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81-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 507 DTIC #: ADA106818
TITLE: WHEN THE GRAND TOUR'S A GRIND. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AMERICANS ARE TRAVELING MORE AND, IN THE VIEW OF MANY OBSERVERS, ENJOYING IT LESS. MODERN JET TRAVEL, ALONG WITH THE NECESSITY OR DESIRE TO SEE AS MANY TOURIST SIGHTS OR CONDUCT AS MANY BUSINESS MEETINGS AS POSSIBLE IN A SINGLE DAY, SERVE TO CREATE A WELL-DEFINED BUT OFTEN OVERLOOKED SYMPTOM COMPLEX CALLED TRAVEL STRESS. TRAVEL STRESS IS THE COMPLEX INTERACTION OF A NUMBER OF ENVIRONMENTAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS. DISRUPTIONS IN THE TRAVELER'S CIRCADIAN RHYTHM, CHANGES IN DIETARY STIMULANTS AND ALCOHOL, AND THE PRESSURE OF TRYING TO GET THE MOST FOR ONE'S TRAVEL DOLLAR IMPACT THE HEALTH AND THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TRAVELER. THIS PAPER OUTLINES PROVEN AND PRACTICAL PRETRAVEL PREVENTION TECHNIQUES AND ENROUTE THERAPY.
KEYWORDS: CIRCADIAN RHYTHM, TRAVEL STRESS, JET LAG, DEPLOYMENT
81-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1857 DTIC #: ADA098533
TITLE: VIBRATION IN A HELMET MOUNTED SIGHT (HMS) USING MECHANICAL LINKAGE
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. JOHNSON, DAVID B. PRISER, ROBERT W. VERONA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH AIRCRAFT VIBRATION WAS COUPLED TO A CREWMAN'S FLIGHT HELMET BY THE MECHANICAL LINKAGE OF A HELMET-MOUNTED SIGHT (FIRE CONTROL SUBSYSTEM, HELMET DIRECTED, XM-128). TWO VARIATIONS OF THE SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET WERE TESTED: 1. SPH-4 WITH STANDARD WEB SUS-PENSION; 2. SPH-4 WITH A FORMFIT FOAM LINER SUSPENSION. THE SYSTEM WAS TESTED IN THE FRONT SEAT OF AN AH-1S "COBRA" HELICOPTER. FIVE FLIGHT CONDITIONS WERE USED IN THE EXPERIMENT: 1. HOVER; 2. 40KN; 3. 80 KN; 4. 120KN; AND 5. STANDARD LEFT TURN. TWO CONDITIONS OF THE HELMET-MOUNTED CONTROL LINKAGE WERE TESTED: 1. CONNECTED AND 2. DISCONNECTED. A TRIAXIAL ACCELEROMETER WAS MOUNTED ON TOP OF THE FLIGHT HELMET TO MEASURE VIBRATION. THE DATA WERE ANALYZED USING A FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM ANALYZER AND A DESKTOP COMPUTER. THE FOLLOWING OBSERVATIONS WERE MADE: 1. BOTH HELMETS VIBRATE MORE WITH THE SIGHT ATTACHED. 2. THE RESPONSE TO THE SIGHT COUPLED VIBRATION OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 DIFFERED FROM THAT OF THE FORM-FIT SPH-4. 3. THE FORM FIT SPH-4 HELMET VIBRATED MORE IN A NARROW BAND CENTERED AT ABOUT 30 HZ. 4. THE STANDARD SPH-4 HELMET VIBRATED MORE OVER A WIDE BAND OF FREQUENCIES ABOVE 30 HZ. BASED ON A REVIEW OF PUBLISHED LITERATURE WITH RESPECT TO KNOWN OR PROBABLE PHYSIOLOGICAL PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE EFFECTS OF VIBRATION, WE CONCLUDED THAT THE SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN VIBRATION OF THE HELMET CAUSED BY THE MECHANICAL SIGHT LINKAGE MAY BE EXPECTED TO DEGRADE PILOT/GUNNER VISUAL PERFORMANCE AND HEARING ACUITY, AND INCREASE FATIGUE RATE TO SOME EXTENT. INSUFFICIENT DATA CURRENTLY IS AVAILABLE TO PREDICT THE MAGNITUDE OF PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION WHICH COULD RESULT FROM INCREASES IN HELMET VIBRATIONS.
KEYWORDS: VIBRATION, HELMET MOUNTED SIGHT, ROTARY-WING HELICOPTER, FOURIER ANALYSIS, AH-1 COBRA, FLIGHT HELMETS, SPECTRAL ANALYSIS, VISION
81-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 591 DTIC #: ADA102198
TITLE: HELICOPTER CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEMS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN PREVENTING THERMAL INJURY. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): STANLEY C. KNAPP, PIERRE ALLEMOND, DAVID H. KARNEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN 1968, THE UNITED STATES ARMY COMMITTED ITSELF TO A GOAL OF ELIMINATING POST-CRASH FIRES IN SURVIVABLE HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS. NEW HELICOPTERS MANUFACTURED AFTER 1970 WERE EQUIPPED WITH A CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEM, AND AN EXTENSIVE RETROFIT PROGRAM OF OLDER AIRCRAFT WAS BEGUN. THIS PAPER REVIEWS ALL ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS DURING THE PERIOD 1968-1976 AND CLASSIFIES THEM BY SURVIVABILITY AND WHETHER OR NOT THE AIRCRAFT WAS EQUIPPED WITH A CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEM. ACCIDENT-ASSOCIATED FATALITIES AND INJURIES WERE RECLASSIFIED AS TO THE PRIMARY INJURY INVOLVED AND ITS RELA-TIONSHIP TO THE EXISTENCE OF ANY POSTCRASH FIRE. THE DIRECT COSTS INVOLVED IN THE CARE OF THERMAL FATALITIES AND THERMAL INJURIES WERE CALCULATED USING THE MOST CONSERVATIVE ESTIMATES. IT IS SHOWN THAT THE HELICOPTER CRASHWORTHY FUEL SYSTEM ESSENTIALLY ELIMINATED POSTCRASH FATALITIES AND INJURIES IN ACCIDENTS INVOLVING HELICOPTERS EQUIPPED WITH THE NEW SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: FIRE, HELICOPTER, CRASHWORTHINESS, BURN PREVENTION, FUEL CONTAMINANT
81-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1069 DTIC #: ADA108131
TITLE: VIBRATION LEVELS IN ARMY HELICOPTER--MEASUREMENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND DATA
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. JOHNSON, DAVID B. PRISER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WE REVIEWED LITERATURE ON VIBRATION LEVELS FOUND IN CURRENTLY-FIELDED HELICOPTERS IN ORDER TO PREPARE A COMPARATIVE SUMMARY OF VIBRATION EXPOSURE LEVELS AT CREW STATIONS AND OF THE TEST METHODS USED TO MEASURE THESE LEVELS. THIS EFFECT WAS INITIATED AT THE REQUEST OF THE AIR STANDARDIZATION COORDINATING COMMITTEE (ASCC) WORKING PARTY 61 AND BECAUSE OF THE WIDE VARIETY OF METHODS USED IN DATA CAPTURE AND INSTRUMENTATION DOCUMENTATION. SOURCES IN LITERATURE REVIEWED INCLUDED TECHNICAL REPORTS OF U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND PAPERS IN OPEN LITERATURE. ARTICLES WERE REVIEWED BASED UPON THREE CRITERIA: (1) QUANTITATIVE DESCRIPTION OF VIBRATION IN CURRENTLY-FIELDED U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WINGED AIRCRAFT, (2) ARTICLE CONTENTS ARE UNCLASSIFIED AND AVAILABLE FOR PUBLICATION IN OPEN LITERATURE, AND (3) ARTICLE DESCRIBES HUMAN EXPOSURE LEVELS IN AIRCRAFT VIBRATION.
KEYWORDS: VIBRATION, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, HELICOPTERS, ARMY AIRCRAFT, COCKPITS, SEATS, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ACCELEROMETERS
81-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 820 DTIC #: ADA221421
TITLE: OPERATOR'S MANUAL FOR VARIABLE WEIGHT, VARIABLE CG HELMET SIMULATOR. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CRAIG M. SVOBODA, JAMES C. WARRICK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A VARIABLE WEIGHT, VARIABLE CG HELMET SIMULATOR HAS BEEN DESIGNED TO MEASURE THE EFFECT OF U.S. ARMY HEADGEAR ON MUSCLE LOADING AND FATIGUE. THE HELMET SIMULATOR CONSISTS OF TWO WEIGHT CONCEALMENT BOXES ATTACHED TO OPPOSITE SIDES OF A SUPPORTING HEAD WHICH IN TURN IS MOUNTED ON THE WEARER'S HEAD BY A SUSPENSION SYSTEM TAKEN FROM AN SPH-4 HELMET. THE WEIGHT AND CG CAN BE ALTERED BY POSITIONING VARIABLE WEIGHTS WITHIN THE CONCEALMENT BOXES.
KEYWORDS: HELMET SIMULATOR, VARIABLE HELMET WEIGHT, VARIABLE HELMET CENTER OF GRAVITY, SPH-4 HELMET
82-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 752 DTIC #: ADA111880
TITLE: DIRECT AND NEIGHBORING SENSITIVITY CHANGES PRODUCED BY RED AND BLUE-WHITE ADAPTING FIELDS
AUTHOR(s): FRANKLIN F. HOLLY, VIRGIL R. ROGERS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OBSERVERS VIEWED ARMY INSTRUMENT PANEL LIGHTING RED AND AIR FORCE INSTRUMENT PANEL LIGHTING BLUE-WHITE ADAPTATION FIELDS AND THEIR THRESHOLDS WERE DETERMINED BOTH WITHIN THE ADAPATATION FIELD AND OUTSIDE OF IT. IN SOME CASES, THRESHOLDS WERE DETERMINED WHILE THE ADAPTATION FIELD WAS STILL ON AND IN OTHER CASES THEY WERE DETER-MINED AFTER THE ADAPTATION FIELDS HAD BEEN OFF FOR 10 SECONDS. ALSO, SOME TRIALS WERE PERFORMED UNDER OTHERWISE TOTALLY DARK AMBIENT CONDITIONS AND OTHER TRIALS WERE PERFORMED UNDER AN AMBIENT ILLUMINATION WHICH SIMULATED THAT PRODUCED BY A FULL MOON ON A CLEAR NIGHT. IT WAS FOUND THAT UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS OF TOTAL DARKNESS THRESHOLDS WERE LOWER WITH THE RED ADAPTATION FIELD THAN WITH THE BLUE-WHITE. WITH THE FULL MOON AMBIENT ILLUMINATION THE RESULTS WERE MORE VARIED. WHEN THE TRIALS WERE PERFORMED AFTER THE ADAPTATION FIELD HAD BEEN TURNED OFF, THERE WERE GENERALLY NO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE THRESHOLDS PRODUCED BY THE RED ADAPTATION FIELD AND THOSE PRODUCED BY THE BLUE-WHITE ADAPTATION FIELD. ON THE OTHER HAND, WHEN TRIALS WERE PERFORMED WITH THE ADAPTATION FIELD STILL ON, THERE WAS AN INTER-ACTION SUCH THAT THRESHOLDS WERE LOWER WITH THE BLUE-WHITE FIELD AT THE SMALLEST ADAPTATION FIELD INTENSITIES OR WITH THE RED FIELD AT THE GREATEST ADAPTATION FIELD INTENSITIES. THE RESULTS WERE DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF THEIR SIGNIFICANCE FOR AIRCRAFT LIGHTING AND THE POSSIBLE ROLES PLAYED BY STRAY LIGHT AND OTHER UNDERLYING PROCESSES.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT LIGHTING, DARK ADAPTATION, RED LIGHTING, BLUE-WHITE LIGHTING
82-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 963 DTIC #: ADA113610
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF U.S. ARMY AVIATION MISHAP INJURY PATTERNS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. HICKS, BILLY H. ADAMS, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT ADVANCES IN U.S. ARMY PROCEDURES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION AND REPORTING OF PERSONNEL INJURIES RESULTING FROM AIRCRAFT MISHAPS ARE REVIEWED. MISHAP INJURY DATA REQUIREMENTS BASED ON THE NEEDS OF RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE ANALYSES ARE DISCUSSED. THE REQUIREMENT FOR THESE ANALYSES TO SUPPORT ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT DECISIONS THAT WILL IMPLEMENT REMEDIAL PROGRAMS TO CORRECT IDENTIFIED CRASHWORTHINESS DEFICIENCIES IS DISCUSSED. THIS PAPER SUMMARIZES THE U.S. ARMY PROCESS FOR GATHERING AVIATION MISHAP INJURY DATA, DESCRIBES MODIFICATIONS TO PROCEDURES AND CODES FOR RECORDING INJURY DATA, AND PROVIDES EXAMPLES OF USE OF THE DATA RESULTING IN FLEETWIDE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT MISHAP, INJURY, ACCIDENT REPORTING, CRASHWORTHINESS, INJURY CODING
82-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2020 DTIC #: ADA221134
TITLE: STUDIES OF AURAL NONLINERAITY AND THE MECHANISMS OF AUDITORY FATIGUE. PART II: EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODS IN NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN ERDREICH, LINDA ERDREICH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT IS A TUTORIAL ON EPIDEMIOLOGICAL METHODS WITH SPECIFIC REFERENCES TO POTENTIAL APPLICATION TO STUDYING NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
82-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2072 DTIC #: ADA117428
TITLE: OSCILLATIONS IN THE VISUAL RESPONSE TO PULSED STIMULI
AUTHOR(s): FRANKLIN F. HOLLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DUNLAP (1915) REPORTED A PHENOMENON IN WHICH A SINGLE PHOTIC PULSE, PRESENTED IN THE PERIPHERY UNDER MESOPIC CONDITIONS, IS PERCEIVED AS TWO SEQUENTIAL FLASHES. THE PRESENT WORK INDICATES THAT THIS DOUBLE-FLASH EFFECT IS BUT A SPECIAL CASE OF A CLASS OF AUTO-OSCILLATORY PHENOMENA OCCURRING AT A FREQUENCY IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD OF 10 HZ. FLICKER STUDIES BY SEVERAL INVESTIGATORS (E.G., DE LANGE, 1958) HAVE INDI-CATED A RESONANCE (TEMPORAL MTF PEAK) AT APPROXIMATELY 10 HZ. IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE FREQUENCY OF THE OSCILLATORY PHENOMENA DESCRIBED HERE RESULTS FROM THE NATURAL FREQUENCY OF THE NETWORK RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS PEAK. IT ALSO IS BELIEVED THAT THESE PHENOMENA ARE RELATED TO THE OSCILLATORY POTENTIALS WHICH HAVE BEEN RECORDED FROM RETINA AND CORTEX. THE IMPETUS FOR THIS WORK WAS PROVIDED BY THE NEED TO EXPLICATE CERTAIN OSCILLATORY PHENOMENA WHICH HAD BEEN NOTED IN THE COURSE OF EVALUATING PROPOSED LIGHTING SYSTEMS ON NEW ARMY HELICOPTERS.
KEYWORDS: TEMPORAL RESPONSE, AUTO-OSCILLATION, DOUBLE-FLASH EFFECT
82-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1078 DTIC #: ADA119237
TITLE: PURSUIT ROTOR TRACKING PERFORMANCE IN CONJUNCTION WITH EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): LEWIS W. STONE, GERALD P. KRUEGER, WILLIAM R. HOLT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX U.S. ARMY INITIAL ENTRY ROTARY-WING SCHOOL GRADUATES PARTICIPATED AS SUBJECTS IN A WEEK-LONG STUDY TO EXAMINE THE EFFECTS OF EXTENDED SIMULATED HELICOPTER OPERATIONS ON PURSUIT TRACKING SKILLS. USING A PHOTOELECTRIC ROTARY PURSUIT DEVICE, THREE FIXED PATTERNS (A SQUARE, A CIRCLE, AND A TRIANGLE) WERE PRESENTED TO EACH SUBJECT THREE TIMES DAILY FOR 5 DAYS. AN ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS REVEALED A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN SUBJECT PERFORMANCE BETWEEN PATTERNS. IT ALSO REVEALED A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN PERFORMANCE OVER DAYS ON ONE OF THE PATTERNS--THE TRIANGLE. THE THREAD WOVEN THROUGH THESE RESULTS SEEMED TO BE ONE OF RELATIVE COMPLEXITY. IT SUGGESTED THAT THE EFFECTS OF SUSTAINED OPERATIONS INTERFERED WITH THE AVIATOR'S ABILITY TO FULLY INTEGRATE HIS MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR SKILLS IN ORDER TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF A MORE COMPLEX TASK.
KEYWORDS: TRACKING, PURSUIT, FATIGUE, ROTARY PURSUIT, AVIATOR FATIGUE, PSYCHOMOTOR
82-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2556 DTIC #: ADA120597
TITLE: PRELIMINARY STUDY ON SCANNING TECHNIQUES USE BY U.S. COAST GUARD LOOKOUTS DURING SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSIONS
AUTHOR(s): N. JOAN BLACKWELL, RONALD R. SIMMONS, JIMMIE R. WATSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS RESEARCH WAS A COOPERATIVE STUDY UNDERTAKEN BY THE U.S. COAST GUARD RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER (USCG R&D) AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL). EYE PERFORMANCE DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM COAST GUARD PERSONNEL PERFORMING AS LOOKOUTS DURING SIMULATED SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSIONS ON HH-3F HELICOPTERS, A 210-FOOT CUTTER, AND AN 82-FOOT CUTTER. VISUAL PERFORMANCE WAS MEASURED BY MEANS OF NAC EYE MARK RECORDER SYSTEMS DURING THE WINTER 1981 VISUAL DETECTION EXPERIMENT CONDUCTED BY THE USCG R&D CENTER IN THE GULF OF MEXICO OFF OF PANAMA CITY, FLORIDA, DURING JANUARY AND FEBRUARY 1981. THE VISUAL PERFORMANCE MEASURES WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE SCANNING PATTERNS UTILIZED BY THE VARIOUS LOOKOUTS. BASED UPON THIS INITIAL STUDY, IT APPEARS THAT MOST PERSONNEL SPEND ABOUT ONE-HALF OF SEARCH TIME ON ONLY ONE SEGMENT OF THEIR TOTAL ASSIGNED VIEWING AREA. FOR EXAMPLE, PILOTS AND COPILOTS SPEND MOST OF THEIR TIME LOOKING OUT THEIR RESPECTIVE FRONT WINDOWS. FOR THE SURFACE VESSELS, THE SUBJECTS SEEMED TO DISPLAY THE CONDITION TERMED "EYE LOCK" ---THAT IS, A LOOKOUT WOULD POSITION HIS EYES AND KEEP THEM STATIONARY, ALLOWING THE MOVEMENT OF THE SEARCH VESSEL TO DICTATE HIS SCAN PATH. THE SCANNER PATTERNS PRESCRIBED IN THE U.S. COAST GUARD TRAINING MANUALS WERE USED INFREQUENTLY; RATHER THE OBSERVERS FOLLOWED THE OUTLINE OF STRUCTURES WITHIN THEIR FIELDS-OF-VIEW.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL PERFORMANCE, SCANNING TECHNIQUES, DEGRADED TARGETS, GEOMETRIC GUIDES
82-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3914 DTIC #: ADA120501
TITLE: COMPARISON OF HELICOPTER COPILOT WORKLOAD WHILE USING THREE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS DURING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, GERALD P. KRUEGER, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THREE DIFFERENT GENERIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS WERE EXAMINED FOR THEIR EFFECTS ON HELICOPTER COPILOT/NAVIGATOR WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE DURING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) FLIGHT. THE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS EXAMINED WERE: (1) THE CONVENTIONAL 1:50,000 SCALE TOPOGRAPHIC HAND-HELD MAP; (2) A DOPPLER NAVIGATION SYSTEM IN CON-JUNCTION WITH A HAND-HELD MAP; AND (3) A PROJECTED MAP SYSTEM DRIVEN BY DOPPLER SIGNALS IN CONJUNCTION WITH A HAND-HELD MAP. EIGHTEEN PILOTS PERFORMED COPILOT/ NAVIGATOR DUTIES IN AN ARMY JU-1H UTILITY HELICOPTER FLOWN BY A LABORATORY RESEARCH PILOT. DATA COLLECTED INCLUDED MEASURES OF NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE, PILOT-COPILOT COMMUNICATIONS, AND COPILOT/NAVIGATOR EYE MOVEMENTS.
KEYWORDS: NAVIGATION DISPLAYS, NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, NAVIGATION AIDS, NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE, NAVIGATION AVIONICS, NAP-OF-THE-EARTH (NOE) NAVIGATION, NAVIGATION WORKLOAD, VISUAL WORKLOAD, HELICOPTER CO-PILOT WORKLOAD, COMMUNICATION WORKLOAD, NAVIGATION COMMUNICATION
82-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1393 DTIC #: ADA121502
TITLE: PERFORMANCE IMPACT OF CURRENT UNITED STATES AND UNITED KINGDOM AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLES
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE E. HAMILTON, DENNIS FOLDS, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIX MALE VOLUNTEERS FROM THE GRADUATE ENTRY LEVEL FLIGHT PROGRAM AT THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION CENTER (USAAVNC), FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ABILITY OF HELICOPTER PILOTS TO FLY WHILE WEARING CHEMICAL DEFENSE (CD) ENSEMBLES IN HOT WEATHER. EACH SUBJECT FLEW ON THREE SEPARATE DAYS, WEARING A DIFFERENT ENSEMBLE EACH DAY. THE ENSEMBLES TESTED WERE THE UNITED STATES ARMY AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, THE UNITED KINGDOM AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, AND THE UNITED STATES STANDARD FLIGHT SUIT UNIFORM. WHILE SUBJECTS MADE STATISTICALLY LARGER HEADING ERRORS WHILE WEARING THE U.S. CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, NO OPERATIONALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE WERE SEEN. IT ALSO WAS CONCLUDED THAT A PILOT'S PERFORMANCE WAS NOT AN INDICATOR OF HEAT STRESS.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, HELICOPTER, PERFORMANCE, US CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, UK CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
82-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 406 DTIC #: ADA120596
TITLE: CATHODE-RAY-TUBE RASTER LINE SELECTOR WITH HORIZONTAL MODULATION CAPABILITY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN H. HAPGOOD, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SIMPLE AND INEXPENSIVE CIRCUIT WHICH PROVIDES A METHOD OF SELECTING THE NUMBER AND POSITION OF ACTIVE RASTER LINES VISIBLE ON A CRT DISPLAY IS PRESENTED. REQUIRING INPUTS OF VERTICAL DRIVE AND HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SYNC SIGNALS, THE CIRCUIT PRODUCES AN OUTPUT WHICH CAN BE FED DIRECTLY INTO THE VIDEO INPUT OF THE DISPLAY.
KEYWORDS: RASTER LINE SELECTOR, CATHODE-RAY-TUBE (CRT), MODULATION
83-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3190 DTIC #: ADA121151
TITLE: MODIFIED FACEPLATE FOR AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LACK OF PERIPHERAL VISION WHILE FLYING WITH THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG) WAS A CONTRIBUTING FACTOR IN AN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT. BECAUSE OF THIS ACCIDENT, A MODIFIED FACEPLATE (MFP) FOR NVG WAS CONFIGURED TO ALLOW PILOTS UNAIDED LATERAL AND LOWER VISION. TWENTY MFP NVG WERE WORN DURING FLIGHT BY 47 NVG-QUALIFIED AVIATORS FOR AN AVERAGE OF 18 HOURS PER AVIATOR. THE AVERAGE RECORDED FLIGHT HOURS FOR EACH OF THE 20 MFP NVG WAS 43.5 HOURS.
KEYWORDS: AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), MODIFIED NVG FACEPLATE, NVG FIELD OF VIEW, FLIGHT SAFETY
83-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1829 DTIC #: ADA121763
TITLE: THRESHOLD SHIFTS AND COCHLEAR INJURY IN CHINCHILLA EXPOSED TO OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE CENTERED AT 63 AND 100 HZ FOR 9 DAYS
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES K. BURDICK, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, C.E., HARGETT, JR., ROGER P. HAMERNIK, DONALD HENDERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF A-WEIGHTED SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS IN HEARING CONSERVATION CRITERIA IS BASED ON SCANT DATA FROM LOW FREQUENCY EXPOSURES. THIS STUDY CONTRIBUTES ADDITIONAL DATA FROM EXPOSURE TO LOW FREQUENCY NOISE AND ATTEMPTS TO RELATE IT TO DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA. AUDIOGRAMS WERE OBTAINED ON 16 BINAURAL CHINCHILLAS USING A SHUTTLE BOX AVOIDANCE PROCEDURE. THE CHINCHILLAS THEN WERE EXPOSED IN GROUPS TO ONE OF THE FOLLOWING NOISE CONDITIONS FOR 9 DAYS. EIGHT ANIMALS WERE EXPOSED TO AN OCTAVE BAND NOISE CENTERED AT 1000 HZ: FOUR WERE EXPOSED AT AN INTENSITY LEVEL OF 85 DB SPL (85 DBA) AND FOUR AT AN INTENSITY LEVEL OF 95 DB SPL (95 DBA). THE 85-DB EXPOSURE PRODUCED A TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT OF 46 DB AT 1.4 KHZ WITH NO PERMANENT THRES-HOLD SHIFT. THE 95-DB EXPOSURE PRODUCED A COMPOUND THRESHOLD SHIFT OF 60 DB AT 1.4 KHZ AND A PEAK PERMANENT THRESHOLD SHIFT OF 28 DB AT 2.0 KHZ.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
83-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 579 DTIC #: ADA121351
TITLE: HEARING LOSS FROM LOW FREQUENCY NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES K. BURDICK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AUDITORY DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA (DRC) DEFINING EXPOSURE TO CONTINUOUS NOISES SPECIFIES THE INTENSITY LEVELS OF NOISE IN TERMS OF A-WEIGHTED LEVELS. A SERIES OF STUDIES WERE UNDERTAKEN TO INVESTIGATE THE SUITABILITY OF USING A-WEIGHTED INTENSITY LEVELS IN FORMULATING THE DRC. GROUPS OF CHINCHILLAS WERE EXPOSED TO OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE WITH CENTER FREQUENCIES OF 31.5-, 63-, 125-, 250-, AND 1000-HZ. BANDS OF NOISE WITH CENTER FREQUENCIES BELOW 500 HZ PRODUCED MAXIMUM THRESHOLD SHIFTS THREE TO SEVEN OCTAVES ABOVE THE CENTER FREQUENCY OF THE NOISE BAND. THIS SHARPLY CONTRASTS WITH THE FINDINGS THAT BANDS OF NOISE WITH CENTER FREQUENCIES OF 500 HZ AND HIGHER, PRODUCE MAXIMUM SHIFTS OF ONE TO ONE AND ONE-HALF OCTAVES ABOVE THE CENTER FREQUENCY OF THE NOISE BAND. THE GENERAL FINDING WAS THAT LOW FREQUENCY NOISE PRODUCES HIGH-FREQUENCY HEARING LOSS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, HEARING CONSERVATION
83-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 620 DTIC #: ADA221095
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF IMAGE SMEAR IN CRT DISPLAYS DUE TO SCAN RATE AND PHOSPHOR PERSISTENCE
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JACOB BECHER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INCREASE IN THE USE OF CATHODE-RAY-TUBE (CRT) DISPLAYS FOR TARGET DETECTION AND RECOGNITION HAS PLACED AN EMPHASIS ON THE ABILITY OF THESE DISPLAYS TO ACCURATELY REPRODUCE AMPLITUDE AND PHASE INFORMATION FOR DYNAMIC TARGETS. THIS ANALYSIS INVESTIGATES THE THEORETICAL DYNAMIC IMAGE DEGRADATION OCCURRING AT THE DISPLAY AS A RESULT OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE TARGET/SENSOR RELATIVE VELOCITY, THE CRT SYSTEM SCAN RATE, AND THE PERSISTENCE OF THE DISPLAY PHOSPHOR. EXPRESSIONS ARE DEVELOPED TO ALLOW COMPARISON OF PHOSPHORS ON THE BASIS OF MODULATION LOSS DUE TO TARGET/SENSOR MOTION. A MODEL IS DEVELOPED WHICH EQUATES A TARGET HAVING A SPATIAL FREQUENCY (S) AND MOVING WITH A HORIZONTAL SPEED (V) TO A STATIONARY TARGET WITH A SINUSOIDAL VARY-ING INTENSITY OF FREQUENCY, FT, EQUAL TO SV. THE MODEL IDENTIFIES PHOSPHOR PERSISTENCE AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION LOSS AND PREDICTS SEVERAL IMAGE ARTIFACTS SUCH AS "FREEZING" AND APPARENT MOTION REVERSAL.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE SMEAR, SCAN RATE, PHOSPHER PERSISTENCE, CATHODE-RAY TUBE
83-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1270 DTIC #: ADA121956
TITLE: PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE IMPOSED HEAT STRESS ON ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE E. HAMILTON, RONALD R. SIMMONS, KENT A. KIMBALL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING WAS CONDUCTED WITH SIX ARMY AVIATORS BEFORE AND AFTER FLIGHTS IN A UH-1H HELICOPTER WHILE WEARING STANDARD FLIGHT SUITS, U.S. OR UK AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLES. ADDITIONAL TESTING ON NONFLIGHT DAYS WAS CONDUCTED TO PROVIDE A BASELINE FOR EVALUATION. TESTS CONSISTED OF ENCODE/DECODE PROBLEMS, MATH PROBLEMS, LOGICAL REASONING PROBLEMS, TARGET DETECTION PROBLEMS, AND A FOUR-CHOICE REACTION TIME TEST.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS, CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, US CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, UK CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
83-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1678 DTIC #: ADA125616
TITLE: PSYCHOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS DURING THE WEAR OF THE U.S. AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE E. HAMILTON, LILIANA ZAPATA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PSYCHOLOGICAL (AS OPPOSED TO PHYSIOLOGICAL) EFFECTS OF WEARING A U.S. AIRCREW CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE WERE EVALUATED USING 12 MALE AND 12 FEMALE VOLUNTEERS. HALF OF THE MALES AND HALF OF THE FEMALES WORE CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLES WHILE THE REST WORE STANDARD U.S. FLIGHT SUITS AS CONTROLS. ALL SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED TESTS OF COGNITION (MATH, LOGICAL REASONING, TARGET DETECTION, AND REACTION TIME) BEFORE AND AFTER 6 HOURS OF WEAR IN A CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT. IN ADDITION, SUBJECTS RATED THEIR MOOD BEFORE AND AFTER WEAR. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT WEARING THE ENSEMBLE IN AN UNDEMANDING ENVIRONMENT DEGRADED AFFECT (MOOD AND ACTIVATION LEVELS), SLIGHTLY DECREASED ACCURACY, AND SUBSTANTIALLY DECREASED REACTION TIMES, ESPECIALLY THE FEMALES. THE MOST SERIOUS IMPACT OF THE ENSEMBLE WOULD SEEM TO BE A DECREASE IN MORALE AMONG FEMALES.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, US CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE, UK CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE
83-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 842 DTIC #: ADA163266
TITLE: TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFTS PRODUCED BY EXPOSURE TO LOW-FREQUENCY NOISES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN H. MILLS, J. DAVID OSGUTHORPE, C. K. BURDICK, J. H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: GROUPS OF HUMAN SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED FOR 8 OR 24 HOURS TO AN OCTAVE-BAND NOISE CENTERED AT 63, 125, OR 250 HZ. FOR A 24-HOUR EXPOSURE AT 84 DBA, TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFTS (TTS) INCREASED FOR 8-12 HOURS AND THEN EITHER DECREASED OR REMAINED CONSTANT. ALTHOUGH TTS WAS LESS THAN 20 DB, COMPLETE RECOVERY FOR MANY OF THE SUBJECTS REQUIRED AS LONG AS 48 HOURS. ACCORDINGLY, THE HIGHER LEVEL EXPOSURE WHICH WAS PLANNED AT 94 DBA FOR 24 HOURS WAS REDUCED TO 90 DBA FOR 8 HOURS. FOR THIS CONDITION, TTS INCREASED THROUGHOUT THE 8-HOUR EXPOSURE. TTS FROM THE 90 DBA NOISE FOR 8 HOURS EXCEEDED THE TTS PRODUCED BY THE 84 DBA; HOWEVER, RECOVERY FROM THE 24-HOUR EXPOSURE REQUIRED AS LONG AS 48 HOURS, WHEREAS RECOVERY FROM THE 8-HOUR EXPOSURE REQUIRED ONLY 12-24 HOURS. THUS, THE TIME FOR RECOVERY IS DETERMINED IN PART BY THE DURATION OF EXPOSURE. TTS WAS NOT ALWAYS MAXIMAL 1/2-1 OCTAVE ABOVE THE BAND OF NOISE, BUT WAS MAXIMAL IN THE FREQUENCY REGIONS OF BETTER AUDITORY SENSITIVITY (350 TO 750 HZ). FOR THE 250 HZ CONDITION, TTS INCREASED ABOUT 1.5 DB PER DB INCREASE IN NOISE LEVEL, WHEREAS FOR THE 63- AND 125-HZ CONDITIONS TTS INCREASED LESS THAN 1 DB PER DB INCREASE IN NOISE LEVEL. MORE DATA ARE NEEDED TO SPECIFY THE RELATION BETWEEN TTS AND THE LEVEL OF LOW-FREQUENCY NOISES.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, HEARING LOSS, ACOUSTICS
83-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 986 DTIC #: ADA129694
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF THE SWINE AS A LARGE ANIMAL MODEL FOR NOISE RESEARCH
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL ETTINGER, DENNIS L. CURD, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES AN ATTEMPT TO DEVELOP THE SWINE AS A LARGE ANIMAL MODEL TO BE USED IN RESEARCH ON NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS. ANIMALS WERE TRAINED TO PERFORM IN A "YES-NO" SIGNAL DETECTION PARADIGM FOR HEAT AS A POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT. RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE ANIMALS CAN LEARN THIS TASK; HOWEVER, THE METHOD FAILED TO PRODUCE AN AUDIOGRAM. THIS WAS ATTRIBUTED TO A FAILURE TO INDUCE AN ADEQUATE MOTIVATIONAL LEVEL IN THE SUBJECTS.
KEYWORDS: ANIMAL AUDIOMETRY, HEARING, ANIMAL LEARNING, ACOUSTICS
83-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2230 DTIC #: ADA130279
TITLE: IMPACT AND VIBRATION TESTING OF A MODIFIED UH-1 CREW SEAT
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., JOHN C. JOHNSON, JOHN H. WELLS, HEINRICH KNOCHE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE GERMAN AIR FORCE HAS DEVELOPED A MODIFIED UH-1 PILOT SEAT DESIGNED TO IMPROVE COMFORT BY INCREASING SUPPORT TO THE THIGH AND LOWER BACK, PROVIDING BETTER VIBRATION DAMPENING AND INCREASING COLD WEATHER COMFORT. THIS SEAT WAS TESTED FOR VIBRATION DAMPENING, PILOT ACCEPTANCE, AND IMPACT TOLERANCE IN A SIDE-BY-SIDE TEST WITH THE STANDARD UH-1 SEAT. THE MODIFIED SEAT IS MORE COMFORTABLE THAN THE STANDARD UH-1 SEAT. THE MODIFIED SEAT PROVIDES BETTER IMPACT PROTECTION THAN THE STANDARD SEAT, PROVIDED THAT THE SEAT FRAME AND RESTRAINT SYSTEM DO NOT TEAR LOOSE. THE MODIFIED SEAT DOES NOT PROVIDE BETTER VIBRATION DAMPENING THAN THE STANDARD UH-1 SEAT.
KEYWORDS: IMPACT, VIBRATION, UH-1, BACK PAIN, ACCELEROMETER
83-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 590 DTIC #: ADA130676
TITLE: ATTENUATION VARIATION OBTAINED WITH SUBJECT FIT OF THE SIGMA ENGINEERING TRIPLE-FLANGE INSERT HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICE
AUTHOR(s): JEROD L. GOLDSTEIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SOUND ATTENUATION PROVIDED BY A PREFORMED TRIPLE-FLANGE INSERT HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICE WAS DETERMINED WHEN THE USER HAD NO FITTING INSTRUCTIONS OR TRAINING IN THE USE OF THE DEVICE. THIS SITUATION DOES OCCUR IN MANY INSTANCES AMONG U.S. ARMY PERSONNEL. THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY INDICATE THAT THE LACK OF TRAINING IN THE USE OF SIGMA ENGINEERING TRIPLE-FLANGE EARPLUG REDUCES THE AVAILABLE SOUND ATTENUA-TION PROVIDED BY THE EARPLUG BY APPROXIMATELY 5 DB AT MOST FREQUENCIES. FURTHER-MORE, THE ATTENUATION WAS MORE VARIABLE THAN THAT FOUND IN THE "EXPERIMENTER FIT" GROUP OF SUBJECTS TESTED. ADEQUATE FITTING INSTRUCTIONS SHOULD BE DEVELOPED AND ISSUED WITH THE HEARING PROTECTORS. USERS SHOULD BE TRAINED IN THE USE OF THE DEVICE.
KEYWORDS: ATTENUATION, IN-THE-EAR PROTECTORS, TRAINING, HEARING LOSS, FITTING, PROCEDURES
83-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1465 DTIC #: ADA132069
TITLE: EXTENT OF HEARING LOSS AMONG ARMY AVIATORS AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA
AUTHOR(s): LESLIE J. PETERS, HELEN FORD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY PROVIDED HEARING THRESHOLD DATA FOR ARMY AVIATORS STATIONED AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, FROM FEBRUARY THROUGH AUGUST 1982. THE MEAN PURE TONE THRESHOLDS WERE FOUND TO BE IMPROVED WHEN COMPARED TO DATA GATHERED BY WALDEN AND MCCURDY IN 1971. THIS IMPROVEMENT PARTIALLY WAS ATTRIBUTED TO REDESIGN OF THE AVIATION HELMET AND INCREASED AWARENESS AND COMPLIANCE WITH HEARING CONSERVATION MEASURES. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT TIGHTER ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS ALSO CONTRIBUTED TO THE REDUCED THRESHOLD VALUES. THIS STUDY FURTHER INDICATED THAT, FOR FORT RUCKER AVIATORS, THERE EXIST THREE THRESHOLD REGIONS CORRELATED WITH FLIGHT HOURS: 50-400 FLIGHT HOURS, 401-3000 FLIGHT HOURS, AND 3001-6000 FLIGHT HOURS. EACH REGION HAS A SPECIFIC RANGE OF HEARING LOSS MEASURED BY COMPARING 2000 AND 4000 HZ THRESHOLDS FOR THE LEFT EAR. ANYONE FALLING OUTSIDE THE THRESHOLD RANGE FOR HER/HIS RESPECTIVE REGION COULD BE IDENTIFIED FOR POSSIBLE FOLLOW-UP PROCEDURES.
KEYWORDS: HEARING LOSS, AVIATION, HEARING CONSERVATION
83-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1561 DTIC #: ADA132498
TITLE: HELICOPTER IN-FLIGHT MONITORING SYSTEM---SECOND GENERATION (HIMS II)
AUTHOR(s): HEBER D. JONES, J. ALAN LEWIS, ALFORD A. HIGDON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PRESENTED IS A DESCRIPTION OF A COMPUTERIZED AIRBORNE DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM USED TO MEASURE PILOT PERFORMANCE IN A UH-1 HELICOPTER. THE UNIT CAN RECORD APPROXIMATELY 20 AIRCRAFT PARAMETERS IN ADDITION TO OTHER EXPERIMENTAL DATA. THIS REPORT ALSO CAN SERVE AS AN OPERATOR'S MANUAL FOR THE SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: COMPUTER, AIRBORNE DATA ACQUISITION, IN-FLIGHT DATA, AIRCRAFT MONITORING, PILOT PERFORMANCE
83-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1306 DTIC #: ADA134828
TITLE: IMPACT RESPONSE OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, ALBERT I. KING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWELVE IMPACT TESTS ON INSTRUMENTED HUMAN CADAVERS WERE PERFORMED AT WAYNE STATE UNIVERSITY TO COMPARE THE LOAD ATTENUATING CAPABILITY OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP WITH THAT OF THE STANDARD RIGID EARCUP USED IN SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMETS. SPH-4 HELMETED CADAVERS WERE DROPPED FROM HEIGHTS VARYING FROM 1.17 TO 2.03 METERS SO AS TO RECEIVE A DIRECT IMPACT TO THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE EARCUPS. LOADS WERE MEASURED AT THE IMPACT SURFACE AND ACCELERATIONS WERE MEASURED THROUGH A TRIAXIAL ACCELEROMETER MOUNTED TO THE CADAVER'S MAXILLA. ANALYSIS OF THE DATA SHOWS A SIGNIFICANT DECREASE IN BOTH PEAK LOAD AND ACCELERATION IN THE Y AXIS FOR THE ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP EQUIPPED HELMETS OVER THOSE MEASURED FOR THE STANDARD EARCUP EQUIPPED HELMETS.
KEYWORDS: FLIGHT HELMET, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, HEAD INJURY, EARCUP
84-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 715 DTIC #: ADA138014
TITLE: UH-60 SHOULDER HARNESS LEAD-IN STRAP FAILURE ANALYSIS
AUTHOR(s): TED A. HUNDLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SHOULDER HARNESS LEAD-IN STRAP FAILURES HAVE OCCURRED IN SEVERAL UH-60 BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS WITH CREWMEMBERS BEING INJURED AS A RESULT. AN INVESTIGATION INTO POSSIBLE FAILURE CAUSES WAS CONDUCTED. THE TWO MOST LIKELY CAUSES FOUND WERE INCORRECT INSTALLATION OF THE SEAT INSERT GUIDE AND AN INCREASE IN STRESS IN THE LEAD-IN STRAP CAUSED BY THE RADIUS OF BEND AT THE POINT WHERE THE STRAP PASSES THROUGH THE SEAT BACK. TESTS SHOWED THAT INCORRECT INSTALLATION OF THE SEAT INSERT GUIDE CAUSED A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN THE FAILURE LOAD OF THE WEBBING. TESTS ALSO SHOWED THAT A REDUCTION IN FAILURE LOAD OCCURRED WHEN THE WEBBING WAS PULLED OVER A RADIUSED CORNER. THE FIRST PROBLEM WAS SOLVED BY REMOVING AND REINSTALLING THE SEAT INSERT GUIDES. THE SECOND PROBLEM CAN BE DEALT WITH BY USING A HIGHER-STRENGTH LEAD-IN STRAP.
KEYWORDS: RESTRAINT HARNESS FAILURE, SHOULDER HARNESS FAILURE, BLACKHAWK ACCIDENTS, WEBBING, CRASHWORTHINESS
84-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 550 DTIC #: ADA138042
TITLE: COMPARISON OF REAL-EAR ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 EARCUP AND A PROTOTYPE CRUSHABLE EARCUP
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, WILLIAM R. NELSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR'S HELMET IN THE ARMY IS TO PROVIDE HEARING PROTECTION, VOICE COMMUNICATIONS, AND HEAD PROTECTION AGAINST IMPACT. EFFORTS HAVE BEEN MADE RECENTLY TO IMPROVE IMPACT PROTECTION IN THE REGION OF THE EARCUP. IN 1977, USAARL CONTRACTED WITH SIMULA INCORPORATED TO DEVELOP AN EARCUP WHICH WOULD PROVIDE GREATER ENERGY ABSORPTION ON IMPACT AND STILL PROVIDE SOUND ATTENUATION EQUIVALENT TO THE CURRENT STANDARD EARCUP. A PROTOTYPE HAS BEEN SUBMITTED FOR EVALUATION OF NOISE ATTENUATION AND COMPARISON TO THE CURRENT STANDARD EARCUP. THE CRUSHABLE EARCUP WAS FOUND TO PROVIDE GREATER HEARING PROTECTION AT MOST TEST FREQUENCIES.
KEYWORDS: EARCUP, EAR PROTECTION, HEARING PROTECTION, IMPACT PROTECTION, SOUND ATTENUATION, REAL-EAR ATTENUATION, SPH-4 HELMET, CRUSHABLE EARCUP, NOISE ATTENUATION
84-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1325 DTIC #: ADA138126
TITLE: EFFECTS OF EXTENDED USE OF AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES ON HELICOPTER PILOTS' PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): LEWIS W. STONE, CHESTER E. DUNCAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF EXTENDED USE OF AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG) WERE INVESTIGATED BY OBSERVING 10 NVG HELICOPTER INSTRUCTOR PILOTS DURING TWO 6-HOUR MISSIONS. EACH MISSION CONSISTED OF THREE 2-HOUR FLIGHTS DURING WHICH PILOT CONTROL INPUTS AND AIRCRAFT STATUS VARIABLES WERE RECORDED IN FLIGHT. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE COMPLETED BEFORE THE FIRST MISSION AND AFTER THE NVG MISSION. IN ORDER TO EXAMINE FOR A CARRYOVER EFFECT, SUBJECTS WERE FLOWN IN A CROSSOVER DESIGN IN WHICH HALF OF THE AVIATORS FLEW NVG ON THE FIRST MISSION, THE OTHER HALF ON THE SECOND. ONLY THE OUT OF-GROUND-EFFECT HOVER SHOWED A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT CARRYOVER EFFECT; THAT IS, SUBJECTS WHO FLEW NAKED EYE BEFORE NVG DEMONSTRATED A GREATER ABSOLUTE DIFFERENCE IN HOVER FLIGHT PERFORMANCE VARIABILITY THAN THOSE WHO FLEW NAKED EYE AFTER NVG FLIGHT. IN THE TRAFFIC PATTERN (FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT), THERE WAS A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VISUAL CONDITIONS ONLY. THE POSTFLIGHT QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES REVEALED A CONCERN OVER WHAT WAS DESCRIBED AS A "LACK OF CONCENTRATION" AND A "DECLINE OF MENTAL ALERTNESS." SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS REACTIONS WERE REPORTED. NONE OF THE THREE MANEUVERS ANALYZED REVEALED A SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE ACROSS FLIGHTS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), AVIATOR FATIGUE, CROSSOVER ANALYSIS, WORKLOAD, AVIATOR WORKLOAD, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE
84-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 849 DTIC #: ADA139717
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE AUDIOGRAM OF THE GUINEA PIG FOR THRESHOLD SHIFT STUDIES
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS COMPERATORE, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STUDIES OF NOISE INDUCED THRESHOLD SHIFT IN GUINEA PIGS REQUIRE A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE AUDIOGRAM WHICH MEETS THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: IT MUST BE RELIABLE AND PERMIT THE DETERMINATION OF THRESHOLD AT 8 TO 12 FREQUENCIES IN A SINGLE SESSION LASTING LESS THAN 1 HOUR. A CONDITIONED SUPPRESSION PROCEDURE WAS ADOPTED TO MEET THESE REQUIREMENTS. THREE GUINEA PIGS WERE TRAINED AND A SERIES OF AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED ON EACH. THE AUDIOGRAMS WERE FOUND TO BE RELIABLE AND IN GOOD AGREEMENT WITH PUBLISHED AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED BY OTHER METHODS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE EXPOSURE, HEARING, GUINEA PIG, AUDIOMETRY
84-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1131 DTIC #: ADA143535
TITLE: EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE AND OXYGEN MASKS ON ATTENUATION AND INTELLIGIBILITY WHEN WORN WITH THE SPH-4 HELMET
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, LESLIE J. PETERS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UTILIZATION OF PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT BY TODAY'S SOLDIER IS ESSENTIAL TO ENHANCE AND ENSURE HIS ABILITY TO PERFORM ON THE BATTLEFIELD. HOWEVER, A GIVEN PERSONAL PROTECTIVE SYSTEM MAY INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE OF ANOTHER. THIS INVESTIGATION EVALUATED THE EFFECTS OF THREE CHEMICAL DEFENSE MASKS ON SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY AND REAL-EAR ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. THE EFFECTS OF TWO OXYGEN MASKS ON SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY ALSO WERE INVESTIGATED.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASKS, NOISE ATTENUATION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, OXYGEN MASKS
84-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1328 DTIC #: ADA140634
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT EVALUATION OF TWO MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION SYSTEMS IN U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT (JUH-1H, JU-21G)
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. CHAFFIN, JR., BRUCE F. HIOTT, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LOGISTICAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH USING HIGH PRESSURE GASEOUS OXYGEN SYSTEMS HAVE ENCOURAGED THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION SYSTEMS FOR USE ABOARD AIRCRAFT. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES THE IN-FLIGHT STATIC PERFOR-MANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO SUCH OXYGEN CONCENTRATORS INSTALLED IN A JU-21G FIXED-WING, TWIN-ENGINE TURBOPROPELLER AIRCRAFT AND A JUH-1H TURBINE-POWERED HELICOPTER.
KEYWORDS: MOLECULAR SIEVE, ZEOLITE, PRESSURE SWING, OXYGEN CONCENTRATORS, PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL
84-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 816 DTIC #: ADA142124
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROPRESSOR BASED AUDIOMETER FOR THRESHOLD SHIFT STUDIES
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., RON MARROW, WILLIAM R. NELSON, ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN ORDER TO PERMIT THE COLLECTION OF DATA ON HEARING THRESHOLD SHIFT RESULTING FROM FIRING ARMY WEAPONS, A MULTICHANNEL MICROPROCESSOR-CONTROLLED AUDIOMETER WAS DEVELOPED. THE SYSTEM FEATURES FOUR SYNCHRONIZED CHANNELS FOR DETERMINING HEARING THRESHOLDS BY A FIXED FREQUENCY, FIX TEST-TIME VON BEKESY TRACKING METHOD. NON-STANDARD, NOISE EXCLUDING HEADSETS WERE DEVELOPED AS PART OF THE SYSTEM. BIOLOGICAL CALIBRATION OF THE SYSTEM WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY COMPARISON TO A CLINICAL AUDIOMETER AND A VALIDATION TEST WAS COMPLETED TO DEMONSTRATE SYSTEM ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY. THE RESULTS INDICATE THE SYSTEM IS AS ACCURATE AS, AND MORE RELIABLE THAN, THE CLINICAL AUDIOMETER.
KEYWORDS: ACOUSTICS, AUDIOMETRY, HEARING, THRESHOLD SHIFTS, MICROPROCESSOR
84-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 967 DTIC #: ADA144179
TITLE: ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP ENGINEERING FEASIBILITY EVALUATION
AUTHOR(s): TED A. HUNDLEY, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CONCEPT OF USING THE INTEGRAL STRUCTURE OF A NOISE-ATTENUATING EARCUP AS A "LOAD-LIMITING" OR ENERGY-ABSORBING DEVICE IS EXPLORED IN THIS REPORT. THE STANDARD EARCUP OF THE ARMY'S SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET IS A VERY RIGID STRUCTURE WHICH REQUIRES A FORCE OF APPROXIMATELY 22,000 NEWTONS TO CAUSE IT TO DEFORM, A FORCE LEVEL THREE TIMES GREATER THAN THE CRUSHING STRENGTH OF THE SKULL. FIFTEEN DIFFERENT "CRUSHABLE" EARCUPS WERE CONSTRUCTED AND EVALUATED FOR NOISE ATTENUATION TO DETERMINE THEIR SUITABILITY FOR PROTOTYPE CONSTRUCTION. THREE EARCUPS WERE SELECTED FOR THE "CRUSHABILITY" EVALUATION. THE CORRUGATED ALUMINUM EARCUP WAS SELECTED AS THE BEST OF THE THREE EVALUATED. THE ALUMINUM EARCUP WAS MODIFIED TO LOWER THE COST AND TO INCREASE THE CRUSHING DEPTH TO NEARLY 2 CM. THE FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING A "CRUSHABLE" EARCUP WITH SIMILAR NOISE ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS TO THE EXISTING ARMY SPH-4 EARCUP WAS DEMONSTRATED.
KEYWORDS: EARCUP, ENERGY-ABSORBING EARCUP, CRUSHABLE EARCUP, SOUND-ATTENUATING EARCUP, METAL EARCUP
84-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 323 DTIC #: ADA144198
TITLE: AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR VIDEO SIGNALS OF SCENES OF VARYING ILLUMINATION LEVELS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN H. HAPGOOD, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A TYPE OF AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL CIRCUIT USEFUL FOR ENHANCEMENT OF VIDEO SIGNALS OF SCENES OF VARYING LIGHT ILLUMINATION LEVELS IS DESCRIBED. A DC VOLTAGE DEVELOPED FROM THE PEAK-TO-PEAK INPUT SIGNAL CONTROLS THE EFFECTIVE GAIN OF A VIDEO AMPLIFIER IN A NONSTANDARD METHOD USING A STEP-FUNCTION CONTROL VOLTAGE.
KEYWORDS: LOW-LIGHT-LEVEL TELEVISION (LLLTV), AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL (AGC), VIDEO AMPLIFIER
84-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1697 DTIC #: ADA145208
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRIC COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT FOR LARGE AND SMALL PERSONNEL WEARING A TRAINING, WARM-WEATHER CLOTHING CONFIGURATION
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, DAVID O. COTE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO ASSESS PHYSICAL AVIATOR-COCKPIT REACH COMPATIBILITIES, EIGHT SMALL SUBJECTS 146.9 TO 162.5 CM IN STATURE AND EIGHT TALL SUBJECTS 182.3 TO 194.5 CM IN STATURE WERE PLACED IN THE COCKPITS OF ALL CURRENT U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS (EXCEPT AH-64) AND FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT. SUBJECTS WERE DRESSED IN THE WARM WEATHER TRAINING UNIFORM OF U.S. ARMY AVIATORS AND WERE REQUESTED TO OPERATE ALL PRIMARY CONTROLS AND INSTRUCTOR-PILOT DESIGNATED CRITICAL SWITCHES, KNOBS, ETC., WITH THE SHOULDER HARNESS IN THE UNLOCKED POSITION. HELMETED HEAD CLEARANCE ALSO WAS EVALUATED.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY, AIRCRAFT, HELICOPTERS, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
84-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1659 DTIC #: ADA145472
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRIC COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENT OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT FOR LARGE AND SMALL PERSONNEL WEARING A COLD WEATHER, ARMORED VEST, CHEMICAL DEFENSE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING CONFIGURATION
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, AARON W. SCHOPPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS SEQUEL TO AN EARLIER REPORT UPON INDIVIDUALS WEARING A WARM WEATHER UNIFORM PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF AN ANTHROPOMETRIC COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION CON-DUCTED WITH INDIVIDUALS WEARING A "WORST-CASE" TACTICAL CLOTHING CONFIGURATION; I.E., A COMBINATION OF COLD WEATHER, ARMORED VEST, AND CHEMICAL DEFENSE PROTECTIVE CLOTHING. SUBJECTS CORRESPONDING IN STATURE TO THE UPPERMOST AND LOWERMOST 5TH PERCENTILES OF THE ARMY MALE POPULATION WERE PLACED IN THE COCKPITS OF ALL CURRENT U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS (EXCEPT AH-64) AND FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, AND REQUESTED TO DEMONSTRATE CRITICAL OPERATIONAL REACHES WITH THE SHOULDER HARNESS UNLOCKED.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, AIRCRAFT, COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY, CHEMICAL DEFENSE, COLD WEATHER CLOTHING, HELICOPTERS, FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
84-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 626 DTIC #: ADA148693
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF MODIFIED SPECTACLES ON THE FIELD-OF-VIEW OF THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ESTABLISH THE EFFECT OF WEARING MODIFIED AVIATOR SPECTACLES, EITHER FOR LASER PROTECTION OR REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION, ON THE FIELD-OF-VIEW AVAILABLE WITH THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHT-ING SYSTEM. THE DETERMINING FACTORS OF THE AVAILABLE FIELD WERE FOUND TO BE HELMET FIT, EYE FIXATION DIRECTION, AND EYE RELIEF DISTANCE. THE STUDY CONCLUDED THAT WHEN THESE FACTORS ARE OPTIMIZED, THE WEARING OF THE MODIFIED SPECTACLES DOES NOT RESULT IN A LOSS OF FIELD-OF-VIEW.
KEYWORDS: MODIFIED SPECTACLES, FIELD-OF-VIEW, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU), INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS)
85-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1717 DTIC #: ADA148674
TITLE: SPH-4 U.S. ARMY FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE 1972-1983
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS E. READING, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., ARTHUR C. SIPPO, JOSEPH R. LICINA, AARON W. SCHOPPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INJURY DATA WAS OBTAINED FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FOR THE OCCUPANTS OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT WHO WERE BOTH WEARING AVIATOR HELMETS AND INVOLVED IN DUTY-RELATED AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS FROM THE PERIOD BEGINNING ON 1 JANUARY 1972 AND ENDING ON 31 DECEMBER 1982. THE INJURY DATA WAS CORRELATED WITH THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE HELMETS INVOLVED WHICH HAD BEEN OBTAINED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY UNDER THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM. THE HELMET PERFORMANCE WAS EVALUATED FOR FUTURE HELMET DESIGNS. FOR CONSISTENCY, ONLY THE 208 SPH-4S IN THE DATABASE WERE FULLY ANALYZED. AN APPENDIX CONTAINS A LIMITED ANALYSIS OF THE APH-5S PERFORMANCE. IT SHOULD BE EMPHASIZED THAT NO COMBAT DAMAGED HELMETS ARE DISCUSSED OR ANALYZED IN THIS REPORT, I.E., NO SHRAPNEL OR BULLET DAMAGE IS COVERED.
KEYWORDS: SPH-4, HEAD INJURY, APH-5, AVIATOR HELMET, CRUSHABLE EARCUPS, CHINSTRAP, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, FACIAL INJURY, ENERGY ATTENUATION, HELMET VISOR, FOAM COMPRESSION, PROTECTIVE VISOR, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, ALSERP
85-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 860 DTIC #: ADA153848
TITLE: EFFECTS OF XM-40 CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASK ON REAL-EAR ATTENUATION AND SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM R. NELSON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CHEMICAL DEFENSE (CD) MEASURES DEPEND PRIMARILY ON THE USE OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT. ADEQUATE PROTECTION ONLY CAN BE ACHIEVED IF EACH ITEM IN THE CD ENSEMBLE IS COMPATIBLE WITH EVERY OTHER ITEM. THE DESIGN OR MODIFICATION OF EACH COMPONENT MUST GIVE CONSIDERATION TO ITS IMPACT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ALL ITEMS. THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE EFFECTS OF THE XM-40 CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE (CP) MASK ON THE PROTECTIVE FUNCTIONS OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. BASED ON THE RESULTS IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT THE XM-40 COMPROMISED THE NOISE ATTENUATION AND SPEECH COMMUNICATION FUNCTIONS OF THE SPH-4.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASK, REAL-EAR ATTENUATION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, NOISE, AVIATOR HELMET, SPH-4, MICROPHONE POSITION, HEARING CONSERVATION, VOICE COMMUNICATION
85-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4185 DTIC #: ADA161230
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF IMPULSE INTENSITY AND THE NUMBER OF IMPULSES ON HEARING AND COCHLEAR PATHOLOGY IN THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, RICHARD J. SALVI, C. E. HARGETT, JR., GEORGE TURRENTINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FORTY-ONE CHINCHILLAS, DIVIDED INTO SEVEN GROUPS, WERE EXPOSED TO 1, 10, OR 100 NOISE IMPULSES HAVING PEAK INTENSITIES OF 131 DB, 135 DB, 139 DB, OR 147 DB. HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED IN EACH ANIMAL PRIOR TO EXPOSURE USING AN AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING PROCEDURE. THRESHOLD SHIFTS WERE MONITORED AT REGULAR INTERVALS OVER A 30-DAY POSTEXPOSURE PERIOD. A SURFACE PREPARATION OF THE COCHLEAR SENSORY EPITHELIA WAS PERFORMED APPROXIMATELY 90 DAYS AFTER EXPOSURE. THERE WAS GENERALLY AN ORDERLY RELATION BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF PERMANENT THRESHOLD SHIFT AND THE SEVERITY OF EXPOSURE, AND A GENERAL AGREEMENT BETWEEN AVERAGED HISTOLOGICAL DATA AND THE AUDIO-METRIC DATA. DETAILED RELATIONS BETWEEN TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT THRESHOLD SHIFT, COCHLEAR PATHOLOGY, AND EXPOSURE VARIABLES ARE DISCUSSED, AS ARE THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE DATA TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE CRITERIA. ALL TABULATED INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL DATA, AVERAGED GROUP DATA, AND INDIVIDUAL COCHLEOGRAMS ARE PRESENTED IN APPENDIXES A THROUGH D.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
85-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2112 DTIC #: ADA161234
TITLE: HELICOPTER-REFERENCED SINGLE CONTROL, CENTER-POSITION FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF MALES AND FEMALES
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, GEORGE R. MASTROIANNI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN RESPONSE TO THE NEED FOR REEVALUATION OF ANTHROPOMETRIC CRITERIA CONTAINED IN THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL STANDARDS FOR FLYING DUTY, AN ASSESSMENT WAS MADE OF HELICOPTER-CONTROL-REFERENCED FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF A SAMPLE OF ARMY MALES AND FEMALES. MALES (N=74) RANGED FROM 159 CM THROUGH 196 CM IN STATURE; FEMALES (N=66) RANGED FROM 152 CM THROUGH 183 CM. THE FORCE-EXERTION DATA WERE COMPARED TO VALUES CITED IN MIL-H-8501A AS UPPER FORCE LIMITS FOR THE DESIGN OF HELICOPTER CONTROLS. THE FOCUSES OF THE ANALYSES WERE UPON THE FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF INDIVIDUALS 167 CM (65.7 INCHES) AND BELOW IN STATURE SINCE, BY VIRTUE OF THEIR RELATIVELY SMALL SIZE, THEY REPRESENT THE PORTION OF THE POPULATION WHICH ARE MOST APT TO EVIDENCE INABILITIES TO EXERT FORCES WHICH EQUAL OR EXCEED CONTROL FORCE DESIGN LIMITS.
KEYWORDS: STRENGTH, MALE, FEMALE, AIRCRAFT CONTROLS, HELICOPTER CONTROLS, CONTROL FORCE REQUIREMENT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
85-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 957 DTIC #: ADA161164
TITLE: DYNAMICS OF HEAD PROTECTION (IMPACT PROTECTION COMPARISON OF THE SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET TO A COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMET)
AUTHOR(s): R. FRED ROLSTEN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMPACT PROTECTION PROVIDED BY A COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMET IS EVALUATED IN THIS REPORT. THE MOTORCYCLE HELMET UTILIZES AN EXPANDED PLASTIC FOAM LINER OF 12 MM THICKNESS, WHICH IS LESS THAN THAT USED IN MOST MOTORCYCLE HELMETS MADE IN THIS COUNTRY TODAY. THE THICKNESS OF THE FOAM IS IDENTICAL TO THAT USED IN THE U.S. ARMY AVIATOR'S STANDARD SOUND PROTECTIVE HELMET NO. 4 (SPH-4). THE IMPACT PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE COMMERCIAL HELMET IS COMPARED TO THE PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. A TOTAL OF 16 METAL HEADFORM IMPACTS (8 FOR EACH OF TWO HELMETS) WERE CONDUCTED USING IMPACT VELOCITIES RANGING FROM 4.2 TO 6.9 METERS PER SECOND. BY MEASURING THE REACTION FORCE OF THE HELMETED-HEADFORM IMPACTS AS WELL AS THE DECELERATION OF THE HEADFORM, WE CONCLUDED THAT THE HELMETS PERMITTED TRANSMISSION OF INJURIOUS FORCES AT ALL LEVELS OF ENERGY BEYOND 4.5 MPS CONTACT VELOCITY. THE IMPORTANCE OF INCREASING THE THICKNESS OF THE PLASTIC FOAM LINER IN EXPERIMENTAL SPH-4 HELMETS IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE DECELERATION FORCE MEASURED IN THE HEAD-FORM IS DEMONSTRATED. EVALUATIONS OF THIS NATURE PROVIDE THE NECESSARY DATABASE FOR DEVELOPING HELMET IMPACT TEST STANDARDS AS WELL AS AN AWARENESS OF THE GOOD AND BAD FEATURES OF CRASH HELMET DESIGN, REGARDLESS OF THE HELMET TYPE OR THE ORIGIN OF MANUFACTURE.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HEADFORM ACCELERATION, HELMET IMPACT TESTING, HELMET IMPACT TEST STANDARDS, HEAD IMPACT TOLERANCE
85-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 879 DTIC #: ADA161218
TITLE: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY DETERMINED WITH THE SPATIAL BANDWIDTH EQUALIZATION TECHNIQUE: THRESHOLD, SUPRATHESHOLD, AND SPATIOTEMPORAL MEASUREMENTS
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY, THOMAS H. HARDING, MICHAEL G. GRIBLER, ALBERT W. KIRBY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS WERE OBTAINED FROM NORMAL SUBJECTS USING A SPATIAL BANDWIDTH EQUALIZATION (SBE) TECHNIQUE AND THE MORE CONVENTIONAL DISPLAY METHOD. STATIC SENSITIVITY MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED WITH THE TWO METHODS WERE IN GOOD AGREEMENT. HOWEVER, WHEN THE PATTERNS WERE COUNTERPHASE FLICKERED, SENSITIVITY TO THE LOWER SPATIAL FREQUENCIES SENSITIVITY MEASURED WITH THE SBE TECHNIQUE WAS SLIGHTLY DEPRESSED. THE SBE METHOD ALSO WAS USED TO INVESTIGATE SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION WITH STATIC AND FLICKERING GRATINGS. IN GENERAL, THE PERCEPTION OF CONTRAST WAS INDEPENDENT OF SPATIAL FREQUENCY CONTENT OF THE STIMULUS, ESPECIALLY WITH INCREASING CONTRAST LEVELS AND FLICKER FREQUENCIES. THESE STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT THE SBE TECHNIQUE IS AN ACCEPTABLE METHOD TO ASSESS STATIC CONTRAST SENSITIVITY AND SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL BANDWIDTH EQUALIZATION, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION, SPATIOTEMPORAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
85-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 450 DTIC #: ADA161162
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE ON SPATIAL FREQUENCY RESPONSIBILITY IN THE CAT VISUAL SYSTEM. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): T. H. HARDING, A. W. KIRBY, R. W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL-EVOKED RESPONSES TO COUNTERPHASED GRATINGS WERE RECORDED FROM AREA 17 OF CAT VISUAL CORTEX BEFORE AND AFTER DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP) ADMINISTRATION. DFP PRODUCED EFFECTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED FOLLOWING PHYSOSTIGMINE SULFATE ADMINISTRATION, IN THAT RESPONSES TO LOW SPATIAL FREQUENCIES WERE PREFERENTIALLY REDUCED. THE TIME COURSE OF THE EFFECTS WAS QUITE DIFFERENT FOR THE TWO TYPES OF DRUGS, AND FOR HIGH DOSES OF DFP RESPONSES TO ALL SPATIAL FREQUENCIES WERE APPROXIMATELY UNIFORMLY DEPRESSED OR ABOLISHED.
KEYWORDS: DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP), ORGANOPHOSPHATE, ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE, CAT
85-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 395 DTIC #: ADA161163
TITLE: A CHOLINERGIC SENSITIVE CHANNEL IN THE CAT VISUAL SYSTEM TUNED TO LOW SPATIAL FREQUENCIES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): T. H. HARDING, R. W. WILEY, A. W. KIRBY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUALLY EVOKED RESPONSES TO COUNTERPHASED GRATINGS WERE RECORDED FROM THE CAT VISUAL CORTEX BEFORE AND AFTER PHYSOSTIGMINE ADMINISTRATION. PHYSOSTIGMINE MARKEDLY REDUCED THE RESPONSES TO LOW SPATIAL FREQUENCIES, BUT MINIMALLY AFFECTED THE RESPONSE TO HIGH FREQUENCIES. THIS EFFECT IS CONSIDERED CHOLINERGIC SINCE IT COULD BE REVERSED BY ATROPINE. THESE RESULTS SUPPORT AT LEAST A TWO-CHANNEL MODEL OF SPATIAL FREQUENCY RESPONSIVITY.
KEYWORDS: PHYSOSTIGMINE, CARBAMATE, VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE, CAT
85-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 637 DTIC #: ADA161192
TITLE: HELICOPTER COPILOT WORKLOAD DURING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH FLIGHT. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, GERALD P. KRUEGER, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, A DOPPLER RADAR SYSTEM AND A PROJECTED MAP SYSTEM, AND A HAND-HELD MAP WERE EXAMINED FOR THEIR EFFECTS ON COPILOT/NAVIGATOR WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE. THE AUTOMATIC NAVIGATION SYSTEMS REDUCED THE NUMBER OF NAVIGATION ERRORS AND THE SIZE OF DEVIATIONS FROM INTENDED TRACK. THE DOPPLER SYSTEM REDUCED THE TIME DEVOTED TO NAVIGATING AND THE NUMBER OF VERBAL NAVIGATION MESSAGES EXCHANGED BETWEEN THE PILOT AND COPILOT. THE PROJECTED MAP SYSTEM REDUCED VISUAL WORKLOAD. HOWEVER, WITH ALL THREE NAVIGATION SYSTEMS, MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF THE COPILOTS' TIME WAS SPENT ON NAVIGATION TASKS, LESS THAN 10 PERCENT OF THEIR TIME WAS VISUAL "FREE TIME" THAT COULD BE USED FOR OTHER TASKS, AND GREATER THAN 20 PERCENT OF THE AIRCREW'S TIME WAS OCCUPIED WITH NAVIGATION COMMUNICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: NONE
85-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 783 DTIC #: ADA161165
TITLE: AVIATOR PERFORMANCE IN WEEK-LONG EXTENDED FLIGHT OPERATIONS IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER, RICHARD N. ARMSTRONG, RONALD R. CISCO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PSYCHOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL CORRELATES OF AVIATOR CREW PERFORMANCE, STRESS, AND FATIGUE WERE MEASURED IN A WEEK-LONG FLIGHT SCHEDULE IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR. THREE TWO-MAN CREWS OF ROTARY-WING AVIATORS PERFORMED 14 HOURS OF PRECISION INSTRUMENT FLIGHT ON EACH OF 4 SUCCESSIVE DAYS AND 10 HOURS ON THE 5TH DAY. MISSIONS INVOLVED REPETITIONS OF 2-HOUR STANDARDIZED DAY- AND NIGHT-FLIGHT PROFILES THAT WERE OCCASIONALLY INTERRUPTED BY SIMULATED EMERGENCIES. AVIATOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES INCLUDED MEETING ASSIGNED AIRSPEEDS, ALTITUDES, HEADINGS, TURN RATES, AND NAVIGATION REQUIREMENTS. PILOTS SLEPT 4 HOURS EACH NIGHT. BASELINE DATA WERE COLLECTED PRIOR TO, AND RECOVERY DATA AFTER, THE EXTENDED FLIGHT SCHEDULE. PILOTS MAINTAINED SIMULATOR FLIGHT PARAMETERS TO WITHIN ACCEPTABLE TOLERANCES OF ASSIGNED HEADINGS, AIRSPEEDS, AND ALTITUDES, EVEN INTO THE MORNING OF THE FOURTH DAY OF THE SCHEDULE. HOWEVER, COGNITIVE AND JUDGMENTAL ERRORS WERE MADE. EVEN THOUGH FLIGHT SUR-GEONS DEEMED THEM UNSAFE TO FLY BY THE 3RD NIGHT, PILOTS CONTINUED TO FLY WELL TO THE 5TH DAY.
KEYWORDS: MAN-MACHINE RELATIONS, MILITARY AIRCRAFT, PSYCHOLOGY, AVIATION MEDICINE, STRESS, SUSTAINED OPERATIONS, VOLUNTEERS, SIMULATOR
85-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 433 DTIC #: ADA161233
TITLE: BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE IN U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OF THE 222 FLIGHT HELMETS RETRIEVED FROM ARMY AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS DURING 1971--79 UNDER THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM, 175 WERE SPH-4 HELMETS THAT WERE ANALYZED FOR PHYSICAL DAMAGE AND FOR THE RELATIONSHIP OF DAMAGE TO INJURY SUSTAINED BY THE WEARER. THIS ANALYSIS SHOWED THAT LATERAL IMPACTS RESULTED IN A SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER RATE OF SERIOUS INJURY (AIS>4) THAN IMPACTS TO OTHER REGIONS (68 VERSUS 46 PERCENT, P<(0.001). LATERAL IMPACTS YIELDED A HIGHER RATE OF BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE THAN IMPACTS TO OTHER AREAS OF THE HELMET (46 VERSUS 18 PERCENT, P<(0.001). IT IS CONCLUDED THAT LACK OF ENERGY-ABSORBING MATERIAL IN THE LATERAL PORTIONS OF THE HELMET CAUSES THE HIGH RATE OF BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE AND THE INCREASED PREVALENCE OF SEVERE INJURY ASSOCIATED WITH LATERAL IMPACTS. THE INCORPORATION OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING EARCUP DESIGN IS RECOMMENDED TO REDUCE THE HIGH RATE OF SEVERE INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LATERAL IMPACTS.
KEYWORDS: SKULL FRACTURE, HEAD INJURY, SPH-4, IMPACT, BASILAR SKULL FRACTURE, CRUSHABLE EARCUP, US ARMY, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, HELICOPTER
85-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 639 DTIC #: ADA161320
TITLE: SPINAL INJURY IN A U.S. ARMY LIGHT OBSERVATION HELICOPTER. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, GEORGE R. MASTROIANNI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL ACCIDENT REPORTS INVOLVING U.S. ARMY OH-58 HELICOPTERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL VELOCITY CHANGE AT IMPACT AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF THIS KINEMATIC DATA TO THE PRODUCTION OF SPINAL INJURY. THIS ANALYSIS DETERMINED THAT SPINAL INJURY IS RELATED PRIMARILY TO VERTICAL VELOCITY CHANGE AT IMPACT AND IS RELATIVELY INDEPENDENT OF HORIZONTAL VELOCITY CHANGE. THE DRAMATIC INCREASE IN THE RATE OF SPINAL INJURY OCCURRING JUST ABOVE THE DESIGN SINK SPEED OF THE AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR (3.7 M/S) SUGGESTS THAT THE FUSELAGE AND SEAT PROVIDE LITTLE ADDITIONAL IMPACT ATTENUATION CAPABILITY ABOVE THAT OF THE GEAR ALONE. IT IS CONCLUDED THAT IF THIS AIRCRAFT WERE MODIFIED TO PROVIDE PROTECTION TO THE OCCUPANTS FOR IMPACTS UP TO 9.1 M/S (30 FT/S), APPROXIMATELY 80 PERCENT OF ALL SPINAL INJURY INCURRED IN SURVIVABLE ACCIDENTS COULD BE SUBSTANTIALLY MITIGATED. THE INCORPORATION OF ENERGY ABSORBING SEATS IS RECOMMENDED.
KEYWORDS: US ARMY, HELICOPTER, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, SPINAL INJURY, IMPACT, CRASHWORTHINESS, OH-58 HELICOPTER
85-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 681 DTIC #: ADA161231
TITLE: HELICOPTER PILOT BACK PAIN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, THOMAS E. READING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BECAUSE OF THE HIGH PREVALENCE OF BACK PAIN EXPERIENCED BY U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER PILOTS, A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ASCERTAIN THE FEASIBILITY OF REPRODUCING THESE SYMPTOMS IN THE LABORATORY. A MOCK-UP OF A UH-1H SEAT AND CONTROL CONFIGURATION WAS MOUNTED TO A MULTIAXIS VIBRATION SIMULATOR (MAVS). ELEVEN SUBJECTS WERE TESTED ON THE APPARATUS FOR TWO 120-MINUTE PERIODS. DURING ONE PERIOD, THE MAVS WAS PROGRAMMED TO REPRODUCE VIBRATIONS RECORDED FROM A UH-1H IN CRUISE FLIGHT. THE SUBJECTS RECEIVED NO VIBRATION DURING THE OTHER TEST PERIOD. ALL SUBJECTS REPORTED BACK PAIN WHICH THEY DESCRIBED AS IDENTICAL TO THE PAIN THEY EXPERIENCE DURING FLIGHT, DURING ONE OR MORE OF THEIR TEST PERIODS. THERE WAS NO STATISTICAL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE VIBRATION AND NONVIBRATION TEST CONDITIONS (P>0.05) IN TERMS OF TIME OF ONSET OF PAIN OR INTENSITY OF PAIN AS MEASURED BY A VISUAL ANALOG SCALE. IT APPEARS THE VIBRATION AT THE FREQUENCIES AND AMPLITUDES TESTED PLAYS LITTLE OR NO ROLE IN THE ETIOLOGY OF THE BACK SYMPTOMS REPORTED BY THESE PILOTS. IT IS PROPOSED THAT THE PRIMARY ETIOLOGICAL FACTOR FOR THESE SYMPTOMS IS THE POOR POSTURE PILOTS ARE OBLIGED TO ASSUME FOR EXTENDED PERIODS WHILE OPERATING HELICOPTERS.
KEYWORDS: NONE
85-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1851 DTIC #: ADA162526
TITLE: DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE ADEQUACY OF HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES FOR USE WITH THE M198, 155MM TOWED HOWITZER
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, RON H. MARROW, R. W. MCCONNELL, JR., ILIA LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD, YANCY Y. PHILLIPS, ROBERT HENDERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PEAK SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS OF THE M198, 155MM HOWITZER FIRING THE M203 PROPELLING CHARGE ARE FAR IN EXCESS OF THE EXPOSURE LIMITS SET FORTH IN THE ARMY HEARING CONSERVATION CRITERIA. THE LEVELS ARE OF A SUFFICIENT MAGNITUDE THAT THERE IS SERIOUS QUESTION WHETHER ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION IS AVAILABLE. THIS STUDY PROVIDES DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR THE ADEQUACY OF THE E-A-R EARPLUG TO PROTECT AGAINST THE IMPULSE NOISE OF THE M198/M203. FIFTY-NINE VOLUNTEERS WERE EXPOSED TO A PROGRESSION OF IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS PRODUCED BY THE M198 AND TESTED FOR TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE THRESHOLD SHIFT EXHIBITED BY 95 PERCENT OF THE VOLUNTEERS WAS WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITS AFTER EXPOSURE TO 12 ROUNDS OF M203 CHARGE. THIS FINDING IS INTERPRETED TO MEAN THAT THESE EARPLUGS PROVIDE ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION. IN ADDITION, VOLUNTEERS WERE EVALUATED FOR EVIDENCE OF LARYNGEAL INJURY AND INTESTINAL INJURY. NONE WAS FOUND.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING LOSS, ACOUSTICS, HEARING CONSERVATION
86-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 813 DTIC #: ADA167408
TITLE: A CHINCHILLA RESTRAINT SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): C. E. HARGETT, JR., JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., DENNIS L. CURD, MELVIN CARRIER, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, ROBERT J. JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A RESTRAINT SYSTEM IS DESCRIBED THAT USES THE CHINCHILLA'S NATURAL BEHAVIOR TO ACCOMPLISH POSITIVE POSITIONING RELATIVE TO THE SOUND SOURCE FOR THE EXPOSURE OF RESEARCH SUBJECTS TO HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE. PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE SYSTEM IN USE AND DETAILED DRAWINGS FOR CONSTRUCTION ARE INCLUDED. USING THIS SYSTEM, 108 CHINCHILLAS WERE EXPOSED WITHOUT MISHAP.
KEYWORDS: CHINCHILLA, RESTRAINT SYSTEM, IMPULSE NOISE, NATURAL BEHAVIOR
86-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 693 DTIC #: ADA167407
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF CYCLOPLEGIA ON THE VISUAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, ISAAC BEHAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY ASSESSMENT IS ONE OF SEVERAL EMERGENT TECHNIQUES BEING CONSIDERED FOR INCLUSION IN A VISUAL STANDARDS BATTERY FOR THE ARMY, PARTICULARLY FOR THE EVALUATION OF ARMY AVIATORS. SINCE A CYCLOPLEGIC REFRACTION IS REQUIRED FOR INITIAL SELECTION OF CANDIDATES FOR CLASS I AND CLASS IA FLYING DUTY, IT IS IMPORTANT TO DETERMINE WHAT EFFECT, IF ANY, CYCLOPLEGIA HAS ON THE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION. TWELVE SUBJECTS, OFFICERS IN PREPARATION FOR FLIGHT TRAINING, WHO HAD PASSED A RECENT CLASS I FLIGHT PHYSICAL, WERE TESTED. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS WERE OBTAINED UNDER NORMAL AMBIENT CONDITIONS AND IN THE PRESENCE OF A GLARE SOURCE, BOTH UNDER MANIFEST AND CYCLOPLEGIC CONDITIONS. CYCLOPLEGIA PRODUCED A SMALL REDUCTION IN CONTRAST SENSITIVITY UNDER NORMAL AMBIENT CONDITIONS, AND A GREATER REDUCTION UNDER GLARE CONDITIONS. FOR BOTH CONDITIONS, THE CYCLOPLEGIA EFFECT WAS GREATER FOR THE HIGHER SPATIAL FREQUENCY GRATINGS THAN FOR THE LOWER.
KEYWORDS: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTION, CYCLOPEGIA, GLARE, VISION
86-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 434 DTIC #: ADA167406
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS FOR EARCUPS INTENDED FOR USE IN THE SPH-4 HELMET
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM R. NELSON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STUDIES AT USAARL HAVE DEMONSTRATED SIGNIFICANT PROBLEMS WITH IMPACT PROTECTION IN THE AREA OF THE EARCUP OF THE SPH-4 AVIATOR HELMET. EFFORTS TO DEVELOP A CRUSHABLE EARCUP THAT WILL ATTENUATE IMPACT HAVE RESULTED IN DEVELOPMENT OF TWO CANDIDATE EARCUPS. THIS STUDY COMPARES THE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TWO PROTOTYPES TO THOSE OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 EARCUP AND A PROPOSED REPLACEMENT EARCUP IDENTIFIED AS THE MK-1564. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT BOTH CRUSHABLE CUPS WILL PROVIDE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY EQUAL TO OR BETTER THAN THE STANDARD CUP.
KEYWORDS: CRUSHABLE EARCUPS, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, NOISE, SPH-4, AVIATOR HELMET, VOICE COMMUNICATION, MK-1564, EARPHONES
86-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2066 DTIC #: ADA221658
TITLE: THE BUSHBABY OPTIC NERVE: FIBER COUNT AND FIBER DIAMETER SPECTRUM
AUTHOR(s): JIM E. FULBROOK, LORETTA PETERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE NUMBER, PERCENT MYELINATED, DENSITY, AND SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF OPTIC NERVE AXONS IN THE BUSHBABY "GALAGO CRASSICAUDATUS," WERE ESTIMATED FROM A PARTIAL AREAL SURVEY OF CROSS-SECTIONED TISSUE EXAMINED BY ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. THE AVERAGE OF THE DATA OBTAINED BY TWO EXPERIMENTERS YIELDED A TOTAL FIBER ESTIMATE OF 384,500 (±19,200). UNMYELINATED AXONS COMPRISED 2.8 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION. THE FIBER DENSITY BETWEEN PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL OPTIC NERVE SAMPLES WAS HOMOGENEOUS AND ESTIMATED TO BE 376 FIBERS PER 1000UM2. AXON SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS WERE DISTRIBUTED UNIMODALLY FROM 0.17-4.3 MICRONS (MODE=0.7). UNMYELINATED AXONS RANGED IN SIZE FROM 0.17 TO 1.24 MICRONS (MODE 0=.41). THE COMPARATIVE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED IN VIEW OF THE BUSHBABY AS MODEL FOR STUDIES OF HUMAN SCOTOPIC VISION.
KEYWORDS: NEUROANATOMY, ULTRASTRUCTURAL NEUROANATOMY, ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, OPTIC NERVE, BUSHBABY, GALAGO CRASSICAUDATUS, VISION, AXON DIAMETER SPECTRUM, IMAGE ANALYSIS
86-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1006 DTIC #: ADA221203
TITLE: CONCEPT PROPOSAL FOR AN AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): JIM E. FULBROOK, BRUCE E. LEIBRECHT, DAVID J. WALSH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR HAS BEEN DESIGNED AT USAARL TO SUPPLEMENT NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) TRAINING FOR GROUND UNITS. THIS REPORT DISCUSSES THE SPECIFICATIONS, CHARACTERISTICS, APPLICATIONS, BENEFITS, AND COSTS OF THE AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR PROTOTYPE.
KEYWORDS: AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), AN/PVS-5 SIMULATOR, TRAINING SIMULATOR
86-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5683 DTIC #: ADA202906
TITLE: THE ROLE OF PEAK PRESSURE IN DETERMINING THE AUDITORY HAZARD OF IMPULSE NOISE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, DENNIS L. CURD, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, RICHARD J. SALVI, C. E. HARGETT, JR., GEORGE TURRENTINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MOST CURRENT DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA (DRC) FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE ARE WRITTEN IN TERMS OF PEAK PRESSURE AS THE PRIMARY INDEX OF TRAUMATIC POTENTIAL OR HAZARD ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO AN IMPULSE NOISE. SINCE THE PEAK PRESSURE IS ONLY ONE OF MANY PARAMETERS OF AN IMPULSE, THERE IS A QUESTION WHETHER OR NOT A DRC BASED ON PEAK PRESSURE CAN REFLECT ACCURATELY THE HAZARD TO HEARING POSED BY IMPULSE NOISE. THE EXPERIMENTS DESCRIBED IN THE REPORT WERE DESIGNED TO DETERMINE WHETHER PEAK PRESSURE IS AN ADEQUATE QUANTIFIER FOR AN IMPULSE NOISE DRC.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
86-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 637 DTIC #: ADA191656
TITLE: SEATED EYE POSITIONS AND ANTHROPOMETRIC EXTREMES OF AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): DAVID O. COTE, AARON W. SCHOPPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEATED EYE POSITIONS OF PERSONNEL IN THE 1ST TO 5TH PERCENTILE RANGE AND THE 95TH TO 99TH PERCENTILE RANGE FOR MALE STATURE WERE EXAMINED IN SIX U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS TO DETERMINE IF THEIR SEATED EYE POSITIONS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF INSTRUCTOR PILOTS. IN ADDITION, THE ZERO AZIMUTH, OUTSIDE-THE-COCKPIT FIELD-OF-VIEW OF ANTHROPOMETRICALLY EXTREME PERSONNEL AND INSTRUCTOR PILOTS WAS MEASURED. LARGE DIFFERENCES IN VIEWING ANGLES WERE ALSO OBSERVED IN ALL AIRCRAFT. HOWEVER, IN THE CASE OF PERSONNEL IN THE 1ST TO 5TH PERCENTILE RANGE FOR MALE STATURE, THE DIFFERENCES WERE TO THEIR ADVANTAGE. IN THE CASE OF PERSONNEL IN THE 95TH TO 99TH PERCENTILE FOR MALE STATURE, FIELD-OF-VIEW WAS CONSIDERABLY DECREASED IN SOME AIRCRAFT. FURTHER STUDY IS NEEDED TO DETERMINE WHAT EFFECTS THE REDUCED FIELD-OF-VIEW FOR TALL PERSONNEL MAY HAVE ON FLYING PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: SEATED EYE POSITIONS, DESIGN EYE HEIGHT, DESIGN EYE POSITIONS, ANTHROPOMETRY, HELICOPTERS, ARMY AVIATION, VISUAL ANGLES, SEAT POSITIONS
86-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2232 DTIC #: ADA191657
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT CONTROL FORCE INPUTS FOR THE U.S. ARMY UH-1 HELICOPTER DURING "HYDRAULICS-ON" AND "HYDRAULICS-OFF" APPROACHES AND LANDINGS
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, JOHN H. WELLS, LEON R. KAYLOR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE IS LITTLE INFORMATION AVAILABLE REGARDING THE MAGNITUDE OF FORCE INPUT TO HELICOPTER CONTROLS UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS. ACCORDINGLY, 12 MALE U.S. ARMY AVIATORS EACH FLEW SIX NORMAL AND SIX SIMULATED EMERGENCY CONDITION ("HYDRAULICS-OFF") APPROACHES AND LANDINGS IN AN ARMY JUH-1 UTILITY HELICOPTER. BECAUSE THERE EXISTED CONCERN THAT FORCES APPLIED MIGHT VARY SUBSTANTIALLY WITH FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, THE AVIATORS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE STUDY WERE SOLICITED FROM TWO GROUPS DIFFERING WIDELY IN THE NUMBER OF HOURS FLOWN. THE SIX LESS-EXPERIENCED AVIATORS HAD BETWEEN 170 AND 200 HOURS OF FLIGHT TIME (MEAN = 183), AND THE SIX MORE-EXPERIENCED AVIATORS HAD BETWEEN 1300 AND 2750 HOURS OF FLIGHT TIME (MEAN = 2250). THE THREE PRINCIPAL CONTROLS OF THE AIRCRAFT (CYCLIC, COLLECTIVE, AND PEDALS) WERE STRAIN-GAGE INSTRUMENTED. THE OUTPUTS RECORDED DURING THE LAST 60 SECONDS OF FLIGHT PRIOR TO EACH TOUCHDOWN WERE STUDIED. ANALYSES OF VARIANCE UNDERTAKEN ON THE MEANS OF FORCES RECORDED DURING SUCCESSIVE 5-SECOND INTERVALS REVEALED SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE MAGNITUDE OF THE FORCES APPLIED AS A FUNCTION OF HYDRAULICS CONDITION AND TIME-TO-TOUCHDOWN; I.E., FORCES DIFFERENTIALLY INCREASED AS TOUCHDOWN NEARED DURING HYDRAULICS-OFF APPROACHES.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT CONTROLS, HELICOPTER CONTROLS, CONTROL FORCE REQUIREMENT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS, STRENGTH, MALE, FEMALE
86-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 674 DTIC #: ADA192017
TITLE: IMPROVED DESIGN CRITERIA FOR CRASH HELMETS
AUTHOR(s): R. FRED ROLSTEN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMET WAS IMPACT EVALUATED. THE MOTORCYCLE HELMET'S IMPACT PROTECTION IS COMPARED TO THAT OF THE SPH-4, THE STANDARD ARMY AVIATOR'S HELMET. DROP TESTS, RANGING FROM 0.91- TO 2.44-METERS, WERE USED FOR THE HELMET TESTING BY MEANS OF A HELMET/HEADFORM FREE-FALL DEVICE. THE TWO EXAMPLES OF THE HELMET WERE SUBJECTED TO 16 DROP TESTS. TWO OF THESE DROP TESTS RESULTED IN A HIGH LEVEL OF TRANSMITTED FORCE AND ACCELERATION WHICH FOCUSES ON THE INADEQUATE PROTECTION TO PREVENT CONCUSSION OR SERIOUS INJURY AT ALL ENERGY LEVELS GREATER THAN PRODUCED AT A 1-METER DROP HEIGHT. THE TESTED HELMETS COULD BE CHANGED TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE PROTECTION BY DOUBLING THE THICKNESS OF THE LINER.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HELMET IMPACT TESTING, HEAD IMPACT TOLERANCE
86-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 12090 DTIC #: ADA221504
TITLE: SMOKING AND SOLDIER PERFORMANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK N. DYER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCH WAS REVIEWED ON SMOKING AS IT RELATES TO SOLDIER PERFORMANCE FOR THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND. THIS LITERATURE REVIEW RESULTED FROM AN UNSOLICITED PROPOSAL SUBMITTED BY RESEARCH SOLUTIONS, INCORPORATED, IN RESPONSE TO THE BOARD AGENCY ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE COMMAND. RESEARCH ON SMOKING AND OTHER NICOTINE EFFECTS WAS INCLUDED IN THE REVIEW. THE RESEARCH REVIEWED WAS RELATED TO POSITION DISCLOSURE IN COMBAT; THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON PHYSICAL WORK CAPACITY AND ENDURANCE; THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON PERCEPTUAL PROCESSES; THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON AROUSAL AND ABILITY TO DEAL WITH STRESS, PAIN, AND FEAR; SMOKING-INDUCED HORMONAL CHANGES; THE EFFECTS OF TOBACCO DEPRIVATION; SMOKING-DISEASE RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PRODUCTIVITY AND ABSENTEEISM; SMOKING AND ABUSE OF OTHER SUBSTANCES, DELINQUENCY, AND ACCIDENTS; AND ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SMOKING AND OTHER FACTORS OF POTENTIAL RELEVANCE TO SOLDIER PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: SMOKING, TOBACCO USE, NICOTINE, SOLDIER PERFORMANCE, VISION, VISUAL ACCOMODATION, SCOTOPIC SENSITIVITY, HEARING, VIGILANGE, RAPID INFORMATION PROCESSING, LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING, DRUG ABUSE, DELINQUENCY, PROMISCUITY, DRIVING ACCIDENTS, ABSENTEEISM
86-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1650 DTIC #: ADA174909
TITLE: SOME EFFECTS OF ANTICHOLINESTERASE DRUGS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES ON EXTRARETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS OF APLYSIA CALIFORNICA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES P. APLAND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: APLYSIA EXTRARETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR (ERP) CELLS R2, LPL1, AND VPN WERE USED AS MODELS OF PHOTOTRANSDUCTION. THE EARLY STEPS OF LIGHT TRANSDUCTION IN APLYSIA ERP CELLS ARE VERY SIMILAR TO THOSE PROPOSED IN THE CALCIUM SCHEME FOR VERTEBRATE ROD OUTER SEGMENTS. THE EFFECTS OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS AND THEIR ANTIDOTES ON PHOTO-RESPONSES IN APLYSIA WERE INVESTIGATED BY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS. BATH APPLICATION OF DIISOPROPYL FLOUROPHOSPHATE (DFP), A POTENT IRREVERSIBLE ORGANOPHOSPHATE-TYPE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR, CONSISTENTLY DECREASED THE MAXIMUM AMPLITUDE OF THE PHOTORESPONSE ELICITED BY FLASHING A LIGHT ON APLYSIA ERP CELLS. DFP DID NOT CHANGE MEMBRANE RESISTANCE, NOR DID IT CHANGE THE REVERSAL POTENTIAL FOR THE PHOTORESPONSE. PHYSOSTIGMINE, A REVERSIBLE CARBAMATE-TYPE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR, DEPRESSED BOTH PHOTORESPONSE AMPLITUDE AND MEMBRANE RESISTANCE. ATTENUATION OF PHOTORESPONSE WAS DOSE-DEPENDENT WITH BOTH DFP AND PHYSOSTIGMINE AND WAS COMPLETELY REVERSED BY WASHING OUT THE DRUGS. PHYSOSTIGMINE WAS LESS POTENT. BOTH DRUGS CAUSED DEPOLARIZATION OF THE RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (RMP). PYRIDOSTIGMINE, ANOTHER REVERSIBLE CARBAMATE-TYPE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR, HAD NO EFFECT ON PHOTORESPONSE OR MEMBRANE RESISTANCE AT FIVE TIMES THE CONCENTRATION USED FOR PHYSOSTIGMINE. BATH APPLICATION OF CARBACHOL, WHICH WOULD MIMIC A BUILDUP OF ACETYLCHOLINE (ACH) FOLLOWING CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION, CAUSED A PERSISTENT HYPERPOLARIZATION OF RMP. CARBACHOL CAUSED ATTENUATION OF BOTH PHOTORESPONSE AND MEMBRANE RESISTANCE. PREVIOUS STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT DFP INHIBITS NA, K-ATPASE. DEPOLARIZATION AFTER TREATMENT OF ERP CELLS WITH 10-3M OUABAIN, SUGGESTS THAT THIS DEPOLARIZATION IS NOT CAUSED BY NA PUMP INHIBITION. THE MUSCARINIC ACH RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST ATROPINE BLOCKED THE PHOTO-RESPONSE ATTENUATION CAUSED BY THE DFP. ATROPINE DID NOT BLOCK THE ATTENUATION OF PHOTORESPONSE AND MEMBRANE RESISTANCE CAUSED BY PHYSOSTIGMINE AND CARBACHOL. CALCIUM-FREE, HIGH-MAGNESIUM SEA WATER, WHICH BLOCKS RELEASE OF ACH AND OTHER NEUROTRANSMITTERS, DID NOT BLOCK THE ATTENUATION OF PHOTORESPONSE CAUSED BY DFP.
KEYWORDS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES, CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS, PHOTORECEPTORS, VISION, ANIMAL MODEL, APLYSIA
87-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 765 DTIC #: ADA181203
TITLE: HEAD MOVEMENTS DURING CONTOUR FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH, WILLIAM R. HOLT, JOHN K. CROSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS HEAD MOVEMENT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO MEASURE PILOT HEAD ROTATIONAL MOVEMENTS DURING CONTOUR FLIGHTS. THE HEAD MOVEMENT DATA WERE COLLECTED FROM FIVE SUBJECTS AS EACH FLEW A MODIFIED UH-1M OVER A 15-MILE CONTOUR COURSE. THE SUBJECT PILOTS ALSO WERE REQUIRED TO VISUALLY SEARCH FOR "ENEMY" AIRCRAFT WHILE FLYING THE CONTOUR COURSE. A HELMET-MOUNTED SIGHT WAS USED TO MEASURE THE PILOTS' HEAD MOVEMENTS. THE HEAD POSITION DATA INDICATE THE PILOTS LOOKED FORWARD MOST OF THE TIME, EVEN THOUGH THE SCENARIO REQUIRED A BROAD RANGE OF HEAD MOVEMENTS. THE DATA ALSO SUGGEST PURE HEAD-NECK MOVEMENTS WITHOUT TORSO PARTICIPATION. THE HEAD VELOCITY DATA INDICATE SYMMETRICAL AZIMUTH AND ELEVATION HEAD MOVEMENT COMPONENTS. APPROXIMATELY 97 PERCENT OF THE HEAD MOVEMENTS WERE EQUAL TO OR LESS THAN 120 DEGREES/SEC, ALTHOUGH SOME MOVEMENTS EXCEEDED 200 DEGREES/SEC.
KEYWORDS: HEAD TRACKING, CONTOUR FLIGHT, HEAD VELOCITY, VISUALLY COUPLED SYSTEM (VCS)
87-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 758 DTIC #: ADA181430
TITLE: CONTROLLING IMPULSE NOISE HAZARDS: PROGRAMMATIC MODEL FOR DEVELOPING VALIDATED EXPOSURE STANDARDS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BLAST-PRODUCING WEAPONS SUCH AS ARTILLERY CANNONS, MORTARS, AND ROCKETS CAN PRODUCE SERIOUS HEARING LOSS AMONG COMBAT TROOPS. EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF THE RISKS OF HEARING LOSS REQUIRES REALISTIC, VALID STANDARDS FOR NOISE HAZARD EVALUATION AND MATERIEL DESIGN. UNFORTUNATELY, CURRENT ARMY STANDARDS FOR IMPULSE NOISE ARE NEITHER FOUNDED ON A THOROUGH SCIENTIFIC DATABASE NOR VALIDATED FOR OPERATIONAL SCENARIOS. THESE LIMITATIONS MAKE IT DIFFICULT TO BALANCE THE REQUIREMENT FOR IMPROVED WEAPONS AGAINST THE NEED TO PROTECT CREWMEMBERS' HEARING. IN SUPPORT OF THE ARMY'S HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROGRAM, A MULTIPHASE RESEARCH MODEL HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE A SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATION FOR VALID IMPULSE NOISE STANDARDS. THE MODEL CONSTITUTES A BLUEPRINT OF THE PROGRAMMATIC BUILDING BLOCKS REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF REALISTIC, EFFECTIVE STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO A BROAD SPECTRUM OF WEAPONS. LABORATORY AND FIELD RESEARCH METHODS ARE USED TO ESTABLISH A SYSTEMATIC, COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE RELATING AUDITORY INJURY TO CRITICAL NOISE PARAMETERS. THE MODEL CULMINATES IN VALIDATION OF NEW STANDARDS UNDER REALISTIC FIELD CONDITIONS. IMPLEMENTING THE MODEL REQUIRES LONG-TERM RESEARCH COMMITMENTS IN EXECUTING THE PROGRAM. ONCE ESTABLISHED, THE NEW NOISE EXPOSURE STANDARDS CAN BE TRANSLATED INTO HEARING CONSERVATION STANDARDS, MATERIEL DESIGN STANDARDS, AND NOISE HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES. THESE NEW WEAPONS WHICH ARE, AT THE SAME TIME, SAFER AND MORE EFFECTIVE.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, DAMAGE RISK CRITERIA, BLAST OVERPRESSURE
87-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 465 DTIC #: ADA181199
TITLE: LOW ALTITUDE, HIGH SPEED PERSONNEL PARACHUTING: MEDICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ISSUES
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WEHRLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT REVIEWS THE MEDICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ISSUES OF HIGH SPEED, LOW ALTITUDE PARACHUTING. ACCIDENT AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA ARE REVIEWED. THE DEARTH OF EXPERIMENTAL/OPERATIONAL DATA RELATED TO THESE ISSUES IS NOTED.
KEYWORDS: PERSONNEL PARACHUTES, PARACHUTING, MEDICAL ISSUES, HUMAN ACCELERATION TOLERANCE, PHYSIOLOGICAL ISSUES, PARACHUTE JUMPING, PARACHUTISTS
87-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2163 DTIC #: ADA181391
TITLE: THE COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM (CEMES) PROJECT PHASE I REPORT
AUTHOR(s): DOUGLAS E. LANDON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERT SYSTEM (DESIGNATED CEMES: COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM) DESIGNED TO DIAGNOSE AND TREAT HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK UNDER BATTLEFIELD CONDITIONS IS BEING CONDUCTED. THIS REPORT OUTLINES THE PROJECT'S RATIONALE AND DOCUMENTS THE MAJOR DESIGN CONCEPTS UNDERLYING THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF CEMES. THE PROJECT IS BEING CONDUCTED IN TWO PHASES. THE FIRST PHASE HAS BEEN COMPLETED, CONSISTING OF THE DESIGN OF A BASIC CEMES THAT CAN DIAG-NOSE HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK AND SIMULATE FLUID INFUSION TREATMENTS. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES THE INTERIM PROGRESS OF THIS PROJECT AT PHASE I.
KEYWORDS: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, EXPERT SYSTEM, MEDICINE, MEDICAL, AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS
87-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1304 DTIC #: ADA191615
TITLE: MEASUREMENT OF GUNNER HEAD ACCELERATION DURING FIRING OF HIGH IMPULSE GUNS ON LIGHTWEIGHT ARMORED VEHICLES AND THE ASSESSMENT OF GUNNER TOLERANCE TO SUCH IMPACT
AUTHOR(s): TED A. HUNDLEY, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PROVIDES GUNNER HEAD ACCELERATION DATA FROM THE LIVE FIRING OF 105 MM AND 152 MM TURRET GUNS ON THE M-551 AND M-60 TANKS. THE HEAD ACCELERATIONS WERE MEASURED WITH A GUNNER VOLUNTEER AND WITH AN ANTHROPOMORPHIC DUMMY IN STATIONARY TANKS. THE HEAD ACCELERATION VALUES RANGED FROM 4 GS IN THE HEAVY M-60 TANK UP TO 14 GS IN THE LIGHT M-551 TANK. A COMPARISON OF THESE ACCELERATION LEVELS TO THE KNOWN HUMAN TOLERANCE DATA INDICATES NO PROBLEM FOR SINGLE EXPOSURES FOR MOST GUNNERS, BUT IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOME GUNNERS WILL EXPERIENCE HEADACHES AND NECK STRAIN. THE EFFECT OF REPEATED EXPOSURES AT THE 14 G LEVEL IS NOT KNOWN AND FURTHER RESEARCH IS RECOMMENDED.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 684 DTIC #: ADA191616
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE U.S. ARMY FITTING PROGRAM FOR THE INTEGRATED HELMET UNIT OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN, DANIEL W. GOWER, JR., JOSEPH R. LICINA, JOHN V. BARSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE FITTING PROGRAM FOR THE INTEGRATED HELMET UNIT FOR THE AH-64 DEVELOPED AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY IS DOCUMENTED. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DESIGN OF TRAINING AND FIELD UNIT FITTING PROGRAMS ARE OUTLINED.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1002 DTIC #: ADA191652
TITLE: DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE ADEQUACY OF HEARING PROTECTION FOR USE WITH THE VIPER
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DURING DEVELOPMENTAL TESTING IT WAS DETERMINED THAT THE VIPER ANTITANK WEAPON PRODUCED IMPULSE NOISE WHICH EXCEEDED THE MAXIMUM LEVELS PERMITTED BY MIL-STD-1474. IN ORDER TO PROCEED WITH OPERATIONAL TESTS, IT WAS NECESSARY TO DETERMINED WHETHER ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION COULD BE PROVIDED. THIS STUDY INVOLVED THE EXPOSURE OF 38 VOLUNTEERS TO TWO ROUNDS OF VIPER FIRED IN RAPID SUCCESSION WHILE WEARING EARTM EARPLUGS. THE AVERAGE EXPOSURE PEAK LEVEL WAS 181 DB SPL. AUDIOGRAMS WERE TAKEN BEFORE AND AFTER EXPOSURE. NO DETECTABLE CHANGES IN HEARING WERE OBSERVED IN THE GROUP OF VOLUNTEERS. FROM THIS, IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT EARTM EARPLUGS PROVIDE ADEQUATE PROTECTION FOR AT LEAST TWO ROUNDS OF VIPER.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING LOSS, ACOUSTICS, HEARING CONSERVATION
87-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2585 DTIC #: ADA199583
TITLE: COMPENDIUM OF U.S. ARMY VISUAL MEDICAL FITNESS STANDARDS
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WALSH, RICHARD R. LEVINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT REVIEWS VISION STANDARDS PERTAINING TO ENTRY ONTO ACTIVE DUTY, RETENTION, AND MOBILIZATION OF OFFICER AND ENLISTED PERSONNEL IN THE U.S. ARMY. IT ALSO CONTAINS CURRENT VISION REQUIREMENTS FOR EACH ENLISTED AND WARRANT OFFICER MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTY (MOS) AND COMMISSIONED OFFICER SPECIALTY SKILL IDENTIFIER (SSI). ALSO SUMMARIZED ARE "SPECIAL" VISION STANDARDS WITH APPLICATION EITHER TO ALL PERSONNEL, TO A SPECIFIC SUBGROUP, OR A SELECT FEW. THESE INCLUDE, AS EXAMPLES, PARTICULAR VISION REQUIREMENTS FOR FLYING DUTY, MARINE DIVING, MILITARY DRIVER'S LICENSING, SPECIAL OPERATIONS TRAINING AND ASSIGNMENT, AND ADMISSION TO THE U.S. MILITARY ACADEMY, RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS, AND OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL. ALL STANDARDS ARE REFERENCED TO THEIR APPROPRIATE GOVERNING PUBLISHED REGULATION. CONFUSION WITHIN AND CONTRADICTIONS TO EXISTING REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS ARE DISCUSSED AS APPROPRIATE.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5217 DTIC #: ADA191617
TITLE: AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES IN AN ARMORED DIVISION
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, JOHN K. CROSLEY, DUDLEY R. PRICE, GERALD BENTLEY, PATRICK LEAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE SAFETY AND MILITARY EFFECTIVENESS OF WEARING CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL ARMOR ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS FROM EIGHT BATTALIONS OF AN ARMORED DIVISION AT FORT HOOD WORE EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES (SCLS) OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS. DURING THIS PERIOD, PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SUBJECTIVE MEASURES WERE OBTAINED, ALONG WITH LOGISTICAL AND PERSONNEL SUPPORT INFORMATION. THREE TYPES OF SCLS WERE WORN: HIGH, MEDIUM, AND LOW WATER CONTENT LENSES. SUBJECTS FOLLOWED THEIR NORMAL TRAINING SCHEDULE IN GARRISON AND ON TRAINING RANGES. SEVENTY-FOUR PERCENT OF THOSE SUCCESSFULLY FITTED WITH SCLS WORE THEIR LENSES FOR THE DURATION OF THE STUDY, WHEN ADMINISTRATIVE LOSSES WERE FACTORED OUT.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 773 DTIC #: ADA191654
TITLE: DARK ADAPTATION AND RECOVERY FROM LIGHT ADAPTATION: SMOKERS VERSUS NON-SMOKERS
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SINCE THE PUBLISHED DATA CONCERNING THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON VISUAL SENSITIVITY AT NIGHT ARE INCONSISTENT, A NEW STUDY WAS INITIATED TO INVESTIGATE THIS QUESTION. THIRTY ARMY AVIATORS BETWEEN THE AGES OF 19 AND 39 VOLUNTEERED TO PARTICIPATE IN THIS STUDY. OF THE SUBJECTS, 15 SMOKED AND 15 WERE NONSMOKERS. EACH SUBJECT WAS SEATED IN A LIGHT-CONTROLLED ROOM AND EXPOSED TO A STANDARDIZED BRIGHT LIGHT FOR 5 MINUTES. IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE BRIGHT LIGHT WAS EXTINGUISHED, THE SUBJECT'S VISUAL SENSITIVITY WAS TESTED BY GRADUALLY INCREASING THE INTENSITY OF A TEST LIGHT UNTIL THE SUBJECT COULD SEE IT. THIS WAS CONTINUED OVER A PERIOD OF 35 MINUTES BY WHICH TIME THE SUBJECTS HAD REACHED THEIR MAXIMUM LIGHT SENSITIVITY. EACH SUBJECT THEN WORE A PAIR OF AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES FOR 5 MINUTES AFTER WHICH HIS VISUAL SENSITIVITY AGAIN WAS TESTED FOR 20 MINUTES.
KEYWORDS: NONE
87-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1475 DTIC #: ADA191653
TITLE: SIMULTANEOUS MULTIPLE CONTROL FORCE EXERTION CAPABILITIES OF MALES AND FEMALES VERSUS HELICOPTER CONTROL FORCE DESIGN LIMITS
AUTHOR(s): AARON W. SCHOPPER, GEORGE R. MASTROIANNI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY STANDARDS AND DESIGN GUIDELINES DO NOT CONSIDER THE POTENTIAL FOR DEGRADATION IN THE MAGNITUDE OF FORCE WHICH CAN BE APPLIED BY A CREWMEMBER OR OPERATOR AS THE RESULT OF HAVING TO PERFORM MORE THAN ONE CONTROL INPUT AT THE SAME TIME. IN ASSESSING HELICOPTER-CONTROL-REFERENCED STRENGTH CAPABILITIES AS A PART OF AN OVERALL PROGRAM TO UPDATE MEDICAL STANDARDS FOR U.S. ARMY FLYING DUTY, 130 SUBJECTS PERFORMED MAXIMAL VOLUNTARY EXERTIONS ON EACH OF THE THREE PRIMARY HELICOPTER CONTROLS (CYCLIC, COLLECTIVE, AND PEDALS). THESE EXERTIONS WERE UNDERTAKEN BOTH AS SEPARATE INPUTS TO SINGLE CONTROLS AND AS SIMULTANEOUSLY EXECUTED INPUTS TO ALL THREE CONTROLS.
KEYWORDS: STRENGTH, MALE, FEMALE, AIRCRAFT CONTROLS, HELICOPTER CONTROLS, CONTROL FORCE REQUIREMENT, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, HUMAN FACTORS
88-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2069 DTIC #: ADA193419
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN THE AH-64 APACHE MISSION SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL W. GOWER, MICHAEL G. LILIENTHAL, ROBERT S. KENNEDY, JENNIFER E. FOWLKES, DENNIS R. BALTZLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AS TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE IMPROVED VISUAL AND MOTION SYSTEMS IN OPERATIONAL FLIGHT TRAINERS AND WEAPONS TACTICS TRAINERS, THERE HAVE BEEN INCREASING REPORTS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO ONE OR MORE SYMPTOMS WHICH CAN OCCUR WHILE IN A SIMULATOR, IMMEDIATELY POSTEXPOSURE, OR AT SOME LATER TIME FOLLOWING EXPOSURE. SOME PILOTS HAVE REPORTED WHILE DRIVING FOLLOWING POSTEXPOSURE, THEY HAVE HAD TO PULL OFF THE ROAD AND WAIT FOR SYMPTOMS TO SUBSIDE. INSTRUCTOR-OPERATORS HAVE REPORTED EXPERIENCING "THE ROOM SPINNING" WHEN THEY WENT TO BED. MORE CRITICAL IS THE POTENTIAL FOR IN-FLIGHT PROBLEMS DUE TO PROLONGED PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, CONDUCTED A FIELD SURVEY TO DOCUMENT THE EXTENT OF THE SIMULATOR SICKNESS PROBLEMS AT OPERATIONAL AH-64 SIMULATOR SITES. THE SIMULATOR SICKNESS INCIDENCE RATES AND THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED AND CORRELATIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, AND FLIGHT MODE ALSO ARE PRESENTED. THE STUDY REINFORCES THE NEED FOR CONTINUED RESEARCH RELATED TO SYSTEM DESIGN, TRAINING METHODS, AND CREW REST GUIDELINES BETWEEN SIMULATOR AND ACTUAL FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
88-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 591 DTIC #: ADA221118
TITLE: RECOVERY OF THE VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE IN THE CAT FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE, AN IRREVERSIBLE CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITOR
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, THOMAS H. HARDING, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSES (VER) TO COUNTERPHASED GRATINGS WERE RECORDED FROM AREA 17 OF CAT VISUAL VORTEX PRIOR TO AND FOLLOWING ADMINISTRATION OF DIISOPROPYL-FLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP). THE VER AND ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE) ACTIVITY OF BLOOD, RETINA, AND VISUAL CORTEX WERE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY FOLLOWING DFP ADMINISTRATION. APPROXIMATELY 2 HOURS AFTER EXPOSURE TO 4 MG/KG DFP, THE VER BEGAN TO RECOVER AND IN SOME CATS RETURNED TO BASE LINE LEVELS. IN CONTRAST, BLOOD, RETINA, AND CORTEX ACHE ACTIVITY SHOWED LITTLE, IF ANY, TENDENCY FOR RECOVERY THROUGHOUT THE EXPERIMENT. SINCE ATROPINE SULFATE PROVIDED AT LEAST PARTIAL RECOVERY OF THE VER FOLLOWING DFP WITHOUT AFFECTING ACHE INHIBITION, AN ACCUMULATION OF ACETYLCHOLINE (ACH) PROBABLY IS INVOLVED IN THE INITIAL VISUAL LOSS. HOWEVER, RECOVERY OF THE VER OVER TIME WHILE ACHE REMAINED SEVERELY INHIBITED IMPLICATES MECHANISMS OTHER THAN, OR IN ADDITION TO, ACCUMULATION OF ACH AT RECEPTOR SITES.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSE (VER), CATS, DIISOPROPYFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP), ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE), LAB ANIMALS, VISUAL FUNCTION
88-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1965 DTIC #: ADA198720
TITLE: DISORIENTATION ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS IN U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS 1 JANUARY 1980 TO 30 APRIL 1987
AUTHOR(s): PETER VYRNWY-JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCIDENT DATA WAS OBTAINED FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FOR ALL U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER SPATIAL DISORIENTATION ACCIDENTS WHICH OCCURRED DURING THE PERIOD BEGINNING ON 1 JANUARY 1980 AND ENDING ON 30 APRIL 1987. DURING THIS TIME, THERE WERE 129 ACCIDENTS CAUSED BY SPATIAL DISORIENTATION WHICH WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR 37 FATALITIES AND 56 DISABLING INJURIES. MAJOR CAUSAL FACTORS ARE ANALYZED AND RECOMMENDATIONS MADE FOR CHANGES IN AIRCREW TRAINING, EDUCATION, AND AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION. ALSO DISCUSSED ARE THE EFFECTS OF OPERATIONS UNDERTAKEN IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, VERTIGO, HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, STATISTICS, PILOT-ERROR ACCIDENTS, HELICOPTER INSTRUMENTATION
88-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 728 DTIC #: ADA198719
TITLE: COMPARISON OF THREE ANESTHETICS FOR CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): C. E. HARGETT, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, MELVIN CARRIER, JR., CAROL S. LANDON, IRVIN W. MCCONNELL, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ANESTHESIA TECHNIQUES WHICH SUCCESSFULLY INDUCE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA IN CHINCHILLA VILLEDERA ARE DESCRIBED AND COMPARED. TWO INJECTABLES, KETAMINE-ACEPROMAZINE AND KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, ARE COMPARED TO HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE ADMINISTERED BY MASK ONLY AND THE SAME MIXTURE ADMINISTERED BY INDUCTION CHAMBER UNTIL LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX AND THEN MASK. FORTY LABORATORY-RAISED ADULT CHINCHILLAS IN FOUR GROUPS WERE USED IN THIS STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE WEIGHTED AND DOSAGES CALCULATED AND ADMINISTERED. ALL ACHIEVED SURGICAL ANESTHESIA WITH NO DEATHS. TIME TO LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX, TIME TO SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, DURATION OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, TIME FROM END OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA TO STANDING UNAIDED, AND TOTAL TIME FROM ADMINISTRATION OF ANESTHESIA TO STANDING UNAIDED ARE DETAILED. FINDINGS INDICATE THAT THE DOSES EVALUATED OF KETAMINE-ACEPROMAZINE, KETAMINE-XYLAZINE, AND HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE ALL PROVIDE SAFE, DEPENDABLE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA.
KEYWORDS: CHINCHILLA, KETAMINE, XYLAZINE, ACEPROMAZINE, ANESTHESIA
88-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1836 DTIC #: ADA197650
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRY AND MASS DISTRIBUTION FOR HUMAN ANALOGUES, VOLUME I: MILITARY MALE AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): HARRY G. ARMSTRONG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ANTHROPOMETRIC AND MASS DISTRIBUTION DATA FOR USE IN CONSTRUCTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL HUMAN ANALOGUES---MATHEMATICAL MODELS OR TEST DUMMIES---ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REPORT. INCLUDED HERE ARE BODY DIMENSIONS, JOINT LOCATIONS, AND MASS DISTRIBUTION PROPERTIES APPROPRIATE FOR MODELING THE SMALL, MIDSIZE, AND LARGE MALE AVIATOR OF THE 1980S. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM: (1) 139 BODY DIMENSIONS OF STANDING AND SEATED MALES OBTAINED BY TRADITIONAL ANTHROPOMETRIC METHODS; (2) MASS DISTRIBUTION DATA FOR BODY SEGMENTS OBTAINED BY STEREOPHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES; AND (3) SKELETAL JOINT CENTERS OBTAINED BY ESTIMATION. THE ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA, GENERATED FROM MULTIPLE REGRESSIONS ON STATURE AND WEIGHT, ARE SUITABLE AS THE BASIS FOR MODELS TO BE USED IN TESTING RESPONSES TO IMPACT AND OTHER MECHANICAL FORCES; THEY ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR OTHER PURPOSES SUCH AS THE SIZING OF CLOTHING AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, OR WORKSPACE DESIGN.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRY, ANTHROPOLOGY, HUMAN MASS DISTRIBUTION, HUMAN LIMB PIVOT AXES, PILOT SIZE
88-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 683 DTIC #: ADA200429
TITLE: COMPARISON OF ARMY FLIGHT SCHOOL PERFORMANCE IN SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS
AUTHOR(s): RONALD J. EDWARDS, MICHAEL G. SANDERS, DUDLEY R. PRICE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON PERFORMANCE WERE EXAMINED IN THIS STUDY BY COMPARING FLIGHT SCHOOL PERFORMANCE IN GROUPS OF NONSMOKING AND SMOKING ARMY AVIATION STUDENTS. ACADEMIC AND IN-FLIGHT GRADES FOR FIVE PHASES OF INITIAL ENTRY ROTARY-WING (IERW) CLASSES BETWEEN JANUARY 1984 AND NOVEMBER 1986 WERE EXTRACTED FROM AVIATION CENTER RECORDS AND COMPARED TO THE STUDENT'S RESPONSES ON THE AUXILIARY QUESTIONNAIRE PORTION OF THE AVIATOR EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER, A COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE COLLECTED YEARLY FROM EVERY ARMY AVIATOR BY THE JOINT EFFORT OF THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AND THE AEROMEDICAL ACTIVITY. THERE WERE 2,025 STUDENTS WITH DATA SUFFICIENTLY COMPLETE AND ANALYSIS, WITH THE AVERAGE AGE OF 24.5 YEARS, AND WITH A RANK AND SEX DISTRIBUTION AS FOLLOWS: 96.3 PERCENT MALES, 3.7 PERCENT FEMALES; 53.2 PERCENT COMMISSIONED OFFICERS, 46.7 PERCENT WARRANT OFFICERS. THROUGH PAST STUDIES (1982) HAVE SHOWN 56 PERCENT OF ALL ARMY PERSONNEL WERE SMOKERS, STRICT CRITERIA DEFINING SMOKERS AND NONSMOKERS IN THIS STUDY, PLUS RECENT DECREASES IN SMOKING RATES, PRODUCED A 15:85 RATION OF SMOKERS TO NONSMOKERS (RECENT QUITTERS AND THOSE WHO SMOKE LESS THAN ONE PACK/DAY WERE NOT INCLUDED IN THE ANALYSIS).
KEYWORDS: CIGARETTES, SMOKING, TOBACCO, FLIGHT TRAINING, PERFORMANCE
88-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 18524 DTIC #: ADA198688
TITLE: EFFECTS OF LOW AND HIGH OXYGEN TENSIONS AND RELATED RESPIRATORY CONDITIONS IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE: A LITERATURE REVIEW
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK N. DYER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCH WAS REVIEWED ON THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA, HYPEROXIA, HYPOCAPNIA, AND HYPERCAPNIA ON A LARGE NUMBER OF VISUAL AND OCULAR PROCESSES. THESE INCLUDED ABSOLUTE VISUAL SENSITIVITY, DARK ADAPTION, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, DEPTH PERCEPTION, STEREOPSIS, FIELDS OF PERIPHERAL AND CENTRAL VISION, CRITICAL FLICKER/FUSION FREQUENCY, COLOR VISION, AFTERIMAGES, OTHER ENTOPIC PHENOMENA, PERSISTENCE OF VISION FOLLOWING ISCHEMIA, THE STANDING POTENTIAL, THE ELECTRORETINOGRAM, GANGLION CELL AND OPTIC-TRAIT RESPONSES, VISUAL EVOKED RESPONSES, OCULAR VESSELS, BLOOD FLOW, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, INTRAOCULAR OXYGEN, THE PUPIL, ACCOMMODATION, MYOPIA, THE CRYSTALLINE LENS, CONVERGENCE, HETEROPHORIA, READING, OTHER EYE MOVEMENTS, AND THE CORNEA. RESEARCH WAS ALSO REVIEWED ON THE POTENTIAL TOXIC EFFECTS OF HYPERBARIC OXYGENATION ON VISION. INTEGRATION OF THIS LARGE BODY OF RESEARCH INDICATED PROBABLE DIOPTIC CHANGES IN THE EYE DURING HYPOXIA THAT RESULTED FROM CHANGES IN BLOOD VOLUME ASSOCIATED WITH RETINAL VASODILATION. ONE POSSIBILITY IS THAT ANTERIOR CHAMBER "SHALLOWING" OCCURS DURING HYPOXIA BECAUSE OF INCREASED PRESSURE BEHIND THE LENS AND/OR REDUCED ANTERIOR CHAMBER PRESSURE. THIS MAY CAUSE INCREASES OF MYOPIA IN SOME CONDITIONS. SINCE RETINAL OXYGEN REQUIREMENTS INCREASE IN DARKNESS, A "NIGHT HYPOXIA" PROBABLY EXISTS THAT MAY LEAD TO "NIGHT MYOPIA" AS A RESULT OF THIS VASCULAR OXYGEN REGULATION WHICH LEADS TO DIOPTRIC "DEREGULATION." RESEARCH NEEDS RELATED TO THESE AND OTHER HYPOTHESES WERE IDENTIFIED ALONG WITH GAPS IN RESEARCH ON THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA AND HYPEROXIA ON VISION.
KEYWORDS: HYPOXIA, VISION, EYE, OXYGEN, HYPEROXIA, HYPERBARIC OXYGEN, HYPOCAPNIA, HYPERCAPNIA, CARBON MONOXIDE, RETINAL CIRCULATION, RETINAL VASODILATION, RETINAL VASOCONSTRICTION, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, INTRAOCULAR OXYGEN, PUPIL, CRYSTALLINE LENS, CORNEA
88-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 646 DTIC #: ADA200431
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF TWO COMPUTER IMPLEMENTED PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURES APPLIED TO REAL-EAR ATTENUATION TESTING (ANSI S12.6-1984)
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM R. NELSON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO ACOUSTICAL INSTRUMENTATION HAS SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED THE CAPABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY OF MODERN ACOUSTICAL LABORATORIES. THE NEED TO REPLACE OLD RECORDING ATTENUATORS USED IN REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION TESTING WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART INSTRUMENTATION PROMPTED THE COMBINATION OF A CMOS MULTIPLYING D/A CONVERTER CHIP (WHICH CAN ACCURATELY AND RELIABLY ATTENUATE AN ANALOG SIGNAL) AND A TABLE-TOP COMPUTER TO CONTROL THE D/A CHIP. THE COMPUTER ALSO WAS USED TO RECORD THE MEASUREMENT OF AUDITORY THRESHOLD, PERFORM STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, AND PERMANENTLY STORE DATA. THE FLEXIBILITY OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ALLOWED THE CHOICE OF PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURE. CONSIDERATION WAS GIVEN TO TWO SUCH PROCEDURES, TRACKING AND METHOD OF ADJUSTMENT. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO DETERMINE IF ONE OF THESE PROCEDURES WOULD PRODUCE FASTER, MORE ACCURATE RESULTS.
KEYWORDS: ACOUSTICS, AUDIOMETRY, HEARING, THRESHOLD, PSYCHOPHYSICAL PROCEDURE, AUDITORY AQUITY
88-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 808 DTIC #: ADA200628
TITLE: THE TRIAGE PROCESS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TRIAGE IS A BASIC MEDICAL SKILL WHICH IS MOST COMMONLY APPLIED IN MASS DISASTER OR COMBAT SITUATIONS TO SORT CASUALTIES. THE NUMBER OF PATIENTS AND THE CARE REQUIRED EXCEEDS THE MEDICAL RESOURCES AVAILABLE, AND THE CARE RENDERED MUST BE GIVEN ON A RATIONAL AND PRIORITIZED BASIS. MOST PREVIOUS PUBLISHED SYSTEMS FOR DEALING WITH LARGE NUMBERS OF PATIENTS HAVE CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES BASED ON MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS. THIS APPROACH IS DIFFICULT FOR PARAMEDICAL PROVIDERS (SUCH AS PARAMEDICS, EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIANS, OR COMBAT MEDICS) TO IMPLEMENT WITHOUT ADDITIONAL MEDICAL TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE. THIS PAPER PRESENTS A SIMPLE INITIAL PATIENT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME BASED ONLY ON RECOGNITION OF SHOCK SYMPTOMS. THE BASIC MNEMONIC IS DESCRIBED FOR DELIVERY OF INITIAL CARE AT A DISASTER FIELD SITE. THE SCHEME IS SUITABLE FOR IMPLEMENTATION WITHOUT PHYSICIANS PRESENT UNTIL A HOSPITAL FACILITY IS REACHED. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRIAGE CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES REQUIRED AT VARIOUS POINTS IN THE RESCUE PROCESS ALSO ARE DISCUSSED. THE PAPER IS ONE OF A SERIES OF ARTICLES ON DISASTER MEDICAL MANAGEMENT ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED IN THE JANUARY 1986 EDITION OF TOPICS IN EMERGENCY MEDICINE BY ASPEN SYSTEMS CORPORATION.
KEYWORDS: TRIAGE, FIELD MEDICAL CARE, DISASTER MEDICINE, DISASTER, MASS CASUALTY, PARAMEDIC, EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN, MEDIC
88-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 673 DTIC #: ADA200432
TITLE: SPH-4 HELMET RETENTION ASSEMBLY REINFORCEMENT
AUTHOR(s): RONALD W. PALMER, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF A HELMET'S RETENTION ASSEMBLY IS TO KEEP THE HELMET FIRMLY AND SECURELY IN PLACE ON THE WEARER'S HEAD, THUS PREVENTING THE EXPOSURE OF THE CRANIUM TO DIRECT IMPACT. THE STANDARD SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY IS PRONE TO EXCESSIVE ELONGATION UNDER STRESS, AND ALLOWS EXCESSIVE HELMET DISPLACEMENT AND CRANIUM EXPOSURE. A MODIFIED SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY, REINFORCED WITH 0.75-IN. TUBULAR NYLON WEBBING, WAS MANUFACTURED IN THIS LABORATORY AND TESTED QUASISTATICALLY ON A TESTING MACHINE WHICH EXERTED A FORCE AT A CONSTANT SPEED. A STANDARD SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY ALSO WAS TESTED AS A CONTROL. THE REINFORCED RETENTION ASSEMBLY WITHSTOOD A 450-LB LOAD WITHOUT FAILURE. ELONGATION OF THE REINFORCED RETENTION ASSEMBLY, MEASURED AT 300-LB LOAD, WAS ALMOST 50 PERCENT LESS THAN THAT OF THE STANDARD RETENTION ASSEMBLY MEASURED AT THE SAME LOAD.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, RETENTION SYSTEM, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, CHINSTRAP
88-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1176 DTIC #: ADA200430
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF TWO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION STANDARDS AS APPLIED TO ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT: ISO 2631 VS. ADS 27
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS L. BREEN, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) STANDARDS, INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO) 2631 AND AERONAUTICAL DESIGN STANDARD 27 (ADS-27), WERE COMPARED USING VIBRATION SIGNATURES FROM THE UH-1 AND UH-60 HELICOPTERS. ISO 2631 IS A WIDELY USED WBV STANDARD WHICH ACCOUNTS FOR VARIABLES SUCH AS INTENSITY, DURATION OF EXPOSURE, FREQUENCY RANGE, AND VIBRATION IN ALL THREE ORTHOGONAL DIRECTIONS. ADS-27 IS A NEWER STANDARD DEVELOPED AT THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION SYSTEMS COMMAND (AVSCOM) FOR MEASURING WBV PRODUCED BY ROTARY-WINGED AIRCRAFT. AN ANALYSIS OF THE TWO VIBRATION SIGNATURE TYPES SHOWS WHEN VIBRATION LEVELS ARE MEASURED ON A PASS/FAIL PERFORMANCE CRITERIA, THE ADS-27 BECOMES THE MORE STRINGENT STANDARD; HOWEVER, ADS-27 FAILS TO ANSWER THE IMPORTANT HEALTH HAZARD QUESTIONS THAT ISO 2631 ATTEMPTS. ISO 2631 VIBRATION ACQUISITION TECHNIQUES WERE FOUND TO BE MORE SCIENTIFICALLY SOUND THAN THOSE PROPOSED BY THE ADS-27. THE USE OF BOTH STANDARDS MAY PROVE TO BE A MORE COMPLETE METHOD OF HELICOPTER WBV ASSESSMENT.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, SIGNATURES, STANDARDS, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, COMPARISION, ADS-27, ISO 2631, UH-60, UH-1
88-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1547 DTIC #: ADA203100
TITLE: POLYCARBONATE OPHTHALMIC LENSES FOR AMETROPIC ARMY AVIATORS USING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U.S. ARMY AVIATORS USE THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG) WITH A MODIFIED FACEPLATE WHICH ENABLES WEARING OF CORRECTIVE SPECTACLES, WHEN REQUIRED. THE NEXT GENERATION NVGS, THE AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), PERMIT SPECTACLE WEAR BY DESIGN. WITH ONLY GLASS LENSES AVAILABLE TO THE AVIATOR REQUIRING OPTICAL CORRECTION, THERE IS A POTENTIAL FOR EYE INJURY FROM BROKEN GLASS SHOULD THE GOGGLES ACCIDENTALLY BE DISPLACED. THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS STUDIES TO (1) COMPARE THE IMPACT RESISTANCE OF GLASS, CR-39 (PLASTIC), AND POLYCARBONATE LENSES TO SIMULATED NVG TUBES, (2) ESTABLISH THE APPROXIMATE FORCES NECESSARY TO CAUSE GLASS LENS BREAKAGE BY DISPLACED NVG TUBES, AND (3) DETERMINE THE PERFORMANCE OF POLYCARBONATE LENSES IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. RESULTS DEMONSTRATE THE SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN IMPACT-RESISTANCE AFFORDED BY POLYCARBONATE OPHTHALMIC LENSES, VERIFY THE RELATIVELY LOW FORCES NECESSARY TO CAUSE NVG DISPLACEMENT AND SUBSEQUENT GLASS LENS BREAKAGE, AND ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF PRESCRIBING POLYCARBONATE LENSES FOR USE BY AVIATION PERSONNEL.
KEYWORDS: POLYCARBONATE LENSES, OPHTHALMIC LENSES, SPECTACLE LENSES, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS)
88-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 284 DTIC #: ADA202984
TITLE: THE IMPACT OF THE U.S. ARMY'S AH-64 HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY ON FUTURE AVIATION HELMET DESIGN. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HISTORICALLY, THE GOAL OF AVIATION HELMET DESIGN HAS BEEN TO PRIMARILY PROVIDE IMPACT AND NOISE PROTECTION TO THE WEARER. IN 1984, THE U.S. ARMY FIELDED AN ADVANCED ATTACK HELICOPTER WHICH REQUIRED A NEW HELMET CONCEPT IN WHICH THE ROLE OF THE HELMET WAS EXPANDED TO PROVIDE A VISUALLY COUPLED INTERFACE BETWEEN THE AVIATOR AND THE AIRCRAFT. THIS NEW HELMET SYSTEM, THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), USES A HELMET FITTED WITH INFRARED (IR) EMITTERS AND A MONOCULAR DISPLAY. THE IR EMITTERS ALLOW A SLEWABLE IR IMAGING SENSOR, MOUNTED ON THE NOSE OF THE AIRCRAFT, TO BE SLAVED TO THE AVIATOR'S HEAD MOVEMENTS. IMAGERY FROM THIS SENSOR IS PRESENTED TO THE AVIATOR THROUGH THE HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY. THIS TYPE SYSTEM GENERATES SEVERAL CONCERNS, RECOGNIZED EARLY ON, BUT STILL UNRESOLVED. THESE AREAS INCLUDE QUESTIONS OF MONOCULAR VS. BINOCULAR IMAGERY, EYE DOMINANCE, AND BINOCULAR RIVALRY. ADDITIONALLY, THE TASK OF INTERFACING THE AVIATOR'S HEAD TO THE AIRCRAFT HAS INTRODUCED PREVIOUSLY UNRECOGNIZED PROBLEMS RELATING TO HEAD ANTHROPOMETRY AND FACIAL ANATOMY. THE FITTING PROCESS HAS BECOME A CRUCIAL FACTOR IN THE AVIATOR'S ABILITY TO INTERFACE WITH THE AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. THE DEVELOPMENT AND FIELDING OF THE IHADSS HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY HAVE EXPANDED THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE HELMET. IF HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS ARE THE DESIGN CHOICE OF FUTURE AIRCRAFT, IT WILL BE IMPERATIVE TO PLACE INCREASED EMPHASIS ON THE HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF THE HELMET.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), SPH-4, IHADSS
88-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2464 DTIC #: ADA202590
TITLE: THE COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM (CEMES) PROJECT: PHASE II REPORT
AUTHOR(s): DOUGLAS E. LANDON, GLENN W. MITCHELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF A COMBAT EMERGENCY MEDICINE EXPERT SYSTEM (DESIGNATED CEMES) HAS BEEN CONDUCTED. THIS REPORT OUTLINES THE PROJECT'S RATIONALE AND DOCUMENTS THE MAJOR DESIGN CONCEPTS UNDERLYING THE EXPLORATORY DEVELOPMENT OF CEMES. CEMES IS AN EXPERT SYSTEM DESIGNED TO PERFORM AUTOMATIC DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK WITH OR WITHOUT CONCURRENT CHEMICAL AGENT CONTAMINATION. ITS ANTICIPATED USE IS AS A FORWARD-AREA MEDICAL AID, OPERATING AUTOMATICALLY FOLLOWING INITIAL HANDS-ON FIRST-AID AND SYSTEM ATTACHMENT BY A MEDIC, MEDIC EXTENDER, OR PHYSICIAN. A LABORATORY PROTOTYPE CEMES HAS BEEN DESIGNED AND DEVELOPED AS A TOTALLY SELF-CONTAINED, CLOSED-LOOP SYSTEM. IT MONITORS VITAL SIGNS THROUGH NONINVASIVE SENSORS AND DETERMINES A DIAGNOSIS THROUGH VITAL SIGN ANALYSIS. IT ANALYZES MEDICAL TRENDS BASED ON DIAGNOSTIC AND VITAL SIGN CHANGES, AND BOTH WARNS FOR AND GUARDS AGAINST CATASTROPHIC OR GRADUAL DETERIORATION IN CASUALTY CONDITION. CEMES ADVISES PERSONNEL AS TO WHEN TO INITIATE AN IV OR DRUG DELIVERY LINE, AND THEN AUTOMATICALLY MANAGES IV FLUID INFUSION AND PERIODIC OR CONTINUOUS DRUG TREATMENTS BASED ON CURRENT DIAGNOSIS AND TRENDS. CEMES MONITOR ITS OWN LOGISTICAL STATUS, ADVISING AS TO WHEN IV FLUID IS GETTING LOW AND BAG REPLACEMENT IS NECESSARY. IN ADDITION, THE LOGISTICAL ANALYSIS WATCHES FOR INOPERATIVE OR MALFUNCTIONING SENSORS TO FACILITATE DEGRADED MODE OPERATION. CEMES ALSO MAINTAINS A DIAGNOSTIC AND TREATMENT HISTORY FOR EXAMINATION BY A PHYSICIAN AT A DEFINITIVE CARE FACILITY. A COLOR GRAPHICS DISPLAY IS USED TO PRESENT SYSTEM INFORMATION. SENSOR DATA IS SIMULATED THROUGH OFF-THE-SHELF PATIENT SIMULATORS AND CUSTOM-DESIGNED SIMULATION EQUIPMENT. IV FLUID INFUSION TREATMENT IS SIMULATED USING SMALL PUMPS, COLORED WATER, AND ACTUAL IV LINE TUBING THAT DELIVERS FLUID AT THE RATES PRESCRIBED BY CEMES.
KEYWORDS: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, EXPERT SYSTEM, MEDICINE, MEDICAL AUTOMATION, ROBOTICS
88-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2801 DTIC #: ADA202589
TITLE: SPH-4 U.S. ARMY FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE 1983-1987
AUTHOR(s): PETER VWYNRY-JONES, BERNARD LANOUE, DOUGLAS PRITTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INJURY DATA WAS OBTAINED FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FOR THE OCCUPANTS OF U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT WHO WERE WEARING AVIATOR HELMETS WHEN INVOLVED IN DUTY-RELATED AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS FROM THE PERIOD BEGINNING IN JUNE 1982 AND ENDING IN OCTOBER 1987. THE INJURY DATA WAS CORRELATED WITH THE PHYSICAL CONDITION OF THE HELMETS INVOLVED WHICH HAS BEEN OBTAINED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY UNDER THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM. THE HELMET PERFORMANCE WAS EVALUATED WITH REGARD TO CURRENT INJURY PREVENTION CAPABILITIES AND POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR FUTURE HELMET DESIGNS. ALL HELMETS INVOLVED WERE INVOLVED IN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS EXCEPT ONE SPH-4 WHICH HAD BEEN DAMAGED BY SMALL ARMS FIRE.
KEYWORDS: SPH-4, HEAD INJURY, APH-5, AVIATOR HELMET, CRUSHABLE EARCUPS, CHINSTRAP, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, FACIAL INJURY, ENERGY ATTENTUATION, HELMET VISOR, FOAM COMPRESSION, ALSERP
88-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 917 DTIC #: ADA200433
TITLE: CONTRAST SENSITIVITY IN ARMY AVIATOR CANDIDATES: CYCLOPLEGIA EFFECTS AND POPULATION NORMS
AUTHOR(s): ISAAC BEHAR, WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, WALTER EGENMAIER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION REGARDING THREE ASPECTS OF SENSITIVITY TESTING OF AVIATOR CANDIDATES: 1) TO DETERMINE WHETHER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS (CSFS) OBTAINED WITH THE VISTECH VISUAL CONTRAST TEST SYSTEM (VCTS) ARE AFFECTED BY OCULAR CYCLOPLEGIA; 2) SINCE ARMY AVIATOR CANDIDATES DIFFER FROM THE GENERAL POPULATION BY BEING MORE HIGHLY SELECTED WITH RESPECT TO VISUAL AND REFRACTIVE STATUS, AND MORE HOMOGENOUS IN AGE AND IN AN AGE BRACKET WHEN VISION IS OPTIMAL, A SECOND PURPOSE WAS TO OBTAIN A LARGE NORMATIVE SAMPLE OF CSFS FOR ESTABLISHING FUTURE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY STANDARDS FOR THIS POPULATION; AND 3) TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE VCTS PROVIDES USEFUL CSFS UNDER CLINICAL SCREENING CONDITIONS IN A TIMELY AND SIMPLE MANNER. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THRESHOLDS WERE OBTAINED AT 5 SPATIAL FREQUENCIES FROM 106 AVIATOR CANDIDATES, PRIOR TO AND FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF A CYCLOPLEGIC. CONTRAST SENSITIVITY FUNCTIONS OBTAINED UNDER CYCLOPLEGIA REDUCED ABOUT 20 PERCENT. THE CSFS OF THE AVIATOR CANDIDATES ARE MUCH SUPERIOR THAN THE GENERAL POPULATION NORMS. THE VCTS PROVIDES USEFUL CSFS UNDER MILITARY SCREENING CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR CANDIDATES, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, CYCLOPLEGIA, VISION STANDARDS
88-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1164 DTIC #: ADA212554
TITLE: EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT AND RIGID CONTACT LENSES: OPERATIONAL EVALUATION AMONG ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WITH INCREASING TECHNOLOGICAL COMPLEXITY IN ARMY AVIATION, THE ROLE OF VISION BECOMES MORE IMPORTANT. AVIATION SYSTEMS INCORPORATING SOPHISTICATED ELECTRO-OPTICAL DISPLAYS FREQUENTLY ARE DESIGNED WITHOUT PROVISION FOR USE BY SPECTACLE WEARING PILOTS. CONTACT LENSES OFFER A SOLUTION TO THE COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS EXPERIENCED BY ARMY AVIATORS, APPROXIMATELY 18 PERCENT OF WHOM WEAR CORRECTIVE LENSES. UNDER A WAIVER FROM THE SURGEON GENERAL, 44 HELICOPTER PILOTS PERFORMED FLYING DUTIES WHILE WEARING EXTENDED WEAR SOFT AND RIGID LENSES. SIX EXPERIENCED TEMPORARY DISCONTINUANCE OF WEAR (4-19 DAYS); SIX WITHDREW FROM THE STUDY. NO PILOT WAS GROUNDED DUE TO CONTACT LENS RELATED PROBLEMS. SUBJECTIVELY, EXTENDED WEAR CONTACT LENSES FAVORABLY AFFECTED JOB PERFORMANCE. THIS WAS THE FIRST MAJOR FIELD EVALUATION OF CONTACT LENSES IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION, AND EVENTUALLY WILL REPRESENT PART OF A LARGE DATABASE IN THIS UNIQUE ENVIRONMENT.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENS, HELICOPTER PILOTS, VISION CORRECTION, REFRACTIVE ERROR, OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY, PERFORMANCE IMPACT, VISION
88-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 551 DTIC #: ADA221534
TITLE: TPL...INSTALLATION, FITTING, AND MAINTENANCE FOR THE SPH-4 HELMET (SCRIPT FOR TRAINING VIDEO)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN V. BARSON, DOUGLAS P. PRITTS, BERNARD A. LANOUE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE THERMOPLASTIC LINE (TPL™) WAS ACCEPTED BY THE U.S. ARMY FOR USE IN THE SPH-4 FLYER'S HELMET IN AUGUST 1988. THIS VIDEOTAPE DEMONSTRATES THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY'S TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSTALLING, FITTING, AND MAINTAINING THE TPL™ IN THE SPH-4. AREAS COVERED INCLUDE TPL™ SIZE SELECTION, INSTALLATION, FITTING OF THE PERFORMED TPL™, CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF THE TPL™.
KEYWORDS: TPL, HELMET, SPH-4, FIT, INSTALL
89-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 606 DTIC #: ADA203931
TITLE: ANOMALOUS RETINAL CORRESPONDENCE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER PRESENTS AN OVERVIEW OF ANOMALOUS RETINAL CORRESPONDENCE IN STRABISMUS. DEFINITIONS, CERTAIN TESTING TECHNIQUES, AND A REVIEW OF UNDERLYING THEORY ARE OUTLINED. IT IS CONCLUDED AT ARC IS NOT WELL UNDERSTOOD AND REPRESENTS AN AREA STILL OPEN FOR INVESTIGATION.
KEYWORDS: ANOMALOUS RETINAL CORRESPONDENCE, STRABISMUS, DIAGNOSIS, THERAPY, THEORIES
89-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 737 DTIC #: ADA205383
TITLE: THE EYES HAVE IT: CONTACT LENS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE OF ARMOR TROOPS
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, WILLIAM G. BACHMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONTACT LENSES, PARTICULARLY THE EXTENDED WEAR VARIETIES, OFFER AN APPEALING ALTERNATIVE FOR SOLVING EQUIPMENT COMPATIBILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS FACED BY SPECTACLE-WEARING SOLDIERS. THIS PAPER PRESENTS PERFORMANCE RESULTS FROM THE ARMY'S FIRST MAJOR FIELD INVESTIGATION OF CONTACT LENSES. THE STUDY EVALUATED EXTENDED-WEAR CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL ARMOR ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS (N=311) FROM EIGHT BATTALIONS OF THE 2D ARMORED DIVISION AT FORT HOOD, TEXAS, WORE CONTACT LENSES OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS. THEY PARTICIPATED FULLY IN THEIR UNITS' NORMAL ACTIVITIES, INCLUDING TRAINING IN GARRISON AND IN THE FIELD. IN RESPONSE TO QUESTIONNAIRES AT THE END OF THE STUDY, NEARLY ALL OF THE CONTACT LENSES WEARERS WERE HIGHLY OR MODERATELY CONFIDENT IN THEIR ABILITY TO SEE ADEQUATELY. MOST FELT THEY COULD SEE BETTER WITH THEIR CONTACT LENSES THAN WITH SPECTACLES. THE GREATER MAJORITY INDICATED THAT CONTACT LENSES HAD IMPROVED THEIR OVERALL JOB PERFORMANCE, PREFERRING CONTACT LENSES FOR A VARIETY OF MILITARY ACTIVITIES, OPERATIONAL SETTINGS, AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, ARMOR TROOPS, SUBJECTIVE PERFORMANCE, VISION, REFRACTIVE CORRECTION, EXTENDED CONTACT LENS WEAR
89-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 571 DTIC #: ADA205412
TITLE: INHALATION ANESTHESIA IN THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): C. E. HARGETT, JR., JEFFREY W. RECORD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INHALATION ANESTHESIA TECHNIQUES WHICH SUCCESSFULLY INDUCE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA IN CHINCHILLA VILLIDERA ARE DESCRIBED AND COMPARED. ISOFLURANE-NITROUS OXIDE AND HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE DELIVERED BY A NONREBREATHING SYSTEM ARE COMPARED TO HALOTHANE-NITROUS OXIDE DELIVERED BY A SEMICLOSED SYSTEM. THIRTY-SIX LABORATORY RAISED ADULT CHINCHILLAS IN THREE GROUPS WERE USED IN THIS STUDY. ALL ACHIEVED SURGICAL ANESTHESIA WITH NO DEATHS. TIME TO LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX, TIME TO SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, DURATION OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA, AND TIME FROM END OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA UNTIL STANDING UNAIDED WERE RECORDED. FINDINGS INDICATE THAT ISOFLURANE-NITROUS OXIDE DELIVERED BY A NONREBREATHING SYSTEM PROVIDES SUPERIOR RESULTS.
KEYWORDS: CHINCHILLA, ISOFLURANE, HALOTHANE, NONBREATHING, SEMICLOSED
89-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2899 DTIC #: ADA208586
TITLE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COGNITIVE ABILITY AND THE ICONIC PROCESSING OF SPATIAL AND IDENTITY INFORMATION
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION ESTABLISHED THE RELIABILITY OF A CLASSIFICATION TECHNIQUE WHICH SEPARATES SUBJECTS INTO GROUPS BASED ON INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE ABILITY TO PROCESS SPATIAL LOCATION AND IDENTITY INFORMATION TACHISTOSCOPICALLY PRESENTED DISPLAYS. PERFORMANCE OF THE TWO GROUPS THEN WAS COMPARED ON AN ICONIC PROCESSING TASK WHICH REQUIRED THE SIMULTANEOUS PROCESSING OF BOTH LOCATION AND IDENTITY INFORMATION. RESULTS INDICATED THOSE SUBJECTS WHO PROCESS LOCATION INFORMATION WELL PERFORMED SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER ON THE AVERBACH-CORIELL BAR PROBE TASK THAN SUBJECTS WHO PROCESS IDENTITY INFORMATION WELL. SUBJECTS ALSO WERE ADMINISTERED A BATTERY OF COGNITIVE TESTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER DIFFERENCES AT THE ICONIC LEVEL ARE RELATED TO PERFORMANCE AT MORE MOLAR LEVELS OF RECOGNITION. RESULTS OF A SERIES OF CORRELATIONAL ANALYSES INDICATED THAT A RELATIONSHIP DOES NOT EXIST BETWEEN ICONIC ABILITY AND MORE MOLAR COGNITIVE ABILITIES.
KEYWORDS: ICONIC PROCESSING, COGNITIVE TESTS, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, SPATIAL LOCATION INFORMATION, IDENTITY INFORMATION
89-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1378 DTIC #: ADA208609
TITLE: ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF AVIATORS WITHIN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, THOMAS J. BURKE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWENTY ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS ON 22,000 MALE FLIGHT SCHOOL APPLICANTS, 29,000 MALE AVIATORS, 800 FEMALE FLIGHT SCHOOL APPLICANTS, AND 600 FEMALE AVIATORS ARE RECORDED IN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY REGISTER (AEDR). SUMMARY STATISTICS FOR THE ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS OF THESE FOUR POPULATIONS, INCLUDING MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, AND THE 1, 5, 50, 95, AND 99 PERCENTILE VALUE, ARE REPORTED. THESE VALUES ARE REPORTED IN A TABULAR FORMAT WITH THE CORRESPONDING VALUES FROM FIVE OTHER DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDIES.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRICS, BODY MEASUREMENTS, AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER, AEDR
89-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 661 DTIC #: ADA210503
TITLE: COCKPIT LIGHTING COMPATIBILITY WITH IMAGE INTENSIFICATION NIGHT IMAGING SYSTEMS: ISSUES AND ANSWERS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, ROBERT W. VERONA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT IMAGING SYSTEMS BASED ON IMAGE INTENSIFICATION (I²) TUBES ARE A MAJOR FACTOR IN THE NIGHT OPERATION CAPABILITY OF U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. A MAJOR PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THESE SYSTEMS IS THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECT CAUSED BY INTERNAL COCKPIT LIGHTING. INSTRUMENT LAMPS, CAUTION LAMPS, UTILITY LIGHTS, AND OTHER LIGHT SOURCES INSIDE THE COCKPIT ACTIVATE THE BRIGHT SOURCE PROTECTION CONTROL CIRCUITS OF THE INTENSIFICATION TUBES, THEREBY REDUCING THEIR SENSITIVITY TO EXTERNAL NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL ILLUMINATION. IN 1986, A TRI-SERVICE SPECIFICATION, MIL-L-85762, "LIGHTING, AIRCRAFT, INTERIOR, NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM COMPATIBLE," WAS ADOPTED TO RESOLVE THE COCKPIT LIGHTING PROBLEMS. MIL-L-85762 DEFINES THE MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION AND TECHNIQUES REQUIRED TO CERTIFY LIGHTING COMPONENTS AS "ANVIS COMPATIBLE." THE SPECIFICATION DOES NOT ADDRESS COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH AN/PVS-5 USAGE. ONGOING EFFORTS RELATED TO MIL-L-85762 INCLUDE CHARACTERIZATION OF LIGHTING INCOMPATIBILITIES IN CURRENT U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT, IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMS TO MODIFY THE LIGHTING IN INCOMPATIBLE COCKPITS, AND CERTIFICATION OF PROPOSED LIGHTING COMPONENTS FOR FUTURE AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. ADDITIONAL WORK HAS BEEN DONE TO PROVIDE "NEAR COMPATIBLE" SOLUTIONS TO LIGHTING PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF AN/PVS-5 SYSTEMS.
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, COCKPIT LIGHTING, MIL-L-85762
89-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 562 DTIC #: ADA221152
TITLE: GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILES OF NORMAL AND RADIATION-EXPOSED RABBIT CORNEAS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PASSAGE OF GLUCOSE WITHIN THE CORNEA HAS BEEN THOUGHT TO OCCUR BY PASSIVE DIFFUSION PROCESSES. HOWEVER, CORNEAL GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILES HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED TO SUPPORT THIS NOTION. WHILE MICROFLUOROMETRIC METHODS OF METABOLITE ASSAY TYPICALLY HAVE BEEN USED AS A MEANS OF ASSESSING REGIONAL BRAIN METABOLISM, THIS UNIQUE METHODOLOGY OF TISSUE ISOLATION AND METABOLITE DETERMINATION HAS NOT PREVIOUSLY BEEN APPLIED TO THE CORNEA. SINCE THIS TECHNIQUE PERMITS METABOLITE QUANTIFICATION ON MICROGRAM-SIZED TISSUE SAMPLES, A COORDINATED CORNEAL GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILE CAN BE OBTAINED. TISSUE PREPARATION CONSISTED OF LIQUID NITROGEN FREEZING, CRYO-SECTIONING, AND FREEZE-DRYING, WITH STORAGE AT -20 DEGREES C. THE SECTIONS WERE THAWED UNDER VACUUM PUMP, SUBSECTIONED, WEIGHED, AND ASSAYED FOR GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION (BY DRY WEIGHT). THIS STUDY ESTABLISHED A GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILE OF THE EPITHELIUM, ANTERIOR STROMA, MIDSTROMA, POSTERIOR STROMA, AND ENDOTHELIUM FOR THE NORMAL PIGMENTED RABBIT CORNEA. A GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION PROFILE FOR UV RADIATION-EXPOSED RABBIT CORNEAS ALSO WAS DOCUMENTED. A UV RADIATION GLUCOSE PROFILE DATA INDICATE THE PRESENCE OF AN ACTIVE TRANSPORT MECHANISM CAPABLE OF DELIVERING GLUCOSE INTO THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM AGAINST A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT. THE PRESENCE OF A TRANSPORT SYSTEM THAT "PULLS" GLUCOSE THROUGH THE DEEPER CORNEAL LAYERS THUS WOULD MAKE EPITHELIUM INTEGRITY IMPORTANT FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF OVERALL CORNEAL VIABILITY.
KEYWORDS: ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CORNEA, GLUCOSE, PASSIVE DIFFUSION, UV RADIATION
89-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5199 DTIC #: ADA210504
TITLE: HUMAN PERFORMANCE IN CONTINUOUS/SUSTAINED OPERATIONS AND THE DEMANDS OF EXTENDED WORK/REST SCHEDULES: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY VOLUME II
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER, SUZANNE M. BARNES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SOCIETY INTENT UPON MAINTAINING HIGH PRODUCTIVITY LEVELS 24 HOURS PER DAY, AND ON PROVIDING A VARIETY OF SERVICES AROUND THE CLOCK, PRODUCED OCCUPATIONS AND CIRCUMSTANCES REQUIRING PROLONGED, CONTINUOUS WORK PERIODS. THE PERFORMANCE OF WORKERS UNDER CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINED OR CONTINUOUS WORK HAS BECOME AN IMPORTANT TOPIC IN INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY, AND IN PARTICULAR, IN THE MILITARY SCIENCES. THERE ARE SOME TRADITIONAL JOBS, CIRCUMSTANCES, AND EVEN SOME NEW OCCUPATIONS THAT INVOLVE PROLONGED, SUSTAINED WORK PERIODS WITHOUT REST, IN WHICH INDIVIDUAL WORKERS CONTINUE BEYOND THE NORMAL 8-TO-10 HOUR WORK DAY. IN MANY OF THESE SUSTAINED WORK SITUATIONS, THE TERMINATION POINT OF THE SHIFT IS UNKNOWN. SUCH ACTIVITIES USUALLY REQUIRE PROLONGED PHYSICAL STAMINA AND SUSTAINING HIGH LEVELS OF ORGANIZATIONAL AND COGNITIVE EFFECTIVENESS. THESE CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS ARE OF TWO TYPES: FIRST, THERE ARE EXTENDED OPERATIONS, JOBS, OR TASKS THAT PROCEED CONTINUOUSLY WITH ONLY A SHORT BREAK OR BREAKS, BUT THAT OPERATE WITHIN A TYPICAL SHIFT SYSTEM FOR LENGTHY PERIODS, LONGER THAN A NORMAL DUTY DAY. THE WORKER KNOWS HE OR SHE WILL BE RELIEVED OR ABLE TO REST. SECOND, THERE ARE SUSTAINED OPERATIONS, PLANNED OR UNPLANNED, GOAL-ORIENTED, NONSTOP CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE/OPERATIONS WITHOUT ALLOWANCE FOR REST OR SLEEP, IN WHICH THE WORKER IS EXPECTED TO KEEP GOING AS LONG AS HE OR SHE CAN. BOTH HAVE VERY IMPORTANT WORKER PERFORMANCE AND BEHAVIORAL IMPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR FATIGUE, BIBLIOGRAPHY, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, CONTINUOUS WORK, FATIGUE, JET LAG, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, SOLDIER PERFORMANCE, SUSTAINED OPERATIONS
89-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1014 DTIC #: ADA211552
TITLE: VISUAL ACUITY AND STEREOPSIS WITH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MEASUREMENTS OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE (STEREOPSIS AND VISUAL RESOLUTION) WERE ACQUIRED TO COMPARE RESULTS ACHIEVED USING UNAIDED MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR VIEWING, MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR VIEWING WITH THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, AND MODELS A AND B OF THE AN/PVS-7 BIOCULAR NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. ALL OF THE GOGGLES WERE EQUIPPED WITH SECOND GENERATION TUBES. USING A MODIFIED HOWARD-DOLMAN APPARATUS TO ASSESS STEREOPSIS, ALL OF THE GOGGLE-ASSISTED THRESHOLDS WERE VERY MUCH LARGER THAN STEREOSCOPIC THRESHOLDS ACHIEVED WITH UNAIDED BINOCULAR VISION. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT STEREOPSIS THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, REGARDLESS OF THE MODEL OR VIEWING CONDITION, IS ESSENTIALLY ELIMINATED AND EQUIVALENT TO THE THRESHOLD OBTAINED WITH UNAIDED MONOCULAR VIEWING. IN COMPARISON, SPATIAL RESOLUTION CAPABILITY WITH ALL OF THE GOGGLE SYSTEMS IS SUPERIOR TO PERFORMANCE WITH UNAIDED VISION. IN AGREEMENT WITH PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED DATA, VISUAL ACUITY WITH THE GOGGLES IS APPROXIMATELY 20/50, BUT ONLY FOR HIGH RESOLUTION TARGETS AND SIMULATED FULL MOON AMBIENT LIGHT LEVELS. AS LIGHT LEVELS DECREASE TO QUARTER MOON CONDITIONS OR TARGET CONTRASTS ARE REDUCED TO MORE REALISTIC VALUES, VISUAL SPATIAL RESOLUTION WITH THE GOGGLES IS MUCH POORER. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS INDICATES THAT A BIOCULAR NIGHT VISION SYSTEM CAUSES NO FURTHER VISUAL PENALTY ON STEREOPSIS OR VISUAL ACUITY THAN BINOCULAR OR MONOCULAR DESIGNS. FOR INFANTRY USE, ANY DIFFERENCES IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE AMONG MONOCULAR, BIOCULAR, AND BINOCULAR DESIGNS PROBABLY ARE NOT OPERATIONALLY MEANINGFUL.
KEYWORDS: DEPTH PERCEPTION, STEREOPSIS, VISUAL ACUITY, VISUAL CONTRAST, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
89-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3269 DTIC #: ADA211456
TITLE: VISUAL SURVEY OF INFANTRY TROOPS, PART I: VISUAL ACUITY, REFRACTIVE STATUS, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, AND VISUAL SKILLS
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WALSH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY WAS TO ESTABLISH A DATABASE CHARACTERIZING THE CURRENT VISUAL STATUS OF INFANTRYMEN. INDIVIDUALS SELECTED AS PARTICIPANTS FOR THIS STUDY WERE ACTIVE DUTY PERSONNEL UNDERGOING TRAINING TO RECEIVE MILITARY OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTY (MOS) 11B20, INFANTRYMAN. THE VISUAL SURVEY TEST BATTERY INCLUDED MEASUREMENTS OF VISUAL ACUITY (HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST), REFRACTIVE ERROR, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, COLOR VISION, DISTANCE LATERAL PHORIA, STEREOPSIS, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, ISOLUMINANCE RESOLUTION, AND SIGHTING DOMINANCE. THIS REPORT REPRESENTS DATA COLLECTED FROM THE FOLLOWING TESTS/MEASUREMENTS: HIGH CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, DEPTH PERCEPTION, DISTANCE LATERAL PHORIA, AND COLOR VISION. OF THE 828 PARTICIPANTS, 95.6 PERCENT RATED E-1 (HIGHEST CLASSIFICATION) IN THE VISION CATEGORY OF THE PHYSICAL PROFILE SERIAL. AMONG ENTRY-LEVEL INFANTRYMEN, 33 PERCENT WERE SPECTACLE WEARERS. DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE VARIOUS VISUAL PARAMETERS ARE PRESENTED FOR THE TEST POPULATION AND FOR SELECTED SUBPOPULATIONS. IMPLICATIONS FOR SELECTION/RETENTION STANDARDS AND FOR EQUIPMENT DESIGN ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, COLOR VISION, PHORIA, STEREOPSIS
89-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 698 DTIC #: ADA221535
TITLE: EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE OF THE RABBIT CORNEA. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED TO BE INVOLVED IN A NUMBER OF ADVERSE OCULAR EFFECTS. ONE ASPECT OF UVR-INDUCED CORNEAL STRESS ONLY RECENTLY DOCUMENTED IS AN ALTERATION OF EPITHELIAL ENERGY METABOLITE LEVELS. IN THIS STUDY, IN ORDER TO EXAMINE WAVELENGTH AND DOSE DEPENDENCY ISSUES CONCERNING METABOLIC EFFECTS ON UVR, EXPOSURES WERE MADE AT FOUR DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS (290, 300, 310, AND 360 NM) AND FIVE DIFFERENT RADIANT EXPOSURES (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, AND 0.25 J. CM²). PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE LEVELS OF RELATIVE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM WERE MONITORED IN VIVO BY RECORDING THE CORNEAL OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE WITH A MICROPOLAROGRAPHIC ELECTRODE. A PAIRED DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS DEMONSTRATED A DECREASE IN RELATIVE CORNEAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY THAT WAS BOTH WAVELENGTH- AND DOSE-DEPENDENT. THESE RELATIVE METABOLIC EFFECTS PROVIDE SOME INSIGHT TOWARD THE UNDERSTANDING OF UNDERLYING DAMAGE MECHANISMS, AND IMPLY A BROADER RADIANT ENERGY SUSCEPTIBILITY RANGE OF THE EYE THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT.
KEYWORDS: CORNEA, METABOLIC ACTIVITY, OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE, PROTECTION, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION
89-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1115 DTIC #: ADA211783
TITLE: HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS OF NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS FLIGHT. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY AVIATION NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS GREATLY ENHANCE THE CAPABILITY TO OPERATE DURING PERIODS OF LOW ILLUMINATION. AFTER FLYING WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES, MOST AVIATORS ARE APPREHENSIVE ABOUT RETURNING TO UNAIDED NIGHT FLIGHT. CURRENT NIGHT VISION IMAGING DEVICES ALLOW AVIATORS TO FLYING DURING AMBIENT LIGHT CONDITIONS WHICH WOULD BE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE, WITH UNAIDED VISION. HOWEVER, THE VISUAL INPUT AFFORDED WITH THESE DEVICES DOES NOT APPROACH THAT EXPERIENCED USING THE UNENCUMBERED, UNAIDED EYE DURING PERIODS OF DAYLIGHT ILLUMINATION. MANY VISUAL PARAMETERS, E.G., ACUITY, FIELD-OF-VIEW, DEPTH PERCEPTION, ETC., ARE COMPROMISED WHEN NIGHT VISION DEVICES ARE USED. THE INHERENT CHARACTERISTICS OF IMAGE INTENSIFICATION BASED SENSORS INTRODUCE NEW PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE INTERPRETATION OF VISUAL INFORMATION BASED ON DIFFERENT SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL CONTENT FROM THAT OF UNAIDED VISION.
KEYWORDS: NVG, ANVIS, IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, VISION
89-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 535 DTIC #: ADA212002
TITLE: EVALUATION OF SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY THROUGH A BONE-CONDUCTION SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): TED L. LANGFORD, BEN T. MOZO, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INTELLIGIBILITY OF SPEECH, DELIVERED VIA A BONE-CONDUCTION TRANSDUCER, WAS MEASURED UNDER SIMULATED COMBAT VEHICLE NOISE CONDITIONS AND COMPARED WITH THE SAME MEASUREMENTS MADE WITH A CONVENTIONAL, AIR-CONDUCTION SYSTEM. THE MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE FOR CONDITIONS IN WHICH THE EAR CANALS WERE OPEN AND IN WHICH THEY WERE OCCLUDED WITH PROTECTIVE EARPLUGS. THE USE OF BONE-CONDUCTION SYSTEMS LED TO A 25.3 DB IMPROVEMENT OVER THE CONVENTIONAL, AIR-CONDUCTION SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: BONE CONDUCTION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, OCCLUSION EFFECT, VOICE COMMUNICATION
89-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 662 DTIC #: ADA212053
TITLE: EFFECTS OF HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN CATS
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, ALFRED T. TOWNSEND, CAROLYN D. POPE, ROBERT G. STAFFORD, THOMAS H. HARDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECT OF HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY WAS ASSESSED IN 24 ADULT CATS. BLOOD SAMPLES WERE TAKEN BOTH BEFORE AND DURING THE COURSE OF HALOTHANE ANESTHESIA. ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY WAS DEPRESSED FROM 7 PERCENT TO 54 PERCENT (AVERAGE 19.5 PERCENT) IN 16 SUBJECTS, INCREASED IN 2 (9 PERCENT AND 11 PERCENT), AND WAS UNCHANGED IN THE OTHER 6. THE MEAN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE FOR THE ENTIRE POPULATION WAS A 12.3 PERCENT DECREASE. PSEUDOCHOLINESTERASE (BUTYRYL-CHOLINESTERASE) ACTIVITY WAS DEPRESSED FROM 7 PERCENT TO 24 PERCENT (AVERAGE 12.2 PERCENT) IN 19 SUBJECTS, AND WAS UNCHANGED IN THE OTHER 5. THE MEAN BUTYRYL-CHOLINESTERASE DEPRESSION FOR THE ENTIRE POPULATION WAS 11 PERCENT. THERE WAS NO APPARENT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE WEIGHT OR GENDER OF THE ANIMAL, OR THE LENGTH OF TIME ON HALOTHANE, AND THE AMOUNT OF DEPRESSION IN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY. NEITHER WAS THERE CLOSE AGREEMENT BETWEEN CHANGES IN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND BUTYRL-CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN A SINGLE CAT. THESE RESULTS DEMONSTRATE THAT HALOTHANE HAS AN INHIBITORY EFFECT ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN MANY CATS (96 PERCENT OF THOSE TESTED WHEN COUNTING EITHER ACETYL- OR BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE). THE LACK OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN CHANGES IN ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN THE SAME ANIMAL SUGGESTS THAT THE MECHANISMS MAY BE DIFFERENT. IT REMAINS TO BE DETERMINED WHETHER THE AMOUNT OF ENZYME INHIBITION FOLLOWING HALOTHANE IS FUNCTIONALLY SIGNIFICANT.
KEYWORDS: ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE, ANETHESIA, BLOOD, BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE, CATS, CHOLINESTERASE, CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION, HALOTHANE
89-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1038 DTIC #: ADA212673
TITLE: VISUAL ACUITY WITH AN/PVS-5A NIGHT VISION GOGGLES AND SIMULATED FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTIVE LENSES UNDER VARYING LEVELS OF BRIGHTNESS AND CONTRAST
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTION FROM TACTICAL NUCLEAR WEAPONS IS AN ISSUE OF CURRENT CONCERN IN ARMY AVIATION. AS A COUNTERMEASURE, THE ARMY IS CONSIDERING INCOR-PORATING PLZT GOGGLES/MATERIAL INTO THE OVERALL DESIGN OF THE AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM CURRENTLY UNDER DEVELOPMENT. BECAUSE PRESENT GENERATION FLASH-BLINDNESS MATERIAL PERMIT ABOUT 20 PERCENT LIGHT TRANSMISSION IN THE OPEN STATE (ABOUT THE SAME AS THE AVIATOR'S SUNGLASSES), FLYING WITH PLZT UNDER NORMAL DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS IS NOT EXPECTED TO IMPACT AVIATOR VISUAL PERFORMANCE ADVERSELY. FOR NIGHT MISSIONS, PLZT WOULD BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH IMAGE INTENSIFICATION SYSTEMS (E.G., NIGHT VISION GOGGLES [NVGS]). PLACING PLZT BETWEEN THE NVG AND THE EYES WOULD LEAVE THE SENSITIVITY OF THE GOGGLE TO ENVIRONMENTAL LIGHTING UNAFFECTED; HOWEVER, THE LIGHT AVAILABLE FROM THE NVG COULD FURTHER DEGRADE ACUITY (AT BEST 20/50-20/60 WITH NVGS), A STUDY WAS PERFORMED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY FOLLOWING AN 80 PERCENT REDUCTION IN GOGGLE LUMINOUS OUTPUT (E.G., FROM WEARING PLZT IN ITS OPEN STATE). THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY DEMONSTRATE THAT VISUAL ACUITY WITH NVGS VARIES AS A FUNCTION OF BOTH AMBIENT ILLUMINATION AND TARGET CONTRAST. HOWEVER, THERE WERE NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN ACUITY ATTRIBUTABLE TO AN 80 PERCENT REDUCTION IN NVG OUTPUT. WHILE THESE RESULTS ARE ENCOURAGING, ADDITIONAL OPERATIONAL TESTING IS REQUIRED BEFORE DECIDING TO INCORPORATE PLZT OR ANY OTHER FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTIVE MATERIAL INTO THE AVIATOR'S HGU-56/P.
KEYWORDS: PLZT, NUCLEAR FLASHBLINDNESS PROTECTION, AIRCREW EYE PROTECTION, VISUAL ACUITY EFFECTS
89-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5709 DTIC #: ADA221255
TITLE: EFFECTS OF THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE ANTIDOTE ATROPINE SULFATE ON HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE: A SIMULATOR STUDY
AUTHOR(s): RONALD R. SIMMONS, JOHN A. CALDWELL, ROBERT L. STEPHENS, LEWIS W. STONE, DAVID J. CARTER, ISAAC BEHAR, GLENN W. MITCHELL, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, HEBER D. JONES, PHILIP L. TAYLOR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ATROPINE IS FIELDED AS AN ANTIDOTE FOR ORGANOPHOSPHATE POISONING WHERE CHEMICAL NERVE AGENTS ARE USED. HOWEVER, INAPPROPRIATE SELF-INJECTION MAY LEAD TO ANTICHOLINERGIC SIDE EFFECTS DETRIMENTAL TO AVIATORS IN FLIGHT. TO DETERMINE THE SCOPE AND MAGNITUDE OF THESE POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS, 12 MALE ARMY HELICOPTER PILOTS IN GOOD HEALTH FLEW SEVERAL MISSIONS IN A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR AFTER BEING INJECTED (I.M.) WITH EITHER A PLACEBO OR 2 MG OR 4 MG OF ATROPINE SULFATE. PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ESSENTIALLY FOLLOWED THE CLASSIC MODEL. THE 2 MG DOSE OF ATROPINE CAUSED SMALL DEGRADATIONS ON SOME OF THE LABORATORY-COLLECTED MEASURES, BUT OFTEN DID NOT PRODUCE EFFECTS WHICH DIFFERED SIGNIFICANTLY FROM THOSE PRODUCED BY A PLACEBO DOSE. A 4 MG DOSE OF ATROPINE, HOWEVER, EXERTED A VARIETY OF STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS UPON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, TRACKING ACCURACY, AND CORTICAL EVOKED RESPONSES. THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS (BOTH SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE) SHOWED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN THE SUBJECTS' ABILITIES TO FLY THE SIMULATOR. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM OTHER TASKS IN THE STUDY SUGGEST, FURTHER, THE DECREMENTS IN FLIGHT PERFORMANCE RESULTED FROM A SLOWING OF BOTH INFORMATION AND PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE. ATROPINE EFFECTS WERE NOT OF SUFFICIENT MAGNITUDE TO PRECLUDE FURTHER RESEARCH UNDER ACTUAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: PHYSIOLOGY, PHARMACOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, ATROPINE, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL, EEG
89-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 734 DTIC #: ADA214669
TITLE: EVALUATION OF TWO OBJECTIVE MEASURES OF EFFECTIVE AUDITORY STIMULUS LEVEL
AUTHOR(s): TED L. LANGFORD, BEN T. MOZO, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED RESPONSE AND THE 40-HZ COMPONENT OF THE AUDITORY MIDLATENCY RESPONSE WERE MEASURED IN HUMAN SUBJECTS AS A FUNCTION OF STIMULUS FREQUENCY AND LEVEL TO DETERMINE WHETHER ONE OF THE TWO COULD BE USED TO PROVIDE A RELIABLE ESTIMATION OF THE AMOUNT OF ATTENUATION PROVIDED BY HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES IN SITUATIONS IN WHICH THE TIME AVAILABLE FOR MEASUREMENT IS RESTRICTED. UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE PRESENT EXPERIMENT, THE VARIABILITY OF THE DATA FOR BOTH TYPES OF MEASURE WAS TOO GREAT TO PERMIT A RELIABLE ESTIMATION OF EFFECTIVE STIMULUS LEVEL.
KEYWORDS: AUDITORY BRAINSTEM RESPONSE, AUDITORY MID-LATENCY RESPONSE, HEARING PROTECTORS, EFFECTIVE STIMULUS LEVEL
89-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 864 DTIC #: ADA215119
TITLE: AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIALS AS A FUNCTION OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN HARSH, PIETRO BADIA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EVENT-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS (ERPS) WERE STUDIED IN SUBJECTS DEPRIVED OF SLEEP OVER A 48-HOUR TEST PERIOD TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT DURATIONS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS ON ERP COMPONENTS AND TO DETERMINE WHETHER CHANGES IN THE ERP COMPONENTS WERE RELATED TO CHANGES IN PERFORMANCE. FORTY SUBJECTS WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EITHER AN EXPERIMENTAL (SLEEP DEPRIVED) GROUP (N=30) OR A CONTROL (NOT SLEEP DEPRIVED) GROUP (N=10). FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL SUBJECTS, ERP AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES WERE OBTAINED IN 4-HOUR TEST BLOCKS THROUGHOUT THE 48-HOUR PERIOD. PERFORMANCE WAS ASSESSED USING THE WALTER REED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY. THE CONTROL SUBJECTS WERE TESTED AT THE SAME TIMES EXCEPT DURING DESIGNATED SLEEP PERIODS. BOTH PERFORMANCE AND EVOKED POTENTIAL MEASURES SHOWED SYSTEMATIC CHANGES OVER THE EXPERIMENTAL TEST PERIOD IN ASSOCIATION WITH SLEEP DEPRIVATION, TIME OF DAY, AND REPEATED TESTING. THE LATENCY OF THE N2 COMPONENT OF THE EVOKED POTENTIAL COVARIED WITH THROUGHPUT MEASURES ON THE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY ACROSS THE 12 4-HOUR TEST BLOCKS OF THE EXPERIMENT. THESE DATA SUGGEST THAT ERPS REFLECT CENTRAL PROCESSES THAT CHANGE ACROSS THE SLEEP DEPRIVATION PERIOD AND THAT ERP MEASURES MIGHT BE USEFUL IN ASSESSMENT AND PREDICTION OF PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION UNDER ADVERSE CONDITIONS SUCH AS SLEEP LOSS.
KEYWORDS: EVOKED POTENTIALS, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, PERFORMANCE, TRACKING, MONITORING
89-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2759 DTIC #: ADA214562
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN THE AH-1S (COBRA) FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL W. GOWER, JR., JENNIFER FOWLKES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED FIELD STUDIES OF OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SIMULATORS TO ASSESS THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO THE CONSTELLATION OF MOTION SICKNESS RELATED SYMPTOMS THAT OCCUR IN SIMULATORS DUE TO VISUAL REPRESENTATION, MOTION BASE REPRESENTATION, OR COMBINATION OF THE TWO REPRESENTATIONS OF FLIGHT. THE INCIDENCE RATES AND RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED. CORRELATIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS RECENT SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, CURRENT STATE OF HEALTH, OVERALL FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, MISSION SCENARIO, AND FLIGHT DYNAMICS ARE PRESENTED. THIS REPORT RANKS THE ARMY'S FLIGHT SIMULATORS IN COMPARISON TO THE 10 NAVY SIMULATORS STUDIED BY THE NAVAL TRAINING SYSTEMS CENTER, ORLANDO, FLORIDA. THE STUDY FURTHER REINFORCES THE NEED FOR STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND PERCEPTUAL REARRANGEMENT, ADAPTION/READAPTION, AND PILOT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATION. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SIMULATORS, AS WELL AS THOSE TRAINING GUIDELINES NECESSARY TO COPE WITH THIS PHENOMENON ALSO MUST BE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
89-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 488 DTIC #: ADA214670
TITLE: A SURVEY OF U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL, JAMES E. ADAMS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MEDICAL EQUIPMENT IS NECESSARY TO SUPPORT PATIENTS REQUIRING AIR TRANSPORTATION, BUT IT MAY NOT BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS MAY CAUSE ERRORS IN THE FUNCTIONING OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, OR THAT EQUIPMENT MAY BE INTERFERE WITH THE AIRCRAFT. MEDICAL EQUIPMENT HAS BEEN TESTED, PRIMARILY FOR FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT, TO MILITARY STANDARDS BY THE U.S. AIR FORCE. THIS STUDY REPORTS 1986 AND 1987 SURVEYS WHICH DOCUMENTS THE USE OF SUCH EQUIPMENT ON U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION AIRCRAFT AND COMPARES ITEMS IN CURRENT USE TO THE U.S. AIR FORCE'S TEST RESULTS. OF THE 115 DIFFERENT NONISSUE ITEMS REPORTED IN USE, 32 HAVE BEEN FORMALLY EVALUATED, AND 9 OF THOSE WERE JUDGED UNACCEPTABLE FOR USE ON AIRCRAFT. ONLY TWO ITEMS REPORTED IN THE SURVEY WERE TESTED IN-FLIGHT IN HELICOPTERS. THE REMAINING 83 ITEMS HAVE NOT BEEN TESTED. HELICOPTERS HAVE UNIQUE REQUIREMENTS, AND THE U.S. ARMY HAS BEGUN A PROGRAM TO EVALUATE MEDICAL EQUIPMENT FOR HELICOPTER USE.
KEYWORDS: AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION, HELICOPTER AMBULANCE, MEDEVAC, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT TESTING
89-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1230 DTIC #: ADA215234
TITLE: SUSTAINED WORK, FATIGUE, SLEEP LOSS AND PERFORMANCE: A REVIEW OF THE ISSUES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESSORS ASSOCIATED WITH SUSTAINED WORK, FATIGUE, AND SLEEP LOSS AFFECT WORKER PERFORMANCE. THE REVIEW DESCRIBES FINDINGS RELATING TO SUSTAINED WORK STRESSES COMMONLY FOUND IN OUR ADVANCING TECHNOLOGICAL WORLD. RESEARCHERS REPORT DECREMENTS IN SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF FATIGUE, ESPECIALLY DURING AND FOLLOWING ONE OR MORE NIGHTS OF COMPLETE SLEEP LOSS, OR LONGER PERIODS OF REDUCED OR FRAGMENTED SLEEP. SLEEP LOSS APPEARS TO RESULT IN REDUCED REACTION TIME, DECREASED VIGILANCE, PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS, AND CHANGES IN AFFECT. SLEEP LOSS AND WORKLOAD INTERACT WITH CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN PRODUCING THEIR EFFECTS. THESE INTERACTIONS ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF STRESS IN WORK SITUATIONS REQUIRING SUSTAINED WORK IN CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS AND HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORETICAL MODELS OF SUSTAINED PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING. THIS REVIEW HIGHLIGHTS THE RESEARCH ISSUES OF 280+ MEMBERS OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPONSORED HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL GROUP ON SUSTAINED AND CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: FATIGUE, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, SUSTAINED WORK, CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS
89-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 563 DTIC #: ADA215492
TITLE: ISOFLURANE ANESTHESIA IN THE OCTODON DEGUS
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY W. RECORD, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INHALATION ANESTHESIA FOR OCTODON DEGUS USING ISOFLURANE IN A NONREBREATHING SYSTEM IS DESCRIBED. TEN LABORATORY RAISED DEGUS WERE USED TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM PERCENTAGE OF ISOFLURANE TO MAINTAIN SURGICAL ANESTHESIA. TIME OF LOSS OF RIGHTING REFLEX, TIME OF LOSS OF TOEPINCH REFLEX, DURATION OF SURGICAL ANESTHESIA AND TIME TO STANDING UNAIDED WERE RECORDED. FINDINGS INDICATE THAT 2 PERCENT ISOFLURANE WITH 1.5 LITERS PER MINUTE OF BOTH NITROUS OXIDE AND OXYGEN PROVIDE SURGICAL ANESTHESIA.
KEYWORDS: OCTODON DEGUS, ISOFLURANE, NONBREATHING, ANESTHESIA
89-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1053 DTIC #: ADA214895
TITLE: ATTENUATING THE LUMINOUS OUTPUT OF THE AN/PVS-5A NIGHT VISION GOGGLES AND ITS EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS IN COMBAT MAY BE SUBJECTED TO A VARIETY OF NOXIOUS LIGHT STIMULI. FILTERS AND OTHER EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES MAY BE USED TO COUNTER THESE THREATS. AT NIGHT, FILTERS MAY BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH IMAGE INTENSIFICATION DEVICES (E.G., NIGHT VISION GOGGLES) TO PROVIDE USEFUL LOW-LIGHT VISION AS WELL AS PROTECTION FROM DELETERIOUS LIGHT SOURCES (E.G., LASERS, PYROTECHNICS, NUCLEAR FIREBALLS, ETC.). TECHNOLOGIES MAY BE COMBINED IN A SINGLE, INTEGRATED HEAD GEAR UNIT. THE PRESENT STUDY WAS PERFORMED IN ORDER TO CONSIDER THE EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AFTER REDUCING NIGHT VISION GOGGLE LUMINOUS OUTPUT FROM 0-99 PERCENT. A RANGE OF TARGET CONTRASTS AND AMBIENT ILLUMINATION LEVELS WAS INVESTIGATED. AN/PVS-5A GOGGLES WERE SELECTED BASED UPON THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH CURRENT PHOSPHOR DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY AND THEIR CURRENT UBIQUITY WITHIN AVIATION UNITS. VISUAL ACUITY WAS ASSAYED BEHAVIORALLY BECAUSE OF ITS CRITICAL IMPORTANCE IN FLYING PERFORMANCE. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY PROVIDE NORMATIVE ACUITY DATA WITH GOGGLES ALONE AND DOCUMENT THE EFFECTS ON GOGGLE VISUAL ACUITY WITH REDUCED GOGGLE LUMINANCES AS MIGHT BE PRODUCED BY PROTECTIVE MATERIALS PLACED BETWEEN THE GOGGLES AND THE EYES.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NVG, VISUAL ACUITY, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, VISUAL PROTECTION
89-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2660 DTIC #: ADA214434
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN THE UH-60 (BLACK HAWK) FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL W. GOWER, JR., JENNIFER FOWLKES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED FIELD STUDIES OF OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SIMULATORS TO ASSESS THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO THE CONSTELLATION OF MOTION SICKNESS RELATED SYMPTOMS THAT OCCUR IN SIMULATORS DUE TO VISUAL REPRESENTATION, MOTION BASE REPRESENTATION, OR COMBINATION OF THE TWO REPRESENTATIONS OF FLIGHT. THE INCIDENCE RATERS AND RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED. CORRECTIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS RECENT SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, CURRENT STATE OF HEALTH, OVERALL FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, MISSION SCENARIO, AND FLIGHT DYNAMICS ARE PRESENTED. THIS REPORT RANKS THE ARMY'S FLIGHT SIMULATORS IN COMPARISON TO THE 10 NAVY SIMULATORS STUDIED BY THE NAVAL TRAINING SYSTEMS CENTER, ORLANDO, FLORIDA. THE STUDY FURTHER REINFORCES THE NEED FOR STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND PERCEPTUAL REARRANGEMENT, ADAPTION/READAPTION, AND PILOT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATION. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SIMULATORS, AS WELL AS THOSE TRAINING GUIDELINES NECESSARY TO COPE WITH THIS PHENOMENON ALSO MUST BE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
89-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 670 DTIC #: ADA214558
TITLE: EFFECTS OF ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION ON THE OXYGEN UPTAKE RATE OF THE RABBIT CORNEA. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) HAS BEEN DEMONSTRATED TO BE INVOLVED IN A NUMBER OF ADVERSE OCULAR EFFECTS. ONE ASPECT OF UVR-INDUCED CORNEAL STRESS ONLY RECENTLY DOCUMENTED IS AN ALTERATION OF EPITHELIAL ENERGY METABOLITE LEVELS. IN THIS STUDY, IN ORDER TO EXAMINE WAVELENGTH AND DOSE DEPENDENCY ISSUES CONCERNING METABOLIC EFFECTS OF UVR, EXPOSURES WERE MADE AT FOUR DIFFERENT WAVELENGTHS (290, 300, 310, AND 360 NM) AND FIVE DIFFERENT MEAN RADIATION EXPOSURES (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, AND 0.25 J.C-2). PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE LEVELS OF RELATIVE METABOLIC ACTIVITY OF THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM WERE MONITORED IN VIVO BY RECORDING THE CORNEAL OXYGEN UPTAKE WITH A MICROPOLAROGRAPHIC ELECTRODE. A PAIRED DIFFERENCE ANALYSIS DEMONSTRATED A DECREASE IN RELATIVE CORNEAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY THAT WAS BOTH WAVELENGTH- AND DOSE-DEPENDENT. THESE RELATIVE METABOLIC EFFECTS PROVIDE SOME INSIGHT TOWARD THE UNDERLYING DAMAGE MECHANISMS, AND IMPLY A BROADER RADIANT ENERGY SUSCEPTIBILITY RANGE OF THE EYE THAN PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT.
KEYWORDS: ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP), CORNEAL EPITHELIUM, GLUCOSE, GLYCOGEN, METABOLITES, METABOLISM, MITOCHONDRIA, PHOSPHOCREATINE (PCR), ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR)
89-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2098 DTIC #: ADA215489
TITLE: EVALUATION OF HELMET RETENTION SYSTEMS USING A PENDULUM DEVICE
AUTHOR(s): PETER VYRNWY-JONES, CHARLES R. PASCAL, RONALD W. PALMER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THREE METHODS WERE EVALUATED FOR TESTING THE RETENTION AND ROTATION CHAR-ACTERISTICS OF AIRCREW HELMETS. TWO OF THESE EMPLOYED STATIC TECHNIQUES WITH AN ANTHROPOMETRIC HEADFORM AND HUMAN SUBJECTS. UNFORTUNATELY, THOUGH SIMPLE IN EXECUTION, THESE TESTS WERE INSENSITIVE TO THE MASS AND MASS DISTRIBUTION OF THE HELMETS. HOWEVER, THE THIRD METHOD, THE PENDULUM BEAM DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TESTING DEVICE PROVED TO BE A SIMPLE AND EFFICIENT MEANS OF DIFFERENTIATING BETWEEN THE VARIOUS HELMETS. THIS METHOD SHOULD HAVE A ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF FUTURE U.S. ARMY AIRCREW HELMETS.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, RETENTION, ROTATION, LOSS, TESTING, DISPLACEMENT
89-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2262 DTIC #: ADA218214
TITLE: SIMULATOR SICKNESS IN A CH-47 (CHINOOK) FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL J. GOWER, JR., JENNIFER FOWKLES, DENNIS R. BALTZLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED FIELD STUDIES OF OPERATIONAL FLIGHT SIMULATORS TO ASSESS THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF SIMULATOR SICKNESS. SIMULATOR SICKNESS HERE REFERS TO THE CONSTELLATION OF MOTION SICKNESS RELATED SYMPTOMS THAT OCCUR IN SIMULATORS DUE TO VISUAL REPRESENTATION, MOTION BASE REPRESENTATION, OR COMBINATION OF THE TWO REPRESENTATIONS OF FLIGHT. THE INCIDENCE RATERS AND RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS ARE PRESENTED. CORRECTIONAL FACTORS SUCH AS RECENT SIMULATOR EXPERIENCE, CURRENT STATE OF HEALTH, OVERALL FLIGHT EXPERIENCE, MISSION SCENARIO, AND FLIGHT DYNAMICS ARE PRESENTED. THIS REPORT RANKS THE ARMY'S FLIGHT SIMULATORS IN COMPARISON TO THE 10 NAVY SIMULATORS STUDIED BY THE NAVAL TRAINING SYSTEMS CENTER, ORLANDO, FLORIDA. THE STUDY FURTHER REINFORCES THE NEED FOR STUDIES TO UNDERSTAND PERCEPTUAL REARRANGEMENT, ADAPTION/READAPTION, AND PILOT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO THE EFFECTS OF SIMULATION. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SIMULATORS, AS WELL AS THOSE TRAINING GUIDELINES NECESSARY TO COPE WITH THIS PHENOMENON ALSO MUST BE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS, ADAPTATION, EQUILIBRIUM, ATAXIA
89-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 610 DTIC #: ADA219489
TITLE: DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL ATTRITION IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): RONALD J. EDWARDS, DUDLEY R. PRICE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH U.S. ARMY AVIATORS ARE CAREFULLY SCREENED AT ENTRY, DISEASE DEVELOPS IN THE AVIATOR POPULATION WITH TIME. IMPROVING THE ABILITY TO PREDICT AND PREVENT SUCH DISEASES NECESSITATES PROPER ANALYSIS OF THEIR INCIDENCE. THIS INFORMATION CAN PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR FUTURE IMPROVEMENTS IN SCREENING AND PREVENTION. A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF DISEASES FOR THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION POPULATION IS PRESENTED. THE FREQUENCY OF INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD) CODES LEADING TO DISQUALIFICATION FROM FLYING STATUS IS SUMMARIZED AND DISCUSSED. SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE SCREENING CRITERIA AND FOR INTERVENTION PRACTICES ARE PROPOSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR HEALTH, FLIGHT PHYSICALS, MEDICAL RETENTION OF AVIATORS
89-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 9920 DTIC #: ADA218949
TITLE: PROBLEM ORIENTED DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TROPICAL DISEASES
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PROBLEM ORIENTED DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TROPICAL DISEASES WAS WRITTEN FOR PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIANS. THE TEXT DESCRIBES THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRAVEL MEDICINE, SURVIVAL IN THE TROPICS, AND HEAT INJURY. TABLES ORGANIZING THE INCUBATION PERIOD AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF TROPICAL DISEASES ARE PROVIDED. THE REMAINING TEXT DISCUSSES TROPICAL DISEASES ORGANIZED BY ORGAN SYSTEM, SIGNS, AND SYMPTOMS. THE PURPOSE IS TO ASSIST PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIANS IN ARRIVING AT A LIMITED DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TROPICAL DISEASES BEFORE CONSULTING TROPICAL MEDICINE TEXTS AND INITIATING EMPIRIC THERAPY AND DIAGNOSTIC WORKUP.
KEYWORDS: TROPICAL DISEASES, TRAVEL MEDICINE
90-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 722 DTIC #: ADA219282
TITLE: SIX-MONTH EVALUATION OF EXTENDED WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES AMONG ARMORED TROOPS: PART I: CLINICAL FINDINGS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, JOHN K. CROSLEY, DUDLEY R. PRICE, PATRICK M. LEAS, GERALD A. BENTLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT ADDRESSES THE CLINICAL ASPECTS OF WEARING CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL MILITARY ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS IN AN ARMORED DIVISION WORE EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES (SCLS) OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS, PARTIC-IPATING FULLY IN THEIR UNITS' NORMAL ACTIVITIES. SEVENTY-FOUR PERCENT OF THOSE SUCCESSFULLY FITTED WITH SCLS WORE THEIR LENSES FOR THE DURATION OF THE STUDY, WHEN ADMINISTRATIVE LOSSES WERE FACTORED OUT. MORE THAN ONE-THIRD OF THE SCL WEARERS EXPERIENCED ONE OR MORE OCULAR CONDITIONS REQUIRING AT LEAST A TEMPORARY SUSPENSION OF LENS WEAR. CORNEAL EDEMA AND CORNEAL STAINING OCCURRED RARELY AT CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT LEVELS. HIGHER THAN EXPECTED RATES OF CORNEAL VASCULARIZATION WERE MOST LIKELY INFLUENCED BY MEASUREMENT CRITERIA. RELATIVELY FREQUENT CONJUNCTIVAL INJECTION APPEARED TO BE LARGELY DUE TO LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, MILITARY ENVIRONMENTS, VISION CORRECTION, OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
90-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 497 DTIC #: ADA220169
TITLE: SIX-MONTH EVALUATION OF EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES AMONG ARMORED TROOPS: PART II: SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES BY PATIENTS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT, WILLIAM G. BACHMAN, JOHN K. CROSLEY, DUDLEY R. PRICE, PATRICK M. LEAS, GERALD A. BENTLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT ADDRESSES SUBJECTIVE PATIENT RESPONSES TO WEARING CONTACT LENSES IN AN OPERATIONAL MILITARY ENVIRONMENT. MALE VOLUNTEERS IN AN ARMORED DIVISION WORE EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES (SCLS) OR SPECTACLES FOR UP TO 6 MONTHS, PARTICIPATING FULLY IN THEIR UNITS' NORMAL ACTIVITIES. RESPONDING TO END-OF-STUDY QUESTIONNAIRES, MOST OF THE SCL WEARERS BELIEVED THAT THEY COULD SEE BETTER WITH THEIR SCLS THAN WITH SPECTACLES. THE GREAT MAJORITY INDICATED CONTACT LENSES HAD IMPROVED THEIR OVERALL PERFORMANCE, PREFERRING SCLS FOR A VARIETY OF MILITARY ACTIVITIES. SCL-RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL DIFFICULTIES WERE REPORTED FREQUENTLY FOR CONDITIONS INVOLVING DUST, WIND, AND SMOKE, WHEREAS SPECTACLE-RELATED PROBLEMS WERE COMMON ESPECIALLY IN THE CASE OF RAIN, DUST, HOT WEATHER, OR HIGH HUMIDITY. PROBLEMS REPORTED WITH HANDLING AND CLEANING CORRECTIVE LENSES WERE MORE COMMON AMONG SPECTACLE WEARERS THAN AMONG SCL WEARERS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, MILITARY ENVIRONMENTS, VISION CORRECTION, OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
90-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1497 DTIC #: ADA220893
TITLE: LASER PROTECTION WITH IMAGE INTENSIFIER NIGHT VISION DEVICES
AUTHOR(s): DAVID J. WALSH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CURRENT MILITARY RANGING AND TARGETING TECHNOLOGY EMPLOYS HIGH POWER LASER SYSTEMS. SINCE COHERENT (LASER) ENERGY WITH WAVELENGTHS IN THE VISIBLE AND NEAR INFRARED CAN SERIOUSLY DAMAGE THE RETINA OF THE EYE, LASER RETINAL INJURY HAS BEEN THE SUBJECT OF MAN STUDIES. THE RESULTS OF THESE INVESTIGATIONS ARE USED BY VARIOUS AGENCIES TO RECOMMEND LASER EYE PROTECTION. IN THE AVIATION COMMUNITY, SINCE LASER PROTECTION HELMET VISORS ARE NOT COMPATIBLE WITH MOST COMMON NIGHT VISION DEVICES (NVDS), I.E., AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) AND AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), THE ONLY LASER PROTECTION CURRENTLY AFFORDED THE NVD AVIATOR IS A BARRIER-TYPE PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE DEVICE.
KEYWORDS: LASER, INJURY, PROTECTION, ANVIS, AVIATOR, NIGHT VISION
90-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 652 DTIC #: ADA221053
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE AND PHYSOSTIGMINE ON THE NEURAL PORTION OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, ALFRED T. TOWNSEND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CARBAMATES ARE CURRENTLY THE PRETREATMENT DRUGS OF CHOICE FOR PROTECTION AGAINST POSSIBLE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE. PYRIDOSTIGMINE DOES NOT CROSS THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER EASILY, AND THEREFORE PROVIDES NO CENTRAL PROTECTION. PHYSOSTIGMINE READILY ENTERS THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, BUT AS MIGHT BE EXPECTED, HAS STRONG CENTRAL EFFECTS. THESE EXPERIMENTS WERE DONE TO ACCESS THE ROLE OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE AND PHYSOSTIGMINE ON VISUAL PROCESSING IN A MAMMALIAN ANIMAL MODEL. THE RESULTS SHOW THAT PHYSOSTIGMINE HAS STRONG CENTRAL VISUAL EFFECTS WHICH OPERATIONALLY WOULD NOT BE ACCEPTABLE. PYRIDOSTIGMINE DOES NOT ENTER THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AFTER ACUTE ADMINISTRATION UNTIL VERY HIGH LEVELS OF CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS ARE REACHED. BASED UPON OUR LIMITED SAMPLE, CENTRAL VISUAL PROCESSING APPEARS NOT TO BE AFFECTED UNTIL INHIBITION OF BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE APPROACHES 80 PERCENT. THIS SHOULD PROVIDE AN ADEQUATE SAFETY MARGIN FOLLOWING PRETREATMENT WITH PYRIDOSTIGMINE. WE DID NOT INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF CHRONIC LOW DOSE PYRIDOSTIGMINE ADMINISTRATION ON SENSORY PROCESSING.
KEYWORDS: CARBAMATES, PYRDOSTIGMINE, PHYSOSTIGMINE, EVOKED POTENTIALS, CATS, VISUAL PROCESSING
90-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2107 DTIC #: ADA220953
TITLE: HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT PRIMER
AUTHOR(s): BRUCE C. LEIBRECHT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PRIMER PROVIDES AN INTRODUCTORY ORIENTATION TO THE HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROGRAM SUPPORTING THE U.S. ARMY'S MATERIEL ACQUISITION EFFORTS. THE DESCRIPTION OF TYPES AND EFFECTS OF HEALTH HAZARDS INCLUDES AN INVENTORY OF THOSE HAZARDS COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN ARMY SYSTEMS. SUBSTANTIAL TEXT OUTLINES THE ORGANIZATIONS AND PROCESSES COMPRISING THE HHA SYSTEM, ALONG WITH AN EXPLANATION OF HOW THE SYSTEM IS DESIGNED TO WORK. A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK CHARACTERIZES THE STEPS INVOLVED IN PREPARING A HHA REPORT. A FINAL SECTION DESCRIBES THE PROGRAM CONTRIBUTIONS MADE BY HHA-RELATED RESEARCH AND THE ORGANIZATIONS PERFORMING PERTINENT RESEARCH. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIALS INCLUDE A SUMMARY OF THE ARMY'S LIFE CYCLE SYSTEM MANAGEMENT MODEL, A LISTING OF HHA POINTS OF CONTACT, AND A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF RISK ASSESSMENT CODES.
KEYWORDS: HEALTH HAZARDS, MATERIEL ACQUISITION, MANPRINT, HEALTH HAZARDS RESEARCH
90-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1884 DTIC #: ADA220724
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE HEAD INJURY HAZARD DURING MILITARY PARACHUTING
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES R. PASCAL, JR., RONALD W. PALMER, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INCIDENCE OF HEAD INJURY DURING U.S. ARMY AIRBORNE TRAINING AND AIRBORNE OPERATIONS HAS DOUBLED IN RECENT YEARS. A NUMBER OF FACTORS ARE KNOWN TO CONTRIBUTE TO HEAD INJURIES INCURRED DURING AIRBORNE TRAINING/OPERATIONS. THESE FACTORS INCLUDE THE SMALL AMOUNT OF IMPACT PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE PASGT HELMET, SHORTCOMINGS IN TRAINING PROCEDURES, AND FAILURE OF TRAINED AIRBORNE TROOPS TO FOLLOW PROPER PROCEDURES WHEN JUMPING. OTHER FACTORS ARE INVOLVED AS WELL. THIS REPORT SHOWS, WITH RELATIVELY LITTLE MODIFICATION, THE IMPACT PROTECTION AND RETENTION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PASGT AIRBORNE HELMET CAN BE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED. ALSO, THIS REPORT EVALUATES A NUMBER OF FACTORS PRESENT IN AIRBORNE TRAINING AND OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO HEAD INJURY AND EXPLAINS HOW TRAINING AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES CAN BE MODIFIED TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF REPEATED HEADSTRIKES AND SUBSEQUENT SERIOUS HEAD INJURIES.
KEYWORDS: HEAD INJURY, IMPACT PROTECTION, PASGT HELMET, OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS, HEADSTRIKES
90-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1499 DTIC #: ADA220801
TITLE: REDUCTION OF VARIANCE IN EXPERT PANEL ESTIMATES OF U.S. ARMY COMBAT VEHICLE CREW ENDURANCE
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EXPERT PANEL WAS ASSEMBLED TO EXPLORE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NOVEL METHOD FOR REDUCING THE VARIANCE OF FACE-TO-FACE GROUP ESTIMATES. THE PANEL'S TASK WAS TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ON ARMY AVIATION AND ARMOR COMBAT VEHICLE CREWS DURING REPRESENTATIVE COMBAT MISSIONS. THESE MISSIONS WERE CONSIDERED SEPARATELY FOR TWO LEVELS OF INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT. THE ESTIMATE-TALK-ESTIMATE METHOD WITH AN IMPARTIAL GROUP FACILITATOR WAS USED TO CONTROL THE PROCESS. THE RESULTS FROM THE PANEL DEMONSTRATED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS FACE-TO-FACE, CONSENSUS-BASED METHOD FOR REDUCING THE VARI-ANCE OF THEIR COMBINED ESTIMATES. THE OVERALL MEAN PERCENTAGE REDUCTION OF THE COEFFICIENT OF VARIANCE WAS 39.8+0.8 PERCENT. THE PANEL COMPILED AN EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF PARAMETERS REQUIRED FOR COLLECTION DURING MILITARY FIELD TESTS TO FACILITATE INTEGRATION AND COMPARISON IN FUTURE DATABASES. THE PANEL ALSO DEVELOPED A LIST OF SPECIFICATIONS OF AN ACCURATE PREDICTIVE MODEL OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS ON U.S. ARMY COMBAT VEHICLE CREW ENDURANCE.
KEYWORDS: EXPERT PANEL, ENDURANCE, PREDICTION, CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION, GROUP PROCESS, MODELING, COMBAT VEHICLE CREWS
90-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1423 DTIC #: ADA229421
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF A RUGGEDIZED HAND-HELD COMPUTER FOR PERFORMANCE TESTING IN OPERATIONAL SETTINGS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., CRAIG YOUNG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PORTABLE, RUGGEDIZED COMPUTERS, CAPABLE OF ADMINISTERING STANDARD AUTOMATED TESTS UNDER HARSH ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, HAVE BEEN NEEDED BY RESEARCHERS FOR MANY YEARS. PARTICULARLY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGISTS REQUIRE TOOLS WHICH WILL PERMIT THE TESTING OF SOLDIERS DURING OPERATIONALLY-RELEVANT FIELD EXERCISES WITHOUT PROBLEMS OF EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTIONS. IN 1984, THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND SOUGHT TO ADDRESS THIS REQUIREMENT BY SPONSORING A SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATIVE RESEARCH (SBIR) EFFORT WITH PARAVANT COMPUTER SYSTEMS, INC. THE SBIR RESULTED IN THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE RHC-88, A NOTEBOOK-SIZED, MS-DOS-BASED, IBM COMPATIBLE COMPUTER WHICH OFFERS EXTENSIVE PROGRAMMING FLEXIBILITY IN A PORTABLE, EXPANDABLE, FIELD-HARDENED UNIT. WITH THE RHC-88, NOW IT IS POSSIBLE TO ADMINISTER A WIDE VARIETY OF COMPUTER-BASED TESTS IN THE LABORATORY AND IN THE FIELD.
KEYWORDS: PORTABLE RUGGEDIZED COMPUTERS, FIELD-HARDENED PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEMS, HAND-HELD DATA COLLECTION DEVICES
90-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1154 DTIC #: ADA222935
TITLE: DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMPROVED SPH-4 RETENTION SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. HINES, RONALD W. PALMER, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., ERNEST E. HILTZ
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IMPACT PROTECTION DURING A CRASH IS ONE OF THE PRIMARY FUNCTIONS OF A FLIGHT HELMET. IN ORDER FOR THE HELMET TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE IMPACT PROTECTION, THE HELMET MUST REMAIN FIRMLY SECURED ON THE HEAD FOR THE ENTIRE DURATION OF THE CRASH SEQUENCE. IF THE HELMET IS DISPLACED ON THE HEAD OR COMES OFF THE HEAD DURING THE CRASH SEQUENCE, CRANIAL EXPOSURE AND SUBSEQUENT HEAD INJURY CAN OCCUR. PREVIOUS RESEARCH AT USAARL HAS SHOWN THE RETENTION ASSEMBLY OF THE SPH-4 FLIGHT HELMET OFTEN ALLOWS EXCESSIVE HELMET ROTATION OR EVEN HELMET LOSS TO OCCUR DURING A CRASH. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE CONSTRUCTION AND TESTING OF A NEW SPH-4 RETENTION ASSEMBLY, THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS, WHICH WILL ALLEVIATE THE HELMET ROTATION/ HELMET LOSS PROBLEM. THE LOAD VERSUS ELONGATION UNDER LOAD AND COMFORT OF THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS WAS COMPARED TO THAT OF THE CURRENTLY USED STANDARD RETENTION HARNESS. THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS WAS STRONGER, STRETCHED LESS UNDER LOAD THAN THE STANDARD RETENTION HARNESS. COMFORT TESTING OF THE USAARL SHOWED THE MAJORITY (72 PERCENT) OF THOSE QUESTIONED PREFERRED THE USAARL YOKE HARNESS OVER THE STANDARD HARNESS.
KEYWORDS: IMPACT PROTECTION, HELMET, YOKE HARNESS, RETENTION HARNESS, RETENTION ASSEMBLY
90-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 862 DTIC #: ADA223226
TITLE: HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS OF NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS FLIGHT USING THERMAL IMAGING SYSTEMS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, ROBERT W. VERONA, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY AVIATION NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS ENHANCE THE AVIATOR'S CAPABILITY TO OPERATE EFFECTIVELY DURING PERIODS OF LOW ILLUMINATION, ADVERSE WEATHER, AND IN THE PRESENCE OF OBSCURANTS. CURRENT FIELDED SYSTEMS ALLOW AVIATORS TO CONDUCT TERRAIN FLIGHT DURING CONDITIONS WHICH WOULD BE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS, IF NOT IMPOSSIBLE, USING ONLY UNAIDED VISION. IN NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS, TRADE-OFFS ARE MADE THAT ENHANCE SOME VISUAL PARAMETERS AND COMPROMISE OTHERS. EXAMPLES OF VISUAL PARAMETERS WHICH ARE TRADED OFF INCLUDE ACUITY, FIELD-OF-VIEW, SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY, AND DEPTH PERCEPTION. COST, WEIGHT, AND SIZE CONSTRAINTS ALSO LEAD TO COMPROMISES BETWEEN AN IDEAL AND A VIABLE SYSTEM DESIGN. THERMAL IMAGING SENSORS INTRODUCE ENHANCED NIGHT VISION CAPABILITIES ALONG WITH NEW PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE INTERPRETATION OF VISUAL INFORMATION BASED ON SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL CHARACTERISTICS DIFFERING FROM THOSE PROVIDED BY UNAIDED VISION. IN ADDITION, THE MOUNTING OF THESE VISUAL DISPLAYS ONTO THE AVIATOR'S HELMET PROVOKES CONCERN REGARDING FATIGUE AND CRASH SAFETY, DUE TO INCREASED HEAD-SUPPORTED WEIGHT AND SHIFTS IN CENTER-OF-GRAVITY. HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY ISSUES RELATED TO THE USE OF THERMAL NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS ARE IDENTIFIED AND DISCUSSED. THE ACCUMULATED ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE WITH U.S. ARMY AH-64 HELICOPTERS EQUIPPED WITH THE THERMAL PILOT'S NIGHT VISION SYSTEM AND THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM IS BRIEFLY REVIEWED.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION, FORWARD LOOKING INFRARED (FLIR), INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), PILOT'S NIGHT VISION SYSTEM (PNVS), THERMAL IMAGING
90-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 528 DTIC #: ADA223488
TITLE: VISUAL PROCESSING: IMPLICATIONS FOR HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JO LYNN CALDWELL, RHONDA L. CORNUM, ROBERT L. STEPHENS, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO COMPARE THE PERFORMANCE OF AH-64 (APACHE) PILOTS TO OTHER ARMY PILOTS ON VISUAL TASKS. EACH PILOT WAS GIVEN A TASK PRESENTED MONOCULARLY TO THE RIGHT EYE, A TASK PRESENTED MONOCULARLY TO THE LEFT EYE, AND A TASK PRESENTED TO BOTH EYES SIMULTANEOUSLY IN A DICHOPTIC TASK. RESULTS INDICATED NO PERFORMANCE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE GROUP OF PILOTS ON THE DICHOPTIC TASK, BUT INDICATED BETTER PERFORMANCE ON THE LEFT MONOCULAR TASK FOR THE AH-64 PILOTS. THESE RESULTS INDICATE THAT AH-64 PILOTS WHO ARE REQUIRED TO SWITCH THEIR ATTENTION FROM THEIR LEFT EYES TO THEIR RIGHT EYES IN ORDER TO OBTAIN NEEDED INFORMATION ARE CAPABLE OF PROCESSING INFORMATION EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY USING ONLY ONE EYE. THE IMPLICATIONS OF THESE RESULTS FOR THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: DUAL PROCESSING, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, MONOCULAR TASKS
90-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1160 DTIC #: ADA224915
TITLE: VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF CONTACT LENS-CORRECTED AMETROPIC AVIATORS WITH THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, ISAAC BEHAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PRESENT STUDY INVESTIGATED THE USE OF EXTENDED WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES WITH THE APACHE AVIATOR'S M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK. VISUAL FUNCTIONS TESTS (HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, COLOR VISION), VISUALLY-BASED COGNITIVE TESTS, AND USER-COMFORT QUESTIONNAIRES WERE EMPLOYED WITH NORMALLY SIGHTED AVIATORS AND WITH AVIATORS FITTED WITH HYDROGEL SOFT CONTACT LENSES. TESTS WERE ADMINISTRATED SHORTLY BEFORE DONNING THE MASK, IMMEDIATELY AFTER DONNING THE MASK, AND AT HOURLY INTERVALS, OVER THE COURSE OF THE NEXT 4 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS MASK WEAR. PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION (TEAR BREAK-UP TIME, TEAR PRODUCTION, SLIT LAMP EXAMINATION) WAS ASSESSED BEFORE DONNING THE MASK AND DIRECTLY AFTER ITS REMOVAL. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY INDICATED, FOR SOME SUBJECTS IN BOTH GROUPS, THE PRESENCE OF SUBJECTIVE DISCOMFORT (FROM THE M-43'S AIRFLOW AROUND THE EYES) AND MILDLY INCREASED CONJUNCTIVAL INJECTION ("REDNESS"). HOWEVER, NO SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN VISUAL FUNCTION, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, OR PHYSIOLOGICAL FUNCTION WERE OBSERVED IN EITHER GROUP AS A RESULT OF WEARING THE MASK. THE DATA CONFIRM PREVIOUS WORK INDICATING ACCEPTABLE VISUAL PERFORMANCE WITH THE M-43 MASK AND INDICATE THAT EXTENDED WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENSES CAN BE WORN WITH THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK WITHOUT DEGRADING SELECTED ASPECTS OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, ARMY AVIATION, AH-64 APACHE
90-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1035 DTIC #: ADA227583
TITLE: PREVALENCE OF SPECTACLE WEAR AMONG U.S. ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
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
KEYWORDS: ADVANCED AVIONIC AND ELECTRO-OPTICAL SYSTEMS, PREVALENCE OF SPECTACLE WEAR, SPECTACLE INCOMPATIBILITY, SYSTEM/HARDWARE PLANNING
90-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1507 DTIC #: ADA288787
TITLE: CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DESYNCHRONOSIS, JET LAG, SHIFT LAG, AND COPING STRATEGIES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, GERALD P. KRUEGER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: JET LAG AND SHIFT LAG HAVE SIMILAR PHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES, BUT SHIFT LAG IS A MORE COMPLEX PROBLEM. THE MOST SEVERE DESYNCHRONIZATION MAY BE EXPERIENCED BY AIRLINE PERSONNEL MAKING TRANSMERIDIAN FLIGHTS. COPING STRATEGIES FOR EASTWARD AND WESTWARD TRAVELERS AND FOR SHIFTWORKERS ARE RECOMMEND, AS ARE INTERVENTIONS INVOLVING MELATONIN.
KEYWORDS: CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, JET LAG, FATIGUE (PHYSIOLOGY), SLEEP DEPRIVATION
90-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 683 DTIC #: ADA230201
TITLE: VISUAL SURVEY OF APACHE AVIATORS (VISAA)
AUTHOR(s): ISAAC BEHAR, ROGER W. WILEY, RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH, DAVID J. WALSH, RHONDA L. S. CORNUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A THREE-PART STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO ASSESS THE VISUAL STATUS OF AH-64 PILOTS. THE FIRST PART CONSISTED OF AN ANONYMOUS QUESTIONNAIRE RETURNED BY 58 FORT RUCKER INSTRUCTOR PILOTS. MORE THAN 80 PERCENT OF THE PILOTS REGISTERED AT LEAST ONE VISUAL COMPLAINT (VISUAL DISCOMFORT, HEADACHE, DOUBLE VISION, BLURRED VISION, DISORIENTATION, OR AFTERIMAGES) ASSOCIATED WITH FLYING OR AFTER FLYING THE APACHE AIRCRAFT. MANY OF THEIR COMMENTS INDICATED THAT SYMPTOMS OCCURRED DURING LONG FLIGHT AND/OR FLYING WITH POOR QUALITY OR OUT-OF-FOCUS DISPLAY SYMBOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: AH-64, VISUAL PROBLEMS, DIOPTER FOCUS, VISUAL FUNCTION ASSESSMENT, AVIATOR VISION, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT
91-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 695 DTIC #: ADA231723
TITLE: EFFECT OF VIBRATION FREQUENCY AND ACCELERATION MAGNITUDE OF CHICKEN EMBRYOS ON VIABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT PHASE I
AUTHOR(s): LINDA C. TAGGART, NABIH M. ALEM, HELEN M. FREAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE IS LITTLE KNOWN ABOUT THE EFFECT OF VIBRATION ON DEVELOPING EMBRYOS. THE FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING AN AVIAN MODEL TO STUDY THIS EFFECT WAS ESTABLISHED FOR THIS STUDY. ONE HUNDRED CHICKEN EGGS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR TRAYS OF 25 EACH AND EXPOSED TO VIBRATION OF 1 HZ 0.25 G, 5 HZ 3 G, 10 HZ 3 G, AND A CONTROL OF NO VIBRATION. HATCH RATE WAS 0 PERCENT FOR 5 HZ, 12 PERCENT OF 10 HZ, AND 89 PERCENT OF THE 1 HZ EGGS THAT DID NOT CRACK DURING THE INCUBATION PERIOD. THE CONTROL HATCH RATE WAS 84 PERCENT.
KEYWORDS: VIBRATION, EMBRYOS, CHICKEN, EGGS, INCUBATION
91-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1939 DTIC #: ADA235647
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE LAERDAL SUCTION UNIT
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, RANDALL THOMAS, LARRY C. WOODRUM, HELEN M. FREAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LAERDAL SUCTION UNIT WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION OF AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT PROGRAM. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LAERDAL SUCTION UNIT PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS VALIDATED AS COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
91-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 591 DTIC #: ADA232373
TITLE: CONTACT LENSES IN THE U.S. ARMY ATTACK HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENT: AN INTERIM REPORT
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANTAGES HAVE HAD A MAJOR IMPACT ON MILITARY AVIATION. WHILE MODERN METHODS OF PROVIDING VISUAL INFORMATION VIA ELECTRO-OPTICS/VISIONICS SYSTEMS HAVE EXTENDED THE AVIATOR'S OPERATIONAL ENVELOPE, THESE DEVICES ARE BECOMING INCREASINGLY INCOMPATIBLE WITH SPECTACLE WEAR. SINCE APPROXIMATELY 20 PERCENT OF ARMY AVIATORS ARE AMETROPIC (SPECTACLE WEARING), ALTERNATIVE MEANS OF PROVIDING A REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION NEED TO BE INVESTIGATED. ONE ALTERNATIVE BEING CONSIDERED IS THE USE OF A CONTACT LENS CORRECTION.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENS, AMETROPIC, VOLUNTEERS, AH-64, AVIATORS
91-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2141 DTIC #: ADA231885
TITLE: CODING MANUAL FOR THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS J. BURKE, RENEE KINGSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) IS AN AUTOMATED DATABASE WHICH ALLOWS ELECTRONIC STORAGE, ANALYSIS, AND RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION OF THE FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION (FDME). THE FDME CONSISTS OF A COMPLETED REPORT OF MEDICAL HISTORY STANDARD FOR (SF) 93), REPORT OF PHYSICAL EXAMINATION (SF 88), REPORT OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAM (SF 520) WITH THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM TRACING, AND FOR CERTAIN CLASSES OF FDME, ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON LIFESTYLE FACTORS AND FAMILY HISTORY. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA, PATIENT HISTORY, PHYSICIAN HISTORY, PHYSICAL FINDINGS, SCREENING TESTS, AND DIAGNOSES INFORMATION ARE INCLUDED ON THESE FORMS, EACH OF WHICH HAS A UNIQUE VALUE IN HEALTH CARE, ADMINISTRATION, AND RESEARCH, AND EACH OF WHICH MUST BE HANDLED DIFFERENTLY IN THE AEDR. DEMOGRAPHIC AND SCREENING TEST RESULTS ARE ENTERED DIRECTLY FORM THE FDME TO THE AEDR. HISTORY, PHYSICAL FINDINGS, AND DIAGNOSIS ARE TRANSLATED INTO A STANDARDIZED ALPHANUMERIC CODE, A MODIFICATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES (ICD). BECAUSE OF THE UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MILITARY AVIATION ENVIRONMENT, THE ICD IS INADEQUATE TO SUPPORT ALL THE CLINICAL, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND RESEARCH FUNCTIONS OF THE AEDR. THE ICD HAS BEEN SUPPLEMENTED WITH ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC CODES TO PROVIDE EXTRA SPECIFICITY, CODES FOR PHYSICAL FINDINGS AND ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, AND CODES TO AUTOMATE THE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESS. THE CODES ARE PRESENTED AND DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER, FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION, DEMOGRAPHIC DATA, PATIENT HISTORY, PHYSICIAN HISTORY, PHYSICAL FINDINGS, SCREENING TESTS, DIAGNOSES, AEDR
91-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 986 DTIC #: ADA232723
TITLE: A TEST OF THE AMERICAN SAFETY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC. PREBREATHER/PORTABLE OXYGEN SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, FRANCIS S. KNOX, III, ROBERT A. MITCHELL, VADANKUMAR M. PATEL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN RESPONSE TO A REQUEST FROM THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT PRODUCT MANAGER (ALSE-PM) OF THE AVIATION SYSTEMS COMMAND (AVSCOM), THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) CONDUCTED AN INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF THE PREBREATHER/PORTABLE OXYGEN SYSTEM (P/POS) MANUFACTURED BY AMERICAN SAFETY FLIGHT SYSTEMS, INC.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER OXYGEN SYSTEMS, HIGH ALTITUDE FLIGHT, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE
91-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2388 DTIC #: ADA233349
TITLE: THE AIRBAG AS A SUPPLEMENT TO STANDARD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN THE AH-1 AND AH-64 ATTACK HELICOPTERS AND ITS ROLE IN REDUCING HEAD STRIKES OF THE COPILOT/GUNNER, VOLUME I
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOHN V. BARSON, WILLIAM H. MUZZY, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION RECORDS OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER CRASHES SHOW INJURIES OF PILOTS DUE TO STRIKING A STRUCTURE INSIDE THE COCKPIT OUTNUMBER THOSE DUE TO EXCESSIVE ACCELERATIONS BY A FIVE-TO-ONE RATIO. THE TWO-VOLUME REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRBAGS IN REDUCING THE SEVERITY OF CONTACT INJURY TO THE GUNNER WHEN STRIKING THE GUNSIGHT. AIRBAG SYSTEMS WERE INSTALLED ON THE GUNSIGHTS IN SIMULATED COBRA AND APACHE COCKPITS, THEN SLED TESTED AT 7 AND 25 G.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAG, RESTRAINT, HEAD STRIKES, SLED TESTS, INJURIES, HELICOPTER CRASHES
91-6a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5816 DTIC #: ADA232907
TITLE: THE AIRBAG AS A SUPPLEMENT TO STANDARD RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN THE AH-1 AND AH-64 ATTACK HELICOPTERS AND ITS ROLE IN REDUCING HEAD STRIKES OF THE COPILOT/GUNNER, VOLUME II
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, JOHN V. BARSON, WILLIAM H. MUZZY, III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION RECORDS OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER CRASHES SHOW INJURIES OF PILOTS DUE TO STRIKING A STRUCTURE INSIDE THE COCKPIT OUTNUMBER THOSE DUE TO EXCESSIVE ACCELERATIONS BY A FIVE-TO-ONE RATIO. THE TWO-VOLUME REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRBAGS IN REDUCING THE SEVERITY OF CONTACT INJURY TO THE GUNNER WHEN STRIKING THE GUNSIGHT. AIRBAG SYSTEMS WERE INSTALLED ON THE GUNSIGHTS IN SIMULATED COBRA AND APACHE COCKPITS, THEN SLED TESTED AT 7 AND 25 G.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAG, RESTRAINT, HEAD STRIKES, SLED TESTS, INJURIES, HELICOPTER CRASHES
91-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3756 DTIC #: ADA240545
TITLE: CONCEPT EVALUATION OF THE UH-60 EXTERNALLY MOUNTED RESCUE HOIST
AUTHOR(s): JOSEPH R. LICINA, LARRY C. WOODRUM, DOUGLAS P. PRITTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CONCEPT EVALUATION OF AN EXTERNALLY MOUNTED RESCUE HOIST (EMRH) WAS PERFORMED WITH THE BREEZE EASTERN EMRH INSTALLED ON AN U.S. ARMY UH-60 HELICOPTER. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS WAS CONDUCTED BETWEEN THE EMRH AND THE INTERNALLY MOUNTED RESCUE HOIST (IMRH) WHICH ASSESSED INITIAL INSPECTION, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, INSTALLATION, AND COMPATIBILITY WITH THE AIRCRAFT, PERFORMANCE, AND SAFETY. THE EMRH SHOWED SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT OVER THE IMRH CURRENTLY USED IN U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: RESCUE, MEDEVAC, HOIST, TEST AND EVALUATION
91-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 524 DTIC #: ADA233199
TITLE: MILITARY AVIATION: A CONTACT LENS REVIEW. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MILITARY AVIATION COMMUNITIES HAVE BENEFITTED FROM THE DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED ELECTRO-OPTICAL AVIONICS SYSTEMS. ONE DRAWBACK THAT HAS EMERGED IS AN INCREASING SYSTEM INCOMPATIBILITY WITH TRADITIONAL SPECTACLE VISUAL CORRECTIONS. AN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION TO THE REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION PROBLEM THAT SOME SERVICES HAS BEEN INVESTIGATING IS THAT OF CONTACT LENS WEAR. SINCE THIS MUCH-DEBATED TOPIC IS CURRENTLY OF COMMAND INTEREST, A GENERAL OVERVIEW OF CONTACT LENS ISSUES IS PRESENTED AS A FRAMEWORK FOR FUTURE DISCUSSIONS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REVIEW, ARMY AVIATION, AEROMEDICAL ISSUES
91-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1266 DTIC #: ADA233518
TITLE: CONSPICUITY COMPARISON OF CURRENT AND PROPOSED U.S. ARMY WIRE MARKER DESIGNS
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN-FLIGHT WIRE STRIKES ARE A SERIOUS THREAT TO U.S. ARMY AVIATION DURING ALL-WEATHER DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. TO REDUCE THIS THREAT, THE AVIATION TRAINING COMMUNITY EMPLOYS A PASSIVE MARKING SYSTEM FOR INCREASING THE CONSPICUITY OF HIGH TENSION CABLES, ELECTRICAL POWER LINES, AND TELEPHONE WIRES. THIS SYSTEM USES INTERNATIONAL-ORANGE FIBERGLASS SPHERES HAVING A DIAMETER OF APPROXIMATELY 11.5 INCHES AND UTILIZING VARIOUS CONSPICUITY ENHANCING SCHEMES. THESE SPHERES ARE ATTACHED TO THE CABLES AND WIRES AT LOCATIONS HEAVILY USED BY AIRCRAFT. IN THIS STUDY, THE CONSPICUITY OF THE BASIC AND PROPOSED MODIFIED DESIGNS WERE INVESTIGATED AS A FUNCTION OF BACKGROUND, ILLUMINATION LEVEL (FOR BOTH DAY AND NIGHT WITH WEATHER EFFECTS), SUN (OR OTHER BRIGHT SOURCE) ANGLE, AND VIEWING SYSTEM (E.G., UNAIDED EYE, THERMAL SENSOR, OR IMAGE INTENSIFIER). WHILE NO DIFFERENCES AMONG DESIGNS WERE OBSERVED UNDER DAYLIGHT CONDITIONS, IMPROVED PERFORMANCE UNDER SEVERAL VIEWING/LIGHTING CONDITIONS WAS OBSERVED FOR TWO RETROREFLECTIVE POLYHEDRON DESIGNS UNDER TYPICAL AIRCRAFT LIGHTING CONDITIONS AT NIGHT. INCREASED DETECTION RANGES WERE NOTED BOTH WITH AND WITHOUT IMAGE INTENSIFICATION DEVICES AND UNDER AIRCRAFT LIGHTING CONDITIONS CHARACTERISTIC OF THE LOCAL AVIATION TRAINING ENVIRONMENT.
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), CONSPICUITY, WIRE MARKER, WIRE STRIKES, VISUAL DETECTION
91-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 922 DTIC #: ADA233011
TITLE: ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION EFFECTS ON THE CORNEAL EPITHELIUM
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SINCE MILITARY TROOPS ARE INVOLVED IN EXTENSIVE OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES WITH CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION, AND SINCE ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UVR) LASERS MAY PLAY A ROLE IN THE FUTURE MILITARY ENVIRONMENT, A THOROUGH UNDERSTANDING OF UVR DAMAGE MECHANISMS WOULD BE CRUCIAL TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERVENTION AND TREATMENT MODALITIES. THE PRESENT RESEARCH WAS DIRECTED AT QUANTIFYING POSSIBLE ALTERATIONS IN CORNEAL EPITHELIAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY SECONDARY TO IN VIVO EXPOSURE TO UVR IN THE RABBIT.
KEYWORDS: UVR, CORNEAL EPITHELIUM, METABOLISM, GLUCOSE, OXYGEN
91-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2033 DTIC #: ADA233784
TITLE: SPH-4 AIRCREW HELMET IMPACT PROTECTION IMPROVEMENT 1970-1990
AUTHOR(s): RONALD W. PALMER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SOUND PROTECTIVE HELMET-4 (SPH-4), A DERIVATIVE OF THE NAVY SPH-3, HAS BEEN USED BY THE ARMY SINCE 1970. AS OUR KNOWLEDGE OF CRASH ENVIRONMENTS AND HUMAN IMPACT TOLERANCE HAS INCREASED THROUGH ANALYSES OF AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS AND LABORATORY RESEARCH, THE PERFORMANCE OF THE STANDARD SPH-4 HELMET HAS BEEN CONTINUOUSLY REAPPRAISED, AND THE HELMET'S SHELL, LINER, RETENTION, EARCUPS, AND SUSPENSION HAVE BEEN UPGRADED TO PROVIDE MORE IMPACT PROTECTION. THIS REPORT INCLUDES A DISCUSSION OF IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN THE SPH-4 HELMET AND THE EFFECTS THESE IMPROVEMENTS HAVE HAD ON ITS PERFORMANCE. THE SPH-4, SPH-4B, AND HGU-56/P ARE COMPARED IN TERMS OF MAJOR DESIGN FEATURES, IMPACT PROTECTION, AND RETENTION CAPABILITIES. THE DEVELOPMENT OF HELMET IMPACT TESTING METHODOLOGY USED AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, ALSO IS DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: SPH-4, HELMET, IMPACT, RETENTION, EARCUPS, HELMET ANALYSIS, HEAD INJURY
91-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 463 DTIC #: ADA233252
TITLE: CONTACT LENS ANTERIOR SURFACE PH. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT REPORTS OF CO2 ACCUMULATION UNDER HYDROGEL LENSES, PAIRED WITH THE DETECTION OF A DECREASE IN STROMAL PH FOLLOWING CONTACT LENS WEAR, HAVE HIGHLIGHTED THE POTENTIAL FOR TEAR PH ASSESSMENT AS A CLINICAL TOOL. THE IN SITU ANTERIOR HYDROGEL LENS SURFACE PH WAS MEASURED WITH A FLAT-SURFACED, SELF-REFERENCED PH ELECTRODE IN ORDER TO INDIRECTLY EVALUATE FLUID EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE PRECORNEAL TEAR FILM AND HYDROGEL LENSES. VOLUNTEER HUMAN SUBJECTS WERE FITTED WITH MODERATE WATER CONTENT (58%), DISPOSABLE EXTENDED WEAR HYDROGEL LENSES. MEASUREMENTS WERE RECORDED FROM THE LENS IN ITS PACKAGED STAGE (PH 6.99), FROM THE LENS IN SITU 5 MINUTES AFTER INITIAL LENS APPLICATION (PH 7.17), 24 HOURS LATER (PH 7.34), AND AT THE END OF 7 DAYS CON-TINUOUS CONTACT LENS WEAR (PH 7.43). POSSIBLE CORNEA-TEAR FILM-HYDROGEL LENS INTERACTIONS COULD EXPLAIN CERTAIN HYDROGEL LENS-ASSOCIATED CONTRAST SENSITIVITY DEFICITS AND TRANSIENT ENDOTHELIAL CHANGES.
KEYWORDS: HYDROGEL CONTACT LENSES, TEAR FILM PH, EXTENDED WEAR
91-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 297 DTIC #: ADA234592
TITLE: VISUAL AND FIELD-OF-VIEW EVALUATION OF THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK WITH PRESCRIPTION EYEPIECES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN K. CROSLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, RICHARD R. LEVINE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS REQUESTED BY THE PROPONENT OF THE M-43 AVIATOR PROTECTIVE MASK TO CONDUCT A LABORATORY STUDY OF THE VISUAL PERFORMANCE OF EIGHT AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER PILOTS WEARING MASKS WITH "GLUE-ON" PRESCRIPTION LENSES. IN RESPONSE, SEVERAL VISUAL FUNCTIONS TESTS WERE CONDUCTED INCLUDING: HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY, HETEROPHORIA, FIXATION DISPARITY, AND STEREOPSIS AT BOTH NEAR AND FAR. IN ADDITION, VISUAL FIELD LOSSES OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM WERE EXAMINED. PERFORMANCE IN THE CORRECTIVE MASK WAS COMPARED TO THAT WITH HABITUAL CORRECTION, EITHER SPECTACLES OR CONTACT LENSES. THE RESULTS OF THE VISUAL FUNCTIONS TESTS INDICATED ACCEPTABLE PERFORMANCE ON ALL MEASURES EXCEPT FIXATION DISPARITY. THE HIGH DEGREE OF VARIABILITY FOUND ON THIS TEST SUGGESTED PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE PRESCRIPTION LENSES OPTICAL DESIGN, NAMELY ITS HIGH RADIUS OF CURVATURE AND ITS ADDITIONAL THICKNESS. FIELD-OF-VIEW RESULTS INDICATED LOSSES IN VISUAL FIELD ABOVE THOSE OBTAINED WITH SPECTACLE CORRECTION, BUT COMPARABLE TO THAT FOUND WITH THE PLANO MASK. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING ARE RECOMMENDED.
KEYWORDS: M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK, AH-64, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, ARMY AVIATOR
91-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2244 DTIC #: ADA234593
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 10
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 10 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFEPAK® 10 PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS VALIDATED AS COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
91-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1689 DTIC #: ADA237641
TITLE: HUMAN FACTORS OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES: ANECDOTES FROM THE FIELD CONCERNING VISUAL ILLUSIONS AND OTHER EFFECTS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO INVESTIGATE THE BREATH OF VISUAL ILLUSIONS EXPERIENCED BY AVIATORS FLYING WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES (NVDS), AN OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DISTRIBUTED TO THE MILITARY HELICOPTER COMMUNITY IN THE FALL OF 1989. OF THE 242 RETURNED QUESTIONNAIRES, THERE WERE 221 NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) REPORTS AND 21 THERMAL IMAGING SYSTEM (FLIR) REPORTS. MOST SENSORY EVENTS OCCURRED AT NIGHT, DURING LOW ILLUMINATION, GOOD WEATHER, AND OVER VARIED TERRAIN. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS INCLUDED INEXPERIENCE, DIVISION OF ATTENTION, AND FATIGUE. FREQUENTLY REPORTED ILLUSIONS WERE MISJUDGMENTS OF DRIFT, CLEARANCE, HEIGHT ABOVE THE TERRAIN, AND ATTITUDE. ALSO REPORTED HERE WERE ILLUSIONS DUE TO EXTERNAL LIGHTS, AND DISTURBED DEPTH PERCEPTION CAUSED BY DIFFERENCES IN BRIGHTNESS BETWEEN NVG TUBES. OTHER RESPONDENTS CITED HARDWARE PROBLEMS AND PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS. THERE WERE NO OBVIOUS DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE EXPERIENCES OF NVG USERS AND FLIR USERS. ALTHOUGH INCIDENCE RATES CANNOT BE INTERRED FROM THESE DATA, THE VARIETY OF EXCERPTED AVIATOR ANECDOTES IN THIS REPORT WILL BE USEFUL TO ALL CONCERNED WITH THE HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY OF NVDS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION SAFETY, FLIR, ILLUSIONS, NIGHT VISION, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NVG, SPATIAL ORIENTATION, THERMAL IMAGING, VISUAL FUNCTION
91-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 407 DTIC #: ADA241819
TITLE: ATTENUATION PRODUCED BY FOAM EARPLUGS WORN BY CHINCHILLAS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ILIA M. LOMBA GAUTIER, MELVIN CARRIER, JR., DENNIS L. CURD, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE ATTENUATION OF MODIFIED FOAM EARCUPS (NSN 6515-00-137-6345) WHEN WORN BY CHINCHILLA. SINCE THE EAR CANAL OF THE CHINCHILLA IS SMALLER THAN HUMAN, THE EARPLUGS WERE TRIMMED TO A DIAMETER OF 7.2 MM. THIS PROVIDED A GOOD FIT TO THE CHINCHILLA EAR CANAL. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE ATTENUATION WERE ADAPTED FROM ANSI STANDARD METHODS FOR DETERMINING ATTENUATION FOR HUMANS. THE AVERAGE ATTENUATION OF THE EARPLUGS FOR THE CHINCHILLA WAS GENERALLY HIGHER THAN FOR HUMANS; HOWEVER, THIS DIFFERENCE WAS NOT STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT.
KEYWORDS: HEARING PROTECTORS, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY
91-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 9962 DTIC #: ADA241966
TITLE: EFFECTS OF THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE ANTIDOTE ATROPINE SULFATE ON HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE: AN IN-FLIGHT STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., DAVID J. CARTER, ROBERT L. STEPHENS, LEWIS W. STONE, DARCELLE M. DELRIE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, RONALD R. SIMMONS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF 2 MG AND 4 MG INJECTIONS OF ATROPINE SULFATE ON HELICOPTER PILOTS WAS INVESTIGATED USING A SPECIALLY INSTRUMENTED UH-1H HELICOPTER AND SEVERAL LABORATORY TESTS. A COUNTERBALANCED, WITHIN-SUBJECTS DESIGN WAS EMPLOYED IN WHICH FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, VISION, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC ACTIVITY, COGNITIVE SKILL, AND TRACKING PERFORMANCE WERE ASSESSED ON EACH OF THREE DIFFERENT DRUG ADMINISTRATION DAYS (PLA-CEBO, 2 MG, AND 4 MG) SEPARATED BY CONTROL DAYS.
KEYWORDS: ATROPINE (SULFATE), HELICOPTER PILOTS, SUBJECTIVE PILOT GRADING, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY (PAB), ZERO INPUT ANALYZER (ZITA), EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP), ELECTROENCEPHLOGRAM (EEG), UH-1
91-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2300 DTIC #: ADA239992
TITLE: THE HAZARD OF EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE AS A FUNCTION OF FREQUENCY
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., MELVIN CARRIER, JR., ILIA M LOMBA GAUTIER, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ENERGY SPECTRUM OF A NOISE IS KNOWN TO BE AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF A TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE. HOWEVER, EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT CONSIDER THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AN IMPULSE AS A VARIABLE IN THE EVALUATION OF THE HAZARDS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY THAT WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL THAT IMPULSIVE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES HAS IN CAUSING AUDITORY SYSTEM TRAUMA. ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN (118) CHINCHILLA, DIVIDED INTO 10 GROUPS WITH 5 TO 7 ANIMALS PER GROUP, WERE USED IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED AT 10 TEST FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 0.125 AND 8 KHZ ON EACH ANIMAL USING AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING PROCEDURES. QUANTITATIVE HISTOLOGY (COCHLEO-GRAMS) WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT AND PATTERN OF THE SENSORY CELL DAMAGE. THE NOISE EXPOSURE STIMULI CONSISTED OF SIX DIFFERENT COMPUTER-GENERATED NARROW BAND TONE BURSTS HAVING CENTER FREQUENCIES LOCATED AT 0.260, 0.775, 1.025, 1.350, 2.450, AND 3.550 KHZ. EACH NARROW BAND EXPOSURE STIMULUS WAS PRESENTED AT TWO TO FOUR DIFFERENT INTENSITIES. AN ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIOMETRIC AND HISTOLOGICAL DATA ALLOWED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION TO BE DERIVED. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION CLEARLY DEMONSTRATES THAT EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF IMPULSE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES IS NOT EQUALLY HAZARDOUS TO AUDITORY FUNCTION. COMPARISON OF THIS WEIGHING FUNCTION WITH THE A-WEIGHING FUNCTION SHOWED THAT A-WEIGHING OVERESTIMATES THE HAZARD FROM LOW FREQUENCY IMPULSES. VOLUME 1 OF THE REPORT DESCRIBES THE RESULTS. VOLUME 2 CONTAINS INDIVIDUAL THRESHOLD SHIFTS AND SENSORY CELL DATA.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
91-18a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7261 DTIC #: ADA240530
TITLE: THE HAZARD OF EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE AS A FUNCTION OF FREQUENCY. VOLUME 2
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., MELVIN CARRIER, JR., ILIA M LOMBA GAUTIER, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ENERGY SPECTRUM OF A NOISE IS KNOWN TO BE AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF A TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE. HOWEVER, EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT CONSIDER THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AN IMPULSE AS A VARIABLE IN THE EVALUATION OF THE HAZARDS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A STUDY THAT WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL THAT IMPULSIVE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES HAS IN CAUSING AUDITORY SYSTEM TRAUMA. ONE HUNDRED AND EIGHTEEN (118) CHINCHILLA, DIVIDED INTO 10 GROUPS WITH 5 TO 7 ANIMALS PER GROUP, WERE USED IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED AT 10 TEST FREQUENCIES BETWEEN 0.125 AND 8 KHZ ON EACH ANIMAL USING AVOIDANCE CONDITIONING PROCEDURES. QUANTITATIVE HISTOLOGY (COCHLEO-GRAMS) WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT AND PATTERN OF THE SENSORY CELL DAMAGE. THE NOISE EXPOSURE STIMULI CONSISTED OF SIX DIFFERENT COMPUTER-GENERATED NARROW BAND TONE BURSTS HAVING CENTER FREQUENCIES LOCATED AT 0.260, 0.775, 1.025, 1.350, 2.450, AND 3.550 KHZ. EACH NARROW BAND EXPOSURE STIMULUS WAS PRESENTED AT TWO TO FOUR DIFFERENT INTENSITIES. AN ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIOMETRIC AND HISTOLOGICAL DATA ALLOWED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION TO BE DERIVED. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION CLEARLY DEMONSTRATES THAT EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF IMPULSE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES IS NOT EQUALLY HAZARDOUS TO AUDITORY FUNCTION. COMPARISON OF THIS WEIGHING FUNCTION WITH THE A-WEIGHING FUNCTION SHOWED THAT A-WEIGHING OVERESTIMATES THE HAZARD FROM LOW FREQUENCY IMPULSES. VOLUME 1 OF THE REPORT DESCRIBES THE RESULTS. VOLUME 2 CONTAINS INDIVIDUAL THRESHOLD SHIFTS AND SENSORY CELL DATA.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
91-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1808 DTIC #: ADA242507
TITLE: SUSTAINED MILITARY PERFORMANCE IN CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS: COMBATANT FATIGUE, REST AND SLEEP NEEDS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GERALD P. KRUEGER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY FORCES HAVE DEVELOPED SOPHISTICATED NIGHT VISION TECHNOLOGY AND OTHER BATTLEFIELD SENSORS, GIVING THEM THE CAPABILITY TO FIGHT THROUGH THE NIGHT. THESE INNOVATIONS BRING ABOUT THE TACTICAL DOCTRINE OF CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS (CONOPS): FIGHTING AROUND-THE-CLOCK FOR SUCCESSIVE DAYS, EVEN WEEKS AT A TIME. CONOPS COMBATANTS, ESPECIALLY 'NIGHT FIGHTERS' WHO WORK DURING DARKNESS AND REST DURING THE DAY, GET ONLY BRIEF, SCATTERED, FRAGMENTED SLEEP AND OFTEN ACCUMULATE SIGNIFICANT SLEEP DEBT. SUSTAINED WORKLOAD COMBINES WITH FATIGUE, ESPECIALLY AFTER ONE OR MORE NIGHTS OF COMPLETE SLEEP LOSS OR LONGER PERIODS OF REDUCED OR FRAGMENTED SLEEP, TO DEGRADE PERFORMANCE, PRODUCTIVITY, SAFETY, AND MISSION EFFECTIVENESS. SLEEP LOSS INTERACTS WITH WORKLOAD, RESULTING IN REDUCED REACTION TIME, DECREASED VIGILANCE, PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS, AND CHANGES IN AFFECT, ALL OF WHICH VARY ACCORDING TO CIRCADIAN RHYTHM TIME-OF-DAY EFFECTS. RESEARCH FINDINGS ON THE COMBINATION OF SUSTAINED PERFORMANCE AND SLEEP DEPRIVATION HAVE IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORETICAL MODELS OF SUSTAINED PERCEPTUAL AND COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING. THIS CHAPTER REVIEWS THESE IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTS STRATEGIES FOR COMBATANTS WHO ENGAGE IN CONTINUOUS MILITARY OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: FATIGUE, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, SUSTAINED WORK, CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE, WORK-REST CYCLES, CONTINUOUS OPERATIONS, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, SOLDIER PERFORMANCE
91-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1665 DTIC #: ADA242997
TITLE: THE HAZARD OF EXPOSURE TO 2.075 KHZ CENTER FREQUENCY NARROW BAND IMPULSES
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., KEVIN BORDWELL, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE A. TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PREVIOUS STUDY BY PATTERSON ET AL., (1991), DERIVED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION FROM AUDIOMETRIC AND HISTOLOGICAL DATA GATHERED ON 118 CHINCHILLAS EXPOSED TO A VARIETY OF NARROW BAND IMPULSES AT VARIOUS PEAK INTENSITIES. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION CLEARLY DEMONSTRATED THAT EQUIVALENT AMOUNTS OF IMPULSE ENERGY CONCENTRATED AT DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES IS NOT EQUALLY HAZARDOUS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. HOWEVER, ON THE BASIS OF PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF A LARGE AMOUNT OF AUDIOMETRIC DATA OBTAINED FROM CHINCHILLAS EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVEL BLAST WAVES (PATTERSON AND HAMERNIK, 1991), THERE APPEARED TO BE SOME INCONSISTENCIES BETWEEN THE NARROW BAND IMPULSE DATA AND THE BLAST WAVE DATA IN THE REGION OF 2.0 KHZ. TO RESOLVE THIS DISCREPANCY, TWO ADDITION GROUPS OF ANIMALS WERE EXPOSED TO NARROW BAND IMPULSES WITH A CENTER FREQUENCY OF 2.075 KHZ AND PEAK INTENSITIES OF 134 DB AND 139 DB. THE RESULTS OF THESE TWO ADDITIONAL GROUPS CONFIRM THE SHAPE OF THE ORIGINAL P-WEIGHING FUNCTION AND INDICATE THAT CHANGES MUST BE MADE IN OUR APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE BLAST WAVE DATA REFERRED TO ABOVE.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY
91-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1850 DTIC #: ADA243174
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF IMPULSE PRESENTATION ON HEARING TRAUMA IN THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., DENNIS L. CURD, LLIA LOMBA GAUTIER, ROGER P. HAMERNIK, WILLIAM A. AHROON, GEORGE A. TURRENTINE, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT PROVIDE FOR ANY EXPLICIT MEANS FOR EVALUATING EXPOSURE FOR WHICH THE PEAK SPL OF THE IMPULSES VARIES IN ANY GIVEN EXPOSURE DAY. APPROACHES TO EVALUATING SUCH EXPOSURES HAVE INCLUDED THE APPLICATION OF A "PROPORTIONAL DOSE" METHOD SUCH AS USED WITH CONTINUOUS NOISE OR THE USE OF AN AVERAGE LEVEL. IMPLICIT IN THESE APPROACHES IS THE ASSUMPTION THAT THE ORDER IN WHICH A SEQUENCE OF VARIABLE INTENSITY IMPULSES IS PRESENTED IS NOT IMPORTANT. THIS SAME ASSUMPTION IS ALSO IMPLICIT IN ANY ENERGY-BASED EXPOSURE CRITERIA. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A PILOT EXPERIMENT DESIGNED TO TEST THE VALIDITY OF THIS ASSUMPTION. TWO GROUPS OF CHINCHILLAS WERE EXPOSED TO A SEQUENCE OF 100 IMPULSES. ONE GROUP RECEIVED 90 EXPOSURES AT 138-DB SPL IMPULSES FOLLOWED BY 10 IMPULSES AT 146-DB PEAK SPL IMPULSES; THE SECOND GROUP RECEIVED THE SAME SERIES OF IMPULSES BUT IN REVERSE ORDER. THE RESULTS FROM THESE TWO GROUPS WERE COMPARED TO THE RESULTS OF 100 EXPOSURES AT 147-DB PEAK SPL IMPULSES FROM A REPORT BY PATTERSON ET AL, (1986). THE 1390DB PEAK SPL EXPOSURES HAD THE SAME TOTAL ENERGY AS THE TWO VARIABLE INTENSITY EXPOSURES. THE RESULTS OF THE THREE EQUIVALENT ENERGY EXPOSURES SHOWED THAT EXPOSURES HAVING EQUAL ENERGIES COULD PRODUCE STATISTICALLY DIFFERENT LEVELS OF HEARING TRAUMA. HOWEVER, WHILE THE MEAN DATA WERE VERY SUGGESTIVE IN SHOWING AN EFFECT OF THE PRESENTATION ORDER, THIS RESULT DID NOT HOLD UP TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS BECAUSE OF THE LARGE INTERSUBJECT VARIABILITY.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY
92-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 426 DTIC #: ADA244124
TITLE: RAPID ONSET OF SEVERE HEAT ILLNESS: A CASE REPORT. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GLENN W. MITCHELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS FLYING EXTENDED PERIODS IN HOT ENVIRONMENTS ARE KNOWN TO BE AT RISK FOR HEAT-RELATED ILLNESS. THE RISK WHEN WEARING CHEMICAL INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (IPE) IS INCREASED EVEN AT RELATIVELY WARM TEMPERATURES AND LIGHT WORKLOADS. IN THIS PAPER, WE REPORT THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF AN AVIATOR WHO HAD BEEN FLYING A UH-1H HELICOPTER UP TO 6H/D CLOTHED IN FULL IPE ON 6 CONSECUTIVE DAYS PRIOR TO THE SUDDEN ONSET OF HEAT ILLNESS. HIS PERFORMANCE DURING THE STUDY WAS NORMAL, AND NO CLEAR PHYSIOLOGICAL DERANGEMENTS WERE NOTED PRIOR TO HIS SYMPTOMS. THE RAPID EVOLUTION OF HIS SYMPTOMS AFTER VOICING NO COMPLAINTS PROVIDES A GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION OF THE DIFFICULT PREDICTABILITY AND INITIAL CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS OF THIS CONDITION.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS (PHYSIOLOGY), HEAT TOLERANCE, AVIATION PERSONNEL, HELICOPTERS, PROTECTIVE CLOTHING
92-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 579 DTIC #: ADA244435
TITLE: EFFECT OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE ON MUSCARINIC AND GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID RECEPTORS IN VISUAL CORTEX OF CATS
AUTHOR(s): ALFRED T. TOWNSEND, DANNY K. ADAMS, JOSE B. LOPEZ, ALBERT W. KIRBY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ADMINISTRATION OF DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE (DFP), AN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS (OP) COMPOUND, IRREVERSIBLY INHIBITS ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE) AND RESULTS IN CHOLINERGIC HYPERACTIVITY. THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED MUSCARINIC AND GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID (GABA) RECEPTOR CHANGES IN VISUAL CORTEX OF CATS FOLLOWING AN ACUTE EXPOSURE TO DFP. A SINGLE ACUTE ADMINISTRATION OF DFP (4 MG/KG) DECREASED THE NUMBER OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS AT 2, 10, AND 20 HOURS AFTER TREATMENT. GABA RECEPTORS WERE ELEVATED AT 2 AND 10 HOURS, BUT RETURNED TO WITHIN CONTROL LEVELS AT 20 HOURS. NO SIGNIFICANT ALTERATION IN MUSCARINIC OR GABA RECEPTOR AFFINITY WAS NOTED. IN ALL CASES, CORTICAL ACHE ACTIVITY WAS INHIBITED 60-90 PERCENT. THESE FINDINGS SHOW A DOWN REGULATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS AFTER DFP ASSOCIATED WITH LOW ACHE ACTIVITY. GABA RECEPTORS ALSO ARE ALTERED, AND MAY BE PART OF A COMPENSATORY MECHANISM TO COUNTERACT EXCESS CHOLINERGIC STIMULATION.
KEYWORDS: DIISOPROPYLFLUOROPHOSPHATE, RECEPTORS, VISUAL CORTEX, ACHE
92-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 400 DTIC #: ADA248353
TITLE: EFFECTS OF PEAK PRESSURE AND ENERGY ON IMPULSES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PEAK PRESSURE HAS BEEN ONE OF THE KEY PARAMETERS OF IMPULSE NOISE USED TO ASSESS THE HAZARD TO HEARING. IT IS USED IN MOST INTERNATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE LIMITS. FRANCES USES AN A-WEIGHTED ENERGY LIMIT. THERE IS A ROUGH CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN PEAK PRESSURE AND THE HAZARD TO HEARING FOR A GIVEN TYPE OF IMPULSE NOISE. HOWEVER, WHEN THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF IMPULSES ARE COMPARED, THIS CORRESPONDENCE BREAKS DOWN. ONE OF THE ALTERNATE MEASURES OF IMPULSE INTENSITY IS WEIGHTED ENERGY. WEIGHTED ENERGY IS APPEALING FOR A NUMBER OF REASONS. IT DOES NOT DEPEND ON DETAILS OF THE PRESSURE-TIME HISTORY SUCH AS THE PEAK PRESSURE AND THE MORE COMMON DURATION MEASURES. IT SHOULD BE EASIER TO INTEGRATE WITH CONTINUOUS OR INTERMITTENT NOISE STANDARDS. IT SHOULD MAKE IT EASIER TO USE STANDARD HEARING PROTECTOR ATTENUATION TO ESTIMATE THE HAZARD WHEN A SPECIFIC HEARING PROTECTOR IS WORN. RESULTS OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED ARTICLES AND REPORTS WILL BE DISCUSSED. THESE REPORTS LEAD TO THE CONCLUSION THAT WEIGHTED ENERGY IS A MORE POTENT DETERMINER OF HEARING HAZARD THAN PEAK PRESSURE IF SPECTRAL EFFECTS ARE CONTROLLED.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
92-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1995 DTIC #: ADA248352
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 100
AUTHOR(s): DARCELLE M. DELRIE, JOSEPH R. LICINA, JEFFREY D. HAUN, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 100 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFESTAT® 100 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2273 DTIC #: ADA248283
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 8
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR MODEL LIFEPAK® 8 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFEPAK® 8 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2073 DTIC #: ADA248355
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 200
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR MODEL LIFESTAT® 200 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LIFESTAT® 200 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2174 DTIC #: ADA248354
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IMED 927 INFUSION PUMP
AUTHOR(s): JEFFREY D. HAUN, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMED 927 INFUSION PUMP WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U. S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IMED 927 INFUSION PUMP PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 792 DTIC #: ADA248351
TITLE: SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DH-133A HELMET
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY, LINDA S. BARLOW
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORTS DOCUMENTS THE SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF A PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT OF THE STANDARD DH-132A HELMET. RESULTS INDICATE THE IMPROVED EXCEEDS THE ATTENUATION REQUIRED BY THE SPECIFICATION AT ALL TEST FREQUENCIES AND IS SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER THAN THE DH-132 AT MOST FREQUENCIES. A SPRING TENSION BAND BETWEEN THE EARCUPS IMPROVES EARCUP-TO-EARCUP HEAD RETENTION. A THERMOPLASTIC LINER IMPROVES STABILITY AND COMFORT. ALL OF THE IMPROVEMENTS ARE AVAILABLE IN KIT FORM FOR FIELD UPGRADE OF FIELDED DH-132A HELMETS.
KEYWORDS: SOUND ATTENTUATION, TANKER HELMET, HEARING THRESHOLDS
92-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1473 DTIC #: ADA248284
TITLE: VISUAL ACUITY WITH SECOND AND THIRD GENERATION NIGHT VISION GOGGLES OBTAINED FROM A NEW METHOD OF NIGHT SKY SIMULATION ACROSS A WIDE RANGE OF TARGET CONTRAST
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO STUDY THE PRIMARY FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE VISUAL ACUITY (VA) WITH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS). THESE FACTORS ARE: NIGHT SKY CONDITION, TARGET CONTRAST, AND NVG GENERATION. IMPROVED METHODS WERE USED TO SIMULATE THE NIGHT SKY AND TO CONTROL FOR DIFFERENCES IN TARGET CONTRAST WHICH RESULT FROM DISSIMILARITIES IN SPECTRAL SENSITIVITY BETWEEN NVG GENERATIONS. THE NEW SIMULATION METHOD USED COMBINATION OF SPECTRALLY FLAT (NEUTRAL DENSITY) AND WAVELENGTH SELECTIVE (BLUE GLASS) FILTERS TO REPRODUCE THE SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NIGHT SKY ACROSS THE ENTIRE NVG RESPONSE RANGE. BETWEEN-GENERATION DIFFERENCES IN TARGET CONTRAST WERE ELIMINATED BY WEIGHING THE INCIDENT RADIANT FLUX BY THE SENSITIVITY OF THE DETECTOR. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE DIFFERENCE IN VA BETWEEN THE TWO GENERATIONS WIDENS UNDER TWO CONDITIONS: (1) WHEN TARGET CONTRAST IS CONSTANT AND NIGHT SKY IRRADIANCE DECREASES, AND (2) WHEN NIGHT SKY IRRADIANCE IS CONSTANT AND TARGET CONTRAST DECREASES. FINALLY, BY COMPARING OUR RESULTS TO THOSE OF OTHER STUDIES, WE WERE ABLE TO CONCLUDE: (1) FOR BOTH SECOND AND THIRD GENERATION NVGS, OUR SIMULATION METHOD PRODUCES RESULTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED UNDER ACTUAL NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS, AND (2) FOR SECOND GENERATION NVGS, A SIMPLER AND LESS EXPENSIVE METHOD OF NIGHT SKY SIMULATION, I.E., USING NEURAL DENSITY FILTERS WITH A CATHODE RAY TUBE, PRODUCES RESULTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED WITH THE MORE ELABORATE METHOD USED IN THIS STUDY. WE WERE NOT ABLE TO CONCLUDE THAT THE SIMULATION METHOD USED IN THIS STUDY PRODUCES RESULTS SIMILAR TO THOSE OBTAINED WITH INCANDESCENT SOURCES AND SPECTRALLY FLAT FILTERS, ESPECIALLY WHEN NIGHT SKY IRRADIANCE IS BELOW QUARTER MOON.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), FIELD-OF-VIEW, NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS, TARGET CONTRAST, NVG GENERATION, NIGHT SKY SIMULATION
92-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1236 DTIC #: ADA247470
TITLE: METHODS OF VISUAL SCANNING WITH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES RECOMMENDED METHODS FOR SCANNING THE FLIGHT PATH AND COCKPIT INSTRUMENTS FOR PILOTS WEARING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) WHILE FLYING ARMY HELICOPTERS. THE IMPETUS FOR THIS REPORT WAS A TASK FORCE SPONSORED BY THE OFFICE OF THE DEPUTY CHIEF OF STAFF OF THE ARMY FOR PLANS AND OPERATIONS, WHICH DETERMINED THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCANNING METHODS WAS THE ARMY'S TOP TRAINING PRIORITY FOR NIGHT HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. THE RECOMMENDED METHODS OF SCANNING WERE DERIVED FROM PUBLISHED SCIENTIFIC WORKS, INTERVIEWS WITH SCIENTISTS, AND INTERVIEW WITH AVIATORS FROM FIELD TACTICAL UNITS, TRAINING UNITS, AND FROM THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY. THE PROPOSED SCANNING METHODS RECOMMEND FREE SEARCH AS OPPOSED TO FORMALIZED SCAN PATTERNS. IN ADDITION, THEY PLACE EQUAL WEIGHT ON CREW COORDINATION AND INDIVIDUAL TECHNIQUE. THE PROPOSED METHODS STRESS ACTIONS TAKEN BEFORE FLIGHT, SUCH AS PREMISSION PLANNING AND NVG PREFLIGHT ADJUSTMENTS. FURTHERMORE, THE PROPOSED METHODS ARE INTENDED TO BUILD AN AWARENESS OF: NVG PERFORMANCE LIMITS, AND HOW TO MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE; COMMON PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WHILE SCANNING WITH NVGS, AND THE CONDITIONS WHICH ELICIT THEM; AND THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR SCANNING. SEPARATE SCANNING TECHNIQUES WERE DEVELOPED FOR INDIVIDUALS AND CREWS. IN ADDITION, THE RELEVANT SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE WAS REVIEWED.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), SCANNING, FREE SEARCH, FORMALIZED SCAN PATTERNS, CREW COORDINATION
92-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1574 DTIC #: ADA249633
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE SSCOR PACVAC PORTABLE SUCTION PUMP MODEL 10002
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SSCOR PORTABLE SUCTION PUMP MODEL 10002 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PACVAC PORTABLE SUCTION PUMP PASSED THE OVERALL EVALUATION AND IS VALIDATED AS COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 838 DTIC #: ADA249634
TITLE: RADIATED ELECTRIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS AND MEDICAL DEVICES GENERATE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS. ELECTRO-MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI) CAN CAUSE FAULTY OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS OR MEDICAL DEVICES AND ENDANGER PATIENTS OR AIRCRAFT CREWMEMBERS. AN IN-FLIGHT STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DESCRIBE THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN TYPICAL OPERATIONS WITH U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS. BROADBAND ISOTROPIC FIELD SENSORS MEASURED ELECTRIC FIELDS FROM 5 KHZ TO 3 MHZ, 3 TO 500 MHZ, AND 0.5 MHZ TO 6 GHZ. FIELDS WERE MEASURED AT 0.5 M INTERVALS IN JOH-58A, JUH-1H, AND JUH-60A HELICOPTERS WITH SYSTEMS OFF, OPERATING RPM, 5-FOOT HOVER, 50-FOOT HOVER, AND CRUISE.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE, ELECTRIC FIELDS, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, EMI, EMC
92-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1635 DTIC #: ADA249637
TITLE: FIELD-OF-VIEW EVALUATION OF THE PREPLANNED PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT VISUAL CORRECTION OF THE M40 PROTECTIVE MASK
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, JOHN K. CROSLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) OF A PROPOSED PREPLANNED PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT (P3I) VISUAL CORRECTION FOR THE M40 PROTECTIVE MASK. TWO PROTOTYPE MOUNTING BRACKETS FOR THE P3I VISUAL CORRECTION WERE USED IN THE INVESTIGATION: ONE WITH AN EYE WELL LOOP AND THE OTHER WITH A VELCROTM STRIP. IT WAS FOUND THAT THE PROPOSED P3I VISUAL CORRECTION PROVIDES THE SAME FOV AS ITS PREDECESSOR DESPITE ITS LARGER SIZE. THE FAILURE OF THE PROPOSED P3I VISUAL CORRECTION TO PROVIDE A LARGER FOV WAS DETERMINED TO BE EXCESSIVE VERTEX (EYE TO VISUAL CORRECTION) DISTANCE. IN ADDITION, IT WAS FOUND THAT THERE WAS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FOVS OBTAINED WITH EITHER OF THE TWO MOUNTING BRACKETS. THE STUDY IDENTIFIED A PROBLEM OF EXCESSIVE VERTEX DISTANCE WHEN THE P3I VISUAL CORRECTION IS WORN INSIDE THE M40 MASK SIZES SMALL AND LARGE.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, PROTECTIVE MASK, VISUAL CORRECTION, PREPLANNED PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT, M40, M17, VERTEX DISTANCE
92-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2065 DTIC #: ADA248834
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE IVAC® VITAL CHECK MONITOR MODEL 4000AEE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IVAC® VITAL CHECK MONITOR MODEL 4000AEE WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IVAC® VITAL CHECK MONITOR MODEL 4000AEE WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK. HOWEVER, AMBIENT NOISE LEVELS IN THE HELICOPTER PREVENTED PROPER OPERATION OF THE MICROPHONE IN THE BLOOD PRESSURE CUFF WHICH RESULTED IN MEASUREMENT ERRORS.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2005 DTIC #: ADA249636
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PARAVANT RUGGEDIZED HAND HELD COMPUTER MODEL RHC-88
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PARAVANT RUGGEDIZED HAND HELD COMPUTER MODEL RHC-88 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PARAVANT RUGGEDIZED HAND HELD COMPUTER MODEL RHC-88 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3567 DTIC #: ADA248760
TITLE: COMPARABILITY OF TWO COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, ROBERT W. VERONA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY COMPARED TWO COMPUTERIZED COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEMS: A TYPICAL LABORATORY DESKTOP COMPUTER SYSTEM AND A RUGGEDIZED, HAND-HELD FIELD-PORTABLE SYSTEM. IDENTICAL COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SOFTWARE WAS INSTALL ON THE TWO DEVICES IN ORDER TO DETERMINE WHETHER DIFFERENCES IN THE HARDWARE CONFIGURATIONS OF THE TWO DEVICES INFLUENCED MEASURES OF COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE. DATA WERE COLLECTED ON 24 SUBJECTS OVER A PERIOD OF 1 WEEK DURING WHICH SUBJECTS PERFORMED SIX COGNITIVE TASKS TWICE A DAY ON EACH OF THE COMPUTER SYSTEMS. RESULTS INDICATED A HIGH DEGREE OF SENSITIVITY OF THE COGNITIVE TESTS TO DAY AND SESSION EFFECTS. ALSO, THERE WERE TASKS IN WHICH THE TYPE OF DEVICE USED TO PRESENT STIMULI AND RECORD DATA INFLUENCED THE RESULTS OBTAINED. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO DEVICES IN TERMS OF THEIR DISPLAY CHARACTERISTICS SEEM TO ACCOUNT FOR THE DIFFERENCES.
KEYWORDS: COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, COMPUTERS, LCD, CRT DISPLAY
92-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 857 DTIC #: ADA248670
TITLE: AN EXPERIMENTAL BASIS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF AUDITORY SYSTEMS HAZARD FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., ROGER P. HAMERNIK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ENERGY SPECTRUM OF A NOISE IS KNOWN TO BE AN IMPORTANT VARIABLE IN DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF TRAUMATIC EXPOSURE. HOWEVER, EXISTING CRITERIA FOR EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE DO NOT CONSIDER THE FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF AN IMPULSE AS A VARIABLE IN THE EVALUATION OF THE HAZARDS TO THE AUDITORY SYSTEM. THIS REPORT RESENTS THE RESULTS OF THREE STUDIES THAT WERE DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE POTENTIAL THAT IMPULSIVE ENERGY HAS IN CAUSING AUDITORY SYSTEM TRAUMA. FOUR HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-FIVE (475) CHINCHILLA WERE USED IN THESE EXPERIMENTS. PRE- AND POSTEXPOSURE HEARING THRESHOLDS WERE MEASURED ON EACH SUBJECT. IN THE FIRST STUDY, THE NOISE EXPOSURE STIMULI CONSISTED OF SIX DIFFERENT COMPUTER-GENERATED NARROW BAND TONE BURSTS HAVING CENTER FREQUENCIES LOCATED AT 0.260, 0.775, 1.025, 1.350, 2.450, AND 3.55 KHZ. EACH NARROW BAND EXPOSURE STIMULUS WAS PRESENTED AT TWO TO FOUR DIFFERENT INTENSITIES. AN ANALYSIS OF THE AUDIOMETRIC DATA ALLOWED A FREQUENCY WEIGHING FUNCTION TO BE DERIVED. THE WEIGHING FUNCTION DEEMPHASIZES LOW FREQUENCY ENERGY MORE THAN THE CONVENTIONAL A-WEIGHING FUNCTION. IN THE SECOND STUDY, THE EXPOSURES CONSISTED OF TWO TYPES OF BROAD BAND COMPUTER SYNTHESIZED IMPULSES. SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED TO 100 IMPULSES AT THE RATE OF 1-PER-3-SECONDS. EACH TYPE OF IMPULSE WAS PRESENTED AT 3 INTENSITIES. THE THIRD STUDY USED IMPULSES GENERATED BY THREE DIFFERENT DIAMETER SHOCK TUBES. SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED TO 1, 10, OR 100 IMPULSES AT ONE OF THREE INTENSITIES. THE RESULTS OF THE SECOND AND THIRD STUDIES WERE INTERPRETED USING THE WEIGHING FUNCTION DERIVED FROM THE FIRST STUDY. THE HEARING LOSS FROM ALL THREE STUDIES IN A LINEAR FUNCTION OF THE WEIGHTED SEL CALCULATED USING THE WEIGHING FUNCTION, DERIVED IN THE FIRST STUDY.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING, CHINCHILLA, AUDIOMETRY, HISTOLOGY
92-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1943 DTIC #: ADA248538
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IMED VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 960A
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMED VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 960A WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IMED VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 960A WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1905 DTIC #: ADA251076
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE HUMAN TECHNOLOGY AMBULATORY CORTEMP RECORDER MODEL COR-24
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HUMAN TECHNOLOGY AMBULATORY CORTEMP RECORD MODEL COR-124 WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60 HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE HUMAN TECHNOLOGY AMBULATORY CORTEMP RECORDER MODEL COR-125 WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2051 DTIC #: ADA251078
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE OHIO MEDICAL TRANSPORT INCUBATOR MODEL AIR-VAC
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OHIO MEDICAL TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL AIR-VAC, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE OHIO MEDICAL TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL AIR-VAC, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1858 DTIC #: ADA251077
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP MODEL 580+EE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 580+EE, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IVAC® MODEL 580+EE DID NOT PERFORM PROPERLY IN THE ALTITUDE CHAMBER, VIBRATION TEST, AND EXCESS ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS MAKE IT INELIGIBLE FOR AN AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE. THEREFORE, THE UNIT IS NOT CONSIDERED COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1863 DTIC #: ADA255919
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC CONTROLLER MODEL 280EE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IVAC® VOLUMETRIC CONTROLLER, MODEL 280EE, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IVAC® MODEL 280EE DID NOT PERFORM PROPERLY IN THE ALTITUDE CHAMBER AND EXCESS ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS MAKE IT INELIGIBLE FOR AN AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE. THEREFORE, THE UNIT IS NOT CONSIDERED COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1030 DTIC #: ADA256235
TITLE: TRIAZOLAM AND TEMAZEPAN: ISSUES AND CONCERNS RELEVANT TO THE ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF HYPNOTICS IN ARMY AVIATION HAS BECOME AN OPTION FOR HELPING SOLDIERS SLEEP IN LESS THAN OPTIMAL ENVIRONMENTS AND IN UNUSUAL CIRCUMSTANCES, E.G., PREPARING FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANOTHER TIME ZONE, OR DURING HIGH INTENSITY COMBAT. THE CHOICE OF A HYPNOTIC FOR AVIATOR USE IS LIMITED SINCE A GROUNDING PERIOD IS NEEDED WHILE THE MEDICATION IS EFFECTIVE AND PERFORMANCE MAY BE COMPROMISED FOR SEVERAL HOURS POSTADMINISTRATION. THE TWO HYPNOTICS CURRENTLY USED BY THE AVIATION COMMUNITY ARE TEMAZEPAN (RESTORIL) DURING PEACE TIME AND TRIAZOLAM (HALCION) DURING WAR TIME. THE PRESENT PAPER BRIEFLY REVIEWS LABORATORY AND CLINICAL STUDIES OF THESE TWO HYPNOTICS. IN ADDITION, THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH MEDICATION ARE DISCUSSED AS WELL AS THE CURRENT ARMY POLICY CONCERNING THE USE OF SUCH MEDICATIONS. RECOMMENDATIONS CONCERNING STUDIES NEEDED TO ASSESS THE EFFECTS OF THESE MEDICATIONS ON PILOT PERFORMANCE ARE PROVIDED.
KEYWORDS: TRIAZOLAM, TAMAZEPAM, AVIATION
92-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2043 DTIC #: ADA255920
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS PERISTALTIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 1001
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS PERISTALTIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 1001, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/INCOMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/INCOMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS PERISTALTIC INFUSION PUMP, MODEL 1001, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1175 DTIC #: ADA255722
TITLE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND UH-60 COCKPIT TEMPERATURE
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT THORNTON, FRANK GUARDIANI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DATA HAS BEEN COLLECTED IN THE UH-60 HELICOPTER IN VARIOUS FLIGHT CONFIGURATIONS (HOVER, CONTOUR (250 FEET) AND CRUISE (650 FEET) TO RELATE THE THERMAL CONDITIONS FOUND IN THE COCKPIT TO DATA AVAILABLE TO COMMANDERS AND RESEARCHERS IN THE FIELD. THESE HAVE BEEN USED TO DEVELOP EQUATIONS TO USE IN FUTURE THERMAL MODELLING STUDIES, AND TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO INCREASE THE FIDELITY OF HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENTAL SIMULATIONS.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS, HELICOPTER
92-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1222 DTIC #: ADA255219
TITLE: PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE ANTIDOTES: A PERSPECTIVE
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE THREAT THAT ENEMY FORCES MAY USE CHEMICAL WARFARE AGAINST UNITED STATES MILITARY TROOPS HAS CAUSED THE MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY TO FIND EFFECTIVE ANTIDOTES. PARTICULARLY IN THE CASE OF NERVE AGENT POISONING, THE TIMELY USE OF ANTIDOTE THERAPIES REPRESENTS THE KEY TO SURVIVAL IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS. CURRENT TRAINING DOCTRINE INSTRUCTS SOLDIERS HOW TO RECOGNIZE THE SYMPTOMS OF NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE, AND THEN HOW TO COUNTERACT THE LIFE-THREATENING EFFECTS WITH THE ADMINISTRATION OF ATROPINE SULFATE AND PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE. HOWEVER, THESE COMPOUNDS CAN PRODUCE PERFORMANCE DEGRADING EFFECTS ON THEIR OWN EVEN WHEN NO CHEMICAL AGENT IS PRESENT. PARTICULARLY IN THE CASE OF THE AVIATOR, WHO IS EXPECTED TO EXERCISE VERY PRECISE CONTROL OVER AN INHERENTLY COMPLEX VEHICLE SUCH AS A HELICOPTER, THE IMPACT OF SELF-ADMINISTRATED ANTIDOTES SHOULD BE FULLY APPRECIATED. THE PRESENT REVIEW BRIEFLY SUMMARIZES WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE ACTIONS AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF BOTH ATROPINE AND PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE, AND RECOMMENDATION ARE MADE CONCERNING THE NEED FOR ADDITIONAL RESEARCH.
KEYWORDS: ATROPINE (SULFATE), PRALIDOXIME CHLORIDE (2-PAM CHLORIDE), CHEMICAL DEFENSE, ANTIDOTES, AVIATOR PERFORMANCE, MILITARY PERFORMANCE
92-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2087 DTIC #: ADA255691
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR, MODEL LIFEPAK® 6S
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEFIBRILLATOR/MONITOR LIFEPAK® 6S, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PHYSIO CONTROL DEBRILLATOR/MONITOR, MODEL LIFEPAK® 6S, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1774 DTIC #: ADA255943
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE IMPACT PORTABLE ASPIRATOR MODEL 325M
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, LESLIE W. JOHNSON, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMPACT PORTABLE ASPIRATOR, MODEL 325M, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE IMPACT PORTABLE ASPIRATOR, MODEL 325M, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2140 DTIC #: ADA255849
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE CATALYST RESEARCH OXYGEN MONITOR MODEL MINIOX III
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CATALYST RESEARCH OXYGEN MONITOR, MODEL MINIOX III, WAS TESTED FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE CATALYST RESEARCH OXYGEN MONITOR, MODEL MINIOX III, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1356 DTIC #: ADA256245
TITLE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMPUTER SCORING AND SAFETY-PILOT GRADING OF FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., HEBER D. JONES, DAVID J. CARTER, J. LYNN CALDWELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THREE DIFFERENT MEASURES OF HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE WERE CORRELATED--TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER SCORES AND ONE TYPE OF SAFETY/INSTRUCTOR PILOT GRADES. RESULTS INDICATED THE TWO TYPES OF COMPUTER SCORES WERE BASICALLY INTERCHANGEABLE. THE DIRECTION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPUTER AND SAFETY-PILOT MEASURES WAS AS EXPECTED FOR 76 PERCENT OF THE MEASURES EXAMINED, BUT STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE WAS ATTAINED IN FEWER CASES (APPROXIMATELY 50 PERCENT OF THE TOTAL). REASONS FOR ANY NOTED DISCREPANCIES ARE DISCUSSED ALONG WITH FINDINGS ABOUT THE MOST STRONGLY ASSOCIATED MEASURES. THE COMPUTER SCORES AND SAFETY-PILOT GRADES WERE RELATED STRONGLY ENOUGH TO CONCLUDE THAT THEY WERE BOTH ACCURATELY MEASURING THE SAME TYPE OF PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: PILOTS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, COMPUTER SCORING
92-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1939 DTIC #: ADA258011
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE COROMETRICS MEDICAL SYSTEMS NEONATION MONITOR MODEL 506
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, BRENDAN SQUIRE, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE COROMETRICS MEDICAL SYSTEMS NEONATION MONITOR, MODEL 506, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT IN AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE COROMETRICS MEDICAL SYSTEMS NEONATAL MONITOR, MODEL 506, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U. S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
92-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 8702 DTIC #: ADA258502
TITLE: EFFECTS OF MICROCLIMATE COOLING ON PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE WHILE FLYING THE UH-60 HELICOPTER FLIGHT SIMULATOR IN NBC CONDITIONS IN A CONTROLLED HEAT ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT THORNTON, J. LYNN CALDWELL, FRANK GUARDIANI, JACQUELYN PEARSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF MICROCLIMATE COOLING ON AVIATOR PERFORMANCE AND PHYSIOLOGY IN NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL (NBC) INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (IPE) WERE EVALUATED IN THE USAARL UH-60 RESEARCH FLIGHT SIMULATOR. SIXTEEN MALE AVIATORS FLEW THE SIMULATOR IN TWO TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS, 95ºF AND 105ºF, BOTH AT 50 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY (RH). TWO THERMOELECTRIC CONDITIONING UNITS WERE USED, ONE PROVIDING COOLED BLOWN AIR, THE OTHER COOLED WATER TO THE AVIATORS.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, HEAT STRESS, AIRCREW PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLES, PSYSIOLOGY, HELICOPTER, HEART RATE, MICROCLIMATE COOLING, SLEEP
92-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2289 DTIC #: ADA258012
TITLE: EFFECTS OF TERFENADINE AND DIPHENHYDRAMINE ON BRAIN ACTIVITY AND PERFORMANCE IN A UH-60 FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, DARCELLE M. DELRIE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF TERFENADINE, DIPHENHYDRAMINE, AND A PLACEBO ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, RESTING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) ACTIVITY, AND AUDITORY AND VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL TASKS WERE INVESTIGATED. TWELVE MALE ARMY AVIATORS SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN A DOUBLE-BLIND, REPEATED MEASURES EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT NEITHER DIPHENHYDRAMINE NOR TERFENADINE EFFECTED FLIGHT PERFORMANCE. REGARDING RESTING EEG, DIPHENHYDRAMINE CAUSED A DECREASE OF ALPHA POWER AT ALL ELECTRODE SITES. FOR ALL SITES WITH THE EXCEPTION OF CZ, DIPHENHYDRAMINE ALSO CAUSED A DECREASE OF POWER IN THE BETA BAND. THE P300 COMPONENT OF THE AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL WAS UNAFFECTED BY EITHER OF THE DRUGS. THE AMPLITUDE OF THE VISUAL P300 WAS SUPPRESSED UNDER DIPHENHYDRAMINE RELATIVE TO PLACEBO WHILE THE LATENCY WAS UNAFFECTED. THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY HIGHLIGHT THE IMPORTANCE OF MEASURING MULTIPLE ASPECTS OF PERFORMANCE IN ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF A DRUG. WHILE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE WAS UNAFFECTED BY EITHER DRUG, THE INDICATIONS FROM MEASURES OF BRAIN ACTIVITY ARE THAT TERFENADINE IS MUCH LESS SEDATING. THEREFORE, IT IS A MORE ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE FOR THE TREATMENT OF ALLERGIC SYMPTOMS IN THE AVIATOR POPULATION OR IN ANY POPULATION WHERE COMPROMISED PERFORMANCE IS POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS.
KEYWORDS: ANTIHISTAMINES, HELICOPTER PILOTS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG), EVENT-RELATED POTENTIAL (ERP)
92-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3858 DTIC #: ADA258585
TITLE: USAARL GUIDE FOR MAKING LABORATORY LIGHT MEASUREMENTS
AUTHOR(s): C. E. RASH, E. H. SNOOK, P. M. SENN, E. MCGOWIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PROVIDES THE BASIC INFORMATION REQUIRED TO PERFORM ROUTINE LIGHT MEASUREMENTS ENCOUNTERED IN THE LABORATORY ENVIRONMENT. TUTORIAL DISCUSSIONS ARE PROVIDED IN IDENTIFYING THE TYPE OF MEASUREMENT REQUIRED, SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE INSTRUMENT(S), PERFORMING THE MEASUREMENT, MINIMIZING ERRORS, AND REPORTING THE DATA. APPENDICES PROVIDE LISTS OF THE LIGHT MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTATION AND LIGHT SOURCES AVAILABLE WITHIN USAARL, WITH A SUMMARY DESCRIPTION OF EACH. IN ADDITION, SAFETY STEPS FOR THE PREVENTION OF PERSONAL INJURY AND EQUIPMENT DAMAGE ARE PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: RADIOMETRY, PHOTOMETRY, CONTRAST, TRANSMITTANCE
92-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7583 DTIC #: ADA260938
TITLE: THE USE OF EXTENDED WEAR CONTACT LENSES IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT: AN ARMYWIDE STUDY
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, RHONDA L. S. CORNUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STANDARD REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION OPTIONS FOR THE M-43 PROTECTIVE MASK HAVE PROVEN TO BE INCOMPATIBLE WITH THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU) COMPONENT OF THE AH-64 "APACHE" INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS). GLUE-ON AND OUTSERT PACKAGES PUSH THE HDU, THE MAXWELLIAN-VIEW VIRTUAL IMAGING SYSTEM, FAR ENOUGH FROM THE SPECTACLE-WEARING AVIATOR'S EYE TO SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE THE AVAILABLE FIELD-OF-VIEW. CONSEQUENTLY, PORTIONS OF CRITICAL PERIPHERAL INSTRUMENTATION AND WEAPON SYSTEM OVERLAYS CANNOT BE VISUALIZED. IN NOVEMBER 1988, THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) INITIATED THE AH-64 CONTACT LENS RESEARCH PROTOCOL TO PROVIDE BOTH AN INTERIM READINESS FIX AND TO DEVELOP A COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE ON CONTACT LENS WEAR IN A VARIETY OF ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, ARMY AVIATORS, FLIGHT SAFETY, CORNEAL PHYSIOLOGY, TEAR PRODUCTION, WATER CONTENT, CENTRAL CORNEAL THICKENING, STERILE ULCERS, ENDOTHELIAL
92-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5859 DTIC #: ADA259909
TITLE: EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE OF WEARING THE AVIATOR NBC ENSEMBLE WHILE FLYING THE UH-60 HELICOPTER FLIGHT SIMULATOR IN A CONTROLLED HEAT ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT THORNTON, J. LYNN CALDWELL, WAYNE CLARK, FRANK GUARDIANI, JOSE ROSARIO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF WEARING U.S. ARMY AVIATOR NBC INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (IPE) WERE EVALUATED IN THE USAARL UH-60 RESEARCH FLIGHT SIMULATOR. SIXTEEN MALE AVIATORS FLEW THE SIMULATOR IN FOUR TEST CONDITIONS: STANDARD FLIGHT SUIT AND COOL COCKPIT, STANDARD FLIGHT SUIT AND HOT COCKPIT, NBC IPE AND COOL COCKPIT, AND NBC IPE AND HOT COCKPIT. THE HOT CONDITION HAD A WBGT OF 30.6º C, THE COOL 17.9º C.
KEYWORDS: CHEMICAL DEFENSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE, HEAT STRESS, AIRCREW PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLES, PHYSIOLOGY, HELICOPTER, HEART RATE
93-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2027 DTIC #: ADA259222
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE PHYSIO CONTROL VITAL SIGNS MONITOR, MODEL VSM 2
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN QUATTLEBAUM, JOSEPH R. LICINA, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PHYSIO CONTROL VITAL SIGNS MONITOR, MODEL VSM 2, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE PHYSIO CONTROL VITAL SIGNS MONITOR, MODEL VSM 2, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 638 DTIC #: ADA259369
TITLE: FLIGHT HELMETS: HOW THEY WORK AND WHY YOU SHOULD WEAR ONE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, JOSEPH R. LICINA, JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FLIGHT HELMETS HAVE BEEN IN USE SINCE THE EARLY DAYS OF AVIATION, YET, DEBATE CONTINUES REGARDING THEIR BENEFIT. THE MOST COMMON CAUSE OF DEATH IN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS IS HEAD INJURY, AND SEVERAL STUDIES HAVE CONCLUDED THAT HELMETS CAN PROVIDE SIGNIFICANT PROTECTION. THIS REVIEW CHRONICLES THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN HELICOPTER CREW HELMET, AND PRESENT ARGUMENTS AND DATA SUPPORTING THEIR USE. THROUGHOUT HISTORY, MAN HAS WORN HEAD PROTECTION IN RESPONSE TO THE THREAT OF HEAD INJURY. SUCH ARMOR HAS LIMITATIONS AND DRAWBACKS, BUT IN HELICOPTER AVIATION, IT IS EFFECTIVE AND WORTHWHILE.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, FLIGHT SAFETY, HEAD INJURY, AVIATION MEDICINE
93-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 786 DTIC #: ADA259970
TITLE: HUMAN VISUAL LIMITATIONS ON SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION THROUGH ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT SUCCESS ON THE BATTLEFIELD UNDERSCORED THE TACTICAL ADVANTAGE OF NIGHT OPERATIONS AND IMAGE INTENSIFYING DEVICES. IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND BOTH THE BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS INHERENT IN THESE DEVICES. WHILE SEVERAL STUDIES HAVE FOCUSED ON SPATIAL RESOLUTION THRESHOLDS THROUGH IMAGE INTENSIFIERS, LESS IS KNOWN ABOUT VISUAL PERCEPTION AT SUPRATHRESHOLD LEVELS OF STIMULATION. SUCH INFORMATION IS NECESSARY TO ANTICIPATE AND PREDICT VISUAL PERFORMANCE UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS. IN THIS STUDY CONTRAST MATCHING WAS USED TO EVALUATE SUPRATHRESHOLD VISUAL PERCEPTION UNDER CONDITIONS WHICH SIMULATED THE LUMINANCE, CONTRAST, AND CHROMATICITY OF THIRD GENERATION IMAGE INTENSIFIERS CONTAINED IN THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS). THE APPARENT CONTRAST OF LETTERS IN THIS SIMULATED ANVIS ENVIRONMENT WAS REDUCED BY A FACTOR OF TWO WHEN COMPARED TO NORMAL PHOTOPIC LEVELS OF STIMULATION. THIS EFFECT WAS ATTRIBUTED TO LIMITATIONS OF THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM IN PROCESSING HIGHER SPATIAL FREQUENCIES AT LOW LIGHT LEVELS. THESE RESULTS HELP TO QUANTIFY AND DISCRIMINATE BETWEEN VISUAL AND ELECTRO-OPTICAL LIMITATIONS ON VISION THROUGH IMAGE INTENSIFIERS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, ANVIS, CONTRAST PERCEPTION
93-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 801 DTIC #: ADA259924
TITLE: AN AUTOMATED METHOD FOR DETERMINING MASS PROPERTIES
AUTHOR(s): MICHAEL B. DEAVERS, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY PERFORMS MASS PROPERTIES TESTING WITH THE KSR330-60 MASS PROPERTIES INSTRUMENT (MPI). FOR MAN-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT, IT IS IMPORTANT TO DEFINE AND MEASURE THE MASS PROPERTIES IN ORDER TO ACCURATELY DEVELOP MATH MODELS, UNDERSTAND HUMAN PERFORMANCE IMPACTS, AND TO CONDUCT COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS. DETERMINING MASS PROPERTIES REQUIRES A THOROUGH THEORETICAL UNDERSTANDING OF THE CENTER-OF-MASS AND MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA. THIS REPORT PROVIDES THE OPERATING THEORY AND PROCEDURES TO MEASURE MASS PROPERTIES WITH THE MPI.
KEYWORDS: CENTER-OF-MASS, MASS MOMENTS OF INERTIA, IMPACTS, MAN-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT
93-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2390 DTIC #: ADA263033
TITLE: THE USE OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE VARIABLE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF DEGRADATION DURING PERIODS OF SUSTAINED WAKEFULNESS
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., ROBERT L. STEPHENS, JIM A. CHIARAMONTE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, SCOTT T. TRAST, ANGELIA D. MATTINGLY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATION PERSONNEL OFTEN ENCOUNTER WORK SCHEDULES WHICH EITHER REQUIRE THE RAPID TRANSITION FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS OR DEMAND EXTENDED HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WORK. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE USEFULNESS OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY ASSESSMENT TEST IN THE STUDY OF VARIABLES SUCH AS ALERTNESS, SENSORY PROCESSING, REACTION TIME, AND COGNITIVE ABILITY. TO CHARACTERIZE THE STATE OF ALERTNESS AND COGNITIVE ABILITY OF SUBJECTS INVOLVED IN POSTPONING SLEEP FOR 60 CONSECUTIVE HOURS, 3 SPECIFIC TESTS WERE INCLUDED IN THIS ASSESSMENT BATTERY, EACH BASED ON EXISTING EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF THEIR ABILITY TO REFLECT SOME ASPECT OF ALERTNESS, SENSORY PROCESSING, AND COGNITIVE ABILITY. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS INVOLVING BRAIN RESPONSES TO AUDITORY STIMULATION IN THE MIDDLE LATENCY RESPONSE (MLRS) AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF RESTING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG) DATA WERE SELECTED AS TWO OF THE THREE TESTS COMPRISING THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY BATTERY. THE THIRD TEST COMPONENT ASSESSED THE STATUS OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION USING LOGICAL REASONING AND MANIKIN TESTS FROM THE WALTER REED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY (PAB). EIGHT MALE VOLUNTEERS BETWEEN 25 AND 30 YEARS OF AGE SERVED AS SUBJECTS. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE DATA WERE RECORDED DURING ONE DAY OF BASELINE, TWO CONSECUTIVE DAYS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION, AND 1 DAY OF RECOVERY.
KEYWORDS: EEG, MIDDLE LATENCY RESPONSE (MLR), WALTER REED PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT BATTERY (PAB), AMPLITUDE MORPHOLOGY, AREA, ROOT MEAN SQUARE (RMS), FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMATION (FFT), LOGICAL REASONGING TASK, MENTAL ROTATION TASK, DELTA, THETA, ALPHA, BETA ACTIVITY
93-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1374 DTIC #: ADA259886
TITLE: SOLAR-POWERED LIGHT EMITTING DIODE POWER LINE AVOIDANCE MARKER DESIGN
AUTHOR(s): ELLEN H. SNOOK, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. MARTIN, RICHARD R. LEVINE, PARLEY P. JOHNSON, JAMES A. LEWIS, JOHN H. HAPGOOD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN-FLIGHT WIRE STRIKES ARE A CONSTANT THREAT TO U. S. ARMY AVIATION DURING ALL WEATHER, DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME HELICOPTER OPERATIONS. DESPITE ROUTINE TRAINING ON WIRE AVOIDANCE TECHNIQUES, WIRE STRIKES CONTINUE TO OCCUR, WITH A MAJORITY OF THE MISHAPS HISTORICALLY OCCURRING DURING TRAINING AND MANEUVERING OVER FAMILIAR SITES. IN AN EFFORT TO INCREASE THE CONSPICUITY OF SUSPENDED CABLES AND WIRES, THE AVIATION TRAINING COMMUNITY AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, CURRENTLY EMPLOYS A PASSIVE WIRE MARKING SYSTEM WHICH CONSISTS OF INTERNATIONAL-ORANGE COLORED SPHERES SUSPENDED FROM CABLES AND WIRES IN HEAVILY TRAFFICKED AIRSPACE. DURING A PREVIOUS EVALUATION OF WIRE MARKER VISIBILITY, A SOLAR-POWERED WIRE MARKER DESIGN WAS DEVELOPED. THIS NEW DESIGN INCORPORATES RETROREFLECTIVE MATERIAL AND LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDS) TO PROVIDE A GREATER RANGE VISIBILITY AND DETECTABILITY DURING AIDED AND UNAIDED FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: WIRE MARKER, LIGHT EMITTING DIODE, SOLAR POWER, AIDED AND UNAIDED FLIGHTS
93-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2170 DTIC #: ADA262524
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE AIRBORNE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL 20-H
AUTHOR(s): BRENDAN E. SQUIRE, JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, BILL OLDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AIRBORNE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL 20-H, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE AIRBORNE LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATOR, MODEL 20-H, WAS FOUND TO BE COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC UH-60 BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2639 DTIC #: ADA259905
TITLE: IN-FLIGHT FIELD-OF-VIEW WITH ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS INVESTIGATION HAD FOUR MAJOR GOALS: (1) TO MEASURE THE IN-FLIGHT FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) OF A LARGE SAMPLE OF AVIATORS (N=L05) USING THE AN/AVS-6 AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), (2) TO ASSESS THE DEGREE TO WHICH IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV RESTRICTIONS RESULT FROM IMPROPER USER ADJUSTMENTS AS OPPOSED TO EQUIPMENT LIMITATIONS, (3) TO DETERMINE WHICH EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS MIGHT BE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED FOV, AND (4) TO EVALUATE OPTIONS FOR OPTIMIZING IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT ONLY ABOUT 15 PERCENT OF AVIATORS ACTUALLY ACHIEVE A 40 DEGREE FOV WITH ANVIS DURING FLIGHT. THE FOVS WERE REDUCED MOSTLY BECAUSE OF EQUIPMENT LIMITATIONS, AND NOT BECAUSE OF USER MISADJUSTMENTS. SPECIFICALLY, THE FORE-AFT ADJUSTMENT OF THE ANVIS HELMET MOUNT LACK SUFFICIENT RANGE IN THE AFT DIRECTION. AMONG THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS STUDIES, ONLY TOTAL FLIGHT HOURS, HOURS IN CURRENT AIRCRAFT, HOURS IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS, AND AIRCRAFT TYPE ARE STATISTICALLY RELATED TO IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV. TOTAL NIGHT VISION GOGGLE FLIGHT HOURS, ANVIS FLIGHT HOURS, HELMET SIZE, TYPE OF HELMET LINER, AND SPECTACLE USE ARE NOT RELATED TO IN-FLIGHT ANVIS FOV. FINALLY, IT WAS DETERMINED THAT MOST AVIATORS COULD ACHIEVE A 40 DEGREE FOV IF EITHER OF TWO HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE: IMPROVING THE FORE-AFT ADJUSTMENT RANGE OF THE ANVIS MOUNT OR SWITCHING TO A DIFFERENT EYEPIECE WITH A GREAT EYE RELIEF.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, ANVIS, EYE RELIEF, VERTEX DISTANCE EYEPIECE, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE
93-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1413 DTIC #: ADA261259
TITLE: INTERPUPILLARY AND VERTEX DISTANCE EFFECTS ON FIELD-OF-VIEW AND ACUITY WITH ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES M. KING, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIRD GENERATION AVIATION NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEMS (ANVIS) EMPLOY VERTICAL, TILT, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, VERTEX DISTANCE, AND FOCUS ADJUSTMENTS. ANVIS FIELD-OF-VIEW IS NOMINALLY 40 DEGREES BUT CAN BE LIMITED BY ADJUSTMENTS. INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE EFFECTS ON ANVIS FIELD-OF-VIEW HAS BEEN COMPUTED, BUT SELDOM MEASURED. THERE HAVE BEEN REPORTS OF ACUITY LOSS AT THE PERIPHERY OF ANVIS FIELDS-OF-VIEW. FIELDS-OF-VIEW WERE MEASURED IN 10 SUBJECTS, ACUITIES IN 8. ANVIS WERE USED WITH A 10-FOOT WORKING DISTANCE. ACUITIES WERE MONOCULAR FIELDS-OF-VIEW DECREASED WITH DECENTRATION. AT THE 32 MM VERTEX DISTANCE, BINOCULAR AND MONOCULAR FIELDS-OF-VIEW WERE REDUCED AT OPTIMAL INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, AND DECREASED WITH INCREASING DECENTRATION. THE TOTAL HORIZONTAL FIELD-OF-VIEW AT 32 MM VERTEX DISTANCE WAS INCREASED BY INCREASING DECENTRATION, OFFSETTING THE REDUCTION CAUSED BY INCREASED VERTEX DISTANCE. ACUITY WAS RELATIVELY INSENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN VERTEX DISTANCE AND INTER-PUPILLARY DISTANCE, BUT WAS SUBSTANTIALLY REDUCED IN THE PERIPHERY OF THE FIELD-OF-VIEW, AND UNDER LOW CONTRAST.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, ACUITY, ANVIS, NIGHT VISION
93-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 520 DTIC #: ADA263011
TITLE: SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STANDARD DH-132A AND SPH-4 HELMETS WORN IN COMBINATION WITH STANDARD EARPLUGS
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, LINDA S. BARLOW, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: REAL-EAR SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS WERE COMPLETED ON THE STANDARD DH-132A AND SPH-4 HELMETS WORN IN COMBINATION WITH THE SINGLE FLANGE, TRIPLE FANGE, AND YELLOW/WHITE FOAM EARPLUGS USING ANSI STANDARD S12.6 "METHOD FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REAL-EAR ATTENUATION OF HEARING PROTECTORS." SOUND ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL HELMET/EARPLUG COMBINATIONS PROVIDE ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION FOR ARMY AVIATION NOISE ENVIRONMENTS. THE DH-132A/FOAM EARPLUG COMBINATION PROVIDES ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION FOR THE M1E1 AND M3 NOISE ENVIRONMENT. NOISE LEVELS PRODUCED BY THE M113 AT 30 MPH EXCEED PROTECTIVE CAPABILITIES OF ANY OF HEARING PROTECTOR CONDITIONS EVALUATED.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, EARPLUGS, REAL-EAR, PHYSICAL-EAR, SOUND ATTENTUATION
93-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2637 DTIC #: ADA265341
TITLE: THE AGING MILITARY AVIATOR: A REVIEW AND ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
AUTHOR(s): LEWIS W. STONE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: STUDIES SUGGEST THAT AGING IS ANOTHER FACTOR WHICH MAY AFFECT PERFORMANCE OF MILITARY PILOTS. ALTHOUGH THESE AVIATORS GENERALLY ARE BETTER EDUCATED AND HEALTHIER THAN THEIR AGE PEERS IN THE GENERAL POPULATION, THEY, TOO, ARE SUBJECT TO INSIDIOUSLY DETERIORATING PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SENSORY SYSTEMS, A SLOWLY INCREASING LIKELIHOOD OF ACUTE PATHOLOGIES AND A GENERAL SLOWING WITH AGE--ALL WITHIN THE AGE RANGE OF MILITARY PILOTS. REDUCTIONS IN SOME PARAMETERS MIGHT BE OFFSET TO SOME DEGREE BY EXPERIENCE AND MATURITY; HOWEVER, AGE-RELATED CHANGES AND THE EFFECTS THEREFROM VARY MORE BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS IN ANY AGE GROUP THAN BETWEEN THE GROUPS THEMSELVES. BUT, THE REAL PROBLEM IS THAT WE STILL DO NOT KNOW WHAT EFFECT, IF ANY, AGE-RELATED CHANGES HAVE ON PERFORMANCE OF MILITARY AVIATORS. NEITHER IS THERE A CONCENTRATED EFFORT TO PROVIDE THE AGING PILOT WITH A COPING STRATEGY FOR THE APPROACHING SITUATION.
KEYWORDS: AGING, AVIATOR
93-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2035 DTIC #: ADA266896
TITLE: MONOGRAPH OF THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR CY 1991
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS MONOGRAPH WAS TO PROVIDE DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS WITHIN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) OF SELECTED VARIABLES FROM AN AVIATORS' ANNUAL CLASS 2 OR CLASS 2A FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION (FDME) THAT WAS PERFORMED IN 1991. ONLY AVIATORS FROM A MAJOR ARMY COMPONENT WERE CONSIDERED, ACTIVE DUTY, RESERVE, OR NATIONAL GUARD. DESCRIPTIVE DATA ARE PRESENTED IN TABLES, WHICH NORMALLY ARE DEFINED BY COMPONENT, AGE GROUP, AND GENDER. DUE TO THE SMALL NUMBER OF FEMALE AVIATORS, SOME OF THE AGE-GROUP CELLS ARE SPARSELY POPULATED, ESPECIALLY WITHIN THE RESERVE COMPONENT. THE DATA WERE ORGANIZED INTO THREE AREAS: LABORATORY/CLINICAL, VISION, AND HEARING.
KEYWORDS: DATA STORAGE SYSTEM, AEDR, STATISTICAL DATA, FLIGHT PHYSICALS
93-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2762 DTIC #: ADA262957
TITLE: USER'S MANUAL FOR BRNSIM/BURNSIM: A BURN HAZARD ASSESSMENT MODEL
AUTHOR(s): F. S. KNOX, III, DENA BONETTI, CHRIS PERRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BURNSIM IS AN INTERACTIVE COMPUTER MODEL WHICH RUNS ON DEC MINICOMPUTERS (PDP 11 AND VAX), MACINTOSH AND IBM COMPATIBLE PCS. THE MODEL IS BASED ON THE WORK OF MORITZ AND HENRIQUES AT HARVARD, THE SURGERY DEPARTMENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER; ALICE STOLL AT THE NAVAL AIR DEVELOPMENT CENTER AND KNOX ET AL. AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. ITS DEVELOPMENT HAS BEEN FUNDED BY THE U.S. ARMY, THE U.S. AIR FORCE, AND DR. KNOX. THE MODEL PREDICTS TIME TO PAIN AND BURN DEPTH WHEN BARE SKIN IS EXPOSED TO ANY ARBITRARY TIME HISTORY OF HEAT FLUX. IT PREDICTS BURN DEPTH WITH REASONABLE ACCURACY FOR PIG AND HUMAN SKIN. A SOFTWARE MODULE TO INCLUDE CLOTHING BETWEEN THE THERMAL SOURCE AND THE SKIN HAS BEEN DEVELOPED, BUT NOT INTEGRATED WITH BURNSIM AND HAS NOT BEEN VALIDATED. BY USING SENSORS TO MEASURE HEAT FLUX BEHIND FABRIC IT HAS BEEN POSSIBLE TO USE BURNSIM TO EVALUATE THE INSULATING EFFECT OF CLOTHING. BURNSIM HAS BEEN USED IN THE LAST SEVERAL YEARS TO ASSESS THE BURN HAZARD ASSOCIATED WITH ROCKET PLUMES IN SIDE-BY-SIDE EJECTION SEATS, SHOULDER LAUNCHED WEAPONS, NUCLEAR FLASH AND LIVE FIRE. THIS MANUAL PROVIDES INFORMATION ON MODEL DEVELOPMENT, ITS INSTALLATION AND USE ON A PC.
KEYWORDS: BURNS, THERMAL PROTECTION, COMPUTER MODEL, BURN HAZARD PREDICTION
93-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 916 DTIC #: ADA264988
TITLE: CORRELATION OF HGU-56/P AIRCREW HELMET FITTING WITH HEAD ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, STEVEN P. PACQUETTE, HAROLD G. MOODY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY IS DEVELOPING AN AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM TO REPLACE THE CURRENT FLIGHT HELMETS. THE HGU-56/P FLIGHT HELMET IS PROPOSED IN SIX SIZES WITH A NEW FITTING METHOD BASED ON A NONSTANDARD MEASURE OF THE AVIATOR HEAD LENGTH. STANDARD ANTHROPOMETRIC HEAD MEASUREMENTS AND THE GENTEX CORPORATION FITTING METHOD FOR THE HGU-56/P FLIGHT HELMET ARE EVALUATED TO DETERMINE THE APPLICABILITY OF THE FITTING METHOD AND DISTRIBUTION OF HELMET SIZES REQUIRED TO FIT THE U.S. ARMY AVIATOR POPULATION.
KEYWORDS: ANTHROPOMETRIC, FLIGHT HELMET, FITTING, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HGU-56/P
93-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1884 DTIC #: ADA267099
TITLE: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF HELICOPTER CRASHWORTHINESS
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CRASHWORTHINESS CAN BE DEFINED AS THE ABILITY OF AN AIRCRAFT AND ITS INTERNAL SYSTEMS TO PROTECT OCCUPANTS FROM INJURY IN THE EVENT OF A CRASH. IN GENERAL, INJURY IN AIRCRAFT CRASHES CAN BE CONSIDERED TO ARISE FROM THREE DISTINCT SOURCES: (1) EXCESSIVE ACCELERATION FORCES, (2) DIRECT TRAUMA FROM CONTACT WITH HARD SURFACES, AND (3) EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SUCH AS FIRE, SMOKE, WATER, AND CHEMICALS RESULTING IN BURNS, DROWNING OR ASPHYXIATION. CONSEQUENTLY, EFFECTIVE CRASHWORTHINESS DESIGNS MUST CONSIDER ALL POSSIBLE SOURCES OF INJURY AND ELIMINATE OR MITIGATE AS MANY AS PRACTICAL FOR A GIVEN DESIGN IMPACT LIMIT. THIS INVOLVES CONSIDERATIONS OF (1) STRENGTH OF THE CONTAINER (COCKPIT AND CABIN), (2) ADEQUACY OF SEATS AND RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, (3) ENERGY ATTENUATION, (4) ELIMINATION OF INJURIOUS OBJECTS IN OCCUPANTS' LOCAL ENVIRON-MENT, AND (5) POSTCRASH FACTORS, PRINCIPALLY FIRE PREVENTION AND ADEQUACY OF ESCAPE ROUTES.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER, CRASHWORTHINESS, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT, CRASH SURVIVAL
93-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2244 DTIC #: ADA267038
TITLE: ACTIVITY/REST PATTERNS OF INSTRUCTORS AND RATED STUDENT PILOTS DURING RAPID TRANSITIONS FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS AT THE EASTERN ARMY AVIATION TRAINING SITE
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JAMES A. CHIARAMONTE, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON, LEWIS W. STONE, GERALD L. HESS, KENNETH O. BOLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RAPID SHIFTS IN WORK SCHEDULES DEMAND THAT PILOTS AND AIRCREW QUICKLY ADAPT TO NEW SLEEP SCHEDULES. TRANSITIONS TO NIGHTTIME DUTIES LACKING PLANNED WORK/REST SCHEDULES CAN RESULT IN THE DELAY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE ADAPTION, FATIGUE, AND PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION (SHIFT LAG). THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF A NIGHT SHIFT COPING STRATEGY IN THE ADAPTION OF HELICOPTER PILOTS (UH-1) TO NIGHTTIME (2100 H TO 0100 H) FLYING SCHEDULES. DAILY ACTIVITY/REST RHYTHMS OF INSTRUCTOR AND RATED STUDENT PILOTS (IPS/ RSPS) WERE MONITORED 24 H PER DAY FOR A TOTAL OF 21 TO 28 DAYS USING INDIVIDUAL WRIST ACTIVITY MONITORS. RSP (N=6) LIVED IN DORMITORIES WITH COMPLETE BLOCKING OF DAYLIGHT (BELOW 10 LUX) AND REDUCED ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE UNTIL 1000 H. MEALS AND ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES WERE SCHEDULED TO ALLOW RSPS THE OPPORTUNITY TO SLEEP UNTIL 1000 H AFTER NIGHT FLIGHTS. IPS LIVED IN PRIVATE HOMES AND WERE EXPECTED TO MEET ADMINISTRATIVE, ACADEMIC, AND FLIGHT INSTRUCTION DEMANDS. THROUGHOUT THE NVG COURSE, RSPS ELECTED TO RETIRE BETWEEN 0040-0200 H, TO RISE AT APPROXIMATELY 0900 H, AND TO DELAY MORNING DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE BETWEEN 0900-1000 H. THIS SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES RESULTS IN AN AVERAGE OF 7 H OF BEDREST UNDER BOTH DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME DUTY SCHEDULES. IN CONTRAST, IPS EXHIBITED VARIABLE RISE TIMES, USUALLY OCCURRING BETWEEN 0700 AND 0830 H DURING BOTH DAYTIME AND NIGHTTIME DUTY SCHEDULES. AFTER NIGHT FLIGHTS, IPS EXHIBITED A DELAY OF BEDTIME (2 H) BUT FAILED TO CONSISTENTLY DELAY RISE TIMES. MORNING DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE TIME WAS ALSO VARIABLE BUT USUALLY OCCURRED BEFORE 09000 H. TOTAL BEDREST AFTER NIGHT FLIGHTS WAS SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCED BY APPROXIMATELY 2 TO 3 H. THESE RESULTS ARE INTERPRETED IN THE CONTEXT OF THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF DELAYING RISING TIMES, BEDTIMES, AND MORNING DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE.
KEYWORDS: SHIFTWORK, SLEEP, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, NIGHT OPERATIONS
93-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 610 DTIC #: ADA265013
TITLE: AUTOMATICITY OF PROCESSING LOCATION VERSUS IDENTITY INFORMATION IN BRIEF VISUAL DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT L. STEPHENS, JACQUELYN Y. PEARSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DIFFERENTIAL LEVELS OF AUTOMATICITY FOR PROCESSING INFORMATION FROM TACHISTOSCOPIC DISPLAYS WERE STUDIED USING THREE VARIATIONS OF THE PARTIAL REPORT PROCEDURE (AVERBACH AND CORIELL, 1961). PROCESSING OF BOTH SPATIAL AND IDENTITY INFORMATION IN LETTER DISPLAYS WAS ASSESSED SIMULTANEOUSLY AND THEN INDEPENDENTLY. ANALYSES INDICATED FEATURE EXTRACTION IS A HIGHLY AUTOMATED PROCESS WHILE SPATIAL INFORMATION EXTRACTION IS A CONTROLLED PROCESS. IMPLICATIONS FOR SEPARATE PROCESSING PATHWAYS IN THE VISUAL SYSTEM ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL INFORMATION PROCESSING, TACHISTOSCOPIC
93-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1704 DTIC #: ADA267100
TITLE: TEST AND EVALUATION REPORT OF THE MEDICAL DATA ELECTRONICS ESCORT PATIENT MONITOR, MODEL E300A
AUTHOR(s): MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, JAMES E. BRUCKART, BRENDAN E. SQUIRE, LESLIE W. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MEDICAL DATA ELECTRONICS ESCORT PATIENT MONITOR, MODEL E300A, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE MEDICAL DATA ELECTRONICS ESCORT PATIENT MONITOR, MODEL E300A, DID NOT PERFORM PROPERLY IN THE VIBRATION TEST, HIGH TEMPERATURE OPERATION TEST, AND LOW TEMPERATURE OPERATION TEST. EXCESS ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS AND ELECTROMAGNET SUSCEPTIBILITY MAKE IT INELIGIBLE FOR AN AIRWORTHINESS RELEASE. THE UNIT IS NOT CONSIDERED COMPATIBLE WITH THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL EVACUATION UH-60A BLACK HAWK.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1520 DTIC #: ADA267377
TITLE: MILITARY RESEARCH WITH CONTACT LENSES
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH ALL MILITARY AIR SERVICES HAVE STRICT VISION STANDARDS TO SELECT ONLY THE MOST PHYSICALLY QUALIFIED CANDIDATES, THE PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERRORS AMONG AVIATORS IS QUITE SIGNIFICANT. RECENT ADVANTAGES IN HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS AND OTHER COCKPIT EQUIPMENT HAS RAISED COMPATIBILITY ISSUES WITH SPECTACLE CORRECTIONS. BECAUSE OF THESE COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS, MANY MILITARY SERVICES ARE CONSIDERING CONTACT LENSES AS A POSSIBLE REFRACTIVE ERROR CORRECTION OPTION. IN THIS PAPER, THE NUMEROUS MILITARY LABORATORY-BASED AND FIELD TESTS OF CONTACT LENSES ARE REVIEWED. MILITARY CONTACT LENS RESEARCH HAS A HISTORY OF ALMOST 50 YEARS. IN GENERAL, THE RESULTS FROM THESE INVESTIGATIONS HAVE SUPPORTED THE ADOPTION OF POSITIVE CONTACT LENS POLICIES AND SEVERAL MILITARY DEPARTMENTS HAVE RECENTLY MODIFIED THEIR POLICIES TO ALLOW USE OF CONTACT LENSES BY AVIATION PERSONNEL. DIFFERENT LENS MATERIALS AND WEARING REGIMENS HAVE BEEN RECOMMENDED, AND THE DATA FAIL TO STRONGLY SUPPORT A PARTICULAR TYPE OVER ALL OTHERS. CLEARLY, SOME LENS TYPES ARE MORE APPROPRIATE FOR DIFFERENT MILITARY REQUIREMENTS AND ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REDUCED FIELD-OF-VIEW, LENS REFLECTIONS
93-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 417 DTIC #: ADA267084
TITLE: RATING OF HEARING PROTECTOR PERFORMANCE FOR IMPULSE NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL L. JOHNSON, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONCERN HAS OFTEN BEEN EXPRESSED THAT THE PERFORMANCE OF HEARING PROTECTORS IN STEADY NOISE MAY NOT APPLY TO THEIR PERFORMANCE IN IMPULSE NOISE. OUR CURRENT STUDIES, AS WELL AS OTHER STUDIES, SUPPORT THE FACT THAT THERE IS A LARGE DIFFERENCE IN PERFORMANCE. IN ALL CASES, THE PERFORMANCE OF A PROTECTOR IS MUCH BETTER FOR IMPULSE NOISE THAN FOR CONTINUOUS NOISE. FOR EXAMPLE, WE ARE OBTAINING AT LEAST 20 DB OF PROTECTION (NRR) OF ESSENTIALLY ZERO. WE BELIEVE THAT IS NOT THE NRR PROCEDURE AT FAULT; BUT THE FACT THAT, FOR IMPULSE NOISE, A-WEIGHING DOES NOT DISCRIMINATE ENOUGH AGAINST LOW-FREQUENCY ENERGY.
KEYWORDS: BLAST OVERPRESSURE, IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING PROTECTORS
93-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 681 DTIC #: ADA267378
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROGER W. WILEY, JOHN C. KOTULAK, ISAAC BEHAR
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF PYRIDOSTIGMINE BROMIDE (PB) ON SELECTED VISUAL FUNCTION WERE MEASURED ON FOUR HEALTHY AVIATOR CANDIDATES. FOLLOWING A PRETREATMENT DAY DURING WHICH BASELINE MEASUREMENTS WERE COMPLETED, SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED CURRENTLY RECOMMENDED DOSES (30 MG, T.I.D.) OF PB FOR 3 DAYS DURING WHICH THEIR VISUAL FUNCTIONS WERE ASSESSED USING A REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN. SPATIAL RESOLUTION ABILITY WAS EVALUATED WITH HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY CHARTS AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY CHARTS AT THREE LUMINANCE LEVELS. DARK ADAPTION WAS EVALUATED BY MEASURING VISUAL THRESHOLDS FOR 40 MINUTES AFTER A STANDARDIZED RETINAL PHOTOPIGMENT BLEACH. ALSO, REFRACTIVE ERROR AND SEVERAL OCULOMOTOR FUNCTIONS (LATERAL PHORIA, FUSIONAL VERGENCE, ACCOMMODATIVE AMPLITUDE, AND PUPIL SIZE) WERE MEASURED. ON DAYS THAT THE SUBJECTS INGESTED PB, ONLY REFRACTIVE ERROR AND PUPIL DIAMETER WERE SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT, AND THESE ONLY MINIMALLY. WE CONCLUDE THAT THE USE OF PB AT DOCTRINAL DOSES WILL NOT SIGNIFICANTLY COMPROMISE AN AVIATOR'S VISUAL ABILITY.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL RESOLUTION, OCULOMETER FUNCTION, VISUAL SENSITIVITY
93-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1653 DTIC #: ADA269121
TITLE: LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE LITTON MODEL F15E MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): BRANDAN E. SQUIRE, JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, LESLIE W. JOHNSTON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LITTON MODEL F15E MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE LITTON MODEL F15E PERFORMED PROPERLY IN THE TEST ENVIRONMENTS. IT CONSISTENTLY PRODUCED HIGH CONCENTRATION (GREATER THAN 90 PERCENT) OXYGEN AT AN OUTPUT FLOW OF 27 LPM. THE UNIT PRODUCES A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF NOISE WHILE OPERATING. THE UNIT IS SUSCEPTIBLE TO RADIO FREQUENCY INTERFERENCE FROM 40-41 MHZ AND SOME BROADBAND EMISSIONS EXCEEDED THE TEST CRITERIA.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1546 DTIC #: ADA269967
TITLE: LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION OF THE ESSEX MODEL 60C-0037-2 MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): BRENDAN E. SQUIRE, JAMES E. BRUCKART, MARTIN E. QUATTLEBAUM, LESLIE W. JOHNSTON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ESSEX MODEL 60C-0037-2 MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY IN THE UH-60A HELICOPTER UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY AND HUMAN FACTORS. THE ESSEX MODEL 60C-0037-2 PERFORMED PROPERLY IN THE TEST ENVIRONMENTS. THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION PRODUCED BY THE UNIT DEPENDS ON THE COMPRESSED AIR PRESSURE, OXYGEN FLOW, AND VENT PRESSURE. A SEPARATE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ANALYZER WOULD BE REQUIRED TO DETERMINE THE OXYGEN CONCENTRATION FOR PATIENT USE. THE UNIT PRODUCES A SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF NOISE WHILE OPERATING.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
93-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 666 DTIC #: ADA269550
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR AMONG U.S. AIRCREW MEMBERS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION BRANCH IS MAKING FINAL FUNDING AND PLANNING DECISIONS ON THE FIELDING OF CONTACT LENS PROGRAM FOR ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS. THIS REPORT STRATIFIES THE PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR BY AVIATION DUTY POSITION, SERVICE COMPONENT, AND RANK. THERE IS AN INCREASING PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR IN THE HIGHER RANKING AIRCREW MEMBERS, PARALLELING INCREASING AGE WITH RANK PROMOTION. COMPARING SERVICE COMPONENTS, THE PREVALENCE IS HIGHER IN THE RESERVE COMPONENT AND CIVILIAN FORCES THAN ACTIVE DUTY FORCES. WITHIN THE AVIATOR SERVICE COMPONENT COHORTS, THERE HAS BEEN A SIGNIFICANT UPWARD TREND IN THE ANNUAL PERIOD PREVALENCE OF REFRACTIVE ERROR FROM 1986 THROUGH 1992, ESPECIALLY IN THE ARMY RESERVE AND NATIONAL GUARD COHORTS. THIS UPWARD TREND MAY BE RELATED TO THE OBSERVED UPWARD TREND IN THE AVERAGE AGE OF ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS AS A GROUP FROM 1986 THROUGH 1992.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, AVIATION PERSONNEL, AVIATION MEDICINE, DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, AEDR
93-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1369 DTIC #: ADA269304
TITLE: USING CONTROLLED DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE AND SLEEP TIMING IN THE PREVENTION OF SHIFT LAG DURING NIGHT OPERATIONS
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN THE ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY, NIGHT OPERATIONS ARE A SIGNIFICANT COMPONENT OF COMBAT AND TRAINING MISSIONS. MISSION REQUIREMENTS OFTEN NECESSITATE AN INITIAL SHIFT FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS WITH 24 TO 48 HOURS. RAPID SHIFTS FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME WORK, AND NIGHTTIME TO DAYTIME SLEEP USUALLY RESULT IN LOSS OF SLEEP, DEGRADATION OF ALERTNESS, INCREASED FATIGUE, AND REDUCED WORK EFFECTIVENESS. THESE SYMPTOMS ARE REFERRED TO AS "SHIFT LAG" BECAUSE THE BODY'S PHYSIOLOGICAL ADJUSTMENT LAGS BEHIND THE RAPID SHIFT TO THE NEW WORK SCHEDULE. RESEARCH ON SHIFTWORK PROVIDE A VARIETY OF APPROACHES TO AVOID THE DETERIORATION OF PERFORMANCE AND HEALTH OF SHIFTWORKERS. SHIFT LAG PREVENTION PLANS MAY CONSIDER THE SPEED OF SHIFTWORK ROTATION, THE DURATION OF EACH SHIFT, AGE OF WORKERS, PHYSICAL STRENGTH ASSOCIATED WITH WORK DEMANDS, DIET, TIMING OF SLEEP, AND IN SOME CASES, THE USE OF DRUGS TO INDUCE SLEEP AND ATTEMPT TO RESYNCHRONIZE THE BODY'S INTERNAL BIOLOGICAL CLOCK. HOWEVER, THE USE OF CONTROLLED TIMING OF DAYLIGHT EXPOSURE AND SLEEP SCHEDULES ARE OF OVERRIDING IMPORTANCE. IN THE ARMY AVIATION CONTEXT, CONSEQUENCES OF SHIFTS TO NOCTURNAL WORK SCHEDULES WITHOUT THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A SHIFT-LAG PREVENTION PLAN RECENTLY HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED. THIS WORK REVIEWS THE MECHANISM OF BIOLOGICAL TIMING IN HUMANS, THE ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL LIGHTING, AND SPECIFICALLY IDENTIFIES METHODS OF PREVENTING SLEEP LOSS AND FATIGUE DURING THE TRANSITION FROM DAYLIGHT TO NIGHTTIME DUTY HOURS. THIS DETAILED TREATMENT OF SHIFT LAG COUNTERMEASURES IS PRESENTED WITH THE PURPOSE OF PROVIDING UNIT COMMANDERS, FLIGHT SURGEONS, SAFETY OFFICERS, PILOTS, AIR CREW, AND MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL WITH ENOUGH INFORMATION TO DESIGN GENERAL OR INDIVIDUAL STRATEGIES RELEVANT TO SPECIFIC DEMANDS IMPOSED BY MISSION OBJECTIVES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: SHIFT-LAG COUNTERMEASURES, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, COPING STRATEGIES, SHIFTWORK, NIGHT OPERATIONS
93-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 587 DTIC #: ADA269117
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF SEATING AND RESTRAINT LIMITATIONS RESTRICTING TOTAL BODY WEIGHT FOR AIRCREW AND PASSENGERS ON U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (ALSE) AND CRASHWORTHY SEATING PROTECT THE CREW AND PASSENGERS IN MILITARY AIRCRAFT. IF THE USER EXCEEDS THE DESIGN WEIGHT OR SIZE RANGE FOR PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, IT MAY NOT FUNCTION PROPERLY. THE DISTRIBUTION AND CHANGES IN BODY WEIGHT AND RELEVANT ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASURES WERE EVALUATED FOR SOLDIER AND AVIATOR GROUPS. CURRENT ALSE AND AIRCRAFT RESTRAINTS WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THE LARGEST AVAILABLE SIZES. EACH AIRCRAFT SEAT WAS EVALUATED TO DETERMINE THE CRASH STRENGTH AND MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WEIGHT FOR A GIVEN CRASH PULSE.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, RESTRAINT, AIRCREW, HELICOPTERS, AIRCRAFT SEATS, SURVIVAL VEST
93-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 739 DTIC #: ADA270946
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF INJURY SEVERITY CAUSED BY FLIGHT MOTOR OVERPRESSURE OF THE JAVELIN ANTIARMOR MISSILE
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE JAVELIN IS AN ANTIARMOR MISSILE SYSTEM DESIGNED TO REPLACE THE DRAGON. A RARE MALFUNCTION OF THE MISSILE INVOLVES OVERPRESSURE OF THE FLIGHT MOTOR. DATA ON THE NUMBER, MASS, AND VELOCITY OF LARGE DEBRIS ITEM WAS DETERMINED BY SIMULATION OF THE MALFUNCTION. THIS REPORT REVIEWS THE SEVERITY OF INJURIES TO THE GUNNER OR ASSISTANT GUNNER EXPECTED FROM A MALFUNCTION.
KEYWORDS: JAVELIN, MISSILE, OVERPRESSURE, INJURY, BLAST
93-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1060 DTIC #: ADA271968
TITLE: CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF U.S. ARMY AIRCREW WITH THE FINDING OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, PAUL V. CELIO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U.S. ARMY AIRCREW WITH A HISTORY OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION WERE IDENTIFIED BY CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY, FOLLOWED BY CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY, IN THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR THE PERIOD 1 JANUARY 1988 TO 1 AUGUST 1992. EIGHTY-TWO AIRCREW MET THESE CRITERIA. THEIR ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES WERE SUMMARIZED. THE POSITIVE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF CARDIAC CALCIFICATIONS FOR PREDICTING ANY DEGREE OF CORONARY ARTERY OCCLUSION WAS 82.9 PERCENT. THE FRAMINGHAM RISK INDEX, TOTAL SERUM CHOLESTEROL, CHOLESTEROL/HDL-CHOLESTEROL RATION, AND RESULTS OF THE GRADED EXERCISE TREADMILL TEST AND THALLIUM SCAN WERE NOT SIGNIFICANT FACTORS IN PREDICTING THE ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOME WHEN CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS WERE PRESENT. AIRCREW IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM SHOULD BE EXAMINED FOR CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION BY CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY AND REFERRED FOR CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY IF CALCIFICATIONS ARE SEEN.
KEYWORDS: FLUOROSCOPY, CORONARY DISEASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASES, AEDR
93-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1522 DTIC #: ADA271690
TITLE: REVIEW OF USING CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY IN SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENTS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HISTORY OF METHODS TO FIND CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION IS REVIEWED. IMAGE-INTENSIFIED CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY IS THE CURRENT METHOD IN GENERAL USE FOR FINDING CORONARY ARTERY CALIFICATIONS. THE TECHNIQUE OF CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY IS REVIEW IN DETAIL. THE FINDINGS OF CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES FOR SYMPTOMATIC AND ASYMPTOMATIC POPULATIONS WITH CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS ARE ANALYZED. THERE IS A STRONG ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE FINDING OF CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION AND THE FINDING OF ANATOMIC CORONARY ARTERY OCCLUSIONS REGARDLESS OF THE PATIENT'S AGE OR OUTCOME OF OTHER CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE TESTS. PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS ARE AT A THREE-FOLD INCREASED RISK FOR PREMATURE MORTALITY WHEN FOLLOWED OVER A 5-YEAR PERIOD. CLINICIANS SHOULD EXAMINE PATIENTS FOR CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATION IN STRATIFIED CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM.
KEYWORDS: CORONARY, FLUOROSCOPY, CARDIAC FLUOROSCOPY, ANGIOGRAPHY, SYMPTOMATIC, ASYMPTOMATIC, CORONARY ARTERY CALCIFICATIONS
93-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 575 DTIC #: ADA273107
TITLE: EFFECT OF PHOTOPERIOD ON BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY AND MELATONIN CONCENTRATIONS IN ADULT CATS
AUTHOR(s): AL T. TOWNSEND, ALBERT W. KIRBY, CAROLYN D. POPE, GEORGE EVANS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WE STUDIED THE EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON PLASMA MELATONIN (MEL) CONCENTRATIONS, BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE (BUCHE), AND BLOOD ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE (ACHE) ACTIVITY IN SEVEN ADULT CATS. CATS WERE EXPOSED TO A 14:10 DARK-LIGHT (LD) CYCLE WITH LIGHTS ON FROM 0630 TO 2030 FOR 3 MONTHS BEFORE BLOOD SAMPLING. BLOOD SAMPLES WERE OBTAINED EVERY 4 HOURS FOR UP TO 52 HOURS BY REPEATED VENIPUNCTURE OF THE JUGULAR VEIN IN THREE ANIMALS, WHILE 4 ANIMALS HAD INDWELLING CATHETERS IMPLANTED PRIOR TO SAMPLING. ALL ANIMALS WERE HANDLED REPEATEDLY FOR SEVERAL WEEKS PRIOR TO THE STUDY TO MINIMIZE STRESS. MEL CONCENTRATIONS WERE MEASURED IN PLASMA BY RADIO-IMMUNOASSAY. PLASMA BUCHE ACTIVITY AND WHOLE BLOOD ACHE ACTIVITY WERE DETERMINED FROM THE SAME BLOOD SAMPLES. IN ALL OF THE ANIMALS, MEAN MEL CONCENTRATIONS WERE HIGHER DURING THE DARK PERIOD OF THE LD CYCLE, WHILE PLASMA BUCHE AND BLOOD ACHE ACTIVITY HAD NO OBSERVABLE CHANGE IN RESPONSE TO THE LD CYCLE. THESE FINDINGS INDICATE THAT MEL SECRETION, BUT NOT BUCHE AND ACHE ACTIVITY IN CATS, IS RESPONSIVE TO CHANGES IN PHOTOPERIOD. UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, SECRETION OF MEL MAY BE USED AS A CONTROL MARKER FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL RHYTHMICITY IN CATS WHEN STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON OTHER COMPOUNDS.
KEYWORDS: CHOLINESTERASES, CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, MELATONIN, PHOTOPERIOD
93-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1099 DTIC #: ADA273250
TITLE: PROJECTED EFFECTIVENESS OF AIRBAG SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINT SYSTEMS IN U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): DENNIS F. SHANAHAN, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESPITE SIGNIFICANT ADVANCES IN ACCIDENT PREVENTION, CRASHWORTHINESS, AND INDIVIDUAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, HEAD AND TORSO INJURIES CONTINUE TO CAUSE DEATH AND DISABLING INJURIES IN SURVIVABLE ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS. MOST OF THESE INJURIES ARE CAUSED BY THE OCCUPANT STRIKING INTERNAL STRUCTURES. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO REVIEW ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENT RECORDS TO DETERMINE THE NUMBER OF FATAL AND DISABLING INJURIES IN PILOTS AND COPILOTS THAT COULD HAVE BEEN PREVENTED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF AN AIRBAG SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAIN SYSTEM INTO U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER COCKPITS.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAG, RESTRAINT SYSTEM, HELICOPTER, COCKPITS, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, AIRFRAMES
93-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1228 DTIC #: ADA273739
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF SLEEP SCORED FROM ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH TO SLEEP SCORED BY WRIST ACTIGRAPHY
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DURING MILITARY OPERATIONS, IT HAS BEEN FOUND THAT SOLDIERS OFTEN ARE REQUIRED TO WORK FOR LONG PERIODS OF TIME WITHOUT REST. IN ORDER TO ASSIST COMMANDERS IN DETERMINING HOW MUCH REST SOLDIERS RECEIVE, VARIOUS METHODS OF MONITORING ACTIVITY HAVE BEEN USED. ONE UNOBTRUSIVE METHOD IS TO USE WRIST ACTIVITY MONITORS (WAMS) TO DETERMINE HOW LONG SOLDIERS ARE REQUIRED TO WORK WITH LITTLE OR NO SLEEP. THIS STUDY COMPARED DATA FROM TRADITIONALLY SCORED SLEEP USING ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHS (EEGS) TO DATA FROM WAMS TO DETERMINE THE ABILITY OF WAMS TO DETERMINE THE ABILITY OF WAMS TO MEASURE SLEEP. BASED ON THIS LIMITED COMPARISON STUDY, IT APPEARS THAT THE WAM IS A GOOD INSTRUMENT TO USE TO ESTIMATE SLEEP TIME WHEN AN EEG IS NOT POSSIBLE. THE PERCENT AGREEMENT BETWEEN WAM SLEEP TIME AND EEG SLEEP TIME IS VERY HIGH,WITH AN AVERAGE OF ALMOST 89 PERCENT. THE ERROR TENDED TO BE IN THE DIRECTION OF OVERESTIMATION OF SLEEP BY THE WAM. ALSO, THE CURRENT METHOD OF SCORING (USING A SET CUTOFF OF COUNTS) IS A SUITABLE METHOD, HOWEVER, AN OVERESTIMATION OF SLEEP WILL MOST LIKELY OCCUR WHEN THIS METHOD IS USED. THEREFORE, WHENEVER ACTIGRAPHS ARE USED, A CONSERVATIVE INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA IS TO DISCUSS "REST TIME" INSTEAD IF "SLEEP TIME." IN ADDITION, THE QUALITY OF SLEEP AS DETERMINED BY NORMAL EEG SLEEP STAGING CANNOT BE ASSESSED BY WAM.
KEYWORDS: SLEEP, WAM, WRIST MONITOR, ACTIVITY
93-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1794 DTIC #: ADA274589
TITLE: MONOGRAPH OF THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR CY 1988
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS MONOGRAPH IS TO PROVIDE THE READER WITH DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FROM THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR). DATA ARE PRESENTED FOR CLASS 2/2A FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS (FDMES) BASED ON INFORMATION RECEIVED BY THE AEDR DURING CALENDAR YEAR 1988. IT IS OUR PURPOSE TO PROVIDE THESE DATA WITH LITTLE DISCUSSION AS TO ENCOURAGE COMPARISON WITH OTHER MONOGRAPHS.
KEYWORDS: MONOGRAPH, DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS, HYPERTENSION, HYPERCHOLESTEROL, AVIATOR
93-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 8053 DTIC #: ADA274351
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M916A1 TRUCK TRACTOR
AUTHOR(s): AL W. MORAN, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT ARE REQUIRED TO BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HEALTH HAZARDS TO THEIR CREWMEMBERS. A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED ON THE M916A1 TRUCK TRAILER BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY. TESTS WERE CONDUCTED AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND, OVER PAVED SURFACE, CROSS-COUNTRY, AND BELGIAN BLOCK TERRAIN TYPES. THE M916A1 WAS TESTED BOBTAIL (NO TRAILER), UNLOADED, AND LOADED CONFIGURATIONS FOR EACH OF THE TEST TERRAINS. THE RESULTS OF THESE TESTS SHOW THE LOWEST TOLERANCE LEVELS WERE EXPERIENCED ON THE BELGIAN BLOCK COURSE, WITH LESS SEVERE WBV OCCURRING ON THE CROSS-COUNTRY COURSE, FOLLOWED BY THE PRIMARY TERRAIN COURSE. THE RESULTS ALSO SHOW THE PASSENGER EXPOSURE LIMITS WERE CONSISTENTLY LOWER THAN THE DRIVER'S. THEREFORE, THE HHA RECOMMENDATION FOR THE M916A1, OPERATING IN ITS INTENDED ENVIRONMENT, IS THAT WBV BE LIMITED TO THE FOLLOWING PASSENGER EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR EACH TEST CONDITION: WBV IS NOT TO EXCEED 17.1 HOURS IN ANY 24-HOUR PERIOD ON THE PAVED SURFACES FOR ALL CONFIGURATIONS. EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR THE CROSS-COUNTRY TERRAIN ARE 5.5, 5.2, AND 6.1 HOURS IN ANY 24-HOUR PERIOD FOR THE BOBTAIL, UNLOADED, AND LOADED CONFIGURATIONS, RESPECTIVELY. FOR THE BELGIAN BLOCK TERRAIN, WBV IN ANY 24-HOUR PERIOD SHOULD NOT EXCEED 1 HOUR FOR BOTH BOBTAIL AND UNLOADED CONDITIONS AND 2 HOURS FOR THE LOADED CONFIGURATION.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
93-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1740 DTIC #: ADA274400
TITLE: MONOGRAPH OF THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR CY 1992
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT H. SCHRIMSHER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS MONOGRAPH IS TO PROVIDE THE READER WITH DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FROM THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR). DATA ARE PRESENTED FOR CLASS 2/2A FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS (FDME) BASED ON INFORMATION RECEIVED BY THE AEDR DURING CALENDAR YEAR 1992. IT IS OUR PURPOSE TO PROVIDE THESE DATA WITH LITTLE DISCUSSION SO AS TO ENCOURAGE COMPARISONS WITH OTHER MONOGRAPHS.
KEYWORDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASES, LABORATORY FINDINGS, DEMOGRAPHICS, AEDR
93-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5756 DTIC #: ADA276459
TITLE: EVALUATION OF INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION PROFILES FOR U.S. ARMY ROTORCRAFT POSITION LIGHTING ADAPTED FOR IMAGE INTENSIFIER OPERATIONS
AUTHOR(s): ELLEN H. SNOOK, CLARENCE E. RASH, MALCOLM N. COLBERT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: COMPATIBILITY PROBLEMS WITH IMAGE INTENSIFIER (I )DEVICES AND COCKPIT/INTERIOR LIGHTING HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED AND WELL DOCUMENTED. HOWEVER, I COMPATIBILITY WITH POSITION/EXTERIOR LIGHTING IS ONLY IN THE EARLY STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. IN THE ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY, ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO REDUCE THE DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF POSITION LIGHT INTENSITY ON I DEVICES BY OPERATING LIGHTS IN DIM MODE OR BY MASKING LIGHTS. IN THESE MODIFIED LIGHTING CONFIGURATIONS, REQUIREMENTS IN FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA) REGULATIONS ARE NOT ALWAYS SATISFIED. IN THIS INVESTIGATION, THE INTENSITY DISTRIBUTION PROFILES FOR CURRENTLY EMPLOYED LIGHTING STRATEGIES WERE EVALUATED. FURTHER SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE ENTIRE POSITION LIGHT SYSTEM, AS A WHOLE, IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED IN ORDER TO DETERMINE ALL FACTORS THAT MAY HAVE IMPACT ON THE MODIFICATION OF EXTERIOR LIGHTING AND/OR REQUIREMENTS. EXTERNAL LIGHTING MUST BE ACCEPTABLE IN BOTH THE CIVILIAN/MILITARY AVIATION ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE INTENSIFIER, ROTORCRAFT POSITION LIGHTING, FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS (FAR)
93-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2129 DTIC #: ADA277121
TITLE: ESTIMATING THE IMPACT OF CRASHWORTHINESS STANDARDS ON MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY EVENTS IN THE U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING MISHAPS
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH TREMENDOUS STRIDES HAVE BEEN MADE IN AIRCRAFT RELIABILITY AND AVIATION SAFETY OVER THE PAST FEW DECADES, AIRCRAFT CONTINUE TO CRASH WITH ALARMING REGULARITY. INDEED, IT WOULD BE EXTREMELY NAIVE TO MAINTAIN THAT THE GOAL OF ZERO CRASH RATE IS REALISTICALLY ACHIEVABLE IN THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE. THIS IS PARTICULARLY TRUE FOR MILITARY OPERATIONS WHERE NOT ONLY ARE THE FLIGHT REGIMES INHERENTLY MORE RISKY BUT, THERE ALSO IS THE ADDED RISK OF CRASHING DUE TO HOSTILE ACTION. IN CONSIDERATION OF THESE FACTORS, AIRCRAFT SHOULD BE DESIGNED TO AFFORD OCCUPANTS THE GREATEST LEVEL OF PROTECTION PRACTICAL IN THE EVENT OF A CRASH. ALTHOUGH SUCH DESIGN FEATURES HAVE BEEN PROVEN TO BE EXTREMELY EFFECTIVE IN REDUCING MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY, THE AIRCRAFT OPERATOR MAY PAY A PENALTY OF INCREASED WEIGHT AND ADDED COST. CONSEQUENTLY, THE DEGREE OF CRASHWORTHINESS DESIGNED INTO AN AIRCRAFT MUST BE A TRADEOFF BETWEEN ECONOMICS, AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE, AND THE PERCEIVED RISK.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTERS, CRASHWORTHINESS, MORBIDITY, MORTALITY, IMPACT
94-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 516 DTIC #: ADA274185
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INDEXING THE AEDR DOCUMENT LASER OPTIC ARCHIVE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, ROBERT E. POST
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) IS A FAMILY OF DATABASES STORING HEALTH AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ARMY AIRCREW. THE COMPONENTS ARE ADMINISTRATIVELY LINKED BY SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER (SSN). A NEW COMPONENT IS AN UPGRADE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT MICROFICHE ARCHIVE TO LASER OPTIC CD-ROM. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL ACTIVITY REQUESTED ASSISTANCE IN CREATING AN INDEXING SCHEME FOR THE NEW SYSTEM. THEY WANTED TO USE A SINGLE SSN DIGIT, THE DISKS TO FILL AT A UNIFORM RATE, AND TO KEEP THE SAME AIRCREW MEMBER ON THE SAME DISK EVEN IF MULTIPLE ENTRIES WERE MADE FOR THE SAME PATIENT. THE SSN OF EACH CASE IN THE MICROFICHE ARCHIVE WAS EXTRACTED AS A REFERENCE POPULATION. ANALYSIS OF THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF DECIMAL VALUES FOR SELECTED SSN DIGITS SHOWED THE LAST SSN DIGIT WOULD MEET THE STATE REQUIREMENTS. ANY OF THE FIRST FIVE SSN DIGITS SHOULD NOT BE USED FOR INDEXING.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATORS, AIRCREW, INCIDENCE, SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBERS, ARCHIVE, AEDR
94-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 593 DTIC #: ADA274711
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INCIDENCE AND OUTCOMES OF AVIATOR FLYING EVALUATION BOARDS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) IS A FAMILY OF DATABASES STORING HISTORY AND PHYSICAL INFORMATION ON ARMY AIR CREWMEMBERS. THE AEDR LACKS SOME AVIATION CAREER ENDPOINTS, ONE BEING THE OUTCOME OF FLYING EVALUATION BOARDS (FEBS) FOR NONMEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS. THE OUTCOMES OF 170 NEW FEB ACTIONS FROM 1985 THROUGH 1992 IN ACTIVE DUTY AND U.S. ARMY RESERVE AVIATORS WERE REVIEWED. THE OVERALL INCIDENCE WAS 1.13 PER 1,000 AVIATOR-YEARS. AVIATORS AGED 25 THROUGH 29 WERE TWICE AS LIKELY TO UNDERGO FEB ACTIONS. THE LIKELIHOOD OF RESTORATION TO FLYING DUTIES AFTER FEB WAS SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER IF THE FEB WAS FOR HABITS, CHARACTER, AND MOTIVATION, THAN IF THE FEB WAS FOR POOR FLYING PROFICIENCY OR FAILURE TO FOLLOW FLIGHT RULES. MANY NONMEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS LEADING TO FEB REQUIRE MEDICAL EVALUATION TO RULE OUT UNDERLYING MENTAL DISORDERS.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATORS, AIRCREW, INCIDENCE, FLYING EVALUATION BOARDS, AEDR
94-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1363 DTIC #: ADA276954
TITLE: UNIT SPECIFIC CREW REST STRATEGIES: PHASE I EVALUATION OF THE 1/212TH AVIATION BATTALION DURING SHIFTWORK TRANSITIONS
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, JAMES A. CHIARAMONTE, KATHY L. LAWHORN, LAWRENCE W. ALLAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ARMY AVIATION COMMANDERS ARE DEEPLY CONCERNED WITH THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CREW REST STRATEGIES WHICH ARE BOTH PRACTICAL AND EFFECTIVE. MAINTAINING PEAK PERFORMANCE OF INDIVIDUALS ROTATING FROM ONE WORK SHIFT TO ANOTHER IS OF PARAMOUNT CONCERN. GENERAL GUIDELINES OFTEN PROVIDE APPROPRIATE INFORMATION, BUT NOT PROVIDE STRATEGIES OR SPECIFIC SCHEDULES OF CREW REST TAILORED TO THE UNIT'S SPECIFIC MISSION DEMANDS, ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, AND STRENGTH. A COMPLEMENT TO GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS AND GUIDELINES IS THE USE OF UNIT-SPECIFIC CREW REST STRATEGIES. THIS CONCEPT INVOLVES A TWO-PHASE PROCESS. IN PHASE ONE, THE UNIT'S EXISTING RESPONSE TO A CHARACTERISTIC MISSION OR TRAINING EXERCISE IS EVALUATED BY DETERMINING THE AMOUNT OF REST OBTAINED BY A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF CREW MEMBERS. THE RESULTS OF PHASE I EVALUATIONS PROVIDE DESCRIPTIVE QUANTITATIVE INFORMATION OF DAILY REST PERIODS, AND THE IMPACT OF MISSION DRIVEN WORK SCHEDULES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON CREW REST QUALITY. PHASE II PROVIDES RHYTHMS, SLEEP/WAKE CYCLES, SHIFTWORK SCHEDULES, AND METHODS FOR REGULATING THE BODY'S BIOLOGICAL CLOCK TO PREVENT SLEEP LOSS DURING A CHARACTERISTIC MISSION. THIS REPORT CONTAINS A SUMMATION OF THE RESULTS OF A PHASE I EVALUATION OF SHIFTWORK SCHEDULES USED BY THE 1/212 ARMY AVIATION TRAINING BATTALION AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA. SHIFTWORK SCHEDULES USED BY THE 1/212TH AVIATORS AND AIRCREW INCLUDED SHIFTS FROM DAYLIGHT TO EARLY MORNING, TO NIGHTTIME AND TO AFTERNOON DUTY HOURS. THE OPERATIONAL OBJECTIVES OF THE CREW REST EVALUATION STUDY WAS TWOFOLD: 1) TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF CREW REST OF RAPID TRANSITIONS FROM DAYTIME TO NIGHTTIME AND EARLY MORNING DUTY HOURS; AND 2) TO PROVIDE THE COMMANDER OF THE 1/212TH WITH RECOMMENDATIONS THAT WOULD UPDATE THE UNIT'S PRESENTLY USED CREW REST STRATEGY.
KEYWORDS: PSYCHOLOGY, MILITARY AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS
94-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 797 DTIC #: ADA275901
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: AGE DISTRIBUTION OF U.S. ARMY AVIATORS STRATIFIED BY GENDER AND COMPONENT OF SERVICE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) CONTAINS INFORMATION ON THE HISTORY AND PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OF ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS. AS A REFERENCE FOR AEDR USERS AND CUSTOMERS, THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS WAS EXTRACTED. THE DATA WERE TABULATED BY AGE, GENDER, AND COMPONENT OF SERVICE FOR CALENDAR YEARS 1986 THROUGH 1992. AEDR RESEARCHERS CAN USE THE TABLES TO CALCULATE ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATES, ANNUAL PERIOD PREVALENCE RATES, AND OTHER RATES BASED ON AVIATOR-YEARS OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE STRATIFIED BY AGE, GENDER, AND/OR COMPONENT. AEROMEDICAL RESOURCE, POLICY AND STANDARDS MANAGERS CAN USE THE TABLES FOR PLANNING AND FUNDING AVIATOR HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATORS, AIRCREW, AGE DISTRIBUTION, AEDR
94-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 6762 DTIC #: ADA277457
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M915A2 TRUCK TRAILER
AUTHOR(s): AL W. MORAN, TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT ARE REQUIRED TO BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HEALTH HAZARDS TO THEIR CREWMEMBERS. A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED ON THE M915A2 TRUCK TRAILER BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY. TESTS WERE CONDUCTED AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND, OVER PAVED SURFACE, CROSS-COUNTY, AND BELGIAN BLOCK TERRAIN TYPES. THE M915A2 WAS TESTED IN BOBTAIL (NO TRAILER), UNLOADED, AND LOADED CONFIGURATIONS FOR EACH OF THE TEST TERRAINS. THE RESULTS OF THESE TESTS SHOW THE LOWEST TOLERANCE LEVELS, IN GENERAL, WERE EXPERIENCED ON THE CROSS-COUNTY COURSE WITH LESS SEVER WBV OCCURRING ON THE BELGIAN BLOCK COURSE, FOLLOWED BY THE PRIMARY TERRAIN COURSE.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, TOLERANCE, EXPOSURE LIMITS
94-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 544 DTIC #: ADA277533
TITLE: PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATION: UH-60Q EXTERNAL RESCUE HOIST AND CARGO LOAD-METER
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF CAPABILITY DEMONSTRATIONS FOR OPERATING THE EXTERNAL HOIST AND CARGO. THE EXTERNAL RESCUE HOIST IS ELECTRICALLY OPERATED AND INCLUDES A DIGITAL INDICATION OF THE CABLE PAYOUT. HOIST OPERATIONS WERE ACCOMPLISHED WITH MANIKINS IN STOKES AND SKEDO LITTERS. EXTERNAL CARGO LOADING OPERATIONS WERE COMPLETED LIFTING A 1,200-LB. EXTERNAL LOAD. EXTERNAL HOIST AND CARGO OPERATIONS CAN BE COMPLETED IN THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT WITH A TYPICAL MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK CREW. THE HOIST OPERATOR IS NOT ABLE TO OPERATE THE HOIST FROM THE CREW SEAT. HE HAS TO PUSH THE LITTER CLEAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TIRE AND PULL THE WEIGHT OF THE LITTER AFT TO LOAD IT INTO THE AIRCRAFT. THE EXTERNAL CARGO LOADING PROCEDURES ESSENTIALLY ARE UNCHANGED WITH THE ADDITION OF THE CARGO LOADMETER. THE AIRCRAFT CREW STATED THAT THE LOADMETER PROVIDED VALUABLE INFORMATION ON THE STATUS OF THE EXTERNAL LOAD.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, CARGO HOOK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, TESTING, EXTERNAL RESCUE HOIST
94-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1001 DTIC #: ADA276634
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE UH-60Q: LITTER LIFT AND SEATING PLAN
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED FOR DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE LOADING THE LITTER LIFT SYSTEM AND DISCUSS CONCEPTS FOR CREW AND PASSENGER SEATING. THE LITTER SYSTEM IN THE AIRCRAFT CONSISTS OF TWO MECHANICAL LIFTS CAPABLE OF ACCOMMODATING A TOTAL OF SIX LITTER OR SIX AMBULATORY PATIENTS. THE PREFERRED LOADING ORDER FOR THE LIFTS IS UPPER, MIDDLE, LOWER. THE MOST SERIOUSLY INJURED PATIENT SHOULD BE PLACED IN THE MIDDLE POSITION AND LEAST SERIOUS IN THE UPPER POSITION. THE TIME REQUIRED TO LOAD SIX LITTER PATIENTS VARIED FROM 230 TO 268 SECONDS. THE MIDDLE CREW SEAT PROVED A SIGNIFICANT ENCUMBRANCE IN LOADING LITTERS. INADEQUATE VERTICAL CLEARANCE IS PROVIDED WITH THE CURRENT LIFT MECHANISM. REDESIGN OF THE LIFT PANS AND ELIMINATION OF THE AMBULATORY SEAT BACKRESTS WILL IMPROVE VERTICAL CLEARANCE. THERE SHOULD BE A PROCEDURE TO USE THE LITTER RACKS IF THE LIFT MECHANISM FAILS. THE CURRENT RESTRAINT HARDWARE IS NOT DURABLE AND SLOWED LOADING OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, TESTING, LITTER EVACUATION
94-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 653 DTIC #: ADA277002
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF THE UH-60Q: MEDICAL SUCTION SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF PERFORMANCE TEST ON THE MEDICAL SUCTION SYSTEM INSTALLED ON THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, TESTING
94-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 675 DTIC #: ADA276983
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF UH-60Q: MEDICAL OXYGEN SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF PERFORMANCE TESTS ON THE MEDICAL OXYGEN SYSTEM INSTALLED ON THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT. THE MEDICAL OXYGEN SYSTEM IN THE AIRCRAFT CONSISTS OF A MOLECULAR SIEVE OXYGEN GENERATING SYSTEM (MSOGS) AND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT. THE MSOGS USES BLEED AIR TO PRODUCE HIGH CONCENTRATION OXYGEN. THE MSOGS IN THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT IS CAPABLE OF PRODUCING 15 TO 20 LMP OF 94 PERCENT OXYGEN AND STORING 163 LITERS OF OXYGEN IN THE BACKUP OXYGEN SUPPLY (BOS). LOWER BLEED AIR PRESSURES IN GROUND TESTS MAY ACCOUNT FOR SOME DECREMENT IN PERFORMANCE OF THE MSOGS WHEN COMPARED TO LABORATORY TESTING. IN-FLIGHT TESTING IS REQUIRED. THE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, INCLUDING OXYGEN CONCENTRATION ANALYZER, BOS PRESSURE MONITOR, AND OXYGEN FLOWMETER DO NOT FUNCTION PROPERLY. THE REQUIRED OXYGEN PRESSURE IS TOO LOW TO ALLOW PROPER OPERATION OF THE OXYGEN FLOW SELECTORS.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, OXYGEN SYSTEM, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT TESTING
94-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1369 DTIC #: ADA276944
TITLE: TECHNICAL EVALUATION OF UH-60Q AIRCRAFT IN TYPICAL AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION MISSIONS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE UH-60Q PROTOTYPE MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK IS CONFIGURED TO PROVIDE DAY/NIGHT, ADVERSE WEATHER, EMERGENCY MOVEMENT OF PATIENTS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS REPORT IS TO DESCRIBE THE ABILITY OF THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT TO PERFORM TYPICAL AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION MISSIONS. THE PROTOTYPE AIRCRAFT WITH TYPICAL CREW PERFORMED FIVE SIMULATED DAY AND NIGHT MEDICAL EVACUATION MISSIONS AS DESCRIBED IN THE MATERIEL NEED STATEMENT FOR THE DUSTOFF UH-60Q. MEDICAL AIDMEN AND AVIATORS RATED THE MEDICAL INTERIOR AND AVIONICS SYSTEMS AND PROVIDED COMMENTS ON THEIR IN-FLIGHT EXPERIENCES. THE PROTOTYPE UH-60Q BLACK HAWK IS CAPABLE OF PERFORMING THE TYPICAL MEDEVAC MISSIONS. NONDEVELOPMENTAL COMPONENTS OF THE MEDICAL INTERIOR REQUIRE SOME REFINEMENTS INCLUDING IMPROVED VERTICAL CLEARANCE FOR LITTERS, IMPROVED DURABILITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL TOLERANCE. COMMUNICATIONS AND CABIN LIGHTING REQUIRE ADDITIONAL STUDY TO REFINE THESE REQUIREMENTS.
KEYWORDS: UH-60Q, MEDEVAC BLACK HAWK, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, EVACUATION, AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION MISSION
94-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 813 DTIC #: ADA277895
TITLE: FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED: CAPABILITIES FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: JOINT DOCTRINE FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE STRESS CAPABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY TO RESPOND TO VARIOUS MISSION SCENARIOS. EXPANDED MISSION REQUIREMENTS WILL NECESSITATE ENHANCED VISUAL CAPABILITIES FOR NAVIGATION AND RESCUE IN HOSTILE ENVIRONMENTS. FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED (FLIR) IS TO BE USED FOR SEARCH, RESCUE, AND NAVIGATION ON THE U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC (UH-60Q) HELICOPTER NEEDED FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS WITH THE UH-60Q (CONCEPT) HELICOPTER. FIVE AVIATORS WERE ASSESSED IN FLIGHT WITH TWO FLIR SYSTEMS HAVING DIFFERENT MAGNIFICATION AND LOOK-DOWN CAPABILITIES. DETECTION AND RECOGNITION OF A HUMAN TARGET AND AIRCRAFT POSITIONING FOR RESCUE WERE EVALUATED USING FLIR. THERE WAS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FLIR SYSTEMS IN THE DISTANCE FOR DETECTION OF THE HUMAN TARGET (P>0.50), BUT RECOGNITION OCCURRED AT 4X GREATER RANGE WITH SENSOR MAGNIFICATION (P<0.01). IN ADDITION, THE ACCURACY OF AIRCRAFT POSITIONING FOR RESCUE WAS 2X GREATER WITH UNRESTRICTED LOOK-DOWN CAPABILITY IN FLIR SYSTEM (P<0.03). THESE RESULTS INDICATE THE VALUE OF MULTIPLE FLIR MAGNIFICATION AND COMPLETE LOOK-DOWN CAPABILITY FOR SEARCH AND RESCUE OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, DETECTION, RECOGNITION
94-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1102 DTIC #: ADA278350
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: ARMY AVIATORS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) WAS QUERIED FOR ARMY AVIATORS WITH THE FINDING OF GLYCOSURIA, HYPERGLYCEMIA, IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE (IGT), DIABETES MELLITUS (DM), USE OF ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS, OR USE OF INSULIN FOR THE PERIOD 1988 TO 1992. THE PAPER REVIEWED THE LITERATURE PERTAINING TO AIRCREW WITH DIABETES, LISTED THE AEROMEDICAL CONCERNS RELATED TO FLYING DUTIES AND DIABETES, AND LISTED FACTORS AFFECTING THE INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN ARMY AVIATORS.
KEYWORDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, AIRCREW, INCIDENCE, DIABETES, MELLITUS, IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE, AEDR
94-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 328 DTIC #: ADA278987
TITLE: ACCOMMODATION DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING CAN BE INFLUENCED BY KNOWLEDGE OF OBJECT DISTANCE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE LEVEL OF ACCOMMODATION DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING IS INFLUENCED BY THE PERCEIVED NEARNESS OF THE OBJECT IN SUBJECTS WITH PROXIMAL, BUT NOT DISTAL, DARK FOCUSES.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, ACCOMMODATION, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, KNOWN OBJECT DISTANCE
94-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 349 DTIC #: ADA278962
TITLE: IS INCREASED ACCOMMODATION A NECESSARY CONDITION FOR INSTRUMENT MYOPIA? (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EMMETROPIC SUBJECTS FOCUS OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS AS THROUGH THEY WERE MYOPIC WHEN THE LEVEL OF ACCOMMODATION WITH INSTRUMENT VIEWING IS NO GREATER THAN IT IS WITHOUT.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, ACCOMMODATION, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NO-INSTRUMENT CONTROL
94-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1022 DTIC #: ADA278889
TITLE: RELATIONSHIP AMONG ACCOMMODATION, FOCUS, AND RESOLUTION WITH OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WE STUDIED INSTRUMENT MYOPIA AS AN OVERALL EFFECT CONSISTING OF INTERACTIONS AMONG THE OBSERVER'S ACCOMMODATION AND RESOLUTION DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING AND THE MANNER IN WHICH THE INSTRUMENT WAS FOCUSED. PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS OF INSTRUMENT MYOPIA GENERALLY HAVE BEEN LIMITED TO ONE OF THESE VARIABLES. OUR RESULTS ARE CONSISTENT WITH THE DARK-FOCUS-BIAS THEORY OF ACCOMMODATION WHICH HOLDS THAT ACCOMMODATION TENDS TO SEEK ITS RESTING POINT, OR DARK FOCUS, WHETHER OR NOT THE OBSERVER IS VIEWING THROUGH AN OPTICAL INSTRUMENT. THE AMOUNT OF ACCOMMODATION MEASURING DURING INSTRUMENT VIEWING WAS FOUND TO BE DEPENDENT ON INSTRUMENT DESIGN FEATURES THAT MODULATE THE BIAS OF ACCOMMODATION FOR THE DARK FOCUS.
KEYWORDS: INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, ACCOMMODATION, USER FOCUS ADJUSTMENT, RESOLUTION, DARK FOCUS, NO-INSTRUMENT CONTROL, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, CONTRAST, LUMINANCE
94-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 937 DTIC #: ADA279339
TITLE: FACTORS THAT DETERMINE VISUAL ACUITY THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES FOR EMMETROPES
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE FACTORS WHICH COULD AFFECT THE VISUAL ACUITY OF EMMETROPES (INDIVIDUALS WITH CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT REFRACTIVE ERROR) WHILE VIEWING THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, NAMELY UNAIDED VISUAL ACUITY, CLINICALLY INSIGNIFI-CANT REFRACTIVE ERROR, AND EXPERIENCE AS A VISUAL OBSERVER. WE FOUND THAT NIGHT VISION GOGGLE EYEPIECES ARE FOCUSED TO INFINITY, AND THAT THIS RELATIONSHIP IS ROBUST WITH RESPECT TO CHANGES IN TARGET CONTRAST. WE ALSO FOUND THAT BOTH THE UNAIDED AND NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (INFINITY FOCUS EYEPIECE) VISUAL ACUITY OF NOMINAL EMMETROPES IS RELATION TO UNCORRECTED REFRACTIVE ERROR, AND THAT EXPERIENCE AS A VISUAL OBSERVER IS SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED TO NIGHT VISION GOGGLE ACUITY. THE IMPLICATION OF THESE RESULTS IS THAT MANY AVIATORS WHO ARE MEDICALLY CLEARED TO FLY WITHOUT GLASSES WILL SUFFER FROM REDUCED VISION THROUGH ANY NIGHT VISION DEVICE WITH A FIXED INFINITY FOCUS EYEPIECE. SIMILARLY, GROUND VEHICLE OPERATORS WHO HAVE ASTIGMATISM AND WHO MUST USE SPECTACLE INCOMPATIBLE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES WILL ALSO SUFFER FROM REDUCED VISUAL ACUITY.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, VISUAL ACUITY, EMMETROPIA, REFRACTIVE ERROR
94-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 421 DTIC #: ADA279335
TITLE: VERNIER ACUITY THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) ARE BEING USED INCREASINGLY IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ENVIRONMENTS. DESPITE THE USE OF THESE DEVICES, RELATIVELY FEW TESTS EXIST TO ASSESS VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NVGS. HYPERACUITY TASKS MAY PROVIDE A SENSITIVE INDEX OF PERFORMANCE THROUGH NIGHT VISION DEVICES. IN THIS STUDY, GRATING VERNIER ACUITY WAS MEASURED THROUGH NVGS. AS REPORTED PREVIOUSLY, A POWER LAW RELATION WAS OBSERVED BETWEEN VERNIER ACUITY AND STIMULUS CONTRAST. COMPARISON OF VERNIER ACUITY WITH AND WITHOUT NVGS INDICATED THAT PERFORMANCE IS LIMITED BY THE CONTRAST TRANSFER OF THE DEVICE. VERNIER ACUITY MEASUREMENTS CAN BE USED TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF VISION AND QUANTITY OF CONTRAST TRANSFERRED THROUGH NIGHT VISION DEVICES.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, IMAGE INTENSIFIERS, VERNIER ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
94-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 457 DTIC #: ADA279334
TITLE: FLICKER DETECTION THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) IS COMMONLY ASSESSED WITH LETTER CHARTS OR OTHER STATIC DISPLAYS. FEW ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO EVALUATE DYNAMIC ASPECTS OF VISION THROUGH NVGS. SUCH INFORMATION MAY BE USED TO BETTER PREDICT HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND GUIDE THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED DEVICES. IN THIS STUDY, CONTRAST THRESHOLDS FOR DETECTION OF FLICKERING TARGETS WERE MEASURED THROUGH NVGS ACROSS A RANGE OF AMBIENT CONDITIONS. A COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS WITH AND WITHOUT NVGS INDICATED THAT FLICKER DETECTION IS LIMITED BY THE CONTRAST AND LUMINANCE OF THE NVG DISPLAY. THE CONTRAST LIMITATION IS LARGELY INDEPENDENT OF STIMULUS FLICKER FREQUENCY. INCREASING THE TRANSFER OF STATIC CONTRAST AND/OR LUMINANCE THROUGH NVGS WILL ALSO IMPROVE DYNAMIC VISUAL PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: TEMPORAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, FLICKER SENSITIVITY, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
94-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 608 DTIC #: ADA279338
TITLE: SPATIAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISUAL ACUITY IS OFTEN USED TO ASSESS VISION THROUGH IMAGE INTENSIFYING DEVICES SUCH AS NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS). FEWER ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO MEASURE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH NVGS. SUCH INFORMATION WOULD BE USEFUL TO BETTER UNDERSTAND CONTRAST PROCESSING THROUGH NVGS UNDER VARIOUS STIMULUS CONDITIONS. IN THIS STUDY, COMPUTER-GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH THIRD GENERATION NVGS FOR A RANGE OF LETTER SIZES. THE RED PHOSPHOR OF A STANDARD COLOR MONITOR PROVED TO BE AN EFFECTIVE STIMULUS FOR THIRD GENERATION DEVICES. DIFFERENT NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS WERE SIMULATED OVER A 3-LOG UNIT RANGE. THE RESULTS ILLUSTRATE THE PROFILE OF CONTRAST SENSITIVITY THROUGH THIRD GENERATION NVGS OVER A RANGE OF NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS. COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS THROUGH NVGS TO MEASUREMENTS OBTAINED WITHOUT THE DEVICE, BUT AT THE SAME LUMINANCE AND COLOR DISTINGUISH BETWEEN EFFECTS OF LUMINANCE AND NOISE ON CONTRAST SENSITIVITY.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
94-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 359 DTIC #: ADA282355
TITLE: OPTICAL DEFOCUS: DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS ON SIZE AND CONTRAST LETTER RECOGNITION THRESHOLDS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO DETERMINE IF OPTICAL DEFOCUS PRODUCES A GREATER REDUCTION IN VISUAL ACUITY OR SMALL-LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY. LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VISUAL ACUITY AND SMALL-LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (20/25 SNELL EQUIVALENT) AS A FUNCTION OF OPTICAL DEFOCUS. LETTER SIZE (ACUITY) AND CONTRAST (CONTRAST SENSITIVITY) WERE VARIED IN EQUAL LOGARITHMIC STEPS TO MAKE THE TASK THE SAME FOR THE TWO TYPES OF REQUIREMENTS.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, DEFOCUS, BLUR, VISION TESTING
94-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1142 DTIC #: ADA282211
TITLE: BIOMEDICAL IMAGING
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR SUBMISSION TO THE ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (AGARD) WORKING GROUP 20 AS A CHAPTER ON THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGE COLLECTION FOR A REPORT ON 3D ANTHROPOMETRY. THE PRINCIPAL 3D ANTHROPOMETRY DATA ACQUISITION TASK, IMAGING THE HUMAN BODY, PRESENTS TECHNICAL BARRIERS. THE UTLIMATE CHOICE OF IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEPENDS ON THE SPECIFIC DETAILS OF AN OBJECT THAT REQUIRE REPRODUCTION AND THE PRECISION REQUIRED FROM THE TASK. THIS REPORT DETAILS THE TECHNOLOGIES IN SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE IMAGING SYSTEMS FOR RESEARCH AND COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: BIOMEDICAL IMAGING, ANTHROPOMETRY, COMPUTER IMAGING
94-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 699 DTIC #: ADA282222
TITLE: DYNAMIC SINE WAVE RESPONSE MEASUREMENTS OF CRT DISPLAYS USING SINUSOIDAL COUNTERPHASE MODULATION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT W. VERONA, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, VICTOR KLYMENKO, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CURRENT PRACTICE OF BASING THE PERFORMANCE OF CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) DISPLAYS ON STATIC IMAGE QUALITY FIGURES-OF-MERIT FAILS TO PROVIDE A VALID ASSESSMENT OF A DISPLAY'S ABILITY TO REPRODUCE REAL-WORLD SCENES WHERE THERE IS RELATIVE MOTION WITHIN THE SCENE OR BETWEEN THE SENSOR AND THE SCENE. TECHNIQUES WHICH PROVIDE ASSESSMENT OF A DISPLAY'S CAPABILITY TO REPRODUCE SPATIAL INFORMATION IN A DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENT ARE NEEDED. ONE TECHNIQUE BASED ON RESPONSE TO SINUSOIDAL COUNTERPHASE IS PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: VISION, IMAGE QUALITY, CRT, MEASUREMENT, MTF, TV
94-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 565 DTIC #: ADA282356
TITLE: FOCUS ADJUSTMENT EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AND OCULOMOTOR BALANCE WITH AVIATOR NIGHT VISION DISPLAYS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIXTEEN U.S. ARMY AVIATORS, WHO WERE GIVEN TRAINING ON FOCUS ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE WITH AVIATOR NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG), SHOWED AN IMPROVEMENT IN VISUAL ACUITY WITH FOCUS ADJUSTMENT COMPARED TO A FIXED INFINITY FOCUS CONTROL. THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF FOCUS ADJUSTMENT ON VISION WAS NOT MEASURED; HOWEVER, ADJUSTMENT ACCURACY WAS FOUND TO BE GENERALLY WITHIN ACCEPTABLE LIMITED BASED ON COMPUTER MODELING AND AVAILABLE PHYSIOLOGIC DATA. FIXED FOCUS EYEPIECES THAT ARE SET TO A LOW MINUS POWER MAY PARTIALLY COMPENSATE FOR INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, BUT THEY MAY NOT OPTIMIZE VISUAL ACUITY TO THE EXTENT THAT ADJUSTABLE FOCUS EYEPIECES DO. EYEPIECE ADJUSTMENT PROFICIENCY WITH PRESENT NIGHT VISION DEVICES CAN BE IMPROVED THROUGH TRAINING THAT EMPHASIZES FOCUSING TO THE LEAST POSSIBLE MINUS DIOPTRIC POWER. FUTURE NIGHT VISION DISPLAYS CAN MINIMIZE FOCUS MISADJUSTMENT BY PROVIDING A TACTILE ZERO SETTING, A LIMITED DIOPTRIC ADJUSTMENT RANGE, AND A FOCUSING KNOB CAPABLE OF FINER ADJUSTMENT THAN IS AVAILABLE WITH CURRENT NVGS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION DISPLAYS, FOCUS ADJUSTMENT, VISUAL ACUITY, OCULOMOTOR BALANCE
94-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1309 DTIC #: ADA282114
TITLE: LABORATORY TEST REPORT OF THE BIRD CORPORATION AVIAN PORTABLE VENTILATOR, MODEL 15300, T&E IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 42
AUTHOR(s): MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM, JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE BIRD AVIAN PORTABLE VENTILATOR, MODEL 15300, WAS TESTED FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE/COMPATIBILITY UNDER THE U.S. ARMY PROGRAM FOR TESTING AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR AEROMEDICAL OPERATIONS. THE TESTS WERE CONDUCTED USING CURRENT MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL STANDARDS AND PROCEDURES. THE BIRD AVIAN VENTILATOR WAS FOUND COMPATIBLE WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS AFTER CONFIGURATION CHANGES. THE UNIT MAY PRODUCE SOME ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS IN EXCESS OF THE MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY, TEST AND EVALUATION, AEROMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
94-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2470 DTIC #: ADA282210
TITLE: SEMIAUTOMATED METHODOLOGY FOR MEASUREMENT OF FIELD-OF-VIEW, MAGNIFICATION, AND DISTORTION OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES AS DEFINED BY MIL-A-49425 (CR)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AS NEW AND IMPROVED DESIGNS FOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEMS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF IMAGE INTENSIFICATION ARE PRODUCED, IT IS ADVANTAGEOUS TO HAVE A SYSTEM WHICH CAN ACCURATELY AND QUICKLY ASSESS THE PERFORMANCE OF VARIOUS CONFIGURATIONS OF INTENSIFIERS AND ASSOCIATED OPTICS. PARAMETERS WHICH DEFINE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE INCLUDE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV), MAGNIFICATION, AND DISTORTION. THE AVAILABILITY OF PRECISION POSITIONERS AND PERSONAL COMPUTERS ENABLE THE MEASUREMENT OF PERFORMANCE AS SPEC-IFIED IN MILITARY SPECIFICATION MIL-A-49425 (CR) AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM AN/AVS6(V)1, AN/AVS-6(V)2, WITH A HIGH DEGREE OF ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY. A MEASUREMENT SYSTEM WHICH PROVIDES A HIGH FLEXIBILITY IN THE EVALUATION OF IMAGE INTENSIFICATION DEVICES IS DESCRIBED.
KEYWORDS: TESTING, IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, NVG, ANVIS
94-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3406 DTIC #: ADA285050
TITLE: COLLECTION OF REAL-TIME, MULTICHANNEL EEG DATA FROM HELICOPTER PILOTS IN FLIGHT: A FEASIBILITY STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JAMES A. LEWIS, STEPHEN R. DARLING, ROBERT M. DILLARD, PARLEY P. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT OF WHETHER VALID ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) DATA COULD BE COLLECTED ON HELICOPTER PILOTS IN FLIGHT WAS CONDUCTED USING 20 VOLUNTEERS. EACH SUBJECT PROVIDED A BRIEF EYES-OPEN AND EYES-CLOSED EEG IN THE LABORATORY AND THEN IN THE HELICOPTER. DURING HELICOPTER FLIGHTS, DATA WERE MONITORED AND RECORDED ON THE GROUND IN REAL-TIME VIA A RADIO TELEMETRY SYSTEM. INITIAL HARDWARE PROBLEMS RESULTED IN THE EXCLUSION OF SEVERAL RECORDS, BUT THESE PROBLEMS WERE RESOLVED TOWARD THE END OF THE STUDY. ANALYSIS OF THE REMAINING ACCEPTABLE EEG RECORDS INDICATED THAT THE TYPICAL INCREASE IN ALPHA ACTIVITY (7.5-13.0 HZ) DUE TO EYE CLOSURE WAS CLEARLY OBSERVABLE AT EVERY ANALYZED ELECTRODE SITE REGARDLESS OF WHETHER THE TESTING OCCURRED IN THE LABORATORY OR IN THE HELICOPTER. FURTHER EXAMINATIONS OF DELTA, THETA, AND BEAT BANDS SHOWED THAT THE EEG DATA WERE NOT OVERLY CONTAMINATED BY ARTIFACTS, ALTHOUGH IT WAS MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO FIND "CLEAN" SEGMENTS ON RECORDS COLLECTED IN THE HELI-COPTER THAN IN THE LABORATORY. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT IT IS POSSIBLE TO RECORD AND TELEMETER USEABLE EEG FROM THE IN-FLIGHT HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENT. FOLLOW-ON STUDIES WILL EXAMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF ANALYZING EEG DATA COLLECTED WHILE THE PILOT IS PERFORMING FLIGHT-RELATED TASKS.
KEYWORDS: EEG, TELEMETRY, HELICOPTER, AVIATORS
94-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 386 DTIC #: ADA281711
TITLE: VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) HAVE WIDESPREAD USE IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ENVIRONMENTS. NVGS AMPLIFY AMBIENT ILLUMINATION MAKING PERFORMANCE POSSIBLE WHEN THERE IS INSUFFICIENT ILLUMINATION FOR NORMAL VISION. WHILE VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NVGS IS COMMONLY ASSESSED BY MEASURING THRESHOLD FUNCTIONS SUCH AS VISUAL ACUITY, FEW ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO ASSESS VISION THROUGH NVGS AT SUPRATHRESHOLD LEVELS OF STIMULATION. SUCH INFORMATION WOULD BE USEFUL TO BETTER UNDERSTAND VISION THROUGH NVGS ACROSS A RANGE OF STIMULUS CONDITIONS. IN THIS STUDY, VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS (VEPS) WERE USED TO EVALUATE VISION THROUGH NVGS ACROSS A RANGE OF STIMULUS CONTRASTS. A COMPARISON OF VEPS RECORDED WITH AND WITHOUT NVGS VARIED LINEARLY WITH LOG ATTENUATION THROUGH THE DEVICE. VEPS OFFER AN OBJECTIVE, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL TOOL TO ASSESS VISUAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH NVGS AT BOTH THRESHOLD AND SUPRATHRESHOLD LEVELS OF VISUAL STIMULATION.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, VISUAL-EVOKED POTENTIALS, CONTRAST
94-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 429 DTIC #: ADA281784
TITLE: SWITCHING FROM FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED TO NIGHT VISION GOGGLES: TRANSITORY EFFECTS ON VISUAL RESOLUTION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN, ROGER W. WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS UNDER DEVELOPMENT FOR ROTARY- AND FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT WILL ALLOW THE USER TO SWITCH ELECTRONICALLY BETWEEN FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED (FLIR) AND NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) SENSORS. THESE SENSOR TRANSITIONS POTENTIALLY INVOLVE LARGE CHANGES IN DISPLAY LUMINANCE WHICH COULD TRANSIENTLY IMPAIR VISUAL RESOLUTION AND PERFORMANCE. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO IDENTIFY LUMINANCES WHICH PRODUCE A TRANSIENT REDUCTION IN VISION WHEN SWITCHING FROM A HIGHER LUMINANCE (FLIR) TO A LOWER LUMINANCE (NVG) DISPLAY. A LETTER RECOGNITION TASK WAS USED TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF LUMINANCE ADAPTATION ON VISUAL RESOLUTION IN FIVE SUBJECTS. A SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN LETTER RECOGNITION WAS OBSERVED IN THE FIRST SECOND AFTER SWITCHING FROM SIMULATED FLIR TO SIMULATED NVGS WHEN THE FLIR LUMINANCE WAS > 10 FL. BY VARYING LETTER SIZE, CONTRAST, AND EXPOSURE TIME, THE MAGNITUDE AND DURATION OF VISUAL LOSS AFTER SWITCHING FROM A BRIGHT (49.2 FL) FLIR DISPLAY WERE DETERMINED. THE VISUAL LOSS LASTED UP TO 4 SECONDS, AND INCLUDED A 2X REDUCTION IN VISUAL ACUITY, AND A 3X REDUCTION IN CONTRAST SENSITIVITY. LARGE DIFFERENCES IN SENSOR DISPLAY LUMINANCE SHOULD BE AVOIDED TO MAINTAIN HIGH LEVELS OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE AND AVIATION SAFETY. DESIGN FEATURES OR TRAINING MAY BE NECESSARY TO ACHIEVE A PROPER BALANCE BETWEEN FLIR AND NVG LUMINATIONS WHICH OPTIMIZE PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY WITHOUT SACRIFICING THE QUALITY OF THE SENSOR IMAGE.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION DEVICES, FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED, LUMINANCE ADAPTATION, VISUAL RESOLUTION
94-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2779 DTIC #: ADA283081
TITLE: FACTORS AFFECTING THE VISUAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE FIELD-OF-VIEW IN PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LUNING IS A DETRIMENTAL VISUAL EFFECT CHARACTERIZED BY A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING OF THE VISUAL FIELD IN THE MONOCULAR REGION OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS. WITH SUFFICIENTLY SMALL VISUAL FIELDS, LUNING IS EXPERIENCED AS FRAGMENTATION OF THE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) INTO THREE REGIONS, WITH THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGIONS APPEARING TO BE DISTINCT AND PHENOMENALLY SEGREGATED FROM THE MONOCULAR SIDE REGIONS. VISUAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE FOV IS LIKELY THE RESULT OF THE BINOCULAR RIVALRY AND SUPPRESSION CAUSED BY THE DICHOTIC COMPETITION BETWEEN THE IMAGES IN THE TWO EYES. THE EFFECT OF THE FOLLOWING FACTORS ON FRAGMENTATION WAS INVESTIGATED: (1) THE DISPLAY MODE-CONVERGENT VERSUS DIVERGENT; (2) THE SIZE OF THE MONOCULAR REGIONS; (3) THE SIZE OF THE MONOCULAR FIELDS; (4) THE SIZE OF THE FOV; AND (5) THE SIZE OF THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION. THIRTEEN ARMY AVIATORS SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN A DESIGN WHERE EACH SUBJECT MADE FORCED-CHOICE FRAGMENTATION JUDGMENTS OF 25 DIFFERENT PAIRS OF STIMULI IN WHICH THESE FIVE FACTORS WERE SYSTEMICALLY VARIED. THE RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODE SYSTEMICALLY INDUCED MORE FRAGMENTATION THAN THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE AND ALSO THAT PATTERNS WITH A SMALLER BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION TENDED TO FRAGMENT MORE THAN PATTERNS WITH A LARGER BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION. THE REMAINING THREE FACTORS HAD NO INFLUENCE ON FRAGMENTATION. IN ADDITION, NEITHER OPTICAL CONVERGENCE NOR THE RETINAL LOCATION OF THE BLIND SPOT WERE SHOWN TO BE IMPORTANT FACTORS. ECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF OUR RESULTS ARE DISCUSSED. WHEN A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY IS NEEDED TO INCREASE THE FOV TO AVIATORS IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS, THE CONVERGENCE DISPLAYS MODE WITH THE LARGER BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION APPEAR TO BE THE BEST OF THE CONDITIONS TESTED TO ATTENUATE THE FRAGMENTATION EFFECT OF LUNING. ADDITION FACTORS ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, DICHOPTIC, CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, NASAL RETINA, TEMPORAL RETINA
94-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 597 DTIC #: ADA283065
TITLE: STANDARDS RELEVANT TO A NATO ANTHROPOMETRY SURVEY USING 3D IMAGING TOOLS
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESIGNERS OF AIRCRAFT COCKPITS AND AIRCREW EQUIPMENT HAVE LONG RECOGNIZED THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS OF THE FLYING POPULATION. THE SUCCESS OF 3D ANTHROPOMETRY AND ITS USABILITY FOR DESIGN AND FITTING ARE LARGELY DEPENDENT ON THE ADOPTION OF STANDARDS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE DISPLAY, TRANSFORMATION, STORAGE, AND COMMUNICATION. STANDARDS ARE REQUIRED FOR IMAGE DATA OBTAINED FROM SURFACE OR VOLUMMETRIC SCANNER SYSTEMS, AS WELL AS REDUCED AND ANALYZED DATA. THERE ARE HUNDREDS OF DATA FORMATS ALREADY IN USE BY VARIOUS DISCIPLINES FOR ALL SORTS OF DATA. IN THIS PAPER, WE WILL DISCUSS WHAT IS DESIRED IN A FORMAT FOR 3D BIOMEDICAL IMAGE DATA AND SEVERAL FORMATS ALREADY AVAILABLE.
KEYWORDS: 3D IMAGING, BIOMEDICAL IMAGING, STANDARDS, ANTHROPOMETRY
94-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 915 DTIC #: ADA283064
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING OUTCOMES IN THE NORTH DAKOTA ARMY NATIONAL GUARD AVIATION COHORT
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY COMPARED THE AEROMEDICAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING OUTCOMES BETWEEN THE NORTH DAKOTA ARMY NATIONAL GUARD (NDARNG) AVIATOR COHORT AND A PEER COHORT COMPOSED OF ALL OTHER ARMY NATIONAL GUARD (ARNG) AVIATORS. EACH COHORT INCLUDED AVIATORS AGE 40 OR OLDER WHICH IS THE AGE AVIATORS ENTER THE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM FOR THE DETECTION OF DISEASE.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, AIRCREW, CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING, AEDR
94-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 962 DTIC #: ADA284300
TITLE: APACHE HELICOPTER SEAT CUSHION EVALUATION
AUTHOR(s): BARCLAY P. BUTLER, NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO PROTOTYPES OF THE AH-64 PILOT SEAT CUSHIONS WERE EVALUATED AGAINST THE STANDARD CUSHION SET BY EACH OF A GROUP OF 12 AH-64 INSTRUCTOR PILOTS AFTER BEING EXPOSED TO SIMULATED AH-64 VIBRATION SIGNATURES FOR A PERIOD OF 1 HOUR. OBJECTIVE INDICATIONS OF VIBRATION ATTENUATION WERE OBTAINED BY MEASURING TRANSFER FUNCTIONS ACROSS EACH CUSHION. SUBJECTIVE PILOT PREFERENCES ALSO WERE OBTAINED AFTER EACH RIDE USING A QUESTIONNAIRE. RESULTS OF THE OBJECTIVE MEASUREMENTS INDICATE BOTH THE AIR-FILLED AND FOAM-FILLED PROTOTYPES REDUCED LOW-FREQUENCY TRANSMISSION OF VIBRATION BETTER THAN THE STANDARD CUSHIONS. SUBJECTIVE RESPONSES INDICATE SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN COMFORT AND VIBRATION ABSORPTION FOR THE SEAT BACK AND BOTTOM CUSHIONS OF BOTH PROTOTYPES OVER THE STANDARD CUSHION SET.
KEYWORDS: SEAT CUSHION, APACHE, HELICOPTER PILOTS, CREW COMFORT
94-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 5189 DTIC #: ADA285181
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE PALLETIZED LOAD SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): AL W. MORAN, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON, TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT IS REQUIRED TO ASSESS POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HEALTH HAZARDS TO CREWMEMBERS. AS REQUESTED BY THE U. S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY, A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED BY THE U. S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) ON THE PALLETIZED LOAD SYSTEM (PLS) TRUCK. THE PLS WAS TESTED ON FIVE CROSS-COUNTRY COURSES AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MARYLAND, BY THE U. S. ARMY COMBAT SYSTEM TEST ACTIVITY IN COORDINATION WITH THE RESPONSE AND TOLERANCE BRANCH OF USAARL. THE PLS WAS TESTED WITH SPEEDS RANGING FROM 3 TO 20 MPH. THE RESULTS OF THESE TESTS SHOW THAT, FOR THE WORST CASE SCENARIO FOR EACH COURSE, THE LOWEST TOLERANCE FOR WBV WAS ON COURSE 5. LESS SEVERE WBV OCCURRED ON COURSES 1 AND 3, WHICH HAD NEAR EQUAL TOLERANCES, FOLLOWED BY COURSE 4. FINALLY, THE HIGHEST TOLERANCES FOR WBV EXPOSURE WERE ON COURSE 2. THE RESULTS ALSO SHOW THAT BOTH DRIVER AND PASSENGER WERE EXPOSED TO A HAZARD SEVERITY-CATEGORY III (MARGINAL), WITH A HAZARD PROBABILITY-LEVEL C (OCCASIONAL). THE OVERALL RISK ASSESSMENT CODE (RAC) WAS 3. THIS INDICATES THE PLS DOES NOT PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT HEALTH RISK TO ITS CREWMEMBERS.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
94-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 568 DTIC #: ADA284424
TITLE: DOES DISPLAY PHOSPHOR BANDWIDTH AFFECT THE ABILITY OF THE EYE TO FOCUS? (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE FOCUSING RESPONSE OF THE EYE (ACCOMMODATION) IS DEGRADED IN MONOCHROMATIC LIGHT FOR MANY SUBJECTS. TO FIND OUT WHETHER THIS DEGRADATION ALSO OCCURS IN NARROWBAND POLYCHROMATIC LIGHT, WE MEASURED THE ACCOMMODATION OF NINE YOUNG ADULT VOLUNTEER SUBJECTS ACROSS THREE BANDWIDTHS (10, 20, AND 80 NM) AND A BROADBAND CONTROL (WHITE LIGHT). THE PEAK WAVELENGTH WAS 550 NM FOR EACH OF THE BANDLESS FILTERED STIMULI, AND THE LUMINANCE OF ALL TARGETS WAS 10CD/M2. ACCOMMODATION WAS MEASURED WITH A DYNAMIC INFRARED OPTOMETER WHILE THE SUBJECTS VIEWED THRESHOLD-SIZED, HIGH-CONTRAST LETTERS UNDER BOTH DYNAMIC AND STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS. IN THE FORMER, THE OPTICAL DISTANCE OF THE TARGET WAS VARIED SINUSOIDALLY FROM 0.0 TO 2.0 DIOPTERS (OPTICAL INFINITY TO 50 CM) AT A TEMPORAL FREQUENCY THAT, UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS, ACCOMMODATIVE CONSTANT AT 1.0 DIOPTER (1.0 M). WE FOUND STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT WAY WITH INCREASES IN SPECTRAL BANDWIDTH. UNDER STEADY-STATE CONDITIONS, THERE WAS NO STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT TREND. THESE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT ACCOMMODATION MIGHT SUFFER FROM THE USE OF NARROWBAND PHOSPHORS IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS, I.E., THE OBSERVER MIGHT ACCOMMODATE INACCURATELY TO THE DISPLAY IF FREQUENT CHANGES IN FOCUS TO AND FROM THE DISPLAY ARE REQUIRED.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY, PHOSPHOR BANDWIDTH, ACCOMMODATION
94-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 535 DTIC #: ADA284970
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: AGE-SPECIFIC MEDICAL AND NONMEDICAL ATTRITION RATES AMONG FORT RUCKER CIVILIAN AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF FORT RUCKER CIVILIAN AVIATORS COULD NOT BE COMPLETED WITHOUT FIRST CONDUCTING AN ANALYSIS OF ATTRITION FROM AVIATION SERVICE DUE TO MEDICAL AND NONMEDICAL CAUSES. LONGITUDINAL DATA ON FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS AND AEROMEDICAL BOARDS CONDUCTED ON FORT RUCKER AREA CIVILIAN AVIATORS WAS REVIEWED USING U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR). THE AEDR RECORDS OF 847 FORT RUCKER CIVILIAN AVIATORS WERE REVIEWED OVER 9 CALENDAR YEARS FOR 1985 TO 1993. BY THE END OF 1992, 528 (63.3 PERCENT) REMAINED IN AVIATION SERVICE, 251 (29.6 PERCENT) WERE LOST TO NONMEDICAL ATTRITION, AND 68 (8.1 PERCENT) WERE LOST TO MEDICAL ATTRITION. OF THE 847, 196 (23.14 PERCENT) HAD OPERATIONAL MILITARY AFFILIATION (DUAL-STATUS SERVICE AS CIVILIANS AND RESERVE COMPONENT AVIATORS), WHILE 651 (76.86 PERCENT) DID NOT. CONTROLLING FOR AGE, THERE WAS A HIGHER RISK FOR NONMEDICAL AND MEDICAL ATTRITION AMONG THOSE WITHOUT OPERATIONAL MILITARY AFFILIATION (X2 MANTEL-HAENSZEL, P <0.0001). MEDICAL ATTRITION WAS UNCOMMON UP TO 50 YEARS OF AGE. CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE ACCOUNTED FOR THREE-FOURTHS OF THE CASES OF MEDICAL ATTRITION. OVERALL, THERE WAS A THREEFOLD HIGHER RATE OF MEDICAL ATTRITION AMONG THOSE WITHOUT OPERATIONAL MILITARY AFFILIATION.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, AIRCREW, AEDR
94-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 598 DTIC #: ADA284395
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: GENDER-SPECIFIC ATTRITION FROM THE TRAINED U.S. ARMY AVIATION COHORT OF 1988
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, KEVIN T. MASON, JENNIFER P. HARPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WOMEN HAVE BEEN INVOLVED IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION FOR MORE THAN TWO DECADES. LITTLE HAS BEEN WRITTEN ABOUT THE INTEGRATION OF WOMEN INTO THIS TRADITIONALLY MALE OCCUPATION. ONE OF THE INDEXES OF SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF WOMEN IS THEIR RETENTION RATE IN AVIATION SERVICE. THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER WAS QUERIED TO FIND OUT THE ATTRITION RATE AMONG TRAINED U.S. ARMY MALE AND FEMALE AVIATORS FROM 1988 TO 1992. IN THE TRAINED AVIATOR COHORT OF 1988, MALE AVIATORS WERE SIGNIFICANTLY OLDER THAN FEMALE AVIATORS (X2 MANTEL-HAENSZEL, P<0.001), WHATEVER THE COMPONENT OF SERVICE. THE CRUDE ATTRITION RATE FOR ALL AGE GROUPS WAS 55.4 PER CENT (11,148 OF 21,395) FOR MALES, COMPARED TO 54.1 PERCENT (265 OF 490) FOR FEMALES. BASED ON MALE ATTRITION AND AFTER CONTROLLING FOR THE AGE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE AVIATORS, THE OBSERVED ATTRITION OF FEMALES (265) EXCEEDED THE EXPECTED ATTRITION (243) BY 22 FEMALES (9.1 PERCENT EXCESS ATTRITION). FOR THE AGE GROUPS 18 TO 44 YEARS OLD, THERE WAS A SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER RISK FOR ATTRITION AMONG FEMALE AVIATORS (MANTEL-HAENSZEL OR=1.23, CI=1.025, 1.470). THIS INCREASED ATTRITION RATE WAS FOUND PRIMARILY IN THE AGE GROUPS FROM 18 TO 34 YEARS OLD. THE CAUSE FOR THE OBSERVED EXCESS ATTRITION OF FEMALE ARMY AVIATORS IS UNKNOWN AND REQUIRES FURTHER STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING RETENTION IN AVIATION SERVICE.
KEYWORDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, FEMALE, AVIATOR, ATTRITION, AEDR
94-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1013 DTIC #: ADA284971
TITLE: THE ASSESSMENT OF THE AH-64D, LONGBOW, MAST MOUNTED ASSEMBLY NOISE HAZARD FOR MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, ELMAREE GORDON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NOISE LEVELS AROUND THE AH-64 HELICOPTER EXCEED SAFE LIMITS. MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL ARE REQUIRED TO WEAR HEARING PROTECTION TO REDUCE HAZARD TO HEARING WHILE PERFORMING MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES. THIS EVALUATION WAS DIRECTED AT DETERMINING THE CONTRIBUTION TO NOISE LEVELS BY THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AUXILIARY GROUND POWER UNIT (AGPU), ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL SYSTEM (ECS), AND MAST MOUNTED ASSEMBLY (MMA) AT A VARIETY OF MAINTENANCE POSITIONS AND ESTABLISH PROTECTION CAPABILITIES OF STANDARD PROTECTORS FOR THOSE NOISE LEVELS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE LEVELS, AH-64 HELICOPTER, HEARING PROTECTION, NOISE HAZARDS
94-38 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 710 DTIC #: ADA285182
TITLE: DIRECT COMPARISON OF TWO STATISTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF EVOKED-POTENTIAL THRESHOLDS
AUTHOR(s): TED L. LANGFORD, JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEVERAL STATISTICAL PROCEDURES HAVE BEEN PROPOSED AS OBJECTIVE METHODS FOR DETERMINING EVOKED-POTENTIAL THRESHOLDS. DATA HAVE BEEN PRESENTED TO SUPPORT EACH OF THE METHODS, BUT THERE HAVE BEEN NOT BEEN DIRECT COMPARISONS USING THE SAME DATA. THE GOAL OF THE PRESENT STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE CORRELATION AND VARIANCE RATIO STATISTICS USING COMMON DATA. A SECONDARY GOAL WAS TO EVALUATE THE UTILITY OF A DERIVED POTENTIAL FOR DETERMINING THRESHOLDS. CHRONIC, BIPOLAR ELECTRODES WERE STEREOTAXIXALLY IMPLANTED INTO THE INFERIOR COLLICULI OF SIX CHINCHILLAS. EVOKED POTENTIALS WERE OBTAINED AT 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, AND 8.0 KHZ USING 12-MS TONE BURSTS AND 12-MS TONE BURSTS SUPERIMPOSED ON 120-MS PEDESTAL TONES WHICH WERE OF THE SAME FREQUENCY AS THE BURSTS, BUT LOWER IN AMPLITUDE BY 15 DB. ALTERNATE RESPONSES WERE AVERAGED IN BLOCKS OF 200 TO 4000 DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE RESPONSE. CORRELATIONS WERE CALCULATED FOR THE PAIRS OF AVERAGES. A RESPONSE WAS DEEMED PRESENT IF THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT REACHED THE 0.05 LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE IN 4000 OR FEWER AVERAGES. THRESHOLD WAS DEFINED AS THE MEAN OF THE LEVEL AT WHICH THE CORRELATION WAS CALCULATED AS DESCRIBED BY ELBERLING AND DON (1984) USING THE SAME DATA. AVERAGED TONE BURST AND TONE BURST-PLUS PEDESTAL DATA WERE DIFFERENTIATED AND THE RESULTING WAVEFORMS SUBJECTED TO THE SAME STATISTICAL ANALYSIS DESCRIBED ABOVE. ALL ANALYSES YIELDED THRESHOLDS WHICH WERE ESSENTIALLY THE SAME AS THOSE OBTAINED USING BEHAVIORAL METHODS. WHEN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DURATIONS IS TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT, HOWEVER, EVOKED-POTENTIAL METHODS PRODUCED LOWER THRESHOLDS THAN BEHAVIORAL METHODS.
KEYWORDS: EVOKED POTENTIALS, OBJECTIVE THRESHOLD DETERMINATION, CHINCHILLA
94-39 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 825 DTIC #: ADA285191
TITLE: AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF CIVILIAN AVIATORS FLYING U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL ARMY AVIATORS PARTICIPATE IN A CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM. FIVE PERCENT OF ARMY AVIATORS ARE CIVILIAN. THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION CENTER REQUESTED A REVIEW OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING OUTCOMES AMONG THIS SUBGROUP OF AVIATORS. THE AEDR WAS QUERIED TO DETERMINE THE CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OUTCOMES OF CIVILIAN AVIATORS WHO FAILED LEVELS 1 AND 2 OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SCREENING PROGRAM DURING THE PERIOD 1988 TO 1992.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE, AVIATORS, CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY, AEDR
94-40 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1301 DTIC #: ADA285213
TITLE: VISUAL PERCEPTION IN THE FIELD-OF-VIEW OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLMEMKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: BECAUSE OF LIMITATIONS IN THE SIZE OF FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) AVAILABLE IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMD) USING THE FULL OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE, WHERE THE ENTIRE FOV IS BINOCULAR, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS, WHICH CAN BE CONVERGENT OR DIVERGENT, HAVE BEEN PROPOSED. ONE CONSEQUENCE OF THIS IS A PERCEPTUAL EFFECT KNOWN AS LUNING, WHICH IS A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS OF THE FOV, WHICH CAN IN SOME CASES CAUSE FRAGMENTATION OF THE FOV INTO THREE REGIONS. A CONCERN IS THE POSSIBLE EFFECT ON TARGET IDENTIFICATION IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS, PARTICULARLY IN AREAS AFFECTED BY LUNING. WE REVIEW DATA WE HAVE COLLECTED IN OUR BINOCULAR VISION LAB ON THE EFFECT OF DISPLAY MODE ON THESE ASPECTS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION.
KEYWORDS: FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAY, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY, CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, LUNING, DICHOPTIC, CONTRAST THRESHOLD, BINOCULAR OCCLUSION
94-41 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 929 DTIC #: ADA285199
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER, VOLUME 1
AUTHOR(s): TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BARCLAY P. BUTLER, NABIH M. ALEM, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT IS REQUIRED TO ASSESS POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HAZARDS TO CREWMEMBERS. AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY (USAEHA), A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) ON THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER SYSTEM (HETS). THE HETS WAS TESTED ON THREE CROSS-COUNTY COURSES AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND (APG), MD, BY THE U.S. ARMY COMBAT SYSTEMS TEST ACTIVITY (USACSTA), IN COORDINATION WITH THE RESPONSE AND TOLERANCE BRANCH OF USAARL. THE M1070 HETS WAS TESTED WITH A M1000 TRAILER IN A LOADED AND UNLOADED CONFIGURATION. THE LOADED CONFIGURATION WAS OBTAINED BY PLACING A M1 TANK ON THE BED OF THE M1000 TRAILER. THE UNLOADED CONFIGURATION CONSISTED OF A M1070 TRACTOR WITH AN EMPTY M1000 TRAILER. WHILE OPERATING THE HETS IN ITS INTENDED OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, THE FRONT PASSENGER WAS EXPOSED TO AN OVERALL RISK ASSESSMENT CODE OF 5. THIS CONSISTED OF AN OVERALL ASSIGNMENT OF HAZARD SEVERITY CATEGORY IV AND HAZARD PROBABILITY OF D.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
94-41a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7596 DTIC #: ADA285214
TITLE: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION ASSESSMENT OF THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER, VOLUME 2
AUTHOR(s): TAMMY L. SIMMONS, BARCLAY P. BUTLER, NABIH M. ALEM, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF ALL NEW TACTICAL VEHICLES AND AIRCRAFT IS REQUIRED TO ASSESS POTENTIAL WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION (WBV) HAZARDS TO CREWMEMBERS. AS REQUESTED BY THE U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE AGENCY (USAEHA), A HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT (HHA) WAS PERFORMED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) ON THE M1070 HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER SYSTEM (HETS). THE HETS WAS TESTED ON THREE CROSS-COUNTY COURSES AT ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND (APG), MD, BY THE U.S. ARMY COMBAT SYSTEMS TEST ACTIVITY (USACSTA), IN COORDINATION WITH THE RESPONSE AND TOLERANCE BRANCH OF USAARL. THE M1070 HETS WAS TESTED WITH A M1000 TRAILER IN A LOADED AND UNLOADED CONFIGURATION. THE LOADED CONFIGURATION WAS OBTAINED BY PLACING A M1 TANK ON THE BED OF THE M1000 TRAILER. THE UNLOADED CONFIGURATION CONSISTED OF A M1070 TRACTOR WITH AN EMPTY M1000 TRAILER. WHILE OPERATING THE HETS IN ITS INTENDED OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, THE FRONT PASSENGER WAS EXPOSED TO AN OVERALL RISK ASSESSMENT CODE OF 5. THIS CONSISTED OF AN OVERALL ASSIGNMENT OF HAZARD SEVERITY CATEGORY IV AND HAZARD PROBABILITY OF D.
KEYWORDS: WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT, EXPOSURE LIMITS, TACTICAL VEHICLES, TERRAIN, CREWMEMBERS
94-42 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 941 DTIC #: ADA285190
TITLE: A CORRECTIVE INVESTIGATION OF SIMULATED OCCUPANT MOTION AND ACCIDENT REPORT IN A HELICOPTER CRASH
AUTHOR(s): DAVID G. BEALE, NABIH M. ALEM, BARCLAY P. BUTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MOTION AND CONTACT OF HELICOPTER PILOT WITH THE COCKPIT INTERIOR STRUCTURE DURING A CRASH ARE EXPLORED IN THIS REPORT. THE STUDY RELIES ON ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORTS TO ESTIMATE THE HELICOPTER KINEMATICS AT IMPACT, THEN USES MATHEMATICAL MODELS (I.E., THE ARTICULATED TOTAL BODY (ATB) MODEL) TO SIMULATE THE STROKING OF THE CRASHWORTHY SEAT, THE ACTION OF THE INERTIA REEL AND RESTRAINT SYSTEM, THE PILOT'S MOTION, AND HIS CONTACT WITH THE INSTRUMENT PANEL. THE REPORT DESCRIBES SIMULATIONS OF SEVERAL SCENARIOS WHICH WERE CONDUCTED IN ORDER TO EXPLAIN THE OCCURRENCE OF BASAL SKULL FRACTURES. THE RESULTS CONFIRM THE INJURY CAUSING SCENARIO PROPOSED BY THE ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND REFUTED ANOTHER SUGGESTED SCENARIO. THE REPORT CONCLUDES BY POINTING OUT THAT BIODYNAMIC MODELS SUCH AS THE ATB CAN BE EFFECTIVE TOOLS TO EXPLORE THE ROLES OF INERTIA REELS, ENERGY-ABSORBING SEATS, INFLATABLE AIRBAGS, AND OTHER SAFETY DEVICES IN REDUCING INJURY TO THE PILOT.
KEYWORDS: MOTION, COCKPIT INTERIOR, ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, IMPACT, MATHEMATICAL MODELS
94-43 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3715 DTIC #: ADA286290
TITLE: EFFECTS OF DEXTROAMPHETAMINE ON HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE: A UH-60 SIMULATOR STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., J. LYNN CALDWELL, JOHN S. CROWLEY, HEBER D. JONES, STEPHEN R. DARLING, SHYLONDA L. WALLACE, LARRY C. WOODRUM, JOSE A. COLON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO DETERMINE THE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF USING DEXEDRINE TO SUSTAIN AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DURING PERIODS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION, A PLACEBO-CONTROLLLED STUDY WAS CONDUCTED. SIX U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER PILOTS COMPLETED FIVE, 1-HOUR FLIGHTS IN A SPECIALLY-INSTRUMENTED UH-60 SIMULATOR WHILE THEIR PERFORMANCE WAS EVALUATED VIA A COMPUTERIZED SCORING SYSTEM. IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING EACH FLIGHT, DATA WERE COLLECTED ON ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) ACTIVITY, COGNITIVE/PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE, AND SUBJECTIVE MOOD RATINGS. THE TESTING SESSIONS BEGAN WITH FLIGHTS AT 0100, 0500, 0900, 1300, AND 1700. ONE HOUR PRIOR TO EACH OF THE FIRST THREE SESSIONS ON THE DRUG ADMINISTRATION DAY, THE AVIATORS WERE GIVEN 10 MG OF DEXEDRINE OR PLACEBO. STATISTICAL ANALYSES OF THE FLIGHT MANEUVERS REVEALED THAT DEXEDRINE IMPROVED AVIATOR CONTROL ON EVERY MANEUVER WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE HOVERING TURNS AND THE FORMATION FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: STIMULANTS, AVIATORS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, EEG, MOOD
94-44 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 110 DTIC #: ADA285653
TITLE: PREGNANCY AND FLYING DUTIES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SOME ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS WANT TO FLY DURING PREGNANCY. CURRENT ARMY POLICY SIGNIFICANTLY RESTRICTS FLYING DUTIES DURING PREGNANCY. THERE ARE MULTIPLE PHYSICAL FORCES AND BIOCHEMICAL EXPOSURES IN THE ARMY FLYING ENVIRONMENT WHICH MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT THE COURSE OF A PREGNANCY AND THE DEVELOPING FETUS. NOISE, WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, AND ACCELERATION FORCES ARE OF PARTICULAR CONCERN. THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF THESE FORCES HAVE BEEN DOCUMENTED IN ANIMAL MODELS AND BY HUMAN OBSERVATION STUDIES.
KEYWORDS: DATABASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PREGNANCE, PHYSICAL FORCES, AVIATORS, AEDR
94-45 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 531 DTIC #: ADA285654
TITLE: LABORATORY AND FLIGHT TESTS OF MEDICAL EQUIPMENT FOR USE IN U.S. ARMY MEDEVAC HELICOPTERS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH R. LICINA, MARTIN D. QUATTLEBAUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: WHEN USED IN AN AIR MEDICAL SETTING, MEDICAL EQUIPMENT DESIGNED FOR USE IN HOSPITALS CAN FAIL FROM THE STRESSES OF IN-FLIGHT USE, OR THEY INTERFERE WITH CRITICAL ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS. FROM JANUARY 1989 TO JUNE 1992, 34 MEDICAL DEVICES, INCLUDING MONITOR/DEFIBRILLATORS, INFUSION PUMPS, VITAL-SIGNS MONITORS, VENTILATORS AND INFANT TRANSPORT INCUBATORS, WERE TESTED UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS OF TEMPERATURE, HUMIDITY, ALTITUDE AND VIBRATION (MIL-STD-810D). ELECTROMAGNETIC EMISSIONS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY WERE MEASURED (MIL-STD-461C AND 462), AND HUMAN FACTORS WERE EVALUATED. THE DEVICES WERE FLIGHT TESTED IN A UH-60 MEDEVAC HELICOPTER. THIRTY-TWO PERCENT OF THE MEDICAL DEVICES FAILED AT LEAST ONE ENVIRONMENTAL TEST, AND 91 PERCENT OF THE DEVICES FAILED TO MEET THE ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE STANDARDS. FAILURES INCLUDED EXCESS CONDUCTED AND RADIATED EMISSIONS AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO RADIATED EMISSIONS. FIVE (15 PERCENT) OF THE DEVICES WERE JUDGED UNSUITABLE FOR USE IN THE UH-60 MEDEVAC HELICOPTER. TESTING IS CRITICAL TO DISCOVER THE ABILITY OF A MEDICAL DEVICE TO PERFORM IN THE HARSH ROTOR-WING MEDEVAC ENVIRONMENT. FAILURE OF A DEVICE OR INTERFERENCE WITH AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS CAN RESULT IN LOSS OF A PATIENT OR AIRCREW.
KEYWORDS: MEDICAL EQUIPMENT, MEDEVAC, AIR MEDICAL TRANSPORT, ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE, SAFETY
94-46 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 774 DTIC #: ADA286289
TITLE: TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFTS PRODUCED BY HIGH INTENSITY FREEFIELD NOISE IN HUMANS WEARING HEARING PROTECTION. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR. DANIEL L. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXPOSURE TO HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE PRODUCED BY MODERN MILITARY WEAPONS IS KNOWN TO BE HAZARDOUS TO HEARING. HEARING PROTECTION IS REQUIRED; HOWEVER, THERE IS NO GENERALLY ACCEPTED THEORETICAL WAY TO PREDICT WHETHER PROTECTION WILL BE ADEQUATE FOR THE HIGHEST NOISE LEVELS. THIS LED US TO EMPIRICALLY DETERMINE THE SAFE LIMITS OF EXPOSURE TO IMPULSE NOISE WHEN HEARING PROTECTION IS USED BY EXPOSING HUMAN VOLUNTEERS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS. OVER THE PAST 5 YEARS, A SERIES OF STUDIES HAS BEEN CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM SAFE EXPOSURE TO HIGH INTENSITY FREEFIELD IMPULSE NOISE. AN EXPOSURE WAS CONSIDERED SAFE IF IT PRODUCED ONLY A SMALL TEMPORARY THRESHOLD SHIFT (TTS<25 DB) IN A SMALL PERCENTAGE OF THE VOLUNTEERS EXPOSED. THREE DIFFERENT IMPULSES WERE USED WITH A-DURATIONS OF 0.8, 1.4, AND 2.9 MS. BOTH THE LEVEL AND NUMBER OF IMPULSES WERE VARIED TO FIND THE MAXIMUM TOLERABLE EXPOSURE FOR COMBINATIONS OF PARAMETERS. THE PEAK SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS RANGED UP TO 196 DB. THE NUMBER OF IMPULSES VARIED FROM 6 TO 100. APPROXIMATELY 60 VOLUNTEERS WERE EXPOSED TO EACH TYPE OF IMPULSE, ALLOWING HIGH CONFIDENCE ESTIMATES OF THE EXPOSURES WHICH WOULD PRODUCE NO SIGNIFICANT TTS IN 95 PERCENT OF THE EXPOSED POPULATION. THE HEARING PROTECTION USED WAS AN EAR MUFF WHICH HAD BEEN MODIFIED TO SIMULATE A POOR FITTING PROTECTOR. THE RESULTS OF THESE STUDIES INDICATED THAT EVEN A RELATIVELY POOR HEARING PROTECTOR, COMBINATIONS OF LEVEL AND NUMBER OF IMPULSES WHICH FAR EXCEED OUR CURRENTLY ACCEPTED EXPOSURE LIMITS CAN BE TOLERATED BY 95 PERCENT OF THE VOLUNTEERS.
KEYWORDS: IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING PROTECTION, EXPOSURE LIMITS, FREEFIELD IMPULSE NOISE
94-47 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2291 DTIC #: ADA286287
TITLE: FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERCEPTION OF LUNING IN MONOCULAR REGIONS OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: LUNING IS A DETRIMENTAL VISUAL EFFECT CHARACTERIZED BY A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING OF THE VISUAL FIELD IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS OF PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAYS. THE EFFECT OF A NUMBER OF FACTORS ON THE MAGNITUDE OF LUNING WAS INVESTIGATED. THESE FACTORS INCLUDE: (1) THE CONVERGENT VERSUS THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODES FOR PRESENTING A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAPPING FIELD-OF-VIEW; (2) THE DISPLAY LUMINANCE LEVEL; (3) THE PLACEMENT OF EITHER BLACK OR WHITE CONTOURS VERSUS NO (NULL) CONTOURS ON THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP BORDER; AND (4) THE LOWERING OR RAISING OF THE LUMINANCE OF THE MONOCULAR OVERLAP REGION. EIGHTEEN ARMY STUDENT AVIATORS SERVED AS SUBJECTS IN A REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN. THE PERCENTAGE OF TIME LUNING WAS SEEN WAS THE MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF LUNING. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODE SYSTEMATICALLY INDUCED MORE LUNING THAN THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE UNDER THE NULL CONTOUR CONDITION. ADDING BLACK CONTOURS REDUCED LUNING IN BOTH THE CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODES, WHERE THE CONVERGENT MODE RETAINED ITS RELATIVELY LOWER MAGNITUDE OF LUNING. THE DISPLAY LUMINANCE LEVEL HAD NO EFFECT FOR THE NULL OR BLACK CONTOUR CONDITIONS. ADDING WHITE CONTOURS REDUCED LUNING BY AN AMOUNT WHICH DEPENDED ON DISPLAY LUMINANCE WHERE THERE WAS LESS LUNING FOR LOWER DISPLAY LEVELS, BUT NO SYSTEMATIC EFFECT OF DISPLAY MODE. CHANGING THE LUMINANCE OF THE MONOCULAR REGIONS (RELATIVE TO THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION) REDUCED THE AMOUNT OF LUNING, WHERE A DECREASE IN LUMINANCE PRODUCED MORE OF A REDUCTION IN LUNING THAN AN INCREASE. WHEN A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY IS NEEDED TO PRESENT A LARGER FIELD-OF-VIEW TO AVIATORS IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS, THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE WITH BLACK CONTOURS ON THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP BORDERS APPEARS TO BE THE MOST RELIABLE OF THE CONDITIONS TESTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY REDUCE LUNING. ADDITIONAL FACTORS ARE ALSO DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: LUNING, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, BINOCULAR RIVALRY, MONOCULAR SUPPRESSIONS, DICHOPTIC
94-48 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 679 DTIC #: ADA291604
TITLE: ACTUAL EFFECTIVENESS OF HEARING PROTECTION IN HIGH LEVEL IMPULSE NOISE. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, DANIEL L. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CURRENT EXPOSURE LIMITS FOR HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE CONTAINS FACTORS FOR HEARING PROTECTION WHICH ARE BASED ON VERY LIMITED DATA. RECENT STUDIES IN THE U.S. AND IN FRANCE HAVE PROVIDED NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PROTECTION AFFORDED BY HEARING PROTECTION DEVICES. FOR IMPULSES WITH AN A-DURATION OF APPROXIMATELY 3.0 MS, PRO-TECTION WAS FOUND TO BE ADEQUATE FOR PEAK PRESSURES UP TO 190 DB SPL FOR 6 IMPULSES AND 187 DB FOR 100 IMPULSES. PROTECTION WAS FOUND TO BE ADEQUATE FOR 6 IMPULSES WITH AN A-DURATION OF APPROXIMATELY 0.8 MS UP TO 196 DB SPL. FOR THIS A-DURATION, PROTECTION WAS ADEQUATE FOR 12 IMPULSES UP TO 190 DB SPL AND FOR 50 AND 100 IM-PULSES AT 187 DB SPL. THE HEARING PROTECTORS USED IN THESE STUDIES WERE EARMUFFS WITH PERFORATIONS IN THE CUSHIONS WHICH PROVIDED ESSENTIALLY NO ATTENUATION BELOW 500 HZ. IN A SERIES OF FRENCH STUDIES, HEARING PROTECTION WAS FOUND TO BE ADEQUATE FOR IMPULSES PRODUCED BY A VARIETY OF WEAPONS WITH PEAK PRESSURES RANGING FROM 165 DB SPL TO 180 DB SPL. THESE INCLUDED SMALL ARMS WITH A-DURATIONS LESS THAN 1.0 MS, ARTILLERY WITH A-DURATIONS OF APPROXIMATELY 3.0 MS AND OTHER WEAPONS WITH DURATIONS BETWEEN THESE EXTREMES. A VARIETY OF INSERT HEARING PROTECTORS (EARPLUGS) WAS USED IN THESE STUDIES. ALL HAD PERFORATIONS WHICH RESULTED IN POOR LOW FREQUENCY ATTENUATION. IN BOTH SETS OF STUDIES, CONVENTIONAL ATTENUATION RATING SCHEMES GREATLY UNDERESTIMATED THE ACTUAL PROTECTION AFFORDED BY THE HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES. DIRECT MEASUREMENTS OF THE PRESSURES UNDER THE EARMUFF SHOWED THESE PEAK LEVELS CAN BE AS HIGH AS 182 DB SPL WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT EFFECTS ON HEARING.
KEYWORDS: EXPOSURE LIMITS, HEARING PROTECTION, IMPULSE NOISE, LOW FREQUENCY ATTENTUATION, EARPLUGS
94-49 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2569 DTIC #: ADA289482
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF BINOCULAR OVERLAP MODE ON CONTRAST THRESHOLDS ACROSS THE FIELD-OF-VIEW AS A FUNCTION OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL FREQUENCY
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, ROBERT W. VERONA, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODES, THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE AND THE DIVERGENT DISPLAY MODE, HAVE BEEN PROPOSED AS ALTERNATIVES TO THE FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS. IN THE FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE, THE ENTIRE FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) IS BINOCULAR. THE PARTIAL OVERLAP DISPLAY MODES INCREASE THE FOV BY REDUCING THE SIZE OF THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP REGION AND INTRODUCING TWO FLANKING MONOCULAR REGIONS. VISUAL SENSITIVITY IS KNOWN TO BE LOWER IN MONOCULAR REGIONS. ANOTHER CONSEQUENCE OF THE PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP DISPLAY MODE IS A PERCEPTUAL EFFECT KNOWN AS LUNING, WHICH IS A SUBJECTIVE DARKENING IN THE MONOCULAR REGIONS NEAR THE BINOCULAR OVERLAP BORDER DUE TO DICHOTIC STIMULATION. LUNING HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE MORE SEVERE IN THE DIVERGENT MODE COMPARED TO THE CONVERGENT DISPLAY MODE. THE PURPOSE OF OUR STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF THESE DISPLAY MODES ON VISUAL SENSITIVITY ACROSS THE FOV. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT VISUAL THRESHOLDS WOULD BE HIGHEST IN THE DIVERGENT MODE, WHERE LUNING WAS MOST SEVERE, AND LOWEST IN THE FULL OVERLAP MODE, WHERE THERE WAS NO DICHOTIC STIMULATION. WE MEASURED THE VISUAL THRESHOLD TO PROBE TARGETS ACROSS THE FOV FOR (1) THE FULL OVERLAP, (2) THE CONVERGENT MODE, AND (3) THE DIVERGENT MODE.
KEYWORDS: CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, LUNING, BINOCULAR THRESHOLD, SPATIAL FREQUENCY, TEMPORAL FREQUENCY
94-50 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 367 DTIC #: ADA289543
TITLE: COMPARISON OF AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED USING PURE TONES AND ONE-THIRD OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE AS STIMULI FOR THE CHINCHILLA
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, ELMAREE GORDON, JESUS R. CANALES, JULIETA D. SALDIVER, C. E. HARGETT, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AUDIOGRAMS WERE OBTAINED FROM CHINCHILLAS USING CONVENTIONAL PURE TONE STIMULI AND USING 1/3 OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE AS STIMULI. THE AVERAGE HEARING THRESHOLD LEVELS IN DB SPL WERE FOUND TO BE COMPARABLE. THE AUDIOGRAMS DETERMINED USING THE 1/3 OCTAVE BANDS OF NOISE WERE SLIGHTLY MORE RELIABLE (LOWER TEST-RETEST VARIABILITY).
KEYWORDS: HEARING THRESHOLD, AUDIOGRAM, NOISE ATTENTUATION, ANIMAL STUDIES
95-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1510 DTIC #: ADA288517
TITLE: EFFECT OF VIBRATION FREQUENCY AND AMPLITUDE ON DEVELOPING CHICKEN EMBRYOS
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, AL W. MORAN, LINDA C. SHACKELFORD, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FERTILIZED CHICKEN EGGS WERE INCUBATED AND EXPOSED REPEATEDLY TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION FORCES WITH FREQUENCIES RANGING FROM 5 TO 50 HZ, AND AMPLITUDES RANGING FROM 0.09 TO 4.93 GZ(RMS). THE TIMING AND DURATION OF EXPOSURE WERE SELECTED TO MODEL PREGNANT WOMEN FLYING ARMY HELICOPTERS 3 HOURS PER DAY, 5 DAYS PER WEEK.
KEYWORDS: PREGNANCY, WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION, HELICOPTERS, CHICKEN EMBRYO, CHICKEN EGGS
95-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 551 DTIC #: ADA288957
TITLE: U. S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: TRENDS IN THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS STRATIFIED BY GENDER AND COMPONENT, 1986 TO 1992
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER WAS QUERIED TO ANALYZE THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS FOR THE PERIOD 1986 THROUGH 1992. DETAILED REFERENCE TABLES WERE PUBLISHED SEPARATELY. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES THE FINDINGS EXTRACTED FROM THE REFERENCE TABLES AND SUBJECTS DATA TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. THERE HAS BEEN A SIGNIFICANT AGING OF THE ARMY AVIATOR POPULATION FROM 1986 THROUGH 1992, WHATEVER THE COMPONENT OF SERVICE. MOST OF THE AGING EFFECT IS SEEN IN THE COHORT OF AVIATORS AGE 40 AND OLDER. THIS TREND IS DUE LIKELY TO A MARCHING COHORT OF VIETNAM-ERA AVIATORS WHO ARE APPROACHING MILITARY RETIREMENT AGE. FEMALE AVIATORS ARE SIGNIFICANTLY YOUNGER THAN THEIR MALE PEERS. THIS FINDING IS DUE LIKELY TO THE RECENT RECRUITMENT OF WOMEN INTO ARMY AVIATION DURING THE 1980S. A BIMODAL CURVE EXISTS IN THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF ARMY AVIATORS. THIS FINDING IS DUE LIKELY TO TRENDS IN ARMY FORCE STRUCTURE DURING THE VIETNAM WAR BUILDUP, FOLLOWED BY POST-VIETNAM FORCE REDUCTION, AND FOLLOWED BY THE 1980'S COLD WAR BUILDUP. NOW THE ARMY IS UNDERTAKING ANOTHER FORCE REDUCTION IN THIS DECADE.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, AGE, AEDR
95-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 944 DTIC #: ADA290196
TITLE: BIODYNAMIC SIMULATION OF PILOT INTERACTION WITH A HELICOPTER MULTIAIRBAG RESTRAINT SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY STRAWN, NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INTRODUCTION OF AIRBAGS INTO THE HELICOPTER COCKPIT HAS RAISED THE ISSUE OF ACCEPTABLE LIMITS ON THE WEIGHTS OF HELMET-SUPPORTED DEVICES WHICH CAN BE TOLERATED SAFELY BY THE AVIATOR. IT IS HYPOTHESIZED THAT, IF THE ACCEPTABLE INJURY RISK ASSOCIATED WITH CURRENT HELMET-SUPPORTED DEVICES WERE REDUCED WITH THE USE OF AIRBAGS, THEN AN INCREASED IN THE HELMET WEIGHT WOULD NOT NECESSARILY INCREASE THE INJURY RISK ABOVE WHAT IS ACCEPTABLE WITHOUT AN AIRBAG. TO TEST THIS HYPOTHESIS, A BIODYNAMIC SIMULATION SOFTWARE, DYNAMAN, IS USED. BUT FIRST, THE DATA SET WHICH DESCRIBES THE CRASH SCENARIO MUST BE DEVELOPED. THE RESULTS OF THE SIMULATIONS ARE DESCRIBED IN A SEPARATE REPORT. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE INPUT DATA SET REQUIRED BY DYNAMAN TO SIMULATE THE INTERACTION OF A HELICOPTER PILOT WITH A MULTIAIRBAG SYSTEM DURING A SIMULATED CRASH.
KEYWORDS: AIRBAGS, HELICOPTER COCKPIT, HELMET-SUPPORTED DEVICES, SIMULATION, RESTRAINT SYSTEM
95-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1126 DTIC #: ADA289457
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF UH-1 EXPERIENCE ON UH-60 SIMULATOR PERFORMANCE: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
AUTHOR(s): CHARLES A. SALTER, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JOHN S. CROWLEY, RONALD L. SMITH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EFFORTS TO EXPAND THE POOL OF VOLUNTEERS FOR RESEARCH IN THE UH-60 SIMULATOR PROMPTED USAARL TO DETERMINE WHETHER UH-1 PILOTS COULD BE USED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO UH-60 SUBJECTS. IN THIS QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL PRELIMINARY STUDY, EIGHT UH-1 PILOTS WERE PROVIDED WITH TRAINING IN THE UH-60 SIMULATOR. AFTERWARDS, THEY WERE REQUIRED TO FLY A STANDARDIZED PROFILE, PARTS OF WHICH HAD BEEN USED IN AN EARLIER INVESTIGATION WITH UH-60 PILOTS. THE PERFORMANCE ACCURACY OF THE GROUPS (UH-1 VERSUS UH-60) WERE COMPARED ON EQUIVALENT MANEUVERS. RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE UH-1 PILOTS USED IN THIS INITIAL STUDY ACTUALLY PERFORMED BETTER ON MOST MANEUVERS THAN DID THE UH-60 PILOTS WHO WERE USED IN AN EARLIER INVESTIGATION. THUS, IT APPEARS THAT UH-1 PILOTS, WHO ARE EASIER TO RECRUIT THAT RATED UH-60 PILOTS, MAY BE SUITABLE AS SUBJECTS IN FUTURE SIMULATOR STUDIES INVOLVING BASIC INSTRUMENT PILOTAGE SKILLS. HOWEVER, BEFORE DRAWING DEFINITIVE CONCLUSIONS, THESE RESULTS SHOULD BE REPLICATED IN A CONTROLLED STUDY WHERE THE PILOTS ARE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO TRAINING AND TESTING CONDITIONS DURING A MORE LIMITED TIME FRAME.
KEYWORDS: AVIATORS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, SIMULATOR
95-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 785 DTIC #: ADA298905
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF THE AEROMEDICAL ADMINISTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR U.S. AIR FORCES AND MAJOR ALLIES
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH NUMEROUS INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS PROVIDED FOR INTERCHANGEABILITY OF AIRCREW MEDICAL CATEGORIES FOR MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF AIRCREW VISITING OR JOINTLY SERVING WITH SISTER AIR FORCES OR ALLIED AIR FORCES, THE BASIC ADMINISTRATIVE PROCESSES REMAIN UNIQUE BETWEEN AIR FORCES. PUBLICATION OF INFORMATION REGARDING AEROMEDICAL ADMINISTRATION WOULD FACILITATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF REGULATORY REFERENCES, REQUIRE-MENTS, AND TERMINOLOGY BETWEEN AIR FORCES. A BETTER UNDERSTANDING AND SHARING OF INFORMATION MIGHT PROVIDE FOR FURTHER STANDARDIZATION OF BASIC ADMINISTRATIVE TERMS AND PROCESSES FOR AIRCREW MEDICAL EXAMINATION. THE AIR STANDARDIZATION COORDINATING COMMITTEE TASKED THE U. S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY TO DEVELOP SUCH A PUBLICATION
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE STANDARDIZATION POLICIES
95-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 756 DTIC #: ADA291624
TITLE: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PHOTOGRAMMETERY FOR LABORATORY APPLICATIONS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DIRECT LINEAR TRANSFORMATION (DLT) IS A METHOD THAT SIMPLIFIES MEASUREMENTS OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL COORDINATES OF A POINT TARGET IN THE LABORATORY USING PHOTOGRAPHIC TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGERY. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A PROCEDURE TO IMPLEMENT THE DLT EQUATIONS AND GIVES THE FORTRAN CODE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR THE DLT CALIBRATION OF MULTICAMERA SYSTEM AND 3-D RECONSTRUCTION OF A SINGLE POINT FROM SEVERAL IMAGES.
KEYWORDS: MEASUREMENTS, IMAGERY, COMPUTER PROGRAM, CALIBRATION
95-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 503 DTIC #: ADA291595
TITLE: MILITARY FLYING AND AEROMEDICAL EVALUATION OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS IN MILITARY AIRCREW MEMBERS ARE COMPLEX, AND PERHAPS, MORE AGGRESSIVE THAN CLINICAL CARDIOLOGISTS, INTERNISTS, AND FAMILY PHYSICIANS EXPECT. HOWEVER, THESE POLICIES ARE BASED ON THE NEEDS OF THE SERVICES, MISSION COMPLETION REQUIREMENTS, PUBLIC SAFETY, AND AN EXTENSIVE, ONGOING, OBSERVATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE MILITARY FLYING POPULATION. THIS PAPER SUMMARIES THE GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF THE FLYING ENVIRONMENT AS THEY RELATE TO CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS. A DISCUSSION OF THE SCREENING PRINCIPLES AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONFOUNDERS IS FOLLOWED BY A SUMMARY OF THE JOINT U.S. AIR FORCE AND U.S. ARMY WAIVER POLICY ON CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS AND FLYING DUTIES.
KEYWORDS: ARMY AVIATION PERSONNEL, ARRHYTHMIA
95-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 617 DTIC #: ADA304562
TITLE: REFERENCE FOR THE CAPABILITIES AND PATIENT LOADS OF AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION AIRCRAFT USED BY U.S. AND ALLIED MILITARY AIR FORCES
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MODERN WARFARE, MILITARY POLICE AND HUMANITARIAN ACTIONS, AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS RELY ON THE CONCEPT OF JOINT/COMBINED OPERATIONS BETWEEN OUR SISTER SERVICES AND OUR ALLIES. JOINT/COMBINED OPERATIONS INCLUDE THE AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION OF THE SICK AND INJURED. IN PEACETIME, AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION PLANNERS DEVELOP JOINT/COMBINED OPERATIONS DOCUMENTS TO STANDARDIZE AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION PROCEDURES, POLICIES, AND EQUIPMENT. THE PLANNING PROCESS IDENTIFIED ONE DEFICIENCY AS A RESULT OF DESERT STORM OPERATIONS IN SOUTHWEST ASIA IN 1990/1991. THE DEFICIENCY WAS THE LACK OF A REFERENCE GUIDE FOR INFORMING AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION OPERATORS OF THE PATIENT LOAD CAPABILITIES OF AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION AIRCRAFT. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS TASKED THROUGH THE AIR STANDARDIZATION COORDINATING COMMITTEE, WORKING PARTY 61/115, TO DEVELOP THIS REFERENCE.
KEYWORDS: AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION STANDARDIZATION AIRCRAFT
95-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3552 DTIC #: ADA294895
TITLE: EVALUATION OF A RETROFIT OH-58 PILOT'S SEAT TO PREVENT BACK INJURY
AUTHOR(s): JOE L. HALEY, JR., RONALD W. PALMER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF PILOT AND COPILOT RETROFIT SEATS, FLIGHT TESTS AND EVALUATION OF THE SEATS BASED ON CRASH TESTS, FLIGHT TESTS, AND A 5-YEAR USAGE TEST IN THE USAARL OH-58, SERIAL 71-207781. THE BELL HELICOPTER TEXTRON (BHT) DESIGNED SEAT CONSISTS OF A NEW SEAT PAN, HINGED AT THE FORWARD EDGE, AND ATTACHED TO "LOAD-LIMIT" DEVICES AT THE REAR EDGE. THE SEAT WILL ROTATE ABOUT ITS FORWARD EDGE MOUNT AND MOVE DOWNWARD APPROXIMATELY 5 INCHES AT THE REAR EDGE WHEN THE IMPACT SINK SPEED OF THE HELICOPTER IS EXCESSIVE. THE 5-INCH STROKE OF THE SEAT OCCURS WHILE SUSTAINING APPROXIMATELY 12 G ON A 50TH PERCENTILE PILOT (1500-LB MAXIMUM IN THE LOWER LUMBAR SPINE). THE SEATS, MOUNTED IN A STANDARD OH-58 FUSELAGE, WERE SUBJECTED TO SIMULATED "SINK" SPEEDS OF 26.5, 29.6, AND 32.2 FPS. THE SEATS EASILY PREVENTED "INJURY" TO THE DUMMY PILOTS AT 26.5 FPS, BUT THE SEATS "BOTTOMED" AGAINST THE CYCLIC CONTROL YOKE AT GREATER SINK SPEED. THE PROTOTYPE (PILOT AND COPILOT) SEATS ADDED 43.5 POUNDS OF WEIGHT TO THE OH-58, BUT SUGGESTIONS ARE PROVIDED TO REDUCE THE WEIGHT ADDITION TO APPROXIMATELY 20 POUNDS FOR AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION SEATS. THE NONINJURIOUS SINK SPEED CAPABILITY OF THE OH-58 IS INCREASED FROM APPROXIMATELY 15 FPS TO 27 FPS BY THE INCORPORATION OF THIS SIMPLE SEAT DESIGN.
KEYWORDS: CRASHWORTHY, PILOT, SEAT DESIGN, COPILOT, HELICOPTER PILOT
95-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2380 DTIC #: ADA294049
TITLE: OH-58 PILOT DISPLAY UNIT (PDU) SIMULATED CRASH TESTS
AUTHOR(s): JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PILOT DISPLAY UNIT (PDU) IS DESIGNED TO BE PLACED DIRECTLY IN FRONT OF THE PILOT'S EYES IN THE OH-58 HELICOPTER TO PROVIDE TARGETING AND MISSILE STATUS DISPLAY. THE LOCATION AND THE 7-POUND MASS OF THE UNIT CREATES A POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS HEAD IMPACT SURFACE. IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE OF THE HAZARD, A DAMAGED OH-58 COCKPIT SECTION WAS EXPOSED TO FIVE SURVIVABLE SIMULATED CRASHES OF MODERATE TO SEVERE IMPACT VECTORS WITH AN INSTRUMENTED DUMMY PILOT IN THE RIGHT SEAT BEHIND THE PDU. THE COCKPIT FLOOR WAS EXPOSED TO CRASH FORCE UP TO 8 G IN THE VERTICAL (Z) AXIS AND 19 G ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL (X) AXIS WITH VELOCITY CHANGES OF 24 FPS AND 36 FPS, RESPECTIVELY. THESE EXPOSURES DID NOT EXCEED ACCEPTABLE LEVELS OF HUMAN TOLERANCE FOR NECK AND HEAD FORCES WHEN A PROPERLY FITTED FLIGHT HELMET WAS WORN SO THAT IMPACT OCCURRED ON THE HELMET AND NOT THE HEAD.
KEYWORDS: OH-58, PILOT DISPLAY UNIT, CRASH TEST, HEAD INJURY, CRASH INJURIES
95-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1179 DTIC #: ADA291662
TITLE: MANIKIN INTEGRATED DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (MIDAS) INITIAL MODIFICATIONS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, JAMES A. LEWIS, ROBERT M. DILLARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A PROTOTYPE MANIKIN WITH INTERNAL DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM (MIDAS) HAS BEEN DEVELOPED AND RECEIVED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY. IN ADDITION TO A NOVEL DESIGN OF THE SPINAL COLUMN AND PELVIS OF THE HYBRID III AUTOMOTIVE MANIKIN, THE NEW MIDAS INCLUDES A BUILT-IN SIGNAL CONDITIONING AND ACQUISITION ELECTRONICS. THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE INITIAL MODIFICATIONS TO THE MANIKIN AND INCLUDES A DESCRIPTION OF THE EXTERNAL SOFTWARE (MIDAS 3.0) FOR CONTROL, COMMUNICATION, AND POSTTEST DOWNLOADING AND ANALYSIS OF THE DATA.
KEYWORDS: PROTOTYPE, MANIKIN, CRASH TESTING, DATA ACQUISITION, ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICE, INJURY ASSESSMENT
95-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 572 DTIC #: ADA291856
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: GENDER-SPECIFIC ATTRITION AMONG THE U.S. ARMY STUDENT AVIATOR CLASS OF 1987
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, JENNIFER P. HARPER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: GRADUATED AVIATORS FROM THE U. S. ARMY STUDENT AVIATOR COHORT OF THE CLASS OF 1987 WERE FOLLOWED IN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER FOR 6 YEARS TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS A GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCE IN ATTRITION FROM AVIATION SERVICE. OVERALL, 30 PERCENT ATTRITION WAS FOUND IN 6 YEARS OF OBSERVATION FOLLOWING INITIAL AVIATOR TRAINING. THERE WAS NO SIGNIFICANT GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCE IN ATTRITION (P>0.05, LIFE TABLE ANALYSIS).
KEYWORDS: AVIATION PERSONNEL, AVIATION MEDICINE, MEDICAL STANDARDS
95-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1280 DTIC #: ADA293086
TITLE: DESIGN OF DIGITAL LOW-PASS FILTERS FOR TIME-DOMAIN RECURSIVE FILTERING OF IMPACT ACCELERATION SIGNALS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH ALEM, MATTHEW PERRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT IS TO PRESENT SIMPLIFIED AND PORTABLE COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO DESIGN AND IMPLEMENT RECURSIVE DIGITAL BUTTERWORTH FILTERS. THE DESIGN METHOD DESCRIBED IN THE REPORT USES THE BILINEAR TRANSFORMATION TO CONVERT THE WELL ESTABLISHED ANALOG DESIGN TO DIGITAL FORMULATION. FORTRAN CODES FOR THE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FILTER ARE INCLUDED IN THE REPORT. THE RESULTING DESIGN IS COMPARED TO ANOTHER FILTER PROPOSED IN SAE J211 GUIDELINE FOR FILTERING IMPACT ACCELERATION SIGNALS. ALTHOUGH BOTH DESIGN METHODS PRODUCED FILTERS WHICH ARE WITHIN CORRIDORS PRESCRIBED IN THE J211 GUIDELINE, THE STANDARD DESIGN PRODUCES A BUTTERWORTH-LIKE RESPONSE WHEREAS THE J211 DESIGN DOES NOT. ADDITIONALLY, THE STANDARD DESIGN METHODS AND THE IMPLEMENTATION ALGORITHMS ALLOW THE DESIGN OF ANY EVEN-ORDER FILTER WHICH MAY BE REQUIRED FOR FILTERING OTHER LONG DURATION SIGNALS.
KEYWORDS: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, RECURSIVE DIGITAL FILTERS, IMPACT TESTING
95-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 490 DTIC #: ADA293310
TITLE: LUMINANCE EFFECTS ON VISUAL ACUITY AND SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF LUMINANCE ON VISUAL ACUITY (VA) AND SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (SLCS). COMPUTER-GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VA AND SLCS [6/7.5 (20/25) SNELLEN EQUIVALENT] AS A FUNCTION OF STIMULUS LUMINANCE. LETTER SIZE (VA) AND CONTRAST (SLCS) WERE VARIED IN EQUAL LOGARITHMIC STEPS, MAKING THE TASK AND SCORING PROCEDURE COMPARABLE FOR THE TWO TYPES OF MEASUREMENT. BOTH VA AND SLCS DECREASED WITH DECREASING LUMINANCE, BUT THE EFFECT WAS FAR GREATER IN THE CONTRAST DOMAIN. REDUCING LUMINANCE FROM 116 CD/M2 TO 0.23 CD/M2 PRODUCED A 3 X REDUCTION IN VA, BUT A 17 X REDUCTION IN SLCS. THE GREATER SENSITIVITY OF SLCS TO LUMINANCE ENDURED EVEN AFTER CORRECTION FOR GREATER MEASUREMENT VARIABILITY. SLCS IS A SENSITIVE APPROACH FOR DETECTING RESOLUTION LOSS UNDISCLOSED BY STANDARD MEASURES OF VA. IT MAY BE USEFUL FOR MONITORING VISUAL LOSS FROM LIGHT ATTENUATION IN EARLY CATARACTS, AND FOR DETECTING SUBTLE RESOLUTION LOSS FROM NEURAL OR PATHOLOGIC FACTORS IN OCULAR AND NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGIC DISEASE.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, LUMINANCE, RESOLUTION
95-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 374 DTIC #: ADA293311
TITLE: SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY: AN ALTERNATE MEASURE OF VISUAL RESOLUTION FOR AVIATION CANDIDATES. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXCEPTIONAL VISION IS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN HIGH LEVELS OF AVIATION PERFORMANCE. CURRENT STANDARDS FOR HELICOPTER PILOT TRAINING INCLUDE SUPERIOR VISUAL ACUITY WITH MINIMAL REFRACTIVE ERROR. DESPITE THESE DEMANDING CRITERIA, IT IS LIKELY THAT VISUAL ABILITY VARIES AMONG THOSE WHO MEET THE STANDARDS FOR PILOT TRAINING. A MORE COMPLETE KNOWLEDGE OF VISUAL CAPABILITIES IN THESE INDIVIDUALS WILL ALLOW US TO BETTER CORRELATE VISION WITH PERFORMANCE AND TO DEVELOP MORE CRITERIA FOR SELECTION. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE AN ALTERNATIVE TEST OF VISUAL RESOLUTION FOR AVIATION CANDIDATES USING SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (SLCS). COMPUTER-GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VISUAL ACUITY (VA) AND SLCS IN 16 CANDIDATES WHO HAD SATISFIED MILITARY VISION STANDARDS FOR PILOT TRAINING. THE ACUITY AND CONTRAST CHARTS VARIED, BY LINE, IN EQUAL LOG STEPS SUCH THAT THE LETTER RECOGNITION TASK WAS COMPARABLE FOR THE TWO TYPES OF MEASUREMENT. VA AND SLCS WERE HIGHLY CORRELATED IN THESE SUBJECTS, INDICATING THAT THE TWO TESTS MEASURE SIMILAR ASPECTS OF VISUAL RESOLUTION. SCORES WERE DISTRIBUTED ACROSS TWO LINES IN THE ACUITY CHART, BUT ACROSS FOUR LINES ON CONTRAST CHART, SUGGESTING THAT SLCS OFFERS A MORE DISCRIMINATING TEST OF RESOLUTION. THIS ASSUMPTION WAS CONFIRMED IN THAT SLCS WAS MORE HIGHLY CORRELATED WITH SMALL AMOUNTS OF REFRACTIVE ERROR IN THE CANDIDATES TESTED. SLCS OFFERS A SENSITIVE, ADJUNCTIVE MEASURE OF VISUAL RESOLUTION WHICH MAY BE USEFUL FOR IDENTIFYING THE UNIQUE VISUAL ABILITIES REQUIRED FOR AVIATION.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, VISION TESTS, VISUAL RESOLUTION
95-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 568 DTIC #: ADA293307
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF MEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS AMONG FEMALE ARMY AVIATOR TRAINING APPLICANTS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONGRESS HAS DIRECTED STUDIES OF WOMEN IN THE MILITARY. THE FREQUENCY AND CAUSES OF MEDICAL DISQUALIFICATION FOR FEMALE APPLICANTS TO ARMY AVIATOR TRAINING ARE UNKNOWN. THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER WAS QUERIED TO PROVIDE A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF A COHORT OF FEMALE APPLICANTS TO ARMY AVIATOR TRAINING FOR CALENDAR YEARS 1987 TO 1990.
KEYWORDS: AEROMEDICAL STANDARDS, FEMALE AVIATORS
95-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1070 DTIC #: ADA294047
TITLE: USER ACCEPTABILITY AND COMFORT OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) WHEN USED IN THE UH-1 HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY, JOHN E. RIBERA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS AND CREWMEMBERS ASSIGNED TO THE CRASH RESCUE (FLATIRON) UNIT AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, PARTICIPATED IN AN EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. THEY WERE ASKED TO WEAR THE TWO CEP CONFIGURATIONS IN COMBINATION WITH THEIR PERSONAL SPH-4 HELMET FOR THREE FLIGHTS OF AT LEAST 1 HOUR DURATION. ONE CEP CONFIGURATION INCLUDED A FOAM TIP AND THE OTHER INCLUDED A PREMOLDED TRIPLE FLANGE TIP. COMMENTS AND RESPONSES PROVIDED BY THE VOLUNTEERS SHOWED THE CEP, WITH SOME MODIFICATIONS, IS ACCEPTABLE FOR USE IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT. SPEECH CLARITY OF THE CEP WAS JUDGED TO BE AN IMPROVEMENT OVER NORMAL HELMET/EAR PROTECTION BY 85 PERCENT OF THE RESPONDENTS. THE CEP WITH FOAM TIP WAS JUDGED MORE COMFORTABLE THAN CEP WITH THE TRIPLE FLANGE TIP. COMFORT WAS JUDGED TO BE BETWEEN COMFORTABLE AND MILDLY UNCOMFORTABLE FOR THE CEP WITH FOAM EARPLUG TIP. THE VOLUNTEERS RATED THE CEP AS BEING HELPFUL IN ACHIEVING THEIR MISSION. THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY SHOW THE CEP IS COMFORTABLE AND ACCEPTABLE TO THE AVIATION CREWMEMBER.
KEYWORDS: EARPLUG, HEARING PROTECTION, NOISE LEVELS, COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY, EXPOSURE LEVEL, NOISE REDUCTION
95-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 646 DTIC #: ADA294045
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: COMPARISON OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECT OF HISTORICAL AND PROPOSED HEARING STANDARDS FOR ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL ACTIVITY, U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL CENTER, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, REQUESTED A DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT AND PROPOSED U.S. ARMY CLASS 2 AVIATOR HEARING STANDARDS TO ESTIMATE THE EFFECT OF CHANGING TO THE PROPOSED FROM THE CURRENT STANDARDS IN 1995. THE BACKGROUND SECTION COMPARED ONE HISTORICAL HEARING STANDARD FROM 1980 TO THE CURRENT (1983), AND PROPOSED (1995), HEARING STANDARDS. THE APPLICATION OF THE AVIATOR HEARING STANDARDS IN A HEARING CONSERVATION, PUBLIC HEALTH PROTOCOL WAS DESCRIBED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR, HEARING STANDARDS
95-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1248 DTIC #: ADA295035
TITLE: TRANSMITTANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT TRANSPARENCIES
AUTHOR(s): SEAN L. WENTWORTH, EVERETTE MCGOWIN III, REBECCA H. IVEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS A SURVEY OF THE SPECTRAL AND LUMINOUS TRANSMITTANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSPARENCIES (WINDSCREENS) USED IN CURRENTLY FIELDED U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. THE SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED IN TWO PHASES. IN THE FIRST PHASE, SAMPLES OF WINDSCREENS FROM EACH AIRCRAFT TYPE WERE EVALUATED IN THE LABORATORY FOR PHOTOTOPIC (DAY) AND SCOTOPIC (NIGHT) LUMINOUS TRANSMITTANCE. THE SPECTRAL TRANSMITTANCE OF EACH SAMPLE ALSO WAS MEASURED. BASED ON LABORATORY MEASUREMENTS OF UNUSED SAMPLES, ALL WINDSCREENS MET SPECIFICATIONS. HOWEVER, FIELD MEASUREMENTS ON WINDSCREENS SHOWED CONSISTENT FAILURE OF LUMINOUS TRANSMITTANCE REQUIREMENTS. THIS LOSS OF TRANSMITTANCE IS ATTRIBUTED TO HAZE RESULTING FROM EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS.
KEYWORDS: WINDSCREEN, TRANSPARENCY, OPTICAL TESTING
95-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 410 DTIC #: ADA294041
TITLE: EVALUATING THE POTENTIAL FOR ROTATION AND LOSS OF FLIGHT HELMETS FROM INERTIA AND IMPACT LOADS. (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SEVERE HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS, FLIGHT HELMETS ROTATE OR SOMETIMES COME OFF THE HEAD, TRIGGERING WEARER INJURY. THIS STUDY EVALUATES ROTATION POTENTIAL FOR NEW FLIGHT HELMETS. CURRENT AND PROTOTYPE FLIGHT HELMETS (SPH-4B AND TWO VERSIONS OF THE HGU-56) WERE SUBJECTED TO THREE TESTS. FIRST, ROTATION WAS MEASURED WITH UP TO A 50-POUND UPWARD PULL AT THE REAR EDGE OF THE HELMET ON A MEDIUM SIZE HEADFORM. SECOND, ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT WAS MEASURED WITH A 30-POUND FORCE AT THE SIDE OF THE HELMET. THIRD, THE HELMET WAS PLACED ON A HYBRID II HEADFORM AND HYBRID III NECK, THEN MOUNTED ON A PENDULUM TEST DEVICE. THE FREEFALLING PENDULUM WAS DECELERATED TO PRODUCE 16 TO 20 G PEAK ACCELERATION AT THE NECK. ANGULAR DISPLACEMENT OF THE HELMET VERSUS TIME WAS MEASURED WITH HIGH SPEED VIDEO.
KEYWORDS: FLIGHT HELMETS, HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS, ROTATION, ACCELERATION
95-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 442 DTIC #: ADA294893
TITLE: TWO EYES ARE BETTER THAN ONE: BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT IN THE CONTRAST DOMAIN
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE THE IMPROVEMENT IN VISUAL ACUITY (VA) WITH THE IMPROVEMENT IN CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (CS) WITH TWO EYES AS COMPARED WITH ONE. COMPUTER GENERATED LETTER CHARTS WERE USED TO MEASURE VA AND SMALL LETTER CS (20/25 SNELLEN EQUIVALENT) IN 13 EMMETROPIC SUBJECTS. LETTER SIZE (FOR VA) AND CONTRAST (FOR CS) WERE VARIED IN EQUAL LOG STEPS MAKING THE TASK COMPARABLE FOR THE TWO TYPES OF MEASUREMENT. VA IMPROVED BY AN AVERAGE OF 10% (2-3 LETTERS) WHILE CS IMPROVED BY AN AVERAGE OF 40% (1 1/2 LINES) WHEN TESTED WITH TWO EYES AS COMPARED WITH ONE. GREATER SENSITIVITY IN THE CONTRAST DOMAIN PREVAILED EVEN WHEN EXPRESSED RELATIVE TO VARIABILITY. USING THIS APPROACH, BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT WAS IDENTIFIED IN 8/13 SUBJECTS WITH CS, BUT IN ONLY 4/13 SUBJECTS WITH VA. BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT OF LETTER RECOGNITION OCCURS IN BOTH SIZE AND CONTRAST DOMAINS. HOWEVER, THE EFFECT IS 4X GREATER WHEN SMALL LETTERS ARE VARIED IN CONTRAST RATHER THAN SIZE. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS ARE CONSIDERED.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT, BINOCULAR SUMMATION
95-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 256 DTIC #: ADA296750
TITLE: OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS, A NEW TOOL FOR HEARING CONSERVATION TESTING
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, JOHN E. RIBERA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCHERS AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY ARE INVESTIGATING A REVOLUTIONARY HEARING TEST CALLED OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS (OAES). WITH OAE TESTING, AN ARMY AIRCREW MEMBER'S ANNUAL HEARING TEST WILL BE REDUCED TO LISTENING PASSIVELY TO A FEW TONES FOR A FEW SECONDS. THE PAPER DESCRIBES THE METHOD OF CONDUCTING OAE TESTING AND PRESENTS FIGURES TO DEMONSTRATE FINDINGS. THE ADVANTAGES OF OAE ARE TABULATED.
KEYWORDS: OTOACOUSTIC EMISSION, AUDIOGRAM, HEARING CONSERVATION
95-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3045 DTIC #: ADA296737
TITLE: U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING EMERGENCY EGRESS STUDY
AUTHOR(s): TIMOTHY R. SWINGLE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN SUPPORT OF A NATO AGARD (ADVISORY GROUP FOR AEROSPACE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT) EFFORT TO SURVEY EMERGENCY EGRESS MECHANISMS FOR ALL HELICOPTERS. THIS PARTICULAR STUDY DEALS WITH U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS. THE STUDY CONSISTS OF PHOTOGRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS OF EACH EXIT SYSTEM, AND A BRIEF SYNOPSIS OF THE EMERGENCY EGRESS PROCEDURE INCLUDING: LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATING MECHANISM, LOCATION OF AND EASE OF VIEWING THE OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS, FORCE REQUIRED TO OPERATE, DIRECTION OF OPENING, SIZE OF APERTURE AND RESTRICTIONS TO EVACUATION, OVERALL EASE OF OPERATION AND ACCESS FOR CREWS, AND EXTENT OF INSTRUCTIONS IN THE OPERATOR'S MANUAL.
KEYWORDS: EMERGENCY EXIT, EGRESS, HELICOPTER EXIT, NATO, AGARD
95-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1613 DTIC #: ADA299102
TITLE: A NOVEL AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT DISPLAY TO MINIMIZE THE RISKS OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
AUTHOR(s): SIMON J. DURNFORD, SHANNON L. DEROCHE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A NOVEL INSTRUMENT DISPLAY DESIGNED TO REDUCE COGNITIVE WORKLOAD WAS TESTED AGAINST A STANDARD INSTRUMENT PANEL USING A HELICOPTER MOCKUP LINKED TO A COMPUTER FLIGHT SIMULATOR. BOTH PILOTS AND NONPILOTS WERE USED AS SUBJECTS AND TESTS INVOLVED RECOVERY FROM UNUSUAL AIRCRAFT ATTITUDES AS WELL AS FLIGHT MANEUVERING INSTRUMENTS. THE NOVEL DISPLAY INCORPORATES HEADING, SPEED, ROLL, AND PITCH INTO A SINGLE TRACKING TASK. USERS SET THE DESIRED HEADING AND THE DESIRED SPEED (AND THE DESIRED ALTITUDE AND GLIDE PATH). THE DISPLAY THEN GUIDES CONTROL MOVEMENTS TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN THE DESIRED PARAMETERS. RESULTS FROM THE UNUSUAL ATTITUDES EXPERIMENT SHOWED SIGNIFICANT BENEFITS FROM THE NOVEL DISPLAY, EVIDENT IN IMPROVED PERFORMANCE ON A SECONDARY TASK (NOISE IDENTIFICATION) AND REDUCED CONTROL INPUT ERRORS. RESULTS FROM THE FLYING PORTION OF THE STUDY SHOWED SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED PERFORMANCE AT THE SECONDARY TASK TOGETHER WITH IMPROVED SPEED CONTROL WHEN USING THE NEW DISPLAY, ALTHOUGH HEADING CONTROL WAS REDUCED. FURTHER MODIFICATIONS TO THE NEW DISPLAY HAVE BEEN INTRODUCED SINCE THESE INITIAL EXPERIMENTS, AND FURTHER TESTING SHOULD BE CARRIED OUT USING DYNAMIC DISPLAYS DURING UNUSUAL ATTITUDES AND CONTINUAL DATA COLLECTION DURING FLIGHT. THE DISPLAY SHOULD BE DEVELOPED FURTHER TO MAKE IT POSSIBLE TO UTILIZE IT IN A HUD OR OTHER NVD AND TO GIVE IT THE CAPABILITY TO DISPLAY HOVER INFORMATION.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ROTARY-WING, INSTRUMENTS, DISPLAYS
95-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1675 DTIC #: ADA298147
TITLE: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION: A SURVEY OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS 1987-1992
AUTHOR(s): SIMON J. DURNFORD, JOHN S. CROWLEY, NORBERTO R. ROSADO, JENNIFER HARPER, SHANNON DEROCHE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALL CLASS A-C U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS FOR THE PERIOD MAY 87 TO APR 92 WERE REVIEWED BY THREE FLIGHT SURGEONS ACTING INDEPENDENTLY. THOSE ACCIDENTS IN WHICH SPATIAL DISORIENTATION WAS CONSIDERED TO HAVE PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE WERE IDENTIFIED AND COMPARED TO THOSE IN WHICH SPATIAL DISORIENTATION PLAYED NO PART. IN ADDITION, AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FACTORS BEHIND EACH SPATIAL DISORIENTATION ACCIDENT TOGETHER WITH POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ACCIDENTS, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, ROTARY-WING, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
95-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 326 DTIC #: ADA304622
TITLE: COMMUNICATION EARPLUG AND ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION: HEARING PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR AIR WARRIOR
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) PARTICIPATED IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF TWO EMERGING HEARING PROTECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS: COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) AND ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION (ANR). AIR WARRIOR IS A PROGRAM TO DEVELOP THE NEXT GENERATION, INTEGRATED, AIRCREW LIFE SUPPORT, AND COMBAT PROTECTION ENSEMBLE. THE CEP OR ANR MAY BE PART OF THE AIR WARRIOR HEARING PROTECTION STRATEGY. THIS ARTICLE COMPARES THE TWO TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPATIBILITY WITH THE ARMY AIRCREW MEMBER HELMET AND AIRCRAFT INTERNAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS. IN THEIR CURRENT STATE OF DEVELOPMENT, CEP PROVIDES BETTER HEARING PROTECTION, SPEECH DISCRIMINATION, AND CRASH PROTECTION, LOWER WEIGHT AND COST, AND LESS NEED TO MODIFY EXISTING AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS COMPARED TO ANR.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION, HEARING PROTECTION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, EARPLUG
95-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4379 DTIC #: ADA299105
TITLE: SUSTAINING FEMALE UH-60 HELICOPTER PERFORMANCE WITH DEXEDRINE DURING SUSTAINED OPERATIONS: A SIMULATOR STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN CALDWELL, JOHN CROWLEY, LYNN CALDWELL, HEBER JONES, STEPHEN DARLING, SHYLONDA WALLACE, ANDRE PEGUES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFICACY OF DEXEDRINE FOR SUSTAINING THE PERFORMANCE OF SIX FEMALE UH-60 PILOTS UNDER CONDITIONS OF MODERATE SLEEP DEPRIVATION WAS DETERMINED. EACH SUBJECT WAS EXPOSED TO 1 WEEK OF TESTING WHICH INCLUDED TWO 40-HOUR SLEEP DEPRIVATION PERIODS. DURING BOTH DEPRIVATION PERIODS, THERE WERE FIVE EQUALLY-SPACED TEST SESSIONS, EACH OF WHICH INCLUDED A UH-60 SIMULATOR FLIGHT, AN ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) EVALUATION, A TEST ON THE MICROSOFT FLIGHT SIMULATOR, A PROFILE OF MOOD STATES QUESTIONNAIRE, AND A COGNITIVE EVALUATION ON THE SYNTHETIC WORK BATTERY. THESE TESTING SESSIONS BEGAN AT 0100, 0500, 0900, 1300, AND 1700. DURING ONE OF THE DEPRIVATION PERIODS, SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED A 10-MG DOSE OF DEXEDRINE 1 HOUR PRIOR TO EACH OF THE FIRST THREE SESSIONS (FOR A TOTAL OF 30 MG). DURING THE OTHER DEPRIVATION PERIOD, SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED PLACEBOS. A DOUBLE-BLIND ADMINISTRATION SCHEME WAS USED. VITAL SIGNS WERE MONITORED AT REGULAR INTERVALS THROUGHOUT THE STUDY.
KEYWORDS: FEMALES, DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM, SLEEP DEPRIVATION
95-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 793 DTIC #: ADA296977
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INCIDENCE OF COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY AMONG U.S. ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, MICHAEL J. SLATTERY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CHIEF, VISUAL SCIENCES BRANCH, U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, REQUESTED A DETERMINATION OF THE INCIDENCE OF COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY AMONG ARMY AVIATORS. AS WE ENTER THE NEXT CENTURY, THE COLOR VISION REQUIREMENTS OF ARMY AVIATORS WILL INCREASE WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF MULTICOLORED DISPLAYS. SINCE AVIATOR TRAINING APPLICANTS ARE DISQUALIFIED ROUTINELY FROM TRAINING DUE TO COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, THERE SHOULD BE NO AVIATORS WITH COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY. HOWEVER, THIS PAPER DETAILS INCIDENTS OF EXCEPTION TO POLICY FOR KNOWN COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, ACQUIRED COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, AND AVIATION MEDICINE CLINIC SCREENING PROGRAM FAILURES DUE TO POOR METHODS OR DECEPTION BY APPLICANTS AND CONSPIRATORS. THE IN-FLIGHT EVALUATION OF AVIATORS DISCOVERED TO HAVE COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY IS DESCRIBED.
KEYWORDS: DATABASE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, AVIATOR, COLOR BLINDNESS, COLOR VISION DEFICIENCY, AEDR
95-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 630 DTIC #: ADA298377
TITLE: A CHARACTERIZATION OF LOW LUMINANCE STATIC AND DYNAMIC MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION CURVES FOR P-1 P-43, AND P-53 PHOSPHORS
AUTHOR(s): HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, VICTOR KLYMENKO, THOMAS H. HARDING, ROBERT W. VERONA, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COUNTERPHASE MODULATION TECHNIQUE IS USED TO MEASURE THE STATIC AND DYNAMIC MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR THREE PHOSPHORS OF CURRENT INTEREST TO U.S. ARMY AVIATION HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (P-1, P-43, AND P-53). A FAMILY OF MODULATION TRANSFER CURVES, ONE FOR EACH TEMPORAL FREQUENCY, IS PRESENTED FOR EACH PHOSPHOR. THE MEASURED MFT CURVES GENERALLY SUPPORT THE SUPPOSITION THAT PHOSPHOR PERSISTENCE IS A CRITICAL PARAMETER IN THE ABILITY OF A CRT DISPLAY TO ACCURATELY REPRODUCE CONTRAST MODULATION TRANSFER IN DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE QUALITY, CRT, MEASUREMENT, MFT, TV
95-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 957 DTIC #: ADA298780
TITLE: VIDEO METHOD OF MEASURING FIELD-OF-VIEW OF ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES VERSUS EYE CLEARANCE
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A MINIATURE CHARGED COUPLE DEVICE (CCD) VIDEO CAMERA WAS USED TO DETERMINE THE FIELDS-OF-VIEW (FOV) WITH CHANGES IN VIEWING DISTANCES (VERTEX DISTANCE) FOR THE STANDARD 18-MM EYEPIECE ANVIS, A 25-MM EYEPIECE ANVIS, AND TWO DIFFERENT DIAMETER NONOPTICAL APERTURES. THE DATA WERE GRAPHED AND COMPARED WITH THEORETICAL AND SUBJECTIVE VALUES (KOTULAK, 1992) FOR FOVS VERSUS EYE CLEARANCE FOR THE STANDARD 18-MM EYEPIECE ANVIS. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT THE VIDEO CAMERA USED IN THIS STUDY APPROXIMATES BOTH THE THEORETICAL AND SUBJECTIVELY MEASURED FOV VERSUS EYE CLEARANCE FUNCTIONS WITH SLIGHT DEVIATION. COMPUTER GENERATED RAY TRACES AND SUBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT WITH THE 25-MM EYEPIECE CONFIRMED THAT THE MARGINAL RAYS FOR THE MAXIMUM VIEWABLE FOVS WERE BLOCKED AT THE DESIGNED EYE POSITION BY THE APERTURE ON THE BACK PLATE IN FRONT OF THE FIBER OPTIC TWIST OF THE INTENSIFIER TUBE.
KEYWORDS: FIELD-OF-VIEW, ELECTRO-OPTICAL, ANVIS, EYEPIECE, OPTIC
95-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1683 DTIC #: ADA300599
TITLE: ANVIS COMPATIBILITY WITH HGU-56/P HELMET
AUTHOR(s): DEBORAH R. TOWNS, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PHYSICAL COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENTS OF THE AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEMS (ANVIS) WERE COMPLETED ON SUBJECTS WEARING THE HGU-56/P. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM 172 SUBJECTS PARTICIPATING IN A HELMET FITTING STUDY. SUBJECTS WERE FITTED WITH THE HGU-56/P DEVELOPER-RECOMMENDED HELMET SIZE BASED ON HEAD LENGTH AND UP TO TWO ADDITIONAL SIZES (SMALLER AND LARGER). ON SEVERAL SUBJECTS, COMPATIBILITY ASSESSMENTS INCLUDED THE M-43A1, TYPE 2, PROTECTIVE MASK. ADDITIONAL MEASUREMENTS OF MINIMUM ANVIS EYE CLEARANCE USING RIGID HEADFORMS WERE TAKEN TO COMPARE WITH SIMILAR DATA OBTAINED FROM THE SUBJECTS. OUR RESULTS INDICATE (1) MOST SUBJECTS ACHIEVED ACCEPTABLE ANVIS MECHANICAL COMPATIBILITY AND ACCEPTABLE EYE RELIEF WHILE WEARING THE HGU-56/P, (2) PLACEMENT OF THE ANVIS MOUNT HIGHER ON THE VISOR COVER WILL INCREASE COMPATIBILITY, (3) FITTING ONE SIZE LARGER THAN THE DEVELOPER-HELMET SIZE PROBABLY WILL BE REQUIRED TO ACHIEVE ACCEPTABLE AND COMFORTABLE FIT WHILE WEARING THE PROTECTIVE MASK.
KEYWORDS: FLIGHT HELMET, FITTING, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HGU-56/P
95-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 874 DTIC #: ADA300598
TITLE: PHYSICAL EVALUATION OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU)
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU) OF THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) OF THE AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER WAS EVALUATED TO ESTABLISH BASELINE DATA FOR PERFORMANCE FIGURES-OF-MERIT FOR COMPARISON OF FUTURE HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY DESIGNS. MEASURED PARAMETERS INCLUDED PHYSICAL AND OPTICAL EYE RELIEF, EXIT PUPIL SIZE, AND POSITION, FIELD-OF-VIEW, LUMINANCE RANGE, TRANSMITTANCE AND REFLECTANCE CHARACTERISTICS, AND STATIC AND TEMPORAL RESPONSE.
KEYWORDS: AH-64, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT, TESTING AND EVALUATION, OPTICAL PERFORMANCE
95-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 344 DTIC #: ADA299586
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: INCIDENCE AND AGE-SPECIFIC RATES OF HERNIATED NUCLEUS AMONG U.S. ARMY AVIATORS, 1987-1992
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, JENNIFER P. HARPER, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) WAS QUERIED FOR LISTINGS OF ARMY AVIATORS WITH THE FINDING OF HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS (HNP) FOR THE 6-YEAR PERIOD OF 1987 TO 1992. THIS STUDY TABULATED THE INCIDENCE, AGE-SPECIFIC ANNUAL RATES OF HNP, AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF AEROMEDICAL DISPOSITIONS FOR AIRCREW WITH HNP. THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION MEDICINE COMMUNITY CAN EXPECT AN ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATE ABOUT 1 CASE OF HNP PER 1,000 AVIATOR YEARS. HOWEVER, THE INCIDENCE RATE IS INCREASING. AVIATORS ABOUT AGE 40 WERE AT THE GREATEST RISK. ABOUT 7.4 PERCENT OF THE AVIATORS WITH HNP WERE REMOVED PERMANENTLY FROM ARMY FLYING DUTIES DUE TO HNP COMPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, INCIDENCE, HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS
95-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7312 DTIC #: ADA301135
TITLE: UTILIZATION OF VISUAL PORTS IN U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): REBECCA H. IVEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, RICHARD R. LEVINE, SEAN L. WENTWORTH, EVERETTE MCGOWIN III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DOCUMENTS THE LOCATION AND EXTENT OF VISUAL PORTS (WINDOWS) IN U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT AND ASSESS UTILIZATION AND ASSOCIATED PROBLEMS. THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED IN THREE PARTS: FIRST, THE VISUAL PORTS OF EACH AIRCRAFT TYPE WERE DOCUMENTED THROUGH VISUAL PLOTS AND PHOTOGRAPHY. SECOND, QUESTIONNAIRE DATA FOR 334 AVIATORS AND CREWMEN ADDRESSING THE USE OF AN PROBLEMS WITH EACH VISUAL PORT WERE COLLECTED AND ANALYZED. THIRD, A SEARCH OF THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER ACCIDENT DATABASE WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY THE FREQUENCY OF ACCIDENTS IN WHICH IMPAIRED VISION WAS A POSSIBLE FACTOR.
KEYWORDS: WINDSCREEN, TRANSPARENCY, UTILIZATION
95-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 828 DTIC #: ADA302238
TITLE: OPTICAL COMPENSATION FOR NIGHT MYOPIA ON DARK FOCUS AND AC/C RATIO
AUTHOR(s): JOHN C. KOTULAK, STEPHEN E. MORSE, JEFFREY C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PURPOSE. TO DETERMINE WHETHER INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN DARK FOCUS AND CONVERGENCE ACCOMMODATION TO CONVERGENCY (CA/C) RATIO CAN BE USED TO PRESCRIBE THE BEST OPTICAL CORRECTION FOR NIGHT MYOPIA. METHODS. THE BEST CORRECTION FOR NIGHT MYOPIA WAS OBTAINED BY MEASURING VISUAL ACUITY AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY ACROSS A RANGE OF LENS POWERS AND LUMINANCES. DARK FOCUS WAS MEASURED WITH AN INFRARED OPTOMETER, AND CA/C RATIO WAS MEASURED WITH AN INFRARED OPTOMETER AND EYE TRACKER. ONLY YOUNG SUBJECTS WERE USED (MEAN AGE = 25.4 YEARS).
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REFRACTIVE ERROR, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
95-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 477 DTIC #: ADA300597
TITLE: TIME-LIMITED VISUAL RESOLUTION IN PILOT TRAINEES
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SUPERIOR VISION IS NEEDED FOR PILOTING AIRCRAFT IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ENVIRONMENTS. ALTHOUGH VISUAL EVALUATIONS OF POTENTIAL PILOTS TYPICALLY ARE CONDUCTED WITH NO LIMIT ON VIEWING TIME, AVIATION AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS REQUIRE SUPERIOR VISION UNDER TIME-LIMITED VIEWING CONDITIONS, AND ASSESSMENT OF THIS CAPABILITY IS NEEDED. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE TIME-LIMITED VISUAL RESOLUTION IN PILOT TRAINEES. A FORCED-CHOICE LETTER RECOGNITION TASK WAS USED TO MEASURE VISUAL ACUITY (VA) AND SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (SLCS) IN 37 TRAINEES WHO HAD SATISFIED ALL VISION REQUIREMENTS FOR PILOT TRAINING. VA AND SLCS WERE HIGHLY CORRELATED (R=0.76) INDICATING THAT THE TWO TESTS MEASURE SIMILAR ASPECTS OF VISUAL RESOLUTION. HOWEVER, ALTHOUGH VA SCORES WERE DISTRIBUTED ACROSS 0.16 LOG UNITS (TWO LINES OF LETTERS ON A VA CHART), SLCS SCORES VARIED ACROSS 0.35 LOG UNITS, WHICH IS NEARLY FOUR LINES ON THE SLCS CHART. THE VARIATION IN SLCS PERFORMANCE COULD BE EXPLAINED, IN PART, BY SUBTLE REFRACTIVE ERROR IN PILOT TRAINEES. THE RESULTS EXEMPLIFY DIFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE AMONG VISUALLY QUALIFIED TRAINEES, AND UNDERSCORE THE NEED FOR PROPER REFRACTIVE CORRECTION. SLCS IS A USEFUL SCREENING TEST FOR IDENTIFYING SUBTLE CHANGES IN VISION THAT HERALD THE NEED FOR OPTICAL OR MEDICAL INTERVENTION.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, REFRACTIVE ERROR, VISUAL TESTING
95-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 621 DTIC #: ADA300600
TITLE: EFFECTS OF HEAD SUPPORTED DEVICES ON PILOT PERFORMANCE DURING SIMULATED HELICOPTER RIDES
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, MARTIN D. MEYER, JOHN P. ALBANO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EFFECTS OF HELMET WEIGHT MOMENTS ON HELICOPTER PILOT FATIGUE AND PERFORMANCE DURING EXTENDED MISSIONS WERE EVALUATED IN A STUDY IN WHICH 12 VOLUNTEER SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED TO RANDOM VIBRATIONS IN 4-HOUR SESSIONS WHILE WEARING VARIOUS HELMET CONFIGURATIONS. ONE OF THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE AN UPPER LIMIT CRITERION OF 83 N CM FOR THE WEIGHT MOMENT OF HEAD-WORN DEVICES PREVIOUSLY PROPOSED BY BUTLER (1992). IN THIS STUDY, FOUR HELMET CONFIGURATIONS, HAVING WEIGHT MOMENTS OF 20, 110, 200, AND 290 N CM, WERE TESTED WITH EACH SUBJECT. DETECTION AND ACQUISITION OF VISUAL TARGETS, A TASK OFTEN PERFORMED BY AH-64 HELICOPTER PILOTS, WERE SIMULATED BY REQUIRING THE SUBJECT TO AIM A LIGHT BEAM, EMANATING FROM A HELMET-ATTACHED SOURCE, AT LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LED) WHICH WERE LIT AT RANDOM. VIGILANCE OF THE SUBJECT WAS MEASURED BY THE DURATION THE LED REMAINED LIT BEFORE IT WAS TURNED OFF BY THE SUBJECT. ANALYSIS OF THIS VIGILANCE DATA DID NOT REVEAL A CONSISTENT RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE DURATION AND PERFORMANCE. HOWEVER, THE VIGILANCE DATA CLEARLY DEMONSTRATED PILOT PERFORMANCE DEGRADED AS THE WEIGHT MOMENT OF THE HELMET INCREASED, AND THAT ACQUISITION TIMES WERE SHORTEST FOR WEIGHT MOMENTS OF ABOUT 78 N CM. THIS CONCLUSION, WHICH IS BASED PURELY ON PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATION, PROVIDES AN INDEPENDENT CONFIRMATION OF THE BUTLER CRITERION WHICH WAS DERIVED FROM BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF HEAD PITCH ACCELERATIONS AND NECK MYOELECTRIC ACTIVITY.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MASS, HELMET-MOUNTED, PILOT PERFORMANCE, VIGILANCE
96-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 9520 DTIC #: ADA311400
TITLE: ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY FOR INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS IN ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, BEN T. MOZO, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, JOSEPH L. HALEY, JR., JOSEPH R. LICINA, L. WAYNE RICHARDSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY IS MOVING TOWARD A TREND OF USING HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS IN ALL ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. SUCH DEVICES ARE INTEGRATED SYSTEMS CONSISTING OF THE BASIC HELMET, AN OPTICAL DISPLAY, EYE PROTECTION, AND A HEAD TRACKER. THIS REPORT PROVIDES A COMPREHENSIVE METHODOLOGY FOR TESTING ALL ASPECTS OF SUCH INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS. THE ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY ENCOMPASSES BOTH LABORATORY AND IN-FLIGHT EVALUATIONS. THE MAJOR EVALUATION AREAS FOR THE LABORATORY ASSESSMENT ARE OPTICAL/VISUAL, BIODYNAMIC, AND ACOUSTICAL. THE IN-FLIGHT EVALUATION ASSESSES FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND LOGISTICAL SUPPORTABILITY. IN ADDITION, HUMAN FACTORS AND SAFETY ISSUES ARE ADDRESSED.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, TESTING AND EVALUATION, OPTICAL PERFORMANCE
96-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 716 DTIC #: ADA302172
TITLE: COMMUNICATION AND NOISE HAZARD SURVEY OF CH-47D CREWMEMBERS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN E. RIBERA, BEN T. MOZO, KEVIN T. MASON, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U.S. ARMY CH-47D CARGO HELICOPTER CREWMEMBERS ARE EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF NOISE ON A ROUTINE BASIS, YET MUST ACCOMPLISH DEMANDING MISSIONS WHICH RELY HEAVILY ON CLEAR COMMUNICATION. THIS STUDY LOOKED AT THE AUDITORY INFLUENCES AFFECTING COMMUNICATION BY SURVEYING 17 CREWMEMBERS OF A CH-47D ARMY RESERVE UNIT. RESULTS REVEALED (1) NOISE LEVELS THAT EXCEED OTHER ARMY ROTARY-WINGED AIRCRAFT, (2) DIFFERENT EXPOSURE LEVELS FOR AVIATORS AND CREW CHIEFS, (3) AN OVERALL PREFERENCE TO HEAR "CRITICAL OR DIAGNOSTIC" AIRCRAFT SOUNDS RATHER THAN WEAR DOUBLE HEARING PROTECTION, (4) COMPLAINTS OF POSTFLIGHT TINNITUS OR MUFFLED HEARING, (5) HELMET DISCOMFORT AMONG THE MAJORITY OF CREWMEMBERS, (6) A HIGH INCIDENCE OF HEARING LOSS, (7) DIFFICULTIES IN ADJUSTING RADIO VOLUME CONTROLS FOR AVIATORS, AND (8) THE EFFECTS OF EYEGLASSES OR PROTECTIVE MASKS ON HEARING AND COMMUNICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, ROTARY-WING, COMMUNICATION, HEARING, NOISE
96-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 892 DTIC #: ADA304630
TITLE: PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF THE HGU-84/P NAVY HELICOPTER PILOT HELMET
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, BARBARA A. MURPHY, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION AND TROOP COMMAND (ATCOM), PROGRAM MANAGER FOR AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (PM-ALSE), FUNDED USAARL TO PROCURE AND EVALUATE THE NAVY HGU-84/P AGAINST THE U.S. ARMY HGU-56/P PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS. THE PERFORMANCE AREAS EVALUATED INCLUDED: IMPACT PROTECTION, WEIGHT, CENTER OF MASS, CHINSTRAP STRENGTH, SHELL TEAR RESISTANCE, DYNAMIC RETENTION, AND SOUND ATTENUATION. ONLY THE CENTER OF MASS REQUIREMENT WAS MET BY THE HGU-84/P CONFIGURATION. NONE OF THE OTHER HGU-56/P REQUIREMENTS WERE FULLY MET. THE HELMET PERFORMED EQUALLY AS WELL AS THE HGU-56/P IN THE DYNAMIC RETENTION EVALUATION.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, IMPACT PROTECTION, SOUND ATTENUATION, CENTER OF MASS, RETENTION
96-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 224 DTIC #: ADA304632
TITLE: INJURY RISK FOR RESEARCH SUBJECTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA IN A REPEATED IMPACT STUDY: A CASE REVIEW
AUTHOR(s): JOHN P. ALBANO, SAMUEL G. SHANNON, NABIH M. ALEM, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA (SBO) OCCURS IN 18-34% OF THE NORMAL U.S. POPULATION. RECENTLY, 16.5% OF NORMAL, ASYMPTOMATIC MALE SOLDIER VOLUNTEER CANDIDATES IN A U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY RIDE MOTION STUDY WERE EXCLUDED FROM THE STUDY BECAUSE THEY HAD SBO AT ONE VERTEBRAL LEVEL. DISQUALIFYING THIS PERCENTAGE OF SCREENED RESEARCH SUBJECT CANDIDATES THREATENED THE TIMELY COMPLETION OF THE SCHEDULE INTENSE PROTOCOL. ALTHOUGH ONE STUDY SUGGESTS THAT SBO AT SPINAL LEVEL S1 HAS A HIGHER INCIDENCE OF POSTERIOR DISC HERNIATION, THE PREPONDERANCE OF CLINICAL LITERATURE REPORTS THAT SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA IS NOT A MEDICAL PROBLEM.
KEYWORDS: REPEATED IMPACT, SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA, AXIAL LOADING
96-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2182 DTIC #: ADA304697
TITLE: EVALUATION OF AN ENERGY ABSORBING TRUCK SEAT FOR INCREASED PROTECTION FROM LANDMINE BLASTS
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, GREGORY D. STRAWN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MINE BLAST RESISTANT KITS, DEVELOPED BY THE NIGHT VISION AND ELECTRONIC SENSORS DIRECTORATE (NVESD), ARE DESIGNED TO ENHANCE THE SURVIVABILITY OF THE CREW OF MILITARY 5-TON TRUCKS. THE KIT INCLUDES AN ENERGY-ABSORBING SEAT WHICH IS THE FOCUS OF THIS REPORT. A FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION MINE BLAST OF A 5-TON TRUCK WAS CONDUCTED USING THE FULL PROTECTION KIT AND INCLUDED TWO ANTHROPOMORPHIC MANIKINS TO REPRESENT THE PASSENGER AND DRIVER. ONLY THE PASSENGER MANIKIN WAS SEATED IN THE EA SEAT, WHILE THE DRIVER MANIKIN WAS SEATED IN A STANDARD SEAT. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE ANALYSIS OF TEST DATA PERFORMED BY THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL).
KEYWORDS: MINE BLAST, ENERGY-ABSORBING, MANIKINS, TRUCK SEAT, TOLERANCE THRESHOLD
96-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 965 DTIC #: ADA305796
TITLE: VISUAL PERFORMANCE EFFECTS AND USER ACCEPTANCE OF THE M43A1 AVIATION PROTECTIVE MASK FRONTSERTS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INITIAL M43 AVIATION PROTECTIVE MASK WAS FIELDED WITHOUT PROVISIONS FOR OPTICAL CORRECTIVE DEVICES. CONTACT LENSES, AN INTERIM SOLUTION, WERE NOT ENTIRELY ACCEPTABLE SINCE A SMALL SEGMENT OF THE POPULATION COULD NOT BE FITTED ADEQUATELY WITH CONTACTS. THIS STUDY EVALUATED VISUAL PERFORMANCE EFFECTS AND USER ACCEPTANCE OF THE M43A1 MASK WITH FRONTSERT CORRECTION MODIFICATIONS. THE SUBJECTS WERE 30 U.S. ARMY AVIATORS (28 MEN AND 2 WOMEN).
KEYWORDS: NBC PROCTECTIVE MASK, VISION CORRECTION, AVIATION PERFORMANCE
96-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 313 DTIC #: ADA305770
TITLE: IMPACT PROTECTION PROPERTIES OF CANDIDATE FOAM INSERTS FOR THE PERSONNEL ARMOR SYSTEM FOR GROUND TROOPS (PASGT) HELMET SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, KEVIN T. MASON, RUTH A. AUSTINHIRST
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPERATIONAL PARATROOPER HEAD INJURIES INCREASED 2-FOLD RELATIVE TO OTHER BODY REGION INJURIES FROM 1985 TO 1990. THIS TREND CONCERNED THE LEADERS OF THE U.S. ARMY PARATROOPER COMMUNITY, PRIMARILY XVIII AIRBORNE CORPS AND U.S. ARMY INFANTRY SCHOOL, WHO DIRECTED DEVELOPMENT OF HEAD PROTECTIVE MEASURES WITHOUT MODIFICATION OF THE BALLISTIC HELMET SHELL. THEY ESTABLISHED A GOAL OF 50 PERCENT REDUCTION OF TRANSMITTANCE OF IMPACT FORCES TO THE PARATROOPER HEAD. THE OUTCOME WAS TO CONSERVE THE FIGHTING STRENGTH THROUGH REDUCTION OF HEAD INJURIES DURING AIRBORNE OPERATIONS.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, IMPACT PROTECTION, HEAD INJURIES, PARATROOPER
96-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3338 DTIC #: ADA304672
TITLE: EFFECT OF TRIAZOLAM ON PILOT PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, JOHN A. CALDWELL, WILLIAM D. SPRENGER, LARRY C. WOODRUM, HEBER D. JONES, JOSE COLON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE IF AN AVIATOR WHO HAS TAKEN TRIAZOLAM BEFORE BEDTIME COULD ADEQUATELY PERFORM HIS DUTIES THE FOLLOWING DAY AFTER A FULL NIGHT OF SLEEP. IN ADDITION, THE PROJECT DETERMINED IF AN AVIATOR WHO IS AWAKENED SHORTLY AFTER TAKING TRIAZOLAM COULD PERFORM HIS REQUIRED TASKS. IT WAS HYPOTHESIZED THAT A PERSON WHO TOOK TRIAZOLAM IN ORDER TO IMPROVE SLEEP QUALITY MAY SHOW MORE DIFFICULTY IN PERFORMING A TASK IMMEDIATELY UPON AWAKENING THAN WHEN AWAKENED FROM SLEEP NOT INDUCED WITH A HYPNOTIC.
KEYWORDS: TRIAZOLAM, PERFORMANCE, SLEEP INERTIA
96-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 600 DTIC #: ADA305936
TITLE: FIGURES OF MERIT AND PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE IHADSS AND ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY CURRENTLY FIELDS TWO HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY SYSTEMS. THESE ARE THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), WHICH IS EMPLOYED ON THE AH-64 APACHE, AND THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS), WHICH IS EMPLOYED ON ALL U.S. ARMY ROTARY WING AIRCRAFT. THE PERFORMANCE AND FIGURES-OF-MERIT SPECIFICATIONS PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGING PERFORMANCE OF FUTURE AVIATION ELECTRO-OPTICAL DEVICES. THIS PAPER SPECIFIES IN SUMMARY FORM PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS FOR DIFFERENT FIGURES-OF-MERIT WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEFINE THE OVERALL PERFORMANCE OF THE IHADSS AND ANVIS.
KEYWORDS: AH-64, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT, TESTING AND EVALUATION, OPTICAL PERFORMANCE, IHADSS, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), ANVIS, IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, MAGNIFICAION, EYE RELIEF, EXIT PUPIL, CONTRAST RATIO
96-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 240 DTIC #: ADA306470
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: RATES OF EXCEPTIONS TO POLICY GRANTED TO MEDICALLY DISQUALIFIED U.S. ARMY AVIATOR STUDENTS FROM FY 1986 TO FY 1990
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER AND U.S. ARMY AVIATION CENTER FLIGHT TRAINING SCHOOL RECORDS WERE QUERIED TO DETERMINE THE MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS, RANK, AND SERVICE COMPONENT OF THOSE WHO ENTERED AVIATOR TRAIN-ING WITH AN EXCEPTION TO POLICY. THE STUDY PERIOD WAS FISCAL YEARS 1986 TO 1990, FIVE YEARS. THE EXCEPTION TO POLICY RATES GRANTED TO MEDICALLY DISQUALIFIED U.S. ARMY AVIATOR STUDENTS BEFORE OR UPON ENTRY INTO FLIGHT TRAINING IS UNKNOWN. SAMPLE CASE HISTORIES WERE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, AVIATOR
96-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3806 DTIC #: ADA307857
TITLE: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION: A SURVEY OF U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCREW
AUTHOR(s): SIMON J. DURNFORD, SHANNON L. DEROCHE, JENNIFER P. HARPER, LESTER A. TRUDEAU
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SURVEY OF 299 AIRCREW IN CURRENT FLYING PRACTICE WAS PERFORMED AT FIVE U.S. ARMY AIRFIELDS WITHIN CONUS. RESPONDENTS WERE ASKED A NUMBER OF QUESTIONS ABOUT THEIR WORST EVER EPISODE OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) AND THEIR WORST EPISODE IN THE 4 MONTHS PRIOR TO THE SURVEY. THEY ALSO WERE ASKED TO CLASSIFY EPISODES AS MINOR, SIGNIFICANT, OR SEVERE ACCORDING TO THE THREAT TO FLIGHT SAFETY. OPINIONS ALSO WERE SOUGHT ON VARIOUS AIRCRAFT TYPES AND FLIGHT CONDITIONS. IN THE FINAL PART OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE, THEY WERE ASKED ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCE OF BREAK-OFF AND GIANT HAND PHENOMENA.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ROTARY-WING, INSTRUMENTS, DISPLAYS
96-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1892 DTIC #: ADA306571
TITLE: ANVIS OBJECTIVE LENS DEPTH OF FIELD
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: USERS OF THE AN/AVS-6 AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS) NEED TO KNOW THE MINIMUM REQUIRED DISTANCE FOR FOCUSING THE OBJECTIVE LENSES TO OBTAIN INFINITY FOCUS. WITH THE INCREASING USE OF EYE LANES TO FOCUS NIGHT VISION DEVICES, MANY USERS HAVE THE IMPRESSION THAT 20 OR 30 FEET IS “OPTICAL INFINITY” FOR THE EYES AS WELL AS THE ANVIS. DEPTH OF FIELD OF A NIGHT IMAGING DEVICE IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT TO INFANTRY SOLDIERS. IF A SOLDIER FOCUSES AT INFINITY, NEAR OBJECTS WILL BE OUT OF FOCUS AND VICE VERSA. THIS STUDY DESCRIBES THE ANVIS DEPTH OF FOCUS USING PHOTOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES AND PROVIDES DATA ON CHANGES IN RESOLUTION WITH DIFFERENT VIEWING AND FOCUSED DISTANCES (I.E., RESOLUTION VS. DIFFERENT AMOUNTS OF DEFOCUS).
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, DEPTH OF FOCUS, DEPTH OF FIELD, OBJECTIVE LENS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE
96-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 359 DTIC #: ADA306468
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: POPULATION DEMOGRAPHICS AND AEROMEDICAL DISQUALIFICATIONS AMONG FEMALE U.S. ARMY FLIGHT SURGEONS AND AEROMEDICAL PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS FOR CALENDER YEARS 1986 TO 1995
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, MICHELLE H. BRYCE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS WAS A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY TO MEET THE SHORT-NOTICE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL CENTER IN SUPPORT OF THE UPCOMING WOMEN IN ARMY AVIATION SYMPOSIUM IN FEBRUARY 1996. ANALYSIS OF AVAILABLE DATA IN THE AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER AND SCHOOL RECORDS AT THE U.S. ARMY SCHOOL OF AVIATION MEDICINE PROVIDED A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF THE AGE DISTRIBUTION, NUMBERS, RETENTION, AND AEROMEDICAL DISPOSITION OUTCOMES OF FEMALE ARMY FLIGHT SURGEONS AND AEROMEDICAL PHYSICIAN ASSISTANTS FOR THE PERIOD 1986 TO 1995. SEVEN DATA TABLES ARE PROVIDED TO SUMMARIZE THE FINDINGS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, AVIATOR, FEMALE, FLIGHT SURGEON
96-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1020 DTIC #: ADA307815
TITLE: A SURVEY OF FLAT PANEL DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN A. GARRARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY IS MOVING TOWARDS REPLACING CATHODE-RAY-TUBE DISPLAYS WITH THE NEWER FLAT PANEL TECHNOLOGIES. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY WHOSE OBJECTIVE WAS TO IDENTIFY CURRENT AND EMERGING FLAT PANEL TECHNOLOGIES AND EVALUATE THE POTENTIAL USEFULNESS OF THESE TECHNOLOGIES FOR NEAR- AND MID-TERM MILITARY PANEL AND HEAD-MOUNTED APPLICATIONS. THE SURVEY CONSISTED OF A LITERATURE SEARCH OF SCIENTIFIC AND TRADE JOURNALS IN THE AREA OF DISPLAYS, A REVIEW OF THE ANNUAL PROGRAMS OF MAJOR DISPLAY SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS, AND INTERVIEWS WITH FLAT PANEL TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT MATTER EXPERTS. THE SURVEY IDENTIFIED LIQUID CRYSTAL, PLASMA, AND ELECTROLUMINESCENCE AS CURRENTLY MATURE TECHNOLOGIES AND FIELD EMISSION AS THE MOST PROMISING EMERGING TECHNOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: PLASMA, FIELD EMISSION, VACUUM FLUORESCENT
96-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 509 DTIC #: ADA307927
TITLE: CORRECTION OF SUBTLE REFRACTIVE ERROR IN AVIATORS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OPTIMAL VISUAL ACUITY IS A REQUIREMENT FOR PILOTING AIRCRAFT IN MILITARY AND CIVILIAN SETTINGS. WHILE ACUITY CAN BE CORRECTED WITH GLASSES, SPECTACLE WEAR CAN LIMIT OR EVEN PROHIBIT USE OF CERTAIN DEVICES SUCH AS NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, AND/OR CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE MASKS. ALTHOUGH CURRENT ARMY POLICY IS DIRECTED TOWARD SELECTION OF PILOTS WHO DO NOT REQUIRE SPECTACLE CORRECTION FOR ACCEPTABLE VISION, REFRACTIVE ERROR CAN BECOME MANIFEST OVER TIME, MAKING OPTICAL CORRECTION NECESSARY. IN SUCH CASES, CONTACT LENSES HAVE BEEN USED QUITE SUCCESSFULLY. ANOTHER APPROACH IS TO NEGLECT SMALL AMOUNTS OF REFRACTIVE ERROR, PROVIDED THAT VISION IS AT LEAST 20/20 WITHOUT CORRECTION. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES VISUAL FINDINGS IN AN AVIATOR WHO WAS FITTED WITH A CONTACT LENS TO CORRECT MODERATE ASTIGMATISM IN ONE EYE, WHILE THE OTHER EYE, WITH LESSER REFRACTIVE ERROR, WAS LEFT UNCORRECTED.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, REFRACTIVE ERROR, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
96-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 514 DTIC #: ADA309413
TITLE: DIFFERENCES IN APPARENT CONTRAST IN YELLOW AND WHITE LIGHT (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN, ROGER WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE SUPRATHRESHOLD CONTRAST PERCEPTION IN WHITE AND YELLOW LIGHT. THE CONTRAST OF BLACK-ON-WHITE LETTERS WAS ADJUSTED TO MATCH THE PERCEIVED CONTRAST OF YELLOW-ON-YELLOW LETTERS PRESENTED SIMULTANEOUSLY ON A VIDEO DISPLAY. AT LOWER CONTRAST (7-15%), THE APPARENT CONTRAST OF YELLOW LETTERS WAS SLIGHTLY ENHANCED COMPARED TO BLACK-ON-WHITE LETTERS (MEAN ENHANCEMENT + 23%), BUT THIS EFFECT DIMINISHED WITH INCREASING CONTRAST. THE SLIGHT ENHANCEMENT IN YELLOW LIGHT WAS INDEPENDENT OF LETTER SIZE, AND COULD NOT BE EXPLAINED BY LUMINANCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN YELLOW AND WHITE DISPLAYS. THIS EFFECT MAY RELATE TO THE SUBJECTIVE IMPROVEMENT OFTEN REPORTED WHEN WEARING YELLOW (BLUE-BLOCKING) LENSES.
KEYWORDS: YELLOW LENSES, CONTRAST-MATCHING, BLUE-BLOCKING FILTERS
96-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4270 DTIC #: ADA309580
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER DATA ENTRY AND FLIGHT SURGEON OFFICE ADMINISTRATION GUIDE
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS GUIDE PROVIDES U.S. ARMY FLIGHT SURGEONS (FS) WITH GUIDELINES FOR COMPLETING FLYING DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS (FDME) THAT ARE COMPATIBLE WITH AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER (AEDR) DATA ENTRY. IT DETAILS THE REVIEW AND DISPOSITION OF AEROMEDICALLY DISQUALIFIED AVIATION TRAINING PROGRAM APPLICANTS, AIRCREW MEMBERS, AND AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLERS, BOTH CIVILIAN AND MILITARY.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE ADMINISTRATION, FLIGHT SURGEON
96-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 480 DTIