYGEN SYSTEM INSTALLED ON THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT. THE MEDICAL OXYGEN SYSTEM IN THE AIRCRAFT CONSISTS OF A MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM (MSOGS) AND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT. THE MSOGS USES BLEED AIR TO PRODUCE HIGH CONCENTRATION OXYGEN. THE MSOGS IN THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT IS CAPABLE OF PRODUCING 15 TO 20 LMP OF 94 PERCENT OXYGEN AND STORING 163 LITERS OF OXYGEN IN THE BACKUP OXYGEN SUPPLY (BOS). LOWER BLEED AIR PRESSURES IN GROUND TESTS MAY ACCOUNT FOR SOME DECREMENT IN PERFORMANCE OF THE MSOGS WHEN COMPARED TO LABORATORY TESTING. IN-FLIGHT TESTING IS REQUIRED. THE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, INCLUDING OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ANALYZER, BOS PRESSURE MONITOR, AND OXYGEN FLOWMETER DO NOT FUNCTION PROPERLY. THE REQUIRED OXYGEN PRESSURE IS TOO LOW TO ALLOW PROPER OPERATION OF THE OXYGEN FLOW SELECTORS.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, OXYGEN SYSTEM, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT TESTING
94-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1369 DTIC #: ADA276944
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF UH-60Q AIRCRAFT IN TYPICAL AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION MISSIONS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE ABILITY OF THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT TO PERFORM TYPICAL AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION MISSIONS. THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT WITH TYPICAL CREW PERFORMED FIVE SIMULATED DAY AND NIGHT MEDICAL EVACUATION MISSIONS AS DESCRIBED IN THE MATERIEL NEED STATEMENT FOR THE DUSTOFF UH-60Q. MEDICAL AIDMEN AND AVIATORS RATED THE MEDICAL INTERIOR AND AVIONICS SYSTEMS AND PROVIDED COMMENTS ON THEIR IN-FLIGHT EXPERIENCES. THE PROTOTYPE UH-60Q BLACK HAWK IS CAPABLE OF PERFORMING THE TYPICAL MEDEVAC MISSIONS. NONDEVELOPMENTAL COMPONENTS OF THE MEDICAL INTERIOR REQUIRE SOME REFINEMENTS INCLUDING IMPROVED VERTICAL CLEARANCE FOR LITTERS, IMPROVED DURABILITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOLERANCE. COMMUNICATIONS AND CABIN LIGHTING REQUIRE ADDITIONAL STUDY TO REFINE THESE REQUIREMENTS.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, EVACUATION, AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION MISSION
94-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 813 DTIC #: ADA277895
TITLE: FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED: CAPABILITIES FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: JOINT DOCTRINE FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE STRESS CAPABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY TO RESPOND TO VARIOUS MISSION SCENARIOS. EXPANDED MISSION REQUIREMENTS WILL NECESSITATE ENHANCED VISUAL CAPABILITIES FOR NAVIGATION AND RESCUE IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS. FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED (FLIR) IS TO BE USED FOR SEARCH, RESCUE, AND NAVIGATION ON THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC (UH-60Q) HELICOPTER NEEDED FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS WITH THE UH-60Q (CONCEPT) HELICOPTER. FIVE AVIATORS WERE ASSESSED IN FLIGHT WITH TWO FLIR SYSTEMS HAVING DIFFERENT MAGNIFICATION AND LOOK-DOWN CAPABILITIES. DETECTION AND RECOGNITION OF A HUMAN TARGET AND AIRCRAFT POSITIONING FOR RESCUE WERE EVALUATED USING FLIR. THERE WAS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FLIR SYSTEMS IN THE DISTANCE FOR DETECTION OF THE HUMAN TARGET (P>0.50), BUT RECOGNITION OCCURRED AT 4X GREATER RANGE WITH SENSOR MAGNIFICATION (P<0.01). IN ADDITION, THE ACCURACY OF AIRCRAFT POSITIONING FOR RESCUE WAS 2X GREATER WITH UNRESTRICTED LOOK-DOWN CAPABILITY IN FLIR SYSTEM (P<0.03). THESE RESULTS INDICATE THE VALUE OF MULTIPLE FLIR MAGNIFICATION AND COMPLETE LOOK-DOWN CAPABILITY FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, DETECTION, RECOGNITION
94-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1102 DTIC #: ADA278350
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: ARMY AVIATORS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) WAS QUERIED FOR ARMY AVIATORS WITH THE FINDING OF GLYCOSURIA, HYPERGLYCEMIA, IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE (IGT), DIABETES MELLITUS (DM), USE OF ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS, OR USE OF INSULIN FOR THE PERIOD 1988 TO 1992. THE PAPER REVIEWED THE LITERATURE PERTAINING TO AIRCREW WITH DIABETES, LISTED THE AEROMEDICAL CONCERNS RELATED TO FLYING DUTIES AND DIABETES, AND LISTED FACTORS AFFECTING THE INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN ARMY AVIATORS.
KEYWORDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, AIRCREW, INCIDENCE, DIABETES, MELLITUS, IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE, AEDR
94-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 328 DTIC #: ADA278987
TITLE: ACCOMMODATION DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING CAN BE INFLUENCED BY KNOWLEDGE OF OBJECT DISTANCE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LEVEL OF ACCOMMODATION DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING IS INFLUENCED BY THE PERCEIVED NEARNESS OF THE OBJECT IN SUBJECTS WITH PROXIMAL, BUT NOT DISTAL, DARK FOCUSES.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, ACCOMMODATION, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, KNOWN OBJECT DISTANCE
94-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 349 DTIC #: ADA278962
TITLE: IS INCREASED ACCOMMODATION A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR INSTRUMENT MYOPIA? (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EMMETROPIC SUBJECTS FOCUS OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS AS THROUGH THEY WERE MYOPIC WHEN THE LEVEL OF ACCOMMODATION WITH INSTRUMENT VIEWING IS NO GREATER THAN IT IS WITHOUT.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, ACCOMMODATION, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NO-INSTRUMENT CONTROL
94-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1022 DTIC #: ADA278889
TITLE: RELATIONSHIP AMONG ACCOMMODATION, FOCUS, AND RESOLUTION WITH OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WE STUDIED INSTRUMENT MYOPIA AS AN OVERALL EFFECT CONSISTING OF INTERACTIONS AMONG THE OBSERVER'S ACCOMMODATION AND RESOLUTION DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING AND THE MANNER IN WHICH THE INSTRUMENT WAS FOCUSED. PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS OF INSTRUMENT MYOPIA GENERALLY HAVE BEEN LIMITED TO ONE OF THESE VARIABLES. OUR RESULTS ARE CONSISTENT WITH THE DARK-FOCUS-BIAS THEORY OF ACCOMMODATION WHICH HOLDS THAT ACCOMMODATION TENDS TO SEEK ITS RESTING POINT, OR DARK FOCUS, WHETHER OR NOT THE OBSERVER IS VIEWING THROUGH AN OPTICAL INSTRUMENT. THE AMOUNT OF ACCOMMODATION MEASURING DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING WAS FOUND TO BE DEPENDENT ON INSTRUMENT DESIGN FEATURES THAT MODULATE THE BIAS OF ACCOMMODATION FOR THE DARK FOCUS.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, ACCOMMODATION, USER FOCUS ADJUSTMENT, RESOLUTION, DARK FOCUS, NO-INSTRUMENT CONTROL, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, CONTRAST, LUMINANCE
94-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 937 DTIC #: ADA279339
TITLE: FACTORS THAT DETERMINE VISUAL ACUITY THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES FOR EMMETROPES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE FACTORS WHICH COULD AFFECT THE VISUAL ACUITY OF EMMETROPES (INDIVIDUALS WITH CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT REFRACTIVE ERROR) WHILE VIEWING THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NAMELY UNAIDED VISUAL ACUITY, CLINICALLY INSIGNIFI-CANT REFRACTIVE ERROR, AND EXPERIENCE AS A VISUAL OBSERVER. WE FOUND THAT NIGHT VISION GOGGLE EYEPIECES ARE FOCUSED TO INFINITY, AND THAT THIS RELATIONSHIP IS ROBUST WITH RESPECT TO CHANGES IN TARGET CONTRAST. WE ALSO FOUND THAT BOTH THE UNAIDED AND NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (INFINITY FOCUS EYEPIECE) VISUAL ACUITY OF NOMINAL EMMETROPES IS RELATION TO UNCORRECTED REFRACTIVE ERROR, AND THAT EXPERIENCE AS A VISUAL OBSERVER IS SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED TO NIGHT VISION GOGGLE ACUITY. THE IMPLICATION OF THESE RESULTS IS THAT MANY AVIATORS WHO ARE MEDICALLY CLEARED TO FLY WITHOUT GLASSES WILL SUFFER FROM REDUCED VISION THROUGH ANY NIGHT VISION DEVICE WITH A FIXED INFINITY FOCUS EYEPIECE. SIMILARLY, GROUND VEHICLE OPERATORS WHO HAVE ASTIGMATISM AND WHO MUST USE SPECTACLE INCOMPATIBLE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES WILL ALSO SUFFER FROM REDUCED VISUAL ACUITY.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, VISUAL ACUITY, EMMETROPIA, REFRACTIVE ERROR
94-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 421 DTIC #: ADA279335
TITLE: VERNIER ACUITY THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) ARE BEING USED INCREASINGLY IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ENVIRONMENTS. DESPITE THE USE OF THESE DEVICES, RELATIVELY FEW TESTS EXIST TO ASSESS VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NVGS. HYPERACUITY TASKS MAY PROVIDE A SENSITIVE INDEX OF PERFORMANCE THROUGH NIGHT VISION DEVICES. IN THIS STUDY, GRATING VERNIER ACUITY WAS MEASURED THROUGH NVGS. AS REPORTED PREVIOUSLY, A POWER LAW RELATION WAS OBSERVED BETWEEN VERNIER ACUITY AND STIMULUS CONTRAST. COMPARISON OF VERNIER ACUITY WITH AND WITHOUT NVGS INDICATED THAT PERFORMANCE IS LIMITED BY THE CONTRAST TRANSFER OF THE DEVICE. VERNIER ACUITY MEASUREMENTS CAN BE USED TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF VISION AND QUANTITY OF CONTRAST TRANSFERRED THROUGH NIGHT VISION DEVICES.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, IMAGE INTENSIFIERS, VERNIER ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
94-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 457 DTIC #: ADA279334
TITLE: FLICKER DETECTION THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) IS COMMONLY ASSESSED WITH LETTER CHARTS OR OTHER STATIC DISPLAYS. FEW ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO EVALUATE DYNAMIC ASPECTS OF VISION THROUGH NVGS. SUCH INFORMATION MAY BE USED TO BETTER PREDICT HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND GUIDE THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED DEVICES. IN THIS STUDY, CONTRAST THRESHOLDS FOR DETECTION OF FLICKERING TARGETS WERE MEASURED THROUGH NVGS ACROSS A RANGE OF AMBIENT CONDITIONS. A COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS WITH AND WITHOUT NVGS INDICATED THAT FLICKER DETECTION IS LIMITED BY THE CONTRAST AND LUMINANCE OF THE NVG DISPLAY. THE CONTRAST LIMITATION IS LARGELY INDEPENDENT OF STIMULUS FLICKER FREQUENCY. INCREASING THE TRANSFER OF STATIC CONTRAST AND/OR LUMINANCE THROUGH NVGS WILL ALSO IMPROVE DYNAMIC VISUAL PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: TEMPORAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, FLICKER SENSITIVITY, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
94-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 608 DTIC #: ADA279338
TITLE: SPATIAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL ACUITY IS OFTEN USED TO ASSESS VISION THROUGH IMAGE INTENSIFYING DEVICES SUCH AS NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS). FEWER ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO MEASURE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH NVGS. SUCH INFORMATION WOULD BE USEFUL TO BETTER UNDERSTAND CONTRAST PROCESSING THROUGH NVGS UNDER VARIOUS STIMULUS CONDITIONS. IN THIS STUDY, COMPUTER-GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH THIRD GENERATION NVGS FOR A RANGE OF LETTER SIZES. THE RED PHOSPHOR OF A STANDARD COLOR MONITOR PROVED TO BE AN EFFECTIVE STIMULUS FOR THIRD GENERATION DEVICES. DIFFERENT NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS WERE SIMULATED OVER A 3-LOG UNIT RANGE. THE RESULTS ILLUSTRATE THE PROFILE OF CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH THIRD GENERATION NVGS OVER A RANGE OF NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS. COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS THROUGH NVGS TO MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED WITHOUT THE DEVICE, BUT AT THE SAME LUMINANCE AND COLOR DISTINGUISH BETWEEN EFFECTS OF LUMINANCE AND NOISE ON CONTRAST SENSITIVITY.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
94-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 359 DTIC #: ADA282355
TITLE: OPTICAL DEFOCUS: DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS ON SIZE AND CONTRAST LETTER RECOGNITION THRESHOLDS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO DETERMINE IF OPTICAL DEFOCUS PRODUCES A GREATER REDUCTION IN VISUAL ACUITY OR SMALL-LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY. LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VISUAL ACUITY AND SMALL-LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (20/25 SNELL EQUIVALENT) AS A FUNCTION OF OPTICAL DEFOCUS. LETTER SIZE (ACUITY) AND CONTRAST (CONTRAST SENSITIVITY) WERE VARIED IN EQUAL LOGARITHMIC STEPS TO MAKE THE TASK THE SAME FOR THE TWO TYPES OF REQUIREMENTS.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, DEFOCUS, BLUR, VISION TESTING
94-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1142 DTIC #: ADA282211
TITLE: BIOMEDICAL IMAGING
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR SUBMISSION TO THE ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (AGARD) WORKING GROUP 20 AS A CHAPTER ON THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGE COLLECTION FOR A REPORT ON 3D ANTHROPOMETRY. THE PRINCIPAL 3D ANTHROPOMETRY DATA ACQUISITION TASK, IMAGING THE HUMAN BODY, PRESENTS TECHNICAL BARRIERS. THE UTLIMATE CHOICE OF IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEPENDS ON THE SPECIFIC DETAILS OF AN OBJECT THAT REQUIRE REPRODUCTION AND THE PRECISION REQUIRED FROM THE TASK. THIS REPORT DETAILS THE TECHNOLOGIES IN SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE IMAGING SYSTEMS FOR RESEARCH AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: BIOMEDICAL IMAGING, ANTHROPOMETRY, COMPUTER IMAGING
94-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 699 DTIC #: ADA282222
TITLE: DYNAMIC SINE WAVE RESPONSE MEASUREMENTS OF CRT DISPLAYS USING SINUSOIDAL COUNTERPHASE MODULATION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, VICTOR KLYMENKO, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CURRENT PRACTICE OF BASING THE PERFORMANCE OF CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) DISPLAYS ON STATIC IMAGE QUALITY FIGURES-OF-MERIT FAILS TO PROVIDE A VALID ASSESSMENT OF A DISPLAY'S ABILITY TO REPRODUCE REAL-WORLD SCENES WHERE THERE IS RELATIVE MOTION WITHIN THE SCENE OR BETWEEN THE SENSOR AND THE SCENE. TECHNIQUES WHICH PROVIDE ASSESSMENT OF A DISPLAY'S CAPABILITY TO REPRODUCE SPATIAL INFORMATION IN A DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT ARE NEEDED. ONE TECHNIQUE BASED ON RESPONSE TO SINUSOIDAL COUNTERPHASE IS PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: VISION, IMAGE QUALITY, CRT, MEASUREMENT, MTF, TV
94-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 565 DTIC #: ADA282356
TITLE: FOCUS ADJUSTMENT EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AND OCULOMOTOR BALANCE WITH AVIATOR NIGHT VISION DISPLAYS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIXTEEN U.S. ARMY AVIATORS, WHO WERE GIVEN TRAINING ON FOCUS ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE WITH AVIATOR NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), SHOWED AN IMPROVEMENT IN VISUAL ACUITY WITH FOCUS ADJUSTMENT COMPARED TO A FIXED INFINITY FOCUS CONTROL. THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF FOCUS ADJUSTMENT ON VISION WAS NOT MEASURED; HOWEVER, ADJUSTMENT ACCURACY WAS FOUND TO BE GENERALLY WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITED BASED ON COMPUTER MODELING AND AVAILABLE PHYSIOLOGIC DATA. FIXED FOCUS EYEPIECES THAT ARE SET TO A LOW MINUS POWER MAY PARTIALLY COMPENSATE FOR INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, BUT THEY MAY NOT OPTIMIZE VISUAL ACUITY TO THE EXTENT THAT ADJUSTABLE FOCUS EYEPIECES DO. EYEPIECE ADJUSTMENT PROFICIENCY WITH PRESENT NIGHT VISION DEVICES CAN BE IMPROVED THROUGH TRAINING THAT EMPHASIZES FOCUSING TO THE LEAST POSSIBLE MINUS DIOPTRIC POWER. FUTURE NIGHT VISION DISPLAYS CAN MINIMIZE FOCUS MISADJUSTMENT BY PROVIDING A TACTILE ZERO SETTING, A LIMITED DIOPTRIC ADJUSTMENT RANGE, AND A FOCUSING KNOB CAPABLE OF FINER ADJUSTMENT THAN IS AVAILABLE WITH CURRENT NVGS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION DISPLAYS, FOCUS ADJUSTMENT, VISUAL ACUITY, OCULOMOTOR BALANCE
94-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1309 DTIC #: ADA282114
TITLE: LABORATORY TEST REPORT OF THE BIRD CORPORATION AVIAN PORTABLE VENTILATOR, MODEL 15300, T&E IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 42
AUTHOR(s): MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE BIRD AVIAN PORTABLE VENTILATOR, MODEL 15300, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES. THE BIRD AVIAN VENTILATOR WAS FOUND COMPATIBLE WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AFTER CONFIGURATION CHANGES. THE UNIT MAY PRODUCE SOME ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS IN EXCESS OF THE MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
94-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2470 DTIC #: ADA282210
TITLE: SEMIAUTOMATED METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF FIELD-OF-VIEW, MAGNIFICATION, AND DISTORTION OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES AS DEFINED BY MIL-A-49425 (CR)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AS NEW AND IMPROVED DESIGNS FOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEMS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF IMAGE INTENSIFICATION ARE PRODUCED, IT IS ADVANTAGEOUS TO HAVE A SYSTEM WHICH CAN ACCURATELY AND QUICKLY ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS CONFIGURATIONS OF INTENSIFIERS AND ASSOCIATED OPTICS. PARAMETERS WHICH DEFINE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE INCLUDE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV), MAGNIFICATION, AND DISTORTION. THE AVAILABILITY OF PRECISION POSITIONERS AND PERSONAL COMPUTERS ENABLE THE MEASUREMENT OF PERFORMANCE AS SPEC-IFIED IN MILITARY SPECIFICATION MIL-A-49425 (CR) AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM AN/AVS6(V)1, AN/AVS-6(V)2, WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY. A MEASUREMENT SYSTEM WHICH PROVIDES A HIGH FLEXIBILITY IN THE EVALUATION OF IMAGE INTENSIFICATION DEVICES IS DESCRIBED.
KEYWORDS: TESTING, IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, NVG, ANVIS
94-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3406 DTIC #: ADA285050
TITLE: COLLECTION OF REAL-TIME, MULTICHANNEL EEG DATA FROM HELICOPTER PILOTS IN FLIGHT: A FEASIBILITY STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JAMES A. LEWIS, STEPHEN R. DARLING, ROBERT M. DILLARD, PARLEY P. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF WHETHER VALID ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) DATA COULD BE COLLECTED ON HELICOPTER PILOTS IN FLIGHT WAS CONDUCTED USING 20 VOLUNTEERS. EACH SUBJECT PROVIDED A BRIEF EYES-OPEN AND EYES-CLOSED EEG IN THE LABORATORY AND THEN IN THE HELICOPTER. DURING HELICOPTER FLIGHTS, DATA WERE MONITORED AND RECORDED ON THE GROUND IN REAL-TIME VIA A RADIO TELEMETRY SYSTEM. INITIAL HARDWARE PROBLEMS RESULTED IN THE EXCLUSION OF SEVERAL RECORDS, BUT THESE PROBLEMS WERE RESOLVED TOWARD THE END OF THE STUDY. ANALYSIS OF THE REMAINING ACCEPTABLE EEG RECORDS INDICATED THAT THE TYPICAL INCREASE IN ALPHA ACTIVITY (7.5-13.0 HZ) DUE TO EYE CLOSURE WAS CLEARLY OBSERVABLE AT EVERY ANALYZED ELECTRODE SITE REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE TESTING OCCURRED IN THE LABORATORY OR IN THE HELICOPTER. FURTHER EXAMINATIONS OF DELTA, THETA, AND BEAT BANDS SHOWED THAT THE EEG DATA WERE NOT OVERLY CONTAMINATED BY ARTIFACTS, ALTHOUGH IT WAS MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO FIND "CLEAN" SEGMENTS ON RECORDS COLLECTED IN THE HELI-COPTER THAN IN THE LABORATORY. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT IT IS POSSIBLE TO RECORD AND TELEMETER USEABLE EEG FROM THE IN-FLIGHT HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENT. FOLLOW-ON STUDIES WILL EXAMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF ANALYZING EEG DATA COLLECTED WHILE THE PILOT IS PERFORMING FLIGHT-RELATED TASKS.
KEYWORDS: EEG, TELEMETRY, HELICOPTER, AVIATORS
94-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 386 DTIC #: ADA281711
TITLE: VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) HAVE WIDESPREAD USE IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ENVIRONMENTS. NVGS AMPLIFY AMBIENT ILLUMINATION MAKING PERFORMANCE POSSIBLE WHEN THERE IS INSUFFICIENT ILLUMINATION FOR NORMAL VISION. WHILE VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NVGS IS COMMONLY ASSESSED BY MEASURING THRESHOLD FUNCTIONS SUCH AS VISUAL ACUITY, FEW ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO ASSESS VISION THROUGH NVGS AT SUPRATHRESHOLD LEVELS OF STIMULATION. SUCH INFORMATION WOULD BE USEFUL TO BETTER UNDERSTAND VISION THROUGH NVGS ACROSS A RANGE OF STIMULUS CONDITIONS. IN THIS STUDY, VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS (VEPS) WERE USED TO EVALUATE VISION THROUGH NVGS ACROSS A RANGE OF STIMULUS CONTRASTS. A COMPARISON OF VEPS RECORDED WITH AND WITHOUT NVGS VARIED LINEARLY WITH LOG ATTENUATION THROUGH THE DEVICE. VEPS OFFER AN OBJECTIVE, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL TOOL TO ASSESS VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NVGS AT BOTH THRESHOLD AND SUPRATHRESHOLD LEVELS OF VISUAL STIMULATION.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, VISUAL-EVOKED POTENTIALS, CONTRAST
94-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 429 DTIC #: ADA281784
TITLE: SWITCHING FROM FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED TO NIGHT VISION GOGGLES: TRANSITORY EFFECTS ON VISUAL RESOLUTION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS UNDER DEVELOPMENT FOR ROTARY- AND FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT WILL ALLOW THE USER TO SWITCH ELECTRONICALLY BETWEEN FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED (FLIR) AND NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) SENSORS. THESE SENSOR TRANSITIONS POTENTIALLY INVOLVE LARGE CHANGES IN DISPLAY LUMINANCE WHICH COULD TRANSIENTLY IMPAIR VISUAL RESOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO IDENTIFY LUMINANCES WHICH PRODUCE A TRANSIENT REDUCTION IN VISION WHEN SWITCHING FROM A HIGHER LUMINANCE (FLIR) TO A LOWER LUMINANCE (NVG) DISPLAY. A LETTER RECOGNITION TASK WAS USED TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF LUMINANCE ADAPTATION ON VISUAL RESOLUTION IN FIVE SUBJECTS. A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN LETTER RECOGNITION WAS OBSERVED IN THE FIRST SECOND AFTER SWITCHING FROM SIMULATED FLIR TO SIMULATED NVGS WHEN THE FLIR LUMINANCE WAS > 10 FL. BY VARYING LETTER SIZE, CONTRAST, AND EXPOSURE TIME, THE MAGNITUDE AND DURATION OF VISUAL LOSS AFTER SWITCHING FROM A BRIGHT (49.2 FL) FLIR DISPLAY WERE DETERMINED. THE VISUAL LOSS LASTED UP TO 4 SECONDS, AND INCLUDED A 2X REDUCTION IN VISUAL ACUITY, AND A 3X REDUCTION IN CONTRAST SENSITIVITY. LARGE DIFFERENCES IN SENSOR DISPLAY LUMINANCE SHOULD BE AVOIDED TO MAINTAIN HIGH LEVELS OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE AND AVIATION SAFETY. DESIGN FEATURES OR TRAINING MAY BE NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE A PROPER BALANCE BETWEEN FLIR AND NVG LUMINATIONS WHICH OPTIMIZE PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY WITHOUT SACRIFICING THE QUALITY OF THE SENSOR IMAGE.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION DEVICES, FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED, LUMINANCE ADAPTATION, VISUAL RESOLUTION
94-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2779 DTIC #: ADA283081
TITLE: FACTORS AFFECTING THE VISUAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE FIELD-OF-VIEW IN PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LUNING IS A DETRIMENTAL VISUAL EFFECT CHARACTERIZED BY A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING OF THE VISUAL FIELD IN THE MONOCULAR REGION OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS. WITH SUFFICIENTLY SMALL VISUAL FIELDS, LUNING IS EXPERIENCED AS FRAGMENTATION OF THE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) INTO THREE REGIONS, WITH THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGIONS APPEARING TO BE DISTINCT AND PHENOMENALLY SEGREGATED FROM THE MONOCULAR SIDE REGIONS. VISUAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE FOV IS LIKELY THE RESULT OF THE BINOCULAR RIVALRY AND SUPPRESSION CAUSED BY THE DICHOTIC COMPETITION BETWEEN THE IMAGES IN THE TWO EYES. THE EFFECT OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ON FRAGMENTATION WAS INVESTIGATED: (1) THE DISPLAY MODE-CONVERGENT VERSUS DIVERGENT; (2) THE SIZE OF THE MONOCULAR REGIONS; (3) THE SIZE OF THE MONOCULAR FIELDS; (4) THE SIZE OF THE FOV; AND (5) THE SIZE OF THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION. THIRTEEN ARMY AVIATORS SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN A DESIGN WHERE EACH SUBJECT MADE FORCED-CHOICE FRAGMENTATION JUDGMENTS OF 25 DIFFERENT PAIRS OF STIMULI IN WHICH THESE FIVE FACTORS WERE SYSTEMICALLY VARIED. THE RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODE SYSTEMICALLY INDUCED MORE FRAGMENTATION THAN THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE AND ALSO THAT PATTERNS WITH A SMALLER BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION TENDED TO FRAGMENT MORE THAN PATTERNS WITH A LARGER BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION. THE REMAINING THREE FACTORS HAD NO INFLUENCE ON FRAGMENTATION. IN ADDITION, NEITHER OPTICAL CONVERGENCE NOR THE RETINAL LOCATION OF THE BLIND SPOT WERE SHOWN TO BE IMPORTANT FACTORS. ECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF OUR RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED. WHEN A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY IS NEEDED TO INCREASE THE FOV TO AVIATORS IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS, THE CONVERGENCE DISPLAYS MODE WITH THE LARGER BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION APPEAR TO BE THE BEST OF THE CONDITIONS TESTED TO ATTENUATE THE FRAGMENTATION EFFECT OF LUNING. ADDITION FACTORS ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, DICHOPTIC, CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, NASAL RETINA, TEMPORAL RETINA
94-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 597 DTIC #: ADA283065
TITLE: STANDARDS RELEVANT TO A NATO ANTHROPOMETRY SURVEY USING 3D IMAGING TOOLS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESIGNERS OF AIRCRAFT COCKPITS AND AIRCREW EQUIPMENT HAVE LONG RECOGNIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS OF THE FLYING POPULATION. THE SUCCESS OF 3D ANTHROPOMETRY AND ITS USABILITY FOR DESIGN AND FITTING ARE LARGELY DEPENDENT ON THE ADOPTION OF STANDARDS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE DISPLAY, TRANSFORMATION, STORAGE, AND COMMUNICATION. STANDARDS ARE REQUIRED FOR IMAGE DATA OBTAINED FROM SURFACE OR VOLUMMETRIC SCANNER SYSTEMS, AS WELL AS REDUCED AND ANALYZED DATA. THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF DATA FORMATS ALREADY IN USE BY VARIOUS DISCIPLINES FOR ALL SORTS OF DATA. IN THIS PAPER, WE WILL DISCUSS WHAT IS DESIRED IN A FORMAT FOR 3D BIOMEDICAL IMAGE DATA AND SEVERAL FORMATS ALREADY AVAILABLE.
KEYWORDS: 3D IMAGING, BIOMEDICAL IMAGING, STANDARDS, ANTHROPOMETRY
94-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 915 DTIC #: ADA283064
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING OUTCOMES IN THE NORTH DAKOTA ARMY NATIONAL GUARD AVIATION COHORT
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY COMPARED THE AEROMEDICAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING OUTCOMES BETWEEN THE NORTH DAKOTA ARMY NATIONAL GUARD (NDARNG) AVIATOR COHORT AND A PEER COHORT COMPOSED OF ALL OTHER ARMY NATIONAL GUARD (ARNG) AVIATORS. EACH COHORT INCLUDED AVIATORS AGE 40 OR OLDER WHICH IS THE AGE AVIATORS ENTER THE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM FOR THE DETECTION OF DISEASE.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, AIRCREW, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING, AEDR
94-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 962 DTIC #: ADA284300
TITLE: APACHE HELICOPTER SEAT CUSHION EVALUATION
AUTHOR(s): BARCLAY P. BUTLER, NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO PROTOTYPES OF THE AH-64 PILOT SEAT CUSHIONS WERE EVALUATED AGAINST THE STANDARD CUSHION SET BY EACH OF A GROUP OF 12 AH-64 INSTRUCTOR PILOTS AFTER BEING EXPOSED TO SIMULATED AH-64 VIBRATION SIGNATURES FOR A PERIOD OF 1 HOUR. OBJECTIVE INDICATIONS OF VIBRATION ATTENUATION WERE OBTAINED BY MEASURING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS ACROSS EACH CUSHION. SUBJECTIVE PILOT PREFERENCES ALSO WERE OBTAINED AFTER EACH RIDE USING A QUESTIONNAIRE. RESULTS OF THE OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS INDICATE BOTH THE AIR-FILLED AND FOAM-FILLED PROTOTYPES REDUCED LOW-FREQUENCY TRANSMISSION OF VIBRATION BETTER THAN THE STANDARD CUSHIONS. SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES INDICATE SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN COMFORT AND VIBRATION ABSORPTION FOR THE SEAT BACK AND BOTTOM CUSHIONS OF BOTH PROTOTYPES OVER THE STANDARD CUSHION SET.
KEYWORDS: SEAT CUSHION, APACHE, HELICOPTER PILOTS, CREW COMFORT
94-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5189 DTIC #: ADA285181
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE PALLETIZED LOAD SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): AL W. MORAN, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON, TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT IS REQUIRED TO ASSESS POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HEALTH HAZARDS TO CREWMEMBERS. AS REQUESTED BY THE U. S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY, A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED BY THE U. S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) ON THE PALLETIZED LOAD SYSTEM (PLS) TRUCK. THE PLS WAS TESTED ON FIVE CROSS-COUNTRY COURSES AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND, BY THE U. S. ARMY COMBAT SYSTEM TEST ACTIVITY IN COORDINATION WITH THE RESPONSE AND TOLERANCE BRANCH OF USAARL. THE PLS WAS TESTED WITH SPEEDS RANGING FROM 3 TO 20 MPH. THE RESULTS OF THESE TESTS SHOW THAT, FOR THE WORST CASE SCENARIO FOR EACH COURSE, THE LOWEST TOLERANCE FOR WBV WAS ON COURSE 5. LESS SEVERE WBV OCCURRED ON COURSES 1 AND 3, WHICH HAD NEAR EQUAL TOLERANCES, FOLLOWED BY COURSE 4. FINALLY, THE HIGHEST TOLERANCES FOR WBV EXPOSURE WERE ON COURSE 2. THE RESULTS ALSO SHOW THAT BOTH DRIVER AND PASSENGER WERE EXPOSED TO A HAZARD SEVERITY-CATEGORY III (MARGINAL), WITH A HAZARD PROBABILITY-LEVEL C (OCCASIONAL). THE OVERALL RISK ASSESSMENT CODE (RAC) WAS 3. THIS INDICATES THE PLS DOES NOT PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT HEALTH RISK TO ITS CREWMEMBERS.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
94-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 568 DTIC #: ADA284424
TITLE: DOES DISPLAY PHOSPHOR BANDWIDTH AFFECT THE ABILITY OF THE EYE TO FOCUS? (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE FOCUSING RESPONSE OF THE EYE (ACCOMMODATION) IS DEGRADED IN MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT FOR MANY SUBJECTS. TO FIND OUT WHETHER THIS DEGRADATION ALSO OCCURS IN NARROWBAND POLYCHROMATIC LIGHT, WE MEASURED THE ACCOMMODATION OF NINE YOUNG ADULT VOLUNTEER SUBJECTS ACROSS THREE BANDWIDTHS (10, 20, AND 80 NM) AND A BROADBAND CONTROL (WHITE LIGHT). THE PEAK WAVELENGTH WAS 550 NM FOR EACH OF THE BANDLESS FILTERED STIMULI, AND THE LUMINANCE OF ALL TARGETS WAS 10CD/M2. ACCOMMODATION WAS MEASURED WITH A DYNAMIC INFRARED OPTOMETER WHILE THE SUBJECTS VIEWED THRESHOLD-SIZED, HIGH-CONTRAST LETTERS UNDER BOTH DYNAMIC AND STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS. IN THE FORMER, THE OPTICAL DISTANCE OF THE TARGET WAS VARIED SINUSOIDALLY FROM 0.0 TO 2.0 DIOPTERS (OPTICAL INFINITY TO 50 CM) AT A TEMPORAL FREQUENCY THAT, UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS, ACCOMMODATIVE CONSTANT AT 1.0 DIOPTER (1.0 M). WE FOUND STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT WAY WITH INCREASES IN SPECTRAL BANDWIDTH. UNDER STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS, THERE WAS NO STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT TREND. THESE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT ACCOMMODATION MIGHT SUFFER FROM THE USE OF NARROWBAND PHOSPHORS IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS, I.E., THE OBSERVER MIGHT ACCOMMODATE INACCURATELY TO THE DISPLAY IF FREQUENT CHANGES IN FOCUS TO AND FROM THE DISPLAY ARE REQUIRED.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY, PHOSPHOR BANDWIDTH, ACCOMMODATION
94-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 535 DTIC #: ADA284970
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: AGE-SPECIFIC MEDICAL AND NONMEDICAL ATTRITION RATES AMONG FORT RUCKER CIVILIAN AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF FORT RUCKER CIVILIAN AVIATORS COULD NOT BE COMPLETED WITHOUT FIRST CONDUCTING AN ANALYSIS OF ATTRITION FROM AVIATION SERVICE DUE TO MEDICAL AND NONMEDICAL CAUSES. LONGITUDINAL DATA ON FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS AND AEROMEDICAL BOARDS CONDUCTED ON FORT RUCKER AREA CIVILIAN AVIATORS WAS REVIEWED USING U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR). THE AEDR RECORDS OF 847 FORT RUCKER CIVILIAN AVIATORS WERE REVIEWED OVER 9 CALENDAR YEARS FOR 1985 TO 1993. BY THE END OF 1992, 528 (63.3 PERCENT) REMAINED IN AVIATION SERVICE, 251 (29.6 PERCENT) WERE LOST TO NONMEDICAL ATTRITION, AND 68 (8.1 PERCENT) WERE LOST TO MEDICAL ATTRITION. OF THE 847, 196 (23.14 PERCENT) HAD OPERATIONAL MILITARY AFFILIATION (DUAL-STATUS SERVICE AS CIVILIANS AND RESERVE COMPONENT AVIATORS), WHILE 651 (76.86 PERCENT) DID NOT. CONTROLLING FOR AGE, THERE WAS A HIGHER RISK FOR NONMEDICAL AND MEDICAL ATTRITION AMONG THOSE WITHOUT OPERATIONAL MILITARY AFFILIATION (X2 MANTEL-HAENSZEL, P <0.0001). MEDICAL ATTRITION WAS UNCOMMON UP TO 50 YEARS OF AGE. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE ACCOUNTED FOR THREE-FOURTHS OF THE CASES OF MEDICAL ATTRITION. OVERALL, THERE WAS A THREEFOLD HIGHER RATE OF MEDICAL ATTRITION AMONG THOSE WITHOUT OPERATIONAL MILITARY AFFILIATION.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, AIRCREW, AEDR
94-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 598 DTIC #: ADA284395
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: GENDER-SPECIFIC ATTRITION FROM THE TRAINED U.S. ARMY AVIATION COHORT OF 1988
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, KEVIN T. MASON, JENNIFER P. HARPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WOMEN HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION FOR MORE THAN TWO DECADES. LITTLE HAS BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT THE INTEGRATION OF WOMEN INTO THIS TRADITIONALLY MALE OCCUPATION. ONE OF THE INDEXES OF SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF WOMEN IS THEIR RETENTION RATE IN AVIATION SERVICE. THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER WAS QUERIED TO FIND OUT THE ATTRITION RATE AMONG TRAINED U.S. ARMY MALE AND FEMALE AVIATORS FROM 1988 TO 1992. IN THE TRAINED AVIATOR COHORT OF 1988, MALE AVIATORS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY OLDER THAN FEMALE AVIATORS (X2 MANTEL-HAENSZEL, P<0.001), WHATEVER THE COMPONENT OF SERVICE. THE CRUDE ATTRITION RATE FOR ALL AGE GROUPS WAS 55.4 PER CENT (11,148 OF 21,395) FOR MALES, COMPARED TO 54.1 PERCENT (265 OF 490) FOR FEMALES. BASED ON MALE ATTRITION AND AFTER CONTROLLING FOR THE AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE AVIATORS, THE OBSERVED ATTRITION OF FEMALES (265) EXCEEDED THE EXPECTED ATTRITION (243) BY 22 FEMALES (9.1 PERCENT EXCESS ATTRITION). FOR THE AGE GROUPS 18 TO 44 YEARS OLD, THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER RISK FOR ATTRITION AMONG FEMALE AVIATORS (MANTEL-HAENSZEL OR=1.23, CI=1.025, 1.470). THIS INCREASED ATTRITION RATE WAS FOUND PRIMARILY IN THE AGE GROUPS FROM 18 TO 34 YEARS OLD. THE CAUSE FOR THE OBSERVED EXCESS ATTRITION OF FEMALE ARMY AVIATORS IS UNKNOWN AND REQUIRES FURTHER STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING RETENTION IN AVIATION SERVICE.
KEYWORDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, FEMALE, AVIATOR, ATTRITION, AEDR
94-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1013 DTIC #: ADA284971
TITLE: THE ASSESSMENT OF THE AH-64D, LONGBOW, MAST MOUNTED ASSEMBLY NOISE HAZARD FOR MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, ELMAREE GORDON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NOISE LEVELS AROUND THE AH-64 HELICOPTER EXCEED SAFE LIMITS. MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL ARE REQUIRED TO WEAR HEARING PROTECTION TO REDUCE HAZARD TO HEARING WHILE PERFORMING MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES. THIS EVALUATION WAS DIRECTED AT DETERMINING THE CONTRIBUTION TO NOISE LEVELS BY THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AUXILIARY GROUND POWER UNIT (AGPU), ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ECS), AND MAST MOUNTED ASSEMBLY (MMA) AT A VARIETY OF MAINTENANCE POSITIONS AND ESTABLISH PROTECTION CAPABILITIES OF STANDARD PROTECTORS FOR THOSE NOISE LEVELS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE LEVELS, AH-64 HELICOPTER, HEARING PROTECTION, NOISE HAZARDS
94-38 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 710 DTIC #: ADA285182
TITLE: DIRECT COMPARISON OF TWO STATISTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF EVOKED-POTENTIAL THRESHOLDS
AUTHOR(s): TED L. LANGFORD, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEVERAL STATISTICAL PROCEDURES HAVE BEEN PROPOSED AS OBJECTIVE METHODS FOR DETERMINING EVOKED-POTENTIAL THRESHOLDS. DATA HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO SUPPORT EACH OF THE METHODS, BUT THERE HAVE BEEN NOT BEEN DIRECT COMPARISONS USING THE SAME DATA. THE GOAL OF THE PRESENT STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE CORRELATION AND VARIANCE RATIO STATISTICS USING COMMON DATA. A SECONDARY GOAL WAS TO EVALUATE THE UTILITY OF A DERIVED POTENTIAL FOR DETERMINING THRESHOLDS. CHRONIC, BIPOLAR ELECTRODES WERE STEREOTAXIXALLY IMPLANTED INTO THE INFERIOR COLLICULI OF SIX CHINCHILLAS. EVOKED POTENTIALS WERE OBTAINED AT 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, AND 8.0 KHZ USING 12-MS TONE BURSTS AND 12-MS TONE BURSTS SUPERIMPOSED ON 120-MS PEDESTAL TONES WHICH WERE OF THE SAME FREQUENCY AS THE BURSTS, BUT LOWER IN AMPLITUDE BY 15 DB. ALTERNATE RESPONSES WERE AVERAGED IN BLOCKS OF 200 TO 4000 DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE RESPONSE. CORRELATIONS WERE CALCULATED FOR THE PAIRS OF AVERAGES. A RESPONSE WAS DEEMED PRESENT IF THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT REACHED THE 0.05 LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE IN 4000 OR FEWER AVERAGES. THRESHOLD WAS DEFINED AS THE MEAN OF THE LEVEL AT WHICH THE CORRELATION WAS CALCULATED AS DESCRIBED BY ELBERLING AND DON (1984) USING THE SAME DATA. AVERAGED TONE BURST AND TONE BURST-PLUS PEDESTAL DATA WERE DIFFERENTIATED AND THE RESULTING WAVEFORMS SUBJECTED TO THE SAME STATISTICAL ANALYSIS DESCRIBED ABOVE. ALL ANALYSES YIELDED THRESHOLDS WHICH WERE ESSENTIALLY THE SAME AS THOSE OBTAINED USING BEHAVIORAL METHODS. WHEN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DURATIONS IS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT, HOWEVER, EVOKED-POTENTIAL METHODS PRODUCED LOWER THRESHOLDS THAN BEHAVIORAL METHODS.
KEYWORDS: EVOKED POTENTIALS, OBJECTIVE THRESHOLD DETERMINATION, CHINCHILLA
94-39 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 825 DTIC #: ADA285191
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF CIVILIAN AVIATORS FLYING U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL ARMY AVIATORS PARTICIPATE IN A CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM. FIVE PERCENT OF ARMY AVIATORS ARE CIVILIAN. THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION CENTER REQUESTED A REVIEW OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING OUTCOMES AMONG THIS SUBGROUP OF AVIATORS. THE AEDR WAS QUERIED TO DETERMINE THE CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF CIVILIAN AVIATORS WHO FAILED LEVELS 1 AND 2 OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM DURING THE PERIOD 1988 TO 1992.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE, AVIATORS, CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY, AEDR
94-40 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1301 DTIC #: ADA285213
TITLE: VISUAL PERCEPTION IN THE FIELD-OF-VIEW OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLMEMKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BECAUSE OF LIMITATIONS IN THE SIZE OF FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) AVAILABLE IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMD) USING THE FULL OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE, WHERE THE ENTIRE FOV IS BINOCULAR, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS, WHICH CAN BE CONVERGENT OR DIVERGENT, HAVE BEEN PROPOSED. ONE CONSEQUENCE OF THIS IS A PERCEPTUAL EFFECT KNOWN AS LUNING, WHICH IS A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS OF THE FOV, WHICH CAN IN SOME CASES CAUSE FRAGMENTATION OF THE FOV INTO THREE REGIONS. A CONCERN IS THE POSSIBLE EFFECT ON TARGET IDENTIFICATION IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS, PARTICULARLY IN AREAS AFFECTED BY LUNING. WE REVIEW DATA WE HAVE COLLECTED IN OUR BINOCULAR VISION LAB ON THE EFFECT OF DISPLAY MODE ON THESE ASPECTS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION.
KEYWORDS: FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAY, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY, CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, LUNING, DICHOPTIC, CONTRAST THRESHOLD, BINOCULAR OCCLUSION
94-41 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 929 DTIC #: ADA285199
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER, VOLUME 1
AUTHOR(s): TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BARCLAY P. BUTLER, NABIH M. ALEM, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT IS REQUIRED TO ASSESS POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HAZARDS TO CREWMEMBERS. AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY (USAEHA), A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) ON THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER SYSTEM (HETS). THE HETS WAS TESTED ON THREE CROSS-COUNTY COURSES AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND (APG), MD, BY THE U.S. ARMY COMBAT SYSTEMS TEST ACTIVITY (USACSTA), IN COORDINATION WITH THE RESPONSE AND TOLERANCE BRANCH OF USAARL. THE M1070 HETS WAS TESTED WITH A M1000 TRAILER IN A LOADED AND UNLOADED CONFIGURATION. THE LOADED CONFIGURATION WAS OBTAINED BY PLACING A M1 TANK ON THE BED OF THE M1000 TRAILER. THE UNLOADED CONFIGURATION CONSISTED OF A M1070 TRACTOR WITH AN EMPTY M1000 TRAILER. WHILE OPERATING THE HETS IN ITS INTENDED OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, THE FRONT PASSENGER WAS EXPOSED TO AN OVERALL RISK ASSESSMENT CODE OF 5. THIS CONSISTED OF AN OVERALL ASSIGNMENT OF HAZARD SEVERITY CATEGORY IV AND HAZARD PROBABILITY OF D.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
94-41a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7596 DTIC #: ADA285214
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER, VOLUME 2
AUTHOR(s): TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BARCLAY P. BUTLER, NABIH M. ALEM, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT IS REQUIRED TO ASSESS POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HAZARDS TO CREWMEMBERS. AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY (USAEHA), A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) ON THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER SYSTEM (HETS). THE HETS WAS TESTED ON THREE CROSS-COUNTY COURSES AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND (APG), MD, BY THE U.S. ARMY COMBAT SYSTEMS TEST ACTIVITY (USACSTA), IN COORDINATION WITH THE RESPONSE AND TOLERANCE BRANCH OF USAARL. THE M1070 HETS WAS TESTED WITH A M1000 TRAILER IN A LOADED AND UNLOADED CONFIGURATION. THE LOADED CONFIGURATION WAS OBTAINED BY PLACING A M1 TANK ON THE BED OF THE M1000 TRAILER. THE UNLOADED CONFIGURATION CONSISTED OF A M1070 TRACTOR WITH AN EMPTY M1000 TRAILER. WHILE OPERATING THE HETS IN ITS INTENDED OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, THE FRONT PASSENGER WAS EXPOSED TO AN OVERALL RISK ASSESSMENT CODE OF 5. THIS CONSISTED OF AN OVERALL ASSIGNMENT OF HAZARD SEVERITY CATEGORY IV AND HAZARD PROBABILITY OF D.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
94-42 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 941 DTIC #: ADA285190
TITLE: A CORRECTIVE INVESTIGATION OF SIMULATED OCCUPANT MOTION AND ACCIDENT REPORT IN A HELICOPTER CRASH
AUTHOR(s): DAVID G. BEALE, NABIH M. ALEM, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MOTION AND CONTACT OF HELICOPTER PILOT WITH THE COCKPIT INTERIOR STRUCTURE DURING A CRASH ARE EXPLORED IN THIS REPORT. THE STUDY RELIES ON ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORTS TO ESTIMATE THE HELICOPTER KINEMATICS AT IMPACT, THEN USES MATHEMATICAL MODELS (I.E., THE ARTICULATED TOTAL BODY (ATB) MODEL) TO SIMULATE THE STROKING OF THE CRASHWORTHY SEAT, THE ACTION OF THE INERTIA REEL AND RESTRAINT SYSTEM, THE PILOT'S MOTION, AND HIS CONTACT WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL. THE REPORT DESCRIBES SIMULATIONS OF SEVERAL SCENARIOS WHICH WERE CONDUCTED IN ORDER TO EXPLAIN THE OCCURRENCE OF BASAL SKULL FRACTURES. THE RESULTS CONFIRM THE INJURY CAUSING SCENARIO PROPOSED BY THE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND REFUTED ANOTHER SUGGESTED SCENARIO. THE REPORT CONCLUDES BY POINTING OUT THAT BIODYNAMIC MODELS SUCH AS THE ATB CAN BE EFFECTIVE TOOLS TO EXPLORE THE ROLES OF INERTIA REELS, ENERGY-ABSORBING SEATS, INFLATABLE AIRBAGS, AND OTHER SAFETY DEVICES IN REDUCING INJURY TO THE PILOT.
KEYWORDS: MOTION, COCKPIT INTERIOR, ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, IMPACT, MATHEMATICAL MODELS
94-43 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3715 DTIC #: ADA286290
TITLE: EFFECTS OF DEXTROAMPHETAMINE ON HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE: A UH-60 SIMULATOR STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., J. LYNN CALDWELL, JOHN S. CROWLEY, HEBER D. JONES, STEPHEN R. DARLING, SHYLONDA L. WALLACE, LARRY C. WOODRUM, JOSE A. COLON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO DETERMINE THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF USING DEXEDRINE TO SUSTAIN AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DURING PERIODS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION, A PLACEBO-CONTROLLLED STUDY WAS CONDUCTED. SIX U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER PILOTS COMPLETED FIVE, 1-HOUR FLIGHTS IN A SPECIALLY-INSTRUMENTED UH-60 SIMULATOR WHILE THEIR PERFORMANCE WAS EVALUATED VIA A COMPUTERIZED SCORING SYSTEM. IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING EACH FLIGHT, DATA WERE COLLECTED ON ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) ACTIVITY, COGNITIVE/PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE, AND SUBJECTIVE MOOD RATINGS. THE TESTING SESSIONS BEGAN WITH FLIGHTS AT 0100, 0500, 0900, 1300, AND 1700. ONE HOUR PRIOR TO EACH OF THE FIRST THREE SESSIONS ON THE DRUG ADMINISTRATION DAY, THE AVIATORS WERE GIVEN 10 MG OF DEXEDRINE OR PLACEBO. STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF THE FLIGHT MANEUVERS REVEALED THAT DEXEDRINE IMPROVED AVIATOR CONTROL ON EVERY MANEUVER WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE HOVERING TURNS AND THE FORMATION FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: STIMULANTS, AVIATORS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, EEG, MOOD
94-44 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 110 DTIC #: ADA285653
TITLE: PREGNANCY AND FLYING DUTIES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SOME ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS WANT TO FLY DURING PREGNANCY. CURRENT ARMY POLICY SIGNIFICANTLY RESTRICTS FLYING DUTIES DURING PREGNANCY. THERE ARE MULTIPLE PHYSICAL FORCES AND BIOCHEMICAL EXPOSURES IN THE ARMY FLYING ENVIRONMENT WHICH MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT THE COURSE OF A PREGNANCY AND THE DEVELOPING FETUS. NOISE, WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, AND ACCELERATION FORCES ARE OF PARTICULAR CONCERN. THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF THESE FORCES HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED IN ANIMAL MODELS AND BY HUMAN OBSERVATION STUDIES.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PREGNANCE, PHYSICAL FORCES, AVIATORS, AEDR
94-45 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 531 DTIC #: ADA285654
TITLE: LABORATORY AND FLIGHT TESTS OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC HELICOPTERS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WHEN USED IN AN AIR MEDICAL SETTING, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT DESIGNED FOR USE IN HOSPITALS CAN FAIL FROM THE STRESSES OF IN-FLIGHT USE, OR THEY INTERFERE WITH CRITICAL ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. FROM JANUARY 1989 TO JUNE 1992, 34 MEDICAL DEVICES, INCLUDING MONITOR/DEFIBRILLATORS, INFUSION PUMPS, VITAL-SIGNS MONITORS, VENTILATORS AND INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATORS, WERE TESTED UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS OF TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, ALTITUDE AND VIBRATION (MIL-STD-810D). ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY WERE MEASURED (MIL-STD-461C AND 462), AND HUMAN FACTORS WERE EVALUATED. THE DEVICES WERE FLIGHT TESTED IN A UH-60 MEDEVAC HELICOPTER. THIRTY-TWO PERCENT OF THE MEDICAL DEVICES FAILED AT LEAST ONE ENVIRONMENTAL TEST, AND 91 PERCENT OF THE DEVICES FAILED TO MEET THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE STANDARDS. FAILURES INCLUDED EXCESS CONDUCTED AND RADIATED EMISSIONS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RADIATED EMISSIONS. FIVE (15 PERCENT) OF THE DEVICES WERE JUDGED UNSUITABLE FOR USE IN THE UH-60 MEDEVAC HELICOPTER. TESTING IS CRITICAL TO DISCOVER THE ABILITY OF A MEDICAL DEVICE TO PERFORM IN THE HARSH ROTOR-WING MEDEVAC ENVIRONMENT. FAILURE OF A DEVICE OR INTERFERENCE WITH AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS CAN RESULT IN LOSS OF A PATIENT OR AIRCREW.
KEYWORDS: MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, MEDEVAC, AIR MEDICAL TRANSPORT, ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE, SAFETY
94-46 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 774 DTIC #: ADA286289
TITLE: TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFTS PRODUCED BY HIGH INTENSITY FREEFIELD NOISE IN HUMANS WEARING HEARING PROTECTION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR. DANIEL L. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXPOSURE TO HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE PRODUCED BY MODERN MILITARY WEAPONS IS KNOWN TO BE HAZARDOUS TO HEARING. HEARING PROTECTION IS REQUIRED; HOWEVER, THERE IS NO GENERALLY ACCEPTED THEORETICAL WAY TO PREDICT WHETHER PROTECTION WILL BE ADEQUATE FOR THE HIGHEST NOISE LEVELS. THIS LED US TO EMPIRICALLY DETERMINE THE SAFE LIMITS OF EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE WHEN HEARING PROTECTION IS USED BY EXPOSING HUMAN VOLUNTEERS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS. OVER THE PAST 5 YEARS, A SERIES OF STUDIES HAS BEEN CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM SAFE EXPOSURE TO HIGH INTENSITY FREEFIELD IMPULSE NOISE. AN EXPOSURE WAS CONSIDERED SAFE IF IT PRODUCED ONLY A SMALL TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT (TTS<25 DB) IN A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THE VOLUNTEERS EXPOSED. THREE DIFFERENT IMPULSES WERE USED WITH A-DURATIONS OF 0.8, 1.4, AND 2.9 MS. BOTH THE LEVEL AND NUMBER OF IMPULSES WERE VARIED TO FIND THE MAXIMUM TOLERABLE EXPOSURE FOR COMBINATIONS OF PARAMETERS. THE PEAK SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS RANGED UP TO 196 DB. THE NUMBER OF IMPULSES VARIED FROM 6 TO 100. APPROXIMATELY 60 VOLUNTEERS WERE EXPOSED TO EACH TYPE OF IMPULSE, ALLOWING HIGH CONFIDENCE ESTIMATES OF THE EXPOSURES WHICH WOULD PRODUCE NO SIGNIFICANT TTS IN 95 PERCENT OF THE EXPOSED POPULATION. THE HEARING PROTECTION USED WAS AN EAR MUFF WHICH HAD BEEN MODIFIED TO SIMULATE A POOR FITTING PROTECTOR. THE RESULTS OF THESE STUDIES INDICATED THAT EVEN A RELATIVELY POOR HEARING PROTECTOR, COMBINATIONS OF LEVEL AND NUMBER OF IMPULSES WHICH FAR EXCEED OUR CURRENTLY ACCEPTED EXPOSURE LIMITS CAN BE TOLERATED BY 95 PERCENT OF THE VOLUNTEERS.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING PROTECTION, EXPOSURE LIMITS, FREEFIELD IMPULSE NOISE
94-47 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2291 DTIC #: ADA286287
TITLE: FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERCEPTION OF LUNING IN MONOCULAR REGIONS OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LUNING IS A DETRIMENTAL VISUAL EFFECT CHARACTERIZED BY A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING OF THE VISUAL FIELD IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS. THE EFFECT OF A NUMBER OF FACTORS ON THE MAGNITUDE OF LUNING WAS INVESTIGATED. THESE FACTORS INCLUDE: (1) THE CONVERGENT VERSUS THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODES FOR PRESENTING A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAPPING FIELD-OF-VIEW; (2) THE DISPLAY LUMINANCE LEVEL; (3) THE PLACEMENT OF EITHER BLACK OR WHITE CONTOURS VERSUS NO (NULL) CONTOURS ON THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP BORDER; AND (4) THE LOWERING OR RAISING OF THE LUMINANCE OF THE MONOCULAR OVERLAP REGION. EIGHTEEN ARMY STUDENT AVIATORS SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN A REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN. THE PERCENTAGE OF TIME LUNING WAS SEEN WAS THE MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF LUNING. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODE SYSTEMATICALLY INDUCED MORE LUNING THAN THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE UNDER THE NULL CONTOUR CONDITION. ADDING BLACK CONTOURS REDUCED LUNING IN BOTH THE CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODES, WHERE THE CONVERGENT MODE RETAINED ITS RELATIVELY LOWER MAGNITUDE OF LUNING. THE DISPLAY LUMINANCE LEVEL HAD NO EFFECT FOR THE NULL OR BLACK CONTOUR CONDITIONS. ADDING WHITE CONTOURS REDUCED LUNING BY AN AMOUNT WHICH DEPENDED ON DISPLAY LUMINANCE WHERE THERE WAS LESS LUNING FOR LOWER DISPLAY LEVELS, BUT NO SYSTEMATIC EFFECT OF DISPLAY MODE. CHANGING THE LUMINANCE OF THE MONOCULAR REGIONS (RELATIVE TO THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION) REDUCED THE AMOUNT OF LUNING, WHERE A DECREASE IN LUMINANCE PRODUCED MORE OF A REDUCTION IN LUNING THAN AN INCREASE. WHEN A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY IS NEEDED TO PRESENT A LARGER FIELD-OF-VIEW TO AVIATORS IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS, THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE WITH BLACK CONTOURS ON THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP BORDERS APPEARS TO BE THE MOST RELIABLE OF THE CONDITIONS TESTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY REDUCE LUNING. ADDITIONAL FACTORS ARE ALSO DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: LUNING, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, BINOCULAR RIVALRY, MONOCULAR SUPPRESSIONS, DICHOPTIC
94-48 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 679 DTIC #: ADA291604
TITLE: ACTUAL EFFECTIVENESS OF HEARING PROTECTION IN HIGH LEVEL IMPULSE NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, DANIEL L. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CURRENT EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE CONTAINS FACTORS FOR HEARING PROTECTION WHICH ARE BASED ON VERY LIMITED DATA. RECENT STUDIES IN THE U.S. AND IN FRANCE HAVE PROVIDED NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PROTECTION AFFORDED BY HEARING PROTECTION DEVICES. FOR IMPULSES WITH AN A-DURATION OF APPROXIMATELY 3.0 MS, PRO-TECTION WAS FOUND TO BE ADEQUATE FOR PEAK PRESSURES UP TO 190 DB SPL FOR 6 IMPULSES AND 187 DB FOR 100 IMPULSES. PROTECTION WAS FOUND TO BE ADEQUATE FOR 6 IMPULSES WITH AN A-DURATION OF APPROXIMATELY 0.8 MS UP TO 196 DB SPL. FOR THIS A-DURATION, PROTECTION WAS ADEQUATE FOR 12 IMPULSES UP TO 190 DB SPL AND FOR 50 AND 100 IM-PULSES AT 187 DB SPL. THE HEARING PROTECTORS USED IN THESE STUDIES WERE EARMUFFS WITH PERFORATIONS IN THE CUSHIONS WHICH PROVIDED ESSENTIALLY NO ATTENUATION BELOW 500 HZ. IN A SERIES OF FRENCH STUDIES, HEARING PROTECTION WAS FOUND TO BE ADEQUATE FOR IMPULSES PRODUCED BY A VARIETY OF WEAPONS WITH PEAK PRESSURES RANGING FROM 165 DB SPL TO 180 DB SPL. THESE INCLUDED SMALL ARMS WITH A-DURATIONS LESS THAN 1.0 MS, ARTILLERY WITH A-DURATIONS OF APPROXIMATELY 3.0 MS AND OTHER WEAPONS WITH DURATIONS BETWEEN THESE EXTREMES. A VARIETY OF INSERT HEARING PROTECTORS (EARPLUGS) WAS USED IN THESE STUDIES. ALL HAD PERFORATIONS WHICH RESULTED IN POOR LOW FREQUENCY ATTENUATION. IN BOTH SETS OF STUDIES, CONVENTIONAL ATTENUATION RATING SCHEMES GREATLY UNDERESTIMATED THE ACTUAL PROTECTION AFFORDED BY THE HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES. DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF THE PRESSURES UNDER THE EARMUFF SHOWED THESE PEAK LEVELS CAN BE AS HIGH AS 182 DB SPL WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS ON HEARING.
KEYWORDS: EXPOSURE LIMITS, HEARING PROTECTION, IMPULSE NOISE, LOW FREQUENCY ATTENTUATION, EARPLUGS
94-49 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2569 DTIC #: ADA289482
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF BINOCULAR OVERLAP MODE ON CONTRAST THRESHOLDS ACROSS THE FIELD-OF-VIEW AS A FUNCTION OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL FREQUENCY
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODES, THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE AND THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODE, HAVE BEEN PROPOSED AS ALTERNATIVES TO THE FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS. IN THE FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE, THE ENTIRE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) IS BINOCULAR. THE PARTIAL OVERLAP DISPLAY MODES INCREASE THE FOV BY REDUCING THE SIZE OF THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION AND INTRODUCING TWO FLANKING MONOCULAR REGIONS. VISUAL SENSITIVITY IS KNOWN TO BE LOWER IN MONOCULAR REGIONS. ANOTHER CONSEQUENCE OF THE PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE IS A PERCEPTUAL EFFECT KNOWN AS LUNING, WHICH IS A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS NEAR THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP BORDER DUE TO DICHOTIC STIMULATION. LUNING HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE MORE SEVERE IN THE DIVERGENT MODE COMPARED TO THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE. THE PURPOSE OF OUR STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF THESE DISPLAY MODES ON VISUAL SENSITIVITY ACROSS THE FOV. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT VISUAL THRESHOLDS WOULD BE HIGHEST IN THE DIVERGENT MODE, WHERE LUNING WAS MOST SEVERE, AND LOWEST IN THE FULL OVERLAP MODE, WHERE THERE WAS NO DICHOTIC STIMULATION. WE MEASURED THE VISUAL THRESHOLD TO PROBE TARGETS ACROSS THE FOV FOR (1) THE FULL OVERLAP, (2) THE CONVERGENT MODE, AND (3) THE DIVERGENT MODE.
KEYWORDS: CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, LUNING, BINOCULAR THRESHOLD, SPATIAL FREQUENCY, TEMPORAL FREQUENCY
94-50 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 367 DTIC #: ADA289543
TITLE: COMPARISON OF AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED USING PURE TONES AND ONE-THIRD OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE AS STIMULI FOR THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, ELMAREE GORDON, JESUS R. CANALES, JULIETA D. SALDIVER, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AUDIOGRAMS WERE OBTAINED FROM CHINCHILLAS USING CONVENTIONAL PURE TONE STIMULI AND USING 1/3 OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE AS STIMULI. THE AVERAGE HEARING THRESHOLD LEVELS IN DB SPL WERE FOUND TO BE COMPARABLE. THE AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED USING THE 1/3 OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE WERE SLIGHTLY MORE RELIABLE (LOWER TEST-RETEST VARIABILITY).
KEYWORDS: HEARING THRESHOLD, AUDIOGRAM, NOISE ATTENTUATION, ANIMAL STUDIES
95-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1510 DTIC #: ADA288517
TITLE: EFFECT OF VIBRATION FREQUENCY AND AMPLITUDE ON DEVELOPING CHICKEN EMBRYOS
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, AL W. MORAN, LINDA C. SHACKELFORD, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FERTILIZED CHICKEN EGGS WERE INCUBATED AND EXPOSED REPEATEDLY TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION FORCES WITH FREQUENCIES RANGING FROM 5 TO 50 HZ, AND AMPLITUDES RANGING FROM 0.09 TO 4.93 GZ(RMS). THE TIMING AND DURATION OF EXPOSURE WERE SELECTED TO MODEL PREGNANT WOMEN FLYING ARMY HELICOPTERS 3 HOURS PER DAY, 5 DAYS PER WEEK.
KEYWORDS: PREGNANCY, WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HELICOPTERS, CHICKEN EMBRYO, CHICKEN EGGS
95-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 551 DTIC #: ADA288957
TITLE: U. S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: TRENDS IN THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS STRATIFIED BY GENDER AND COMPONENT, 1986 TO 1992
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER WAS QUERIED TO ANALYZE THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS FOR THE PERIOD 1986 THROUGH 1992. DETAILED REFERENCE TABLES WERE PUBLISHED SEPARATELY. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES THE FINDINGS EXTRACTED FROM THE REFERENCE TABLES AND SUBJECTS DATA TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. THERE HAS BEEN A SIGNIFICANT AGING OF THE ARMY AVIATOR POPULATION FROM 1986 THROUGH 1992, WHATEVER THE COMPONENT OF SERVICE. MOST OF THE AGING EFFECT IS SEEN IN THE COHORT OF AVIATORS AGE 40 AND OLDER. THIS TREND IS DUE LIKELY TO A MARCHING COHORT OF VIETNAM-ERA AVIATORS WHO ARE APPROACHING MILITARY RETIREMENT AGE. FEMALE AVIATORS ARE SIGNIFICANTLY YOUNGER THAN THEIR MALE PEERS. THIS FINDING IS DUE LIKELY TO THE RECENT RECRUITMENT OF WOMEN INTO ARMY AVIATION DURING THE 1980S. A BIMODAL CURVE EXISTS IN THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS. THIS FINDING IS DUE LIKELY TO TRENDS IN ARMY FORCE STRUCTURE DURING THE VIETNAM WAR BUILDUP, FOLLOWED BY POST-VIETNAM FORCE REDUCTION, AND FOLLOWED BY THE 1980'S COLD WAR BUILDUP. NOW THE ARMY IS UNDERTAKING ANOTHER FORCE REDUCTION IN THIS DECADE.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, AGE, AEDR
95-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 944 DTIC #: ADA290196
TITLE: BIODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF PILOT INTERACTION WITH A HELICOPTER MULTIAIRBAG RESTRAINT SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY STRAWN, NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INTRODUCTION OF AIRBAGS INTO THE HELICOPTER COCKPIT HAS RAISED THE ISSUE OF ACCEPTABLE LIMITS ON THE WEIGHTS OF HELMET-SUPPORTED DEVICES WHICH CAN BE TOLERATED SAFELY BY THE AVIATOR. IT IS HYPOTHESIZED THAT, IF THE ACCEPTABLE INJURY RISK ASSOCIATED WITH CURRENT HELMET-SUPPORTED DEVICES WERE REDUCED WITH THE USE OF AIRBAGS, THEN AN INCREASED IN THE HELMET WEIGHT WOULD NOT NECESSARILY INCREASE THE INJURY RISK ABOVE WHAT IS ACCEPTABLE WITHOUT AN AIRBAG. TO TEST THIS HYPOTHESIS, A BIODYNAMIC SIMULATION SOFTWARE, DYNAMAN, IS USED. BUT FIRST, THE DATA SET WHICH DESCRIBES THE CRASH SCENARIO MUST BE DEVELOPED. THE RESULTS OF THE SIMULATIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN A SEPARATE REPORT. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE INPUT DATA SET REQUIRED BY DYNAMAN TO SIMULATE THE INTERACTION OF A HELICOPTER PILOT WITH A MULTIAIRBAG SYSTEM DURING A SIMULATED CRASH.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAGS, HELICOPTER COCKPIT, HELMET-SUPPORTED DEVICES, SIMULATION, RESTRAINT SYSTEM
95-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1126 DTIC #: ADA289457
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF UH-1 EXPERIENCE ON UH-60 SIMULATOR PERFORMANCE: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES A. SALTER, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JOHN S. CROWLEY, RONALD L. SMITH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EFFORTS TO EXPAND THE POOL OF VOLUNTEERS FOR RESEARCH IN THE UH-60 SIMULATOR PROMPTED USAARL TO DETERMINE WHETHER UH-1 PILOTS COULD BE USED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO UH-60 SUBJECTS. IN THIS QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL PRELIMINARY STUDY, EIGHT UH-1 PILOTS WERE PROVIDED WITH TRAINING IN THE UH-60 SIMULATOR. AFTERWARDS, THEY WERE REQUIRED TO FLY A STANDARDIZED PROFILE, PARTS OF WHICH HAD BEEN USED IN AN EARLIER INVESTIGATION WITH UH-60 PILOTS. THE PERFORMANCE ACCURACY OF THE GROUPS (UH-1 VERSUS UH-60) WERE COMPARED ON EQUIVALENT MANEUVERS. RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE UH-1 PILOTS USED IN THIS INITIAL STUDY ACTUALLY PERFORMED BETTER ON MOST MANEUVERS THAN DID THE UH-60 PILOTS WHO WERE USED IN AN EARLIER INVESTIGATION. THUS, IT APPEARS THAT UH-1 PILOTS, WHO ARE EASIER TO RECRUIT THAT RATED UH-60 PILOTS, MAY BE SUITABLE AS SUBJECTS IN FUTURE SIMULATOR STUDIES INVOLVING BASIC INSTRUMENT PILOTAGE SKILLS. HOWEVER, BEFORE DRAWING DEFINITIVE CONCLUSIONS, THESE RESULTS SHOULD BE REPLICATED IN A CONTROLLED STUDY WHERE THE PILOTS ARE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO TRAINING AND TESTING CONDITIONS DURING A MORE LIMITED TIME FRAME.
KEYWORDS: AVIATORS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, SIMULATOR
95-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 785 DTIC #: ADA298905
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF THE AEROMEDICAL ADMINISTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR U.S. AIR FORCES AND MAJOR ALLIES
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH NUMEROUS INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS PROVIDED FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY OF AIRCREW MEDICAL CATEGORIES FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF AIRCREW VISITING OR JOINTLY SERVING WITH SISTER AIR FORCES OR ALLIED AIR FORCES, THE BASIC ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESSES REMAIN UNIQUE BETWEEN AIR FORCES. PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION REGARDING AEROMEDICAL ADMINISTRATION WOULD FACILITATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF REGULATORY REFERENCES, REQUIRE-MENTS, AND TERMINOLOGY BETWEEN AIR FORCES. A BETTER UNDERSTANDING AND SHARING OF INFORMATION MIGHT PROVIDE FOR FURTHER STANDARDIZATION OF BASIC ADMINISTRATIVE TERMS AND PROCESSES FOR AIRCREW MEDICAL EXAMINATION. THE AIR STANDARDIZATION COORDINATING COMMITTEE TASKED THE U. S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY TO DEVELOP SUCH A PUBLICATION
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE STANDARDIZATION POLICIES
95-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 756 DTIC #: ADA291624
TITLE: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOGRAMMETERY FOR LABORATORY APPLICATIONS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DIRECT LINEAR TRANSFORMATION (DLT) IS A METHOD THAT SIMPLIFIES MEASUREMENTS OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL COORDINATES OF A POINT TARGET IN THE LABORATORY USING PHOTOGRAPHIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGERY. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A PROCEDURE TO IMPLEMENT THE DLT EQUATIONS AND GIVES THE FORTRAN CODE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR THE DLT CALIBRATION OF MULTICAMERA SYSTEM AND 3-D RECONSTRUCTION OF A SINGLE POINT FROM SEVERAL IMAGES.
KEYWORDS: MEASUREMENTS, IMAGERY, COMPUTER PROGRAM, CALIBRATION
95-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 503 DTIC #: ADA291595
TITLE: MILITARY FLYING AND AEROMEDICAL EVALUATION OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS IN MILITARY AIRCREW MEMBERS ARE COMPLEX, AND PERHAPS, MORE AGGRESSIVE THAN CLINICAL CARDIOLOGISTS, INTERNISTS, AND FAMILY PHYSICIANS EXPECT. HOWEVER, THESE POLICIES ARE BASED ON THE NEEDS OF THE SERVICES, MISSION COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS, PUBLIC SAFETY, AND AN EXTENSIVE, ONGOING, OBSERVATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE MILITARY FLYING POPULATION. THIS PAPER SUMMARIES THE GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE FLYING ENVIRONMENT AS THEY RELATE TO CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS. A DISCUSSION OF THE SCREENING PRINCIPLES AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONFOUNDERS IS FOLLOWED BY A SUMMARY OF THE JOINT U.S. AIR FORCE AND U.S. ARMY WAIVER POLICY ON CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS AND FLYING DUTIES.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION PERSONNEL, ARRHYTHMIA
95-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 617 DTIC #: ADA304562
TITLE: REFERENCE FOR THE CAPABILITIES AND PATIENT LOADS OF AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION AIRCRAFT USED BY U.S. AND ALLIED MILITARY AIR FORCES
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MODERN WARFARE, MILITARY POLICE AND HUMANITARIAN ACTIONS, AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS RELY ON THE CONCEPT OF JOINT/COMBINED OPERATIONS BETWEEN OUR SISTER SERVICES AND OUR ALLIES. JOINT/COMBINED OPERATIONS INCLUDE THE AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION OF THE SICK AND INJURED. IN PEACETIME, AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION PLANNERS DEVELOP JOINT/COMBINED OPERATIONS DOCUMENTS TO STANDARDIZE AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION PROCEDURES, POLICIES, AND EQUIPMENT. THE PLANNING PROCESS IDENTIFIED ONE DEFICIENCY AS A RESULT OF DESERT STORM OPERATIONS IN SOUTHWEST ASIA IN 1990/1991. THE DEFICIENCY WAS THE LACK OF A REFERENCE GUIDE FOR INFORMING AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION OPERATORS OF THE PATIENT LOAD CAPABILITIES OF AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION AIRCRAFT. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS TASKED THROUGH THE AIR STANDARDIZATION COORDINATING COMMITTEE, WORKING PARTY 61/115, TO DEVELOP THIS REFERENCE.
KEYWORDS: AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION STANDARDIZATION AIRCRAFT
95-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3552 DTIC #: ADA294895
TITLE: EVALUATION OF A RETROFIT OH-58 PILOT'S SEAT TO PREVENT BACK INJURY
AUTHOR(s): JOE L. HALEY, JR., RONALD W. PALMER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF PILOT AND COPILOT RETROFIT SEATS, FLIGHT TESTS AND EVALUATION OF THE SEATS BASED ON CRASH TESTS, FLIGHT TESTS, AND A 5-YEAR USAGE TEST IN THE USAARL OH-58, SERIAL 71-207781. THE BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON (BHT) DESIGNED SEAT CONSISTS OF A NEW SEAT PAN, HINGED AT THE FORWARD EDGE, AND ATTACHED TO "LOAD-LIMIT" DEVICES AT THE REAR EDGE. THE SEAT WILL ROTATE ABOUT ITS FORWARD EDGE MOUNT AND MOVE DOWNWARD APPROXIMATELY 5 INCHES AT THE REAR EDGE WHEN THE IMPACT SINK SPEED OF THE HELICOPTER IS EXCESSIVE. THE 5-INCH STROKE OF THE SEAT OCCURS WHILE SUSTAINING APPROXIMATELY 12 G ON A 50TH PERCENTILE PILOT (1500-LB MAXIMUM IN THE LOWER LUMBAR SPINE). THE SEATS, MOUNTED IN A STANDARD OH-58 FUSELAGE, WERE SUBJECTED TO SIMULATED "SINK" SPEEDS OF 26.5, 29.6, AND 32.2 FPS. THE SEATS EASILY PREVENTED "INJURY" TO THE DUMMY PILOTS AT 26.5 FPS, BUT THE SEATS "BOTTOMED" AGAINST THE CYCLIC CONTROL YOKE AT GREATER SINK SPEED. THE PROTOTYPE (PILOT AND COPILOT) SEATS ADDED 43.5 POUNDS OF WEIGHT TO THE OH-58, BUT SUGGESTIONS ARE PROVIDED TO REDUCE THE WEIGHT ADDITION TO APPROXIMATELY 20 POUNDS FOR AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION SEATS. THE NONINJURIOUS SINK SPEED CAPABILITY OF THE OH-58 IS INCREASED FROM APPROXIMATELY 15 FPS TO 27 FPS BY THE INCORPORATION OF THIS SIMPLE SEAT DESIGN.
KEYWORDS: CRASHWORTHY, PILOT, SEAT DESIGN, COPILOT, HELICOPTER PILOT
95-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2380 DTIC #: ADA294049
TITLE: OH-58 PILOT DISPLAY UNIT (PDU) SIMULATED CRASH TESTS
AUTHOR(s): JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PILOT DISPLAY UNIT (PDU) IS DESIGNED TO BE PLACED DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF THE PILOT'S EYES IN THE OH-58 HELICOPTER TO PROVIDE TARGETING AND MISSILE STATUS DISPLAY. THE LOCATION AND THE 7-POUND MASS OF THE UNIT CREATES A POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS HEAD IMPACT SURFACE. IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE OF THE HAZARD, A DAMAGED OH-58 COCKPIT SECTION WAS EXPOSED TO FIVE SURVIVABLE SIMULATED CRASHES OF MODERATE TO SEVERE IMPACT VECTORS WITH AN INSTRUMENTED DUMMY PILOT IN THE RIGHT SEAT BEHIND THE PDU. THE COCKPIT FLOOR WAS EXPOSED TO CRASH FORCE UP TO 8 G IN THE VERTICAL (Z) AXIS AND 19 G ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL (X) AXIS WITH VELOCITY CHANGES OF 24 FPS AND 36 FPS, RESPECTIVELY. THESE EXPOSURES DID NOT EXCEED ACCEPTABLE LEVELS OF HUMAN TOLERANCE FOR NECK AND HEAD FORCES WHEN A PROPERLY FITTED FLIGHT HELMET WAS WORN SO THAT IMPACT OCCURRED ON THE HELMET AND NOT THE HEAD.
KEYWORDS: OH-58, PILOT DISPLAY UNIT, CRASH TEST, HEAD INJURY, CRASH INJURIES
95-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1179 DTIC #: ADA291662
TITLE: MANIKIN INTEGRATED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (MIDAS) INITIAL MODIFICATIONS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, JAMES A. LEWIS, ROBERT M. DILLARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PROTOTYPE MANIKIN WITH INTERNAL DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (MIDAS) HAS BEEN DEVELOPED AND RECEIVED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. IN ADDITION TO A NOVEL DESIGN OF THE SPINAL COLUMN AND PELVIS OF THE HYBRID III AUTOMOTIVE MANIKIN, THE NEW MIDAS INCLUDES A BUILT-IN SIGNAL CONDITIONING AND ACQUISITION ELECTRONICS. THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE INITIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE MANIKIN AND INCLUDES A DESCRIPTION OF THE EXTERNAL SOFTWARE (MIDAS 3.0) FOR CONTROL, COMMUNICATION, AND POSTTEST DOWNLOADING AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA.
KEYWORDS: PROTOTYPE, MANIKIN, CRASH TESTING, DATA ACQUISITION, ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICE, INJURY ASSESSMENT
95-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 572 DTIC #: ADA291856
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: GENDER-SPECIFIC ATTRITION AMONG THE U.S. ARMY STUDENT AVIATOR CLASS OF 1987
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, JENNIFER P. HARPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: GRADUATED AVIATORS FROM THE U. S. ARMY STUDENT AVIATOR COHORT OF THE CLASS OF 1987 WERE FOLLOWED IN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR 6 YEARS TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS A GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCE IN ATTRITION FROM AVIATION SERVICE. OVERALL, 30 PERCENT ATTRITION WAS FOUND IN 6 YEARS OF OBSERVATION FOLLOWING INITIAL AVIATOR TRAINING. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCE IN ATTRITION (P>0.05, LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS).
KEYWORDS: AVIATION PERSONNEL, AVIATION MEDICINE, MEDICAL STANDARDS
95-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1280 DTIC #: ADA293086
TITLE: DESIGN OF DIGITAL LOW-PASS FILTERS FOR TIME-DOMAIN RECURSIVE FILTERING OF IMPACT ACCELERATION SIGNALS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH ALEM, MATTHEW PERRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT IS TO PRESENT SIMPLIFIED AND PORTABLE COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT RECURSIVE DIGITAL BUTTERWORTH FILTERS. THE DESIGN METHOD DESCRIBED IN THE REPORT USES THE BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION TO CONVERT THE WELL ESTABLISHED ANALOG DESIGN TO DIGITAL FORMULATION. FORTRAN CODES FOR THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FILTER ARE INCLUDED IN THE REPORT. THE RESULTING DESIGN IS COMPARED TO ANOTHER FILTER PROPOSED IN SAE J211 GUIDELINE FOR FILTERING IMPACT ACCELERATION SIGNALS. ALTHOUGH BOTH DESIGN METHODS PRODUCED FILTERS WHICH ARE WITHIN CORRIDORS PRESCRIBED IN THE J211 GUIDELINE, THE STANDARD DESIGN PRODUCES A BUTTERWORTH-LIKE RESPONSE WHEREAS THE J211 DESIGN DOES NOT. ADDITIONALLY, THE STANDARD DESIGN METHODS AND THE IMPLEMENTATION ALGORITHMS ALLOW THE DESIGN OF ANY EVEN-ORDER FILTER WHICH MAY BE REQUIRED FOR FILTERING OTHER LONG DURATION SIGNALS.
KEYWORDS: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, RECURSIVE DIGITAL FILTERS, IMPACT TESTING
95-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 490 DTIC #: ADA293310
TITLE: LUMINANCE EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AND SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF LUMINANCE ON VISUAL ACUITY (VA) AND SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (SLCS). COMPUTER-GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VA AND SLCS [6/7.5 (20/25) SNELLEN EQUIVALENT] AS A FUNCTION OF STIMULUS LUMINANCE. LETTER SIZE (VA) AND CONTRAST (SLCS) WERE VARIED IN EQUAL LOGARITHMIC STEPS, MAKING THE TASK AND SCORING PROCEDURE COMPARABLE FOR THE TWO TYPES OF MEASUREMENT. BOTH VA AND SLCS DECREASED WITH DECREASING LUMINANCE, BUT THE EFFECT WAS FAR GREATER IN THE CONTRAST DOMAIN. REDUCING LUMINANCE FROM 116 CD/M2 TO 0.23 CD/M2 PRODUCED A 3 X REDUCTION IN VA, BUT A 17 X REDUCTION IN SLCS. THE GREATER SENSITIVITY OF SLCS TO LUMINANCE ENDURED EVEN AFTER CORRECTION FOR GREATER MEASUREMENT VARIABILITY. SLCS IS A SENSITIVE APPROACH FOR DETECTING RESOLUTION LOSS UNDISCLOSED BY STANDARD MEASURES OF VA. IT MAY BE USEFUL FOR MONITORING VISUAL LOSS FROM LIGHT ATTENUATION IN EARLY CATARACTS, AND FOR DETECTING SUBTLE RESOLUTION LOSS FROM NEURAL OR PATHOLOGIC FACTORS IN OCULAR AND NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGIC DISEASE.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, LUMINANCE, RESOLUTION
95-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 374 DTIC #: ADA293311
TITLE: SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY: AN ALTERNATE MEASURE OF VISUAL RESOLUTION FOR AVIATION CANDIDATES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXCEPTIONAL VISION IS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN HIGH LEVELS OF AVIATION PERFORMANCE. CURRENT STANDARDS FOR HELICOPTER PILOT TRAINING INCLUDE SUPERIOR VISUAL ACUITY WITH MINIMAL REFRACTIVE ERROR. DESPITE THESE DEMANDING CRITERIA, IT IS LIKELY THAT VISUAL ABILITY VARIES AMONG THOSE WHO MEET THE STANDARDS FOR PILOT TRAINING. A MORE COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF VISUAL CAPABILITIES IN THESE INDIVIDUALS WILL ALLOW US TO BETTER CORRELATE VISION WITH PERFORMANCE AND TO DEVELOP MORE CRITERIA FOR SELECTION. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE AN ALTERNATIVE TEST OF VISUAL RESOLUTION FOR AVIATION CANDIDATES USING SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (SLCS). COMPUTER-GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VISUAL ACUITY (VA) AND SLCS IN 16 CANDIDATES WHO HAD SATISFIED MILITARY VISION STANDARDS FOR PILOT TRAINING. THE ACUITY AND CONTRAST CHARTS VARIED, BY LINE, IN EQUAL LOG STEPS SUCH THAT THE LETTER RECOGNITION TASK WAS COMPARABLE FOR THE TWO TYPES OF MEASUREMENT. VA AND SLCS WERE HIGHLY CORRELATED IN THESE SUBJECTS, INDICATING THAT THE TWO TESTS MEASURE SIMILAR ASPECTS OF VISUAL RESOLUTION. SCORES WERE DISTRIBUTED ACROSS TWO LINES IN THE ACUITY CHART, BUT ACROSS FOUR LINES ON CONTRAST CHART, SUGGESTING THAT SLCS OFFERS A MORE DISCRIMINATING TEST OF RESOLUTION. THIS ASSUMPTION WAS CONFIRMED IN THAT SLCS WAS MORE HIGHLY CORRELATED WITH SMALL AMOUNTS OF REFRACTIVE ERROR IN THE CANDIDATES TESTED. SLCS OFFERS A SENSITIVE, ADJUNCTIVE MEASURE OF VISUAL RESOLUTION WHICH MAY BE USEFUL FOR IDENTIFYING THE UNIQUE VISUAL ABILITIES REQUIRED FOR AVIATION.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, VISION TESTS, VISUAL RESOLUTION
95-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 568 DTIC #: ADA293307
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS AMONG FEMALE ARMY AVIATOR TRAINING APPLICANTS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONGRESS HAS DIRECTED STUDIES OF WOMEN IN THE MILITARY. THE FREQUENCY AND CAUSES OF MEDICAL DISQUALIFICATION FOR FEMALE APPLICANTS TO ARMY AVIATOR TRAINING ARE UNKNOWN. THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER WAS QUERIED TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF A COHORT OF FEMALE APPLICANTS TO ARMY AVIATOR TRAINING FOR CALENDAR YEARS 1987 TO 1990.
KEYWORDS: AEROMEDICAL STANDARDS, FEMALE AVIATORS
95-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1070 DTIC #: ADA294047
TITLE: USER ACCEPTABILITY AND COMFORT OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) WHEN USED IN THE UH-1 HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY, JOHN E. RIBERA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS AND CREWMEMBERS ASSIGNED TO THE CRASH RESCUE (FLATIRON) UNIT AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, PARTICIPATED IN AN EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. THEY WERE ASKED TO WEAR THE TWO CEP CONFIGURATIONS IN COMBINATION WITH THEIR PERSONAL SPH-4 HELMET FOR THREE FLIGHTS OF AT LEAST 1 HOUR DURATION. ONE CEP CONFIGURATION INCLUDED A FOAM TIP AND THE OTHER INCLUDED A PREMOLDED TRIPLE FLANGE TIP. COMMENTS AND RESPONSES PROVIDED BY THE VOLUNTEERS SHOWED THE CEP, WITH SOME MODIFICATIONS, IS ACCEPTABLE FOR USE IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. SPEECH CLARITY OF THE CEP WAS JUDGED TO BE AN IMPROVEMENT OVER NORMAL HELMET/EAR PROTECTION BY 85 PERCENT OF THE RESPONDENTS. THE CEP WITH FOAM TIP WAS JUDGED MORE COMFORTABLE THAN CEP WITH THE TRIPLE FLANGE TIP. COMFORT WAS JUDGED TO BE BETWEEN COMFORTABLE AND MILDLY UNCOMFORTABLE FOR THE CEP WITH FOAM EARPLUG TIP. THE VOLUNTEERS RATED THE CEP AS BEING HELPFUL IN ACHIEVING THEIR MISSION. THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY SHOW THE CEP IS COMFORTABLE AND ACCEPTABLE TO THE AVIATION CREWMEMBER.
KEYWORDS: EARPLUG, HEARING PROTECTION, NOISE LEVELS, COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY, EXPOSURE LEVEL, NOISE REDUCTION
95-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 646 DTIC #: ADA294045
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: COMPARISON OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECT OF HISTORICAL AND PROPOSED HEARING STANDARDS FOR ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL ACTIVITY, U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL CENTER, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, REQUESTED A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT AND PROPOSED U.S. ARMY CLASS 2 AVIATOR HEARING STANDARDS TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECT OF CHANGING TO THE PROPOSED FROM THE CURRENT STANDARDS IN 1995. THE BACKGROUND SECTION COMPARED ONE HISTORICAL HEARING STANDARD FROM 1980 TO THE CURRENT (1983), AND PROPOSED (1995), HEARING STANDARDS. THE APPLICATION OF THE AVIATOR HEARING STANDARDS IN A HEARING CONSERVATION, PUBLIC HEALTH PROTOCOL WAS DESCRIBED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR, HEARING STANDARDS
95-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1248 DTIC #: ADA295035
TITLE: TRANSMITTANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT TRANSPARENCIES
AUTHOR(s): SEAN L. WENTWORTH, EVERETTE MCGOWIN III, REBECCA H. IVEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS A SURVEY OF THE SPECTRAL AND LUMINOUS TRANSMITTANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSPARENCIES (WINDSCREENS) USED IN CURRENTLY FIELDED U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. THE SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED IN TWO PHASES. IN THE FIRST PHASE, SAMPLES OF WINDSCREENS FROM EACH AIRCRAFT TYPE WERE EVALUATED IN THE LABORATORY FOR PHOTOTOPIC (DAY) AND SCOTOPIC (NIGHT) LUMINOUS TRANSMITTANCE. THE SPECTRAL TRANSMITTANCE OF EACH SAMPLE ALSO WAS MEASURED. BASED ON LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF UNUSED SAMPLES, ALL WINDSCREENS MET SPECIFICATIONS. HOWEVER, FIELD MEASUREMENTS ON WINDSCREENS SHOWED CONSISTENT FAILURE OF LUMINOUS TRANSMITTANCE REQUIREMENTS. THIS LOSS OF TRANSMITTANCE IS ATTRIBUTED TO HAZE RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.
KEYWORDS: WINDSCREEN, TRANSPARENCY, OPTICAL TESTING
95-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 410 DTIC #: ADA294041
TITLE: EVALUATING THE POTENTIAL FOR ROTATION AND LOSS OF FLIGHT HELMETS FROM INERTIA AND IMPACT LOADS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SEVERE HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS, FLIGHT HELMETS ROTATE OR SOMETIMES COME OFF THE HEAD, TRIGGERING WEARER INJURY. THIS STUDY EVALUATES ROTATION POTENTIAL FOR NEW FLIGHT HELMETS. CURRENT AND PROTOTYPE FLIGHT HELMETS (SPH-4B AND TWO VERSIONS OF THE HGU-56) WERE SUBJECTED TO THREE TESTS. FIRST, ROTATION WAS MEASURED WITH UP TO A 50-POUND UPWARD PULL AT THE REAR EDGE OF THE HELMET ON A MEDIUM SIZE HEADFORM. SECOND, ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT WAS MEASURED WITH A 30-POUND FORCE AT THE SIDE OF THE HELMET. THIRD, THE HELMET WAS PLACED ON A HYBRID II HEADFORM AND HYBRID III NECK, THEN MOUNTED ON A PENDULUM TEST DEVICE. THE FREEFALLING PENDULUM WAS DECELERATED TO PRODUCE 16 TO 20 G PEAK ACCELERATION AT THE NECK. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT OF THE HELMET VERSUS TIME WAS MEASURED WITH HIGH SPEED VIDEO.
KEYWORDS: FLIGHT HELMETS, HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS, ROTATION, ACCELERATION
95-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 442 DTIC #: ADA294893
TITLE: TWO EYES ARE BETTER THAN ONE: BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT IN THE CONTRAST DOMAIN
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE THE IMPROVEMENT IN VISUAL ACUITY (VA) WITH THE IMPROVEMENT IN CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (CS) WITH TWO EYES AS COMPARED WITH ONE. COMPUTER GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VA AND SMALL LETTER CS (20/25 SNELLEN EQUIVALENT) IN 13 EMMETROPIC SUBJECTS. LETTER SIZE (FOR VA) AND CONTRAST (FOR CS) WERE VARIED IN EQUAL LOG STEPS MAKING THE TASK COMPARABLE FOR THE TWO TYPES OF MEASUREMENT. VA IMPROVED BY AN AVERAGE OF 10% (2-3 LETTERS) WHILE CS IMPROVED BY AN AVERAGE OF 40% (1 1/2 LINES) WHEN TESTED WITH TWO EYES AS COMPARED WITH ONE. GREATER SENSITIVITY IN THE CONTRAST DOMAIN PREVAILED EVEN WHEN EXPRESSED RELATIVE TO VARIABILITY. USING THIS APPROACH, BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT WAS IDENTIFIED IN 8/13 SUBJECTS WITH CS, BUT IN ONLY 4/13 SUBJECTS WITH VA. BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT OF LETTER RECOGNITION OCCURS IN BOTH SIZE AND CONTRAST DOMAINS. HOWEVER, THE EFFECT IS 4X GREATER WHEN SMALL LETTERS ARE VARIED IN CONTRAST RATHER THAN SIZE. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS ARE CONSIDERED.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT, BINOCULAR SUMMATION
95-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 256 DTIC #: ADA296750
TITLE: OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS, A NEW TOOL FOR HEARING CONSERVATION TESTING
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, JOHN E. RIBERA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCHERS AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY ARE INVESTIGATING A REVOLUTIONARY HEARING TEST CALLED OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS (OAES). WITH OAE TESTING, AN ARMY AIRCREW MEMBER'S ANNUAL HEARING TEST WILL BE REDUCED TO LISTENING PASSIVELY TO A FEW TONES FOR A FEW SECONDS. THE PAPER DESCRIBES THE METHOD OF CONDUCTING OAE TESTING AND PRESENTS FIGURES TO DEMONSTRATE FINDINGS. THE ADVANTAGES OF OAE ARE TABULATED.
KEYWORDS: OTOACOUSTIC EMISSION, AUDIOGRAM, HEARING CONSERVATION
95-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3045 DTIC #: ADA296737
TITLE: U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING EMERGENCY EGRESS STUDY
AUTHOR(s): TIMOTHY R. SWINGLE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN SUPPORT OF A NATO AGARD (ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT) EFFORT TO SURVEY EMERGENCY EGRESS MECHANISMS FOR ALL HELICOPTERS. THIS PARTICULAR STUDY DEALS WITH U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS. THE STUDY CONSISTS OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EACH EXIT SYSTEM, AND A BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF THE EMERGENCY EGRESS PROCEDURE INCLUDING: LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATING MECHANISM, LOCATION OF AND EASE OF VIEWING THE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS, FORCE REQUIRED TO OPERATE, DIRECTION OF OPENING, SIZE OF APERTURE AND RESTRICTIONS TO EVACUATION, OVERALL EASE OF OPERATION AND ACCESS FOR CREWS, AND EXTENT OF INSTRUCTIONS IN THE OPERATOR'S MANUAL.
KEYWORDS: EMERGENCY EXIT, EGRESS, HELICOPTER EXIT, NATO, AGARD
95-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1613 DTIC #: ADA299102
TITLE: A NOVEL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT DISPLAY TO MINIMIZE THE RISKS OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
AUTHOR(s): SIMON J. DURNFORD, SHANNON L. DEROCHE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A NOVEL INSTRUMENT DISPLAY DESIGNED TO REDUCE COGNITIVE WORKLOAD WAS TESTED AGAINST A STANDARD INSTRUMENT PANEL USING A HELICOPTER MOCKUP LINKED TO A COMPUTER FLIGHT SIMULATOR. BOTH PILOTS AND NONPILOTS WERE USED AS SUBJECTS AND TESTS INVOLVED RECOVERY FROM UNUSUAL AIRCRAFT ATTITUDES AS WELL AS FLIGHT MANEUVERING INSTRUMENTS. THE NOVEL DISPLAY INCORPORATES HEADING, SPEED, ROLL, AND PITCH INTO A SINGLE TRACKING TASK. USERS SET THE DESIRED HEADING AND THE DESIRED SPEED (AND THE DESIRED ALTITUDE AND GLIDE PATH). THE DISPLAY THEN GUIDES CONTROL MOVEMENTS TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN THE DESIRED PARAMETERS. RESULTS FROM THE UNUSUAL ATTITUDES EXPERIMENT SHOWED SIGNIFICANT BENEFITS FROM THE NOVEL DISPLAY, EVIDENT IN IMPROVED PERFORMANCE ON A SECONDARY TASK (NOISE IDENTIFICATION) AND REDUCED CONTROL INPUT ERRORS. RESULTS FROM THE FLYING PORTION OF THE STUDY SHOWED SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AT THE SECONDARY TASK TOGETHER WITH IMPROVED SPEED CONTROL WHEN USING THE NEW DISPLAY, ALTHOUGH HEADING CONTROL WAS REDUCED. FURTHER MODIFICATIONS TO THE NEW DISPLAY HAVE BEEN INTRODUCED SINCE THESE INITIAL EXPERIMENTS, AND FURTHER TESTING SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT USING DYNAMIC DISPLAYS DURING UNUSUAL ATTITUDES AND CONTINUAL DATA COLLECTION DURING FLIGHT. THE DISPLAY SHOULD BE DEVELOPED FURTHER TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO UTILIZE IT IN A HUD OR OTHER NVD AND TO GIVE IT THE CAPABILITY TO DISPLAY HOVER INFORMATION.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ROTARY-WING, INSTRUMENTS, DISPLAYS
95-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1675 DTIC #: ADA298147
TITLE: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION: A SURVEY OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS 1987-1992
AUTHOR(s): SIMON J. DURNFORD, JOHN S. CROWLEY, NORBERTO R. ROSADO, JENNIFER HARPER, SHANNON DEROCHE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL CLASS A-C U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS FOR THE PERIOD MAY 87 TO APR 92 WERE REVIEWED BY THREE FLIGHT SURGEONS ACTING INDEPENDENTLY. THOSE ACCIDENTS IN WHICH SPATIAL DISORIENTATION WAS CONSIDERED TO HAVE PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE WERE IDENTIFIED AND COMPARED TO THOSE IN WHICH SPATIAL DISORIENTATION PLAYED NO PART. IN ADDITION, AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FACTORS BEHIND EACH SPATIAL DISORIENTATION ACCIDENT TOGETHER WITH POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ACCIDENTS, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, ROTARY-WING, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
95-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 326 DTIC #: ADA304622
TITLE: COMMUNICATION EARPLUG AND ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION: HEARING PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIR WARRIOR
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) PARTICIPATED IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF TWO EMERGING HEARING PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS: COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) AND ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION (ANR). AIR WARRIOR IS A PROGRAM TO DEVELOP THE NEXT GENERATION, INTEGRATED, AIRCREW LIFE SUPPORT, AND COMBAT PROTECTION ENSEMBLE. THE CEP OR ANR MAY BE PART OF THE AIR WARRIOR HEARING PROTECTION STRATEGY. THIS ARTICLE COMPARES THE TWO TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPATIBILITY WITH THE ARMY AIRCREW MEMBER HELMET AND AIRCRAFT INTERNAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS. IN THEIR CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT, CEP PROVIDES BETTER HEARING PROTECTION, SPEECH DISCRIMINATION, AND CRASH PROTECTION, LOWER WEIGHT AND COST, AND LESS NEED TO MODIFY EXISTING AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS COMPARED TO ANR.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, HEARING PROTECTION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, EARPLUG
95-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4379 DTIC #: ADA299105
TITLE: SUSTAINING FEMALE UH-60 HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE WITH DEXEDRINE DURING SUSTAINED OPERATIONS: A SIMULATOR STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN CALDWELL, JOHN CROWLEY, LYNN CALDWELL, HEBER JONES, STEPHEN DARLING, SHYLONDA WALLACE, ANDRE PEGUES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFICACY OF DEXEDRINE FOR SUSTAINING THE PERFORMANCE OF SIX FEMALE UH-60 PILOTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF MODERATE SLEEP DEPRIVATION WAS DETERMINED. EACH SUBJECT WAS EXPOSED TO 1 WEEK OF TESTING WHICH INCLUDED TWO 40-HOUR SLEEP DEPRIVATION PERIODS. DURING BOTH DEPRIVATION PERIODS, THERE WERE FIVE EQUALLY-SPACED TEST SESSIONS, EACH OF WHICH INCLUDED A UH-60 SIMULATOR FLIGHT, AN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) EVALUATION, A TEST ON THE MICROSOFT FLIGHT SIMULATOR, A PROFILE OF MOOD STATES QUESTIONNAIRE, AND A COGNITIVE EVALUATION ON THE SYNTHETIC WORK BATTERY. THESE TESTING SESSIONS BEGAN AT 0100, 0500, 0900, 1300, AND 1700. DURING ONE OF THE DEPRIVATION PERIODS, SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED A 10-MG DOSE OF DEXEDRINE 1 HOUR PRIOR TO EACH OF THE FIRST THREE SESSIONS (FOR A TOTAL OF 30 MG). DURING THE OTHER DEPRIVATION PERIOD, SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED PLACEBOS. A DOUBLE-BLIND ADMINISTRATION SCHEME WAS USED. VITAL SIGNS WERE MONITORED AT REGULAR INTERVALS THROUGHOUT THE STUDY.
KEYWORDS: FEMALES, DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM, SLEEP DEPRIVATION
95-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 793 DTIC #: ADA296977
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INCIDENCE OF COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY AMONG U.S. ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, MICHAEL J. SLATTERY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CHIEF, VISUAL SCIENCES BRANCH, U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, REQUESTED A DETERMINATION OF THE INCIDENCE OF COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY AMONG ARMY AVIATORS. AS WE ENTER THE NEXT CENTURY, THE COLOR VISION REQUIREMENTS OF ARMY AVIATORS WILL INCREASE WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF MULTICOLORED DISPLAYS. SINCE AVIATOR TRAINING APPLICANTS ARE DISQUALIFIED ROUTINELY FROM TRAINING DUE TO COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, THERE SHOULD BE NO AVIATORS WITH COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY. HOWEVER, THIS PAPER DETAILS INCIDENTS OF EXCEPTION TO POLICY FOR KNOWN COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, ACQUIRED COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, AND AVIATION MEDICINE CLINIC SCREENING PROGRAM FAILURES DUE TO POOR METHODS OR DECEPTION BY APPLICANTS AND CONSPIRATORS. THE IN-FLIGHT EVALUATION OF AVIATORS DISCOVERED TO HAVE COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY IS DESCRIBED.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, COLOR BLINDNESS, COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, AEDR
95-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 630 DTIC #: ADA298377
TITLE: A CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW LUMINANCE STATIC AND DYNAMIC MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION CURVES FOR P-1 P-43, AND P-53 PHOSPHORS
AUTHOR(s): HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, VICTOR KLYMENKO, THOMAS H. HARDING, ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COUNTERPHASE MODULATION TECHNIQUE IS USED TO MEASURE THE STATIC AND DYNAMIC MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR THREE PHOSPHORS OF CURRENT INTEREST TO U.S. ARMY AVIATION HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (P-1, P-43, AND P-53). A FAMILY OF MODULATION TRANSFER CURVES, ONE FOR EACH TEMPORAL FREQUENCY, IS PRESENTED FOR EACH PHOSPHOR. THE MEASURED MFT CURVES GENERALLY SUPPORT THE SUPPOSITION THAT PHOSPHOR PERSISTENCE IS A CRITICAL PARAMETER IN THE ABILITY OF A CRT DISPLAY TO ACCURATELY REPRODUCE CONTRAST MODULATION TRANSFER IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE QUALITY, CRT, MEASUREMENT, MFT, TV
95-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 957 DTIC #: ADA298780
TITLE: VIDEO METHOD OF MEASURING FIELD-OF-VIEW OF ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES VERSUS EYE CLEARANCE
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A MINIATURE CHARGED COUPLE DEVICE (CCD) VIDEO CAMERA WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE FIELDS-OF-VIEW (FOV) WITH CHANGES IN VIEWING DISTANCES (VERTEX DISTANCE) FOR THE STANDARD 18-MM EYEPIECE ANVIS, A 25-MM EYEPIECE ANVIS, AND TWO DIFFERENT DIAMETER NONOPTICAL APERTURES. THE DATA WERE GRAPHED AND COMPARED WITH THEORETICAL AND SUBJECTIVE VALUES (KOTULAK, 1992) FOR FOVS VERSUS EYE CLEARANCE FOR THE STANDARD 18-MM EYEPIECE ANVIS. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE VIDEO CAMERA USED IN THIS STUDY APPROXIMATES BOTH THE THEORETICAL AND SUBJECTIVELY MEASURED FOV VERSUS EYE CLEARANCE FUNCTIONS WITH SLIGHT DEVIATION. COMPUTER GENERATED RAY TRACES AND SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT WITH THE 25-MM EYEPIECE CONFIRMED THAT THE MARGINAL RAYS FOR THE MAXIMUM VIEWABLE FOVS WERE BLOCKED AT THE DESIGNED EYE POSITION BY THE APERTURE ON THE BACK PLATE IN FRONT OF THE FIBER OPTIC TWIST OF THE INTENSIFIER TUBE.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, ELECTRO-OPTICAL, ANVIS, EYEPIECE, OPTIC
95-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1683 DTIC #: ADA300599
TITLE: ANVIS COMPATIBILITY WITH HGU-56/P HELMET
AUTHOR(s): DEBORAH R. TOWNS, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PHYSICAL COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENTS OF THE AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEMS (ANVIS) WERE COMPLETED ON SUBJECTS WEARING THE HGU-56/P. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM 172 SUBJECTS PARTICIPATING IN A HELMET FITTING STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE FITTED WITH THE HGU-56/P DEVELOPER-RECOMMENDED HELMET SIZE BASED ON HEAD LENGTH AND UP TO TWO ADDITIONAL SIZES (SMALLER AND LARGER). ON SEVERAL SUBJECTS, COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENTS INCLUDED THE M-43A1, TYPE 2, PROTECTIVE MASK. ADDITIONAL MEASUREMENTS OF MINIMUM ANVIS EYE CLEARANCE USING RIGID HEADFORMS WERE TAKEN TO COMPARE WITH SIMILAR DATA OBTAINED FROM THE SUBJECTS. OUR RESULTS INDICATE (1) MOST SUBJECTS ACHIEVED ACCEPTABLE ANVIS MECHANICAL COMPATIBILITY AND ACCEPTABLE EYE RELIEF WHILE WEARING THE HGU-56/P, (2) PLACEMENT OF THE ANVIS MOUNT HIGHER ON THE VISOR COVER WILL INCREASE COMPATIBILITY, (3) FITTING ONE SIZE LARGER THAN THE DEVELOPER-HELMET SIZE PROBABLY WILL BE REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE ACCEPTABLE AND COMFORTABLE FIT WHILE WEARING THE PROTECTIVE MASK.
KEYWORDS: FLIGHT HELMET, FITTING, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HGU-56/P
95-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 874 DTIC #: ADA300598
TITLE: PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU)
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU) OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) OF THE AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER WAS EVALUATED TO ESTABLISH BASELINE DATA FOR PERFORMANCE FIGURES-OF-MERIT FOR COMPARISON OF FUTURE HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY DESIGNS. MEASURED PARAMETERS INCLUDED PHYSICAL AND OPTICAL EYE RELIEF, EXIT PUPIL SIZE, AND POSITION, FIELD-OF-VIEW, LUMINANCE RANGE, TRANSMITTANCE AND REFLECTANCE CHARACTERISTICS, AND STATIC AND TEMPORAL RESPONSE.
KEYWORDS: AH-64, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT, TESTING AND EVALUATION, OPTICAL PERFORMANCE
95-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 344 DTIC #: ADA299586
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INCIDENCE AND AGE-SPECIFIC RATES OF HERNIATED NUCLEUS AMONG U.S. ARMY AVIATORS, 1987-1992
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, JENNIFER P. HARPER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) WAS QUERIED FOR LISTINGS OF ARMY AVIATORS WITH THE FINDING OF HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS (HNP) FOR THE 6-YEAR PERIOD OF 1987 TO 1992. THIS STUDY TABULATED THE INCIDENCE, AGE-SPECIFIC ANNUAL RATES OF HNP, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF AEROMEDICAL DISPOSITIONS FOR AIRCREW WITH HNP. THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION MEDICINE COMMUNITY CAN EXPECT AN ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATE ABOUT 1 CASE OF HNP PER 1,000 AVIATOR YEARS. HOWEVER, THE INCIDENCE RATE IS INCREASING. AVIATORS ABOUT AGE 40 WERE AT THE GREATEST RISK. ABOUT 7.4 PERCENT OF THE AVIATORS WITH HNP WERE REMOVED PERMANENTLY FROM ARMY FLYING DUTIES DUE TO HNP COMPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, INCIDENCE, HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS
95-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7312 DTIC #: ADA301135
TITLE: UTILIZATION OF VISUAL PORTS IN U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): REBECCA H. IVEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, RICHARD R. LEVINE, SEAN L. WENTWORTH, EVERETTE MCGOWIN III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE LOCATION AND EXTENT OF VISUAL PORTS (WINDOWS) IN U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT AND ASSESS UTILIZATION AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS. THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN THREE PARTS: FIRST, THE VISUAL PORTS OF EACH AIRCRAFT TYPE WERE DOCUMENTED THROUGH VISUAL PLOTS AND PHOTOGRAPHY. SECOND, QUESTIONNAIRE DATA FOR 334 AVIATORS AND CREWMEN ADDRESSING THE USE OF AN PROBLEMS WITH EACH VISUAL PORT WERE COLLECTED AND ANALYZED. THIRD, A SEARCH OF THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER ACCIDENT DATABASE WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY THE FREQUENCY OF ACCIDENTS IN WHICH IMPAIRED VISION WAS A POSSIBLE FACTOR.
KEYWORDS: WINDSCREEN, TRANSPARENCY, UTILIZATION
95-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 828 DTIC #: ADA302238
TITLE: OPTICAL COMPENSATION FOR NIGHT MYOPIA ON DARK FOCUS AND AC/C RATIO
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE, JEFFREY C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PURPOSE. TO DETERMINE WHETHER INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN DARK FOCUS AND CONVERGENCE ACCOMMODATION TO CONVERGENCY (CA/C) RATIO CAN BE USED TO PRESCRIBE THE BEST OPTICAL CORRECTION FOR NIGHT MYOPIA. METHODS. THE BEST CORRECTION FOR NIGHT MYOPIA WAS OBTAINED BY MEASURING VISUAL ACUITY AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY ACROSS A RANGE OF LENS POWERS AND LUMINANCES. DARK FOCUS WAS MEASURED WITH AN INFRARED OPTOMETER, AND CA/C RATIO WAS MEASURED WITH AN INFRARED OPTOMETER AND EYE TRACKER. ONLY YOUNG SUBJECTS WERE USED (MEAN AGE = 25.4 YEARS).
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REFRACTIVE ERROR, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
95-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 477 DTIC #: ADA300597
TITLE: TIME-LIMITED VISUAL RESOLUTION IN PILOT TRAINEES
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SUPERIOR VISION IS NEEDED FOR PILOTING AIRCRAFT IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ENVIRONMENTS. ALTHOUGH VISUAL EVALUATIONS OF POTENTIAL PILOTS TYPICALLY ARE CONDUCTED WITH NO LIMIT ON VIEWING TIME, AVIATION AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS REQUIRE SUPERIOR VISION UNDER TIME-LIMITED VIEWING CONDITIONS, AND ASSESSMENT OF THIS CAPABILITY IS NEEDED. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE TIME-LIMITED VISUAL RESOLUTION IN PILOT TRAINEES. A FORCED-CHOICE LETTER RECOGNITION TASK WAS USED TO MEASURE VISUAL ACUITY (VA) AND SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (SLCS) IN 37 TRAINEES WHO HAD SATISFIED ALL VISION REQUIREMENTS FOR PILOT TRAINING. VA AND SLCS WERE HIGHLY CORRELATED (R=0.76) INDICATING THAT THE TWO TESTS MEASURE SIMILAR ASPECTS OF VISUAL RESOLUTION. HOWEVER, ALTHOUGH VA SCORES WERE DISTRIBUTED ACROSS 0.16 LOG UNITS (TWO LINES OF LETTERS ON A VA CHART), SLCS SCORES VARIED ACROSS 0.35 LOG UNITS, WHICH IS NEARLY FOUR LINES ON THE SLCS CHART. THE VARIATION IN SLCS PERFORMANCE COULD BE EXPLAINED, IN PART, BY SUBTLE REFRACTIVE ERROR IN PILOT TRAINEES. THE RESULTS EXEMPLIFY DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE AMONG VISUALLY QUALIFIED TRAINEES, AND UNDERSCORE THE NEED FOR PROPER REFRACTIVE CORRECTION. SLCS IS A USEFUL SCREENING TEST FOR IDENTIFYING SUBTLE CHANGES IN VISION THAT HERALD THE NEED FOR OPTICAL OR MEDICAL INTERVENTION.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, VISUAL TESTING
95-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 621 DTIC #: ADA300600
TITLE: EFFECTS OF HEAD SUPPORTED DEVICES ON PILOT PERFORMANCE DURING SIMULATED HELICOPTER RIDES
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, MARTIN D. MEYER, JOHN P. ALBANO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EFFECTS OF HELMET WEIGHT MOMENTS ON HELICOPTER PILOT FATIGUE AND PERFORMANCE DURING EXTENDED MISSIONS WERE EVALUATED IN A STUDY IN WHICH 12 VOLUNTEER SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED TO RANDOM VIBRATIONS IN 4-HOUR SESSIONS WHILE WEARING VARIOUS HELMET CONFIGURATIONS. ONE OF THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE AN UPPER LIMIT CRITERION OF 83 N CM FOR THE WEIGHT MOMENT OF HEAD-WORN DEVICES PREVIOUSLY PROPOSED BY BUTLER (1992). IN THIS STUDY, FOUR HELMET CONFIGURATIONS, HAVING WEIGHT MOMENTS OF 20, 110, 200, AND 290 N CM, WERE TESTED WITH EACH SUBJECT. DETECTION AND ACQUISITION OF VISUAL TARGETS, A TASK OFTEN PERFORMED BY AH-64 HELICOPTER PILOTS, WERE SIMULATED BY REQUIRING THE SUBJECT TO AIM A LIGHT BEAM, EMANATING FROM A HELMET-ATTACHED SOURCE, AT LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED) WHICH WERE LIT AT RANDOM. VIGILANCE OF THE SUBJECT WAS MEASURED BY THE DURATION THE LED REMAINED LIT BEFORE IT WAS TURNED OFF BY THE SUBJECT. ANALYSIS OF THIS VIGILANCE DATA DID NOT REVEAL A CONSISTENT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE DURATION AND PERFORMANCE. HOWEVER, THE VIGILANCE DATA CLEARLY DEMONSTRATED PILOT PERFORMANCE DEGRADED AS THE WEIGHT MOMENT OF THE HELMET INCREASED, AND THAT ACQUISITION TIMES WERE SHORTEST FOR WEIGHT MOMENTS OF ABOUT 78 N CM. THIS CONCLUSION, WHICH IS BASED PURELY ON PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATION, PROVIDES AN INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATION OF THE BUTLER CRITERION WHICH WAS DERIVED FROM BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAD PITCH ACCELERATIONS AND NECK MYOELECTRIC ACTIVITY.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MASS, HELMET-MOUNTED, PILOT PERFORMANCE, VIGILANCE
96-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 9520 DTIC #: ADA311400
TITLE: ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS IN ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, BEN T. MOZO, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., JOSEPH R. LICINA, L. WAYNE RICHARDSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY IS MOVING TOWARD A TREND OF USING HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS IN ALL ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. SUCH DEVICES ARE INTEGRATED SYSTEMS CONSISTING OF THE BASIC HELMET, AN OPTICAL DISPLAY, EYE PROTECTION, AND A HEAD TRACKER. THIS REPORT PROVIDES A COMPREHENSIVE METHODOLOGY FOR TESTING ALL ASPECTS OF SUCH INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS. THE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY ENCOMPASSES BOTH LABORATORY AND IN-FLIGHT EVALUATIONS. THE MAJOR EVALUATION AREAS FOR THE LABORATORY ASSESSMENT ARE OPTICAL/VISUAL, BIODYNAMIC, AND ACOUSTICAL. THE IN-FLIGHT EVALUATION ASSESSES FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND LOGISTICAL SUPPORTABILITY. IN ADDITION, HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY ISSUES ARE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, TESTING AND EVALUATION, OPTICAL PERFORMANCE
96-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 716 DTIC #: ADA302172
TITLE: COMMUNICATION AND NOISE HAZARD SURVEY OF CH-47D CREWMEMBERS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN E. RIBERA, BEN T. MOZO, KEVIN T. MASON, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U.S. ARMY CH-47D CARGO HELICOPTER CREWMEMBERS ARE EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF NOISE ON A ROUTINE BASIS, YET MUST ACCOMPLISH DEMANDING MISSIONS WHICH RELY HEAVILY ON CLEAR COMMUNICATION. THIS STUDY LOOKED AT THE AUDITORY INFLUENCES AFFECTING COMMUNICATION BY SURVEYING 17 CREWMEMBERS OF A CH-47D ARMY RESERVE UNIT. RESULTS REVEALED (1) NOISE LEVELS THAT EXCEED OTHER ARMY ROTARY-WINGED AIRCRAFT, (2) DIFFERENT EXPOSURE LEVELS FOR AVIATORS AND CREW CHIEFS, (3) AN OVERALL PREFERENCE TO HEAR "CRITICAL OR DIAGNOSTIC" AIRCRAFT SOUNDS RATHER THAN WEAR DOUBLE HEARING PROTECTION, (4) COMPLAINTS OF POSTFLIGHT TINNITUS OR MUFFLED HEARING, (5) HELMET DISCOMFORT AMONG THE MAJORITY OF CREWMEMBERS, (6) A HIGH INCIDENCE OF HEARING LOSS, (7) DIFFICULTIES IN ADJUSTING RADIO VOLUME CONTROLS FOR AVIATORS, AND (8) THE EFFECTS OF EYEGLASSES OR PROTECTIVE MASKS ON HEARING AND COMMUNICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, ROTARY-WING, COMMUNICATION, HEARING, NOISE
96-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 892 DTIC #: ADA304630
TITLE: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HGU-84/P NAVY HELICOPTER PILOT HELMET
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, BARBARA A. MURPHY, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION AND TROOP COMMAND (ATCOM), PROGRAM MANAGER FOR AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (PM-ALSE), FUNDED USAARL TO PROCURE AND EVALUATE THE NAVY HGU-84/P AGAINST THE U.S. ARMY HGU-56/P PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS. THE PERFORMANCE AREAS EVALUATED INCLUDED: IMPACT PROTECTION, WEIGHT, CENTER OF MASS, CHINSTRAP STRENGTH, SHELL TEAR RESISTANCE, DYNAMIC RETENTION, AND SOUND ATTENUATION. ONLY THE CENTER OF MASS REQUIREMENT WAS MET BY THE HGU-84/P CONFIGURATION. NONE OF THE OTHER HGU-56/P REQUIREMENTS WERE FULLY MET. THE HELMET PERFORMED EQUALLY AS WELL AS THE HGU-56/P IN THE DYNAMIC RETENTION EVALUATION.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, IMPACT PROTECTION, SOUND ATTENUATION, CENTER OF MASS, RETENTION
96-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 224 DTIC #: ADA304632
TITLE: INJURY RISK FOR RESEARCH SUBJECTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA IN A REPEATED IMPACT STUDY: A CASE REVIEW
AUTHOR(s): JOHN P. ALBANO, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, NABIH M. ALEM, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA (SBO) OCCURS IN 18-34% OF THE NORMAL U.S. POPULATION. RECENTLY, 16.5% OF NORMAL, ASYMPTOMATIC MALE SOLDIER VOLUNTEER CANDIDATES IN A U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY RIDE MOTION STUDY WERE EXCLUDED FROM THE STUDY BECAUSE THEY HAD SBO AT ONE VERTEBRAL LEVEL. DISQUALIFYING THIS PERCENTAGE OF SCREENED RESEARCH SUBJECT CANDIDATES THREATENED THE TIMELY COMPLETION OF THE SCHEDULE INTENSE PROTOCOL. ALTHOUGH ONE STUDY SUGGESTS THAT SBO AT SPINAL LEVEL S1 HAS A HIGHER INCIDENCE OF POSTERIOR DISC HERNIATION, THE PREPONDERANCE OF CLINICAL LITERATURE REPORTS THAT SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA IS NOT A MEDICAL PROBLEM.
KEYWORDS: REPEATED IMPACT, SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA, AXIAL LOADING
96-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2182 DTIC #: ADA304697
TITLE: EVALUATION OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING TRUCK SEAT FOR INCREASED PROTECTION FROM LANDMINE BLASTS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, GREGORY D. STRAWN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MINE BLAST RESISTANT KITS, DEVELOPED BY THE NIGHT VISION AND ELECTRONIC SENSORS DIRECTORATE (NVESD), ARE DESIGNED TO ENHANCE THE SURVIVABILITY OF THE CREW OF MILITARY 5-TON TRUCKS. THE KIT INCLUDES AN ENERGY-ABSORBING SEAT WHICH IS THE FOCUS OF THIS REPORT. A FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION MINE BLAST OF A 5-TON TRUCK WAS CONDUCTED USING THE FULL PROTECTION KIT AND INCLUDED TWO ANTHROPOMORPHIC MANIKINS TO REPRESENT THE PASSENGER AND DRIVER. ONLY THE PASSENGER MANIKIN WAS SEATED IN THE EA SEAT, WHILE THE DRIVER MANIKIN WAS SEATED IN A STANDARD SEAT. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE ANALYSIS OF TEST DATA PERFORMED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL).
KEYWORDS: MINE BLAST, ENERGY-ABSORBING, MANIKINS, TRUCK SEAT, TOLERANCE THRESHOLD
96-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 965 DTIC #: ADA305796
TITLE: VISUAL PERFORMANCE EFFECTS AND USER ACCEPTANCE OF THE M43A1 AVIATION PROTECTIVE MASK FRONTSERTS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INITIAL M43 AVIATION PROTECTIVE MASK WAS FIELDED WITHOUT PROVISIONS FOR OPTICAL CORRECTIVE DEVICES. CONTACT LENSES, AN INTERIM SOLUTION, WERE NOT ENTIRELY ACCEPTABLE SINCE A SMALL SEGMENT OF THE POPULATION COULD NOT BE FITTED ADEQUATELY WITH CONTACTS. THIS STUDY EVALUATED VISUAL PERFORMANCE EFFECTS AND USER ACCEPTANCE OF THE M43A1 MASK WITH FRONTSERT CORRECTION MODIFICATIONS. THE SUBJECTS WERE 30 U.S. ARMY AVIATORS (28 MEN AND 2 WOMEN).
KEYWORDS: NBC PROCTECTIVE MASK, VISION CORRECTION, AVIATION PERFORMANCE
96-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 313 DTIC #: ADA305770
TITLE: IMPACT PROTECTION PROPERTIES OF CANDIDATE FOAM INSERTS FOR THE PERSONNEL ARMOR SYSTEM FOR GROUND TROOPS (PASGT) HELMET SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, KEVIN T. MASON, RUTH A. AUSTINHIRST
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPERATIONAL PARATROOPER HEAD INJURIES INCREASED 2-FOLD RELATIVE TO OTHER BODY REGION INJURIES FROM 1985 TO 1990. THIS TREND CONCERNED THE LEADERS OF THE U.S. ARMY PARATROOPER COMMUNITY, PRIMARILY XVIII AIRBORNE CORPS AND U.S. ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL, WHO DIRECTED DEVELOPMENT OF HEAD PROTECTIVE MEASURES WITHOUT MODIFICATION OF THE BALLISTIC HELMET SHELL. THEY ESTABLISHED A GOAL OF 50 PERCENT REDUCTION OF TRANSMITTANCE OF IMPACT FORCES TO THE PARATROOPER HEAD. THE OUTCOME WAS TO CONSERVE THE FIGHTING STRENGTH THROUGH REDUCTION OF HEAD INJURIES DURING AIRBORNE OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, IMPACT PROTECTION, HEAD INJURIES, PARATROOPER
96-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3338 DTIC #: ADA304672
TITLE: EFFECT OF TRIAZOLAM ON PILOT PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, JOHN A. CALDWELL, WILLIAM D. SPRENGER, LARRY C. WOODRUM, HEBER D. JONES, JOSE COLON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE IF AN AVIATOR WHO HAS TAKEN TRIAZOLAM BEFORE BEDTIME COULD ADEQUATELY PERFORM HIS DUTIES THE FOLLOWING DAY AFTER A FULL NIGHT OF SLEEP. IN ADDITION, THE PROJECT DETERMINED IF AN AVIATOR WHO IS AWAKENED SHORTLY AFTER TAKING TRIAZOLAM COULD PERFORM HIS REQUIRED TASKS. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT A PERSON WHO TOOK TRIAZOLAM IN ORDER TO IMPROVE SLEEP QUALITY MAY SHOW MORE DIFFICULTY IN PERFORMING A TASK IMMEDIATELY UPON AWAKENING THAN WHEN AWAKENED FROM SLEEP NOT INDUCED WITH A HYPNOTIC.
KEYWORDS: TRIAZOLAM, PERFORMANCE, SLEEP INERTIA
96-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 600 DTIC #: ADA305936
TITLE: FIGURES OF MERIT AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IHADSS AND ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY CURRENTLY FIELDS TWO HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY SYSTEMS. THESE ARE THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), WHICH IS EMPLOYED ON THE AH-64 APACHE, AND THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), WHICH IS EMPLOYED ON ALL U.S. ARMY ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT. THE PERFORMANCE AND FIGURES-OF-MERIT SPECIFICATIONS PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGING PERFORMANCE OF FUTURE AVIATION ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES. THIS PAPER SPECIFIES IN SUMMARY FORM PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS FOR DIFFERENT FIGURES-OF-MERIT WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEFINE THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF THE IHADSS AND ANVIS.
KEYWORDS: AH-64, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT, TESTING AND EVALUATION, OPTICAL PERFORMANCE, IHADSS, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), ANVIS, IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, MAGNIFICAION, EYE RELIEF, EXIT PUPIL, CONTRAST RATIO
96-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 240 DTIC #: ADA306470
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: RATES OF EXCEPTIONS TO POLICY GRANTED TO MEDICALLY DISQUALIFIED U.S. ARMY AVIATOR STUDENTS FROM FY 1986 TO FY 1990
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER AND U.S. ARMY AVIATION CENTER FLIGHT TRAINING SCHOOL RECORDS WERE QUERIED TO DETERMINE THE MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS, RANK, AND SERVICE COMPONENT OF THOSE WHO ENTERED AVIATOR TRAIN-ING WITH AN EXCEPTION TO POLICY. THE STUDY PERIOD WAS FISCAL YEARS 1986 TO 1990, FIVE YEARS. THE EXCEPTION TO POLICY RATES GRANTED TO MEDICALLY DISQUALIFIED U.S. ARMY AVIATOR STUDENTS BEFORE OR UPON ENTRY INTO FLIGHT TRAINING IS UNKNOWN. SAMPLE CASE HISTORIES WERE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, AVIATOR
96-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3806 DTIC #: ADA307857
TITLE: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION: A SURVEY OF U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCREW
AUTHOR(s): SIMON J. DURNFORD, SHANNON L. DEROCHE, JENNIFER P. HARPER, LESTER A. TRUDEAU
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SURVEY OF 299 AIRCREW IN CURRENT FLYING PRACTICE WAS PERFORMED AT FIVE U.S. ARMY AIRFIELDS WITHIN CONUS. RESPONDENTS WERE ASKED A NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ABOUT THEIR WORST EVER EPISODE OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) AND THEIR WORST EPISODE IN THE 4 MONTHS PRIOR TO THE SURVEY. THEY ALSO WERE ASKED TO CLASSIFY EPISODES AS MINOR, SIGNIFICANT, OR SEVERE ACCORDING TO THE THREAT TO FLIGHT SAFETY. OPINIONS ALSO WERE SOUGHT ON VARIOUS AIRCRAFT TYPES AND FLIGHT CONDITIONS. IN THE FINAL PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE, THEY WERE ASKED ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCE OF BREAK-OFF AND GIANT HAND PHENOMENA.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ROTARY-WING, INSTRUMENTS, DISPLAYS
96-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1892 DTIC #: ADA306571
TITLE: ANVIS OBJECTIVE LENS DEPTH OF FIELD
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: USERS OF THE AN/AVS-6 AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS) NEED TO KNOW THE MINIMUM REQUIRED DISTANCE FOR FOCUSING THE OBJECTIVE LENSES TO OBTAIN INFINITY FOCUS. WITH THE INCREASING USE OF EYE LANES TO FOCUS NIGHT VISION DEVICES, MANY USERS HAVE THE IMPRESSION THAT 20 OR 30 FEET IS “OPTICAL INFINITY” FOR THE EYES AS WELL AS THE ANVIS. DEPTH OF FIELD OF A NIGHT IMAGING DEVICE IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT TO INFANTRY SOLDIERS. IF A SOLDIER FOCUSES AT INFINITY, NEAR OBJECTS WILL BE OUT OF FOCUS AND VICE VERSA. THIS STUDY DESCRIBES THE ANVIS DEPTH OF FOCUS USING PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES AND PROVIDES DATA ON CHANGES IN RESOLUTION WITH DIFFERENT VIEWING AND FOCUSED DISTANCES (I.E., RESOLUTION VS. DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF DEFOCUS).
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, DEPTH OF FOCUS, DEPTH OF FIELD, OBJECTIVE LENS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE
96-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 359 DTIC #: ADA306468
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: POPULATION DEMOGRAPHICS AND AEROMEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS AMONG FEMALE U.S. ARMY FLIGHT SURGEONS AND AEROMEDICAL PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS FOR CALENDER YEARS 1986 TO 1995
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, MICHELLE H. BRYCE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS WAS A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO MEET THE SHORT-NOTICE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL CENTER IN SUPPORT OF THE UPCOMING WOMEN IN ARMY AVIATION SYMPOSIUM IN FEBRUARY 1996. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE DATA IN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER AND SCHOOL RECORDS AT THE U.S. ARMY SCHOOL OF AVIATION MEDICINE PROVIDED A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE AGE DISTRIBUTION, NUMBERS, RETENTION, AND AEROMEDICAL DISPOSITION OUTCOMES OF FEMALE ARMY FLIGHT SURGEONS AND AEROMEDICAL PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS FOR THE PERIOD 1986 TO 1995. SEVEN DATA TABLES ARE PROVIDED TO SUMMARIZE THE FINDINGS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, AVIATOR, FEMALE, FLIGHT SURGEON
96-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1020 DTIC #: ADA307815
TITLE: A SURVEY OF FLAT PANEL DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN A. GARRARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY IS MOVING TOWARDS REPLACING CATHODE-RAY-TUBE DISPLAYS WITH THE NEWER FLAT PANEL TECHNOLOGIES. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY WHOSE OBJECTIVE WAS TO IDENTIFY CURRENT AND EMERGING FLAT PANEL TECHNOLOGIES AND EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES FOR NEAR- AND MID-TERM MILITARY PANEL AND HEAD-MOUNTED APPLICATIONS. THE SURVEY CONSISTED OF A LITERATURE SEARCH OF SCIENTIFIC AND TRADE JOURNALS IN THE AREA OF DISPLAYS, A REVIEW OF THE ANNUAL PROGRAMS OF MAJOR DISPLAY SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS, AND INTERVIEWS WITH FLAT PANEL TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS. THE SURVEY IDENTIFIED LIQUID CRYSTAL, PLASMA, AND ELECTROLUMINESCENCE AS CURRENTLY MATURE TECHNOLOGIES AND FIELD EMISSION AS THE MOST PROMISING EMERGING TECHNOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: PLASMA, FIELD EMISSION, VACUUM FLUORESCENT
96-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 509 DTIC #: ADA307927
TITLE: CORRECTION OF SUBTLE REFRACTIVE ERROR IN AVIATORS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPTIMAL VISUAL ACUITY IS A REQUIREMENT FOR PILOTING AIRCRAFT IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SETTINGS. WHILE ACUITY CAN BE CORRECTED WITH GLASSES, SPECTACLE WEAR CAN LIMIT OR EVEN PROHIBIT USE OF CERTAIN DEVICES SUCH AS NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, AND/OR CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASKS. ALTHOUGH CURRENT ARMY POLICY IS DIRECTED TOWARD SELECTION OF PILOTS WHO DO NOT REQUIRE SPECTACLE CORRECTION FOR ACCEPTABLE VISION, REFRACTIVE ERROR CAN BECOME MANIFEST OVER TIME, MAKING OPTICAL CORRECTION NECESSARY. IN SUCH CASES, CONTACT LENSES HAVE BEEN USED QUITE SUCCESSFULLY. ANOTHER APPROACH IS TO NEGLECT SMALL AMOUNTS OF REFRACTIVE ERROR, PROVIDED THAT VISION IS AT LEAST 20/20 WITHOUT CORRECTION. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES VISUAL FINDINGS IN AN AVIATOR WHO WAS FITTED WITH A CONTACT LENS TO CORRECT MODERATE ASTIGMATISM IN ONE EYE, WHILE THE OTHER EYE, WITH LESSER REFRACTIVE ERROR, WAS LEFT UNCORRECTED.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REFRACTIVE ERROR, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
96-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 514 DTIC #: ADA309413
TITLE: DIFFERENCES IN APPARENT CONTRAST IN YELLOW AND WHITE LIGHT (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN, ROGER WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION IN WHITE AND YELLOW LIGHT. THE CONTRAST OF BLACK-ON-WHITE LETTERS WAS ADJUSTED TO MATCH THE PERCEIVED CONTRAST OF YELLOW-ON-YELLOW LETTERS PRESENTED SIMULTANEOUSLY ON A VIDEO DISPLAY. AT LOWER CONTRAST (7-15%), THE APPARENT CONTRAST OF YELLOW LETTERS WAS SLIGHTLY ENHANCED COMPARED TO BLACK-ON-WHITE LETTERS (MEAN ENHANCEMENT + 23%), BUT THIS EFFECT DIMINISHED WITH INCREASING CONTRAST. THE SLIGHT ENHANCEMENT IN YELLOW LIGHT WAS INDEPENDENT OF LETTER SIZE, AND COULD NOT BE EXPLAINED BY LUMINANCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN YELLOW AND WHITE DISPLAYS. THIS EFFECT MAY RELATE TO THE SUBJECTIVE IMPROVEMENT OFTEN REPORTED WHEN WEARING YELLOW (BLUE-BLOCKING) LENSES.
KEYWORDS: YELLOW LENSES, CONTRAST-MATCHING, BLUE-BLOCKING FILTERS
96-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4270 DTIC #: ADA309580
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER DATA ENTRY AND FLIGHT SURGEON OFFICE ADMINISTRATION GUIDE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS GUIDE PROVIDES U.S. ARMY FLIGHT SURGEONS (FS) WITH GUIDELINES FOR COMPLETING FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS (FDME) THAT ARE COMPATIBLE WITH AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) DATA ENTRY. IT DETAILS THE REVIEW AND DISPOSITION OF AEROMEDICALLY DISQUALIFIED AVIATION TRAINING PROGRAM APPLICANTS, AIRCREW MEMBERS, AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS, BOTH CIVILIAN AND MILITARY.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE ADMINISTRATION, FLIGHT SURGEON
96-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 480 DTIC #: ADA398833
TITLE: U.S. ARMY LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM: U.S. ARMY AIRCREW RESCUE AND FACTORS DELAYING RESCUE (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESPITE STRICT FLIGHT DISCIPLINE, U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT INFREQUENTLY SUFFER IN-FLIGHT MISHAPS. THIS IS A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF AIRCREW SURVIVAL AND RESCUE IN 97 MISHAPS INVESTIGATED BY THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FROM OCTOBER 1988 TO JUNE 1990. TO IDENTIFY FACTORS DELAYING RESCUE, LATER MISHAPS WERE COMPARED WITH 37 MISHAPS WHERE THE TIME TO REACH THE MISHAP SITE EXCEEDED 2 HOURS. THE AVERAGE TIME TO REACH A MISHAP SITE WAS 2.2 HOURS, BUT OVER 90 PERCENT WERE REACHED WITHIN 2 HOURS. THERE WERE TWO OR MORE SURVIVORS AT 82 PERCENT OF THE SITES AND 98 PERCENT OF THE DOWNED AIRCREW HAD AT LEAST PERSONAL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE.
KEYWORDS: SEARCH AND RESCUE, AIRCRAFT MISHAP, CRASHWORTHINESS, POSTCRASH
96-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 477 DTIC #: ADA309581
TITLE: PERCEPTION OF AN ILLUSORY FORM UNDER CONDITIONS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AMBIGUOUS FIGURES AND VISUAL ILLUSIONS ARE DIFFICULT TO PERCEIVE WHEN PRESENTED IN TERMS OF COLOR CONTRAST RATHER THAN LUMINANCE CONTRAST. THIS FINDING HAS PROMPTED THE NOTION THAT THE PERCEPTION OF THESE FORMS DEPENDS PRIMARILY ON PROCESSING ALONG AN ACHROMATIC, LUMINANCE PATHWAY. OTHERS CONTEND THAT THE PERCEPTION OF SUCH FIGURES DEPENDS ON THE VISIBILITY OF THE STIMULUS RATHER THAN ON THE PARTICULAR PATHWAY TRAVERSED FROM EYE TO BRAIN. IF VISIBILITY IS A LIMITING FACTOR ON PERCEPTION, THEN IT WOULD BE USEFUL TO DETERMINE HOW CERTAIN PERCEPTUAL AMBIGUITIES ARE RESOLVED UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ILLUSIONS, ILLUSORY FORMS, EQUILUMINANCE, COLOR CONTRAST, TARGET IDENTIFICATION
96-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 535 DTIC #: ADA309417
TITLE: IMAGE CONTRAST AND VISUAL ACUITY THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) INTENSIFY AMBIENT ILLUMINATION MAKING IT POSSIBLE TO SEE IN THE DARK DESPITE INSUFFICIENT LIGHT FOR NORMAL VISION. NVGS ARE USED FOR MILITARY AND CIVILIAN OPERATIONS AND AS VISUAL AIDS FOR NIGHT BLINDNESS. THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF VISION ACHIEVED THROUGH NVGS DEPENDS ON SEVERAL FACTORS INCLUDING THE INTENSITY OF AMBIENT RADIATION, THE INTEGRITY OF NVG ELECTRO-OPTICAL COMPONENTS, AND THE LUMINANCE, CONTRAST AND RESOLUTION OF THE NVG DISPLAY. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE EFFECTS OF DISPLAY CONTRAST AND LUMINANCE ON VISUAL RESOLUTION THROUGH NVGS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST, NIGHT VISION AIDS, LUMINANCE
96-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1031 DTIC #: ADA310131
TITLE: ALTITUDE ESTIMATION IN THE UH-60 FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, J. LYNN CALDWELL, MELANIE SESSIONS, CYNTHIA R. TIBBETTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CORRECT PERCEPTION OF SELF-ALTITUDE ABOVE THE EARTH IS AN ESSENTIAL SKILL FOR AVIATORS, ESPECIALLY THOSE FLYING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH. SINCE MUCH OF TODAY'S HELICOPTER TRAINING OCCURS IN FLIGHT SIMULATORS, IT IS IMPORTANT TO DETERMINE IF THE PERCEPTUAL CUES DENOTING ALTITUDE IN THE SIMULATOR TRANSFER TO THE REAL-WORLD FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT. A STUDY WAS PERFORMED TO ASSESS THE ACCURACY FOR ARMY AVIATORS IN ESTIMATING SELF-ALTITUDE IN THE SIMULATOR AND TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK ON THE TRAINING OF THIS CAPABILITY. RESULTS WITH 11 AVIATORS SHOWED THAT ALTITUDE ESTIMATION WAS MORE ACCURATE OVER LAND THAN WATER WHILE CRUISING AT HIGHER ALTITUDES (>50 FT) AND MORE ACCURATE OVER WATER THAN OVER LAND WHILE HOVERING OVER LOWER ALTITUDES. PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK RESULTED IN A DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENT IN O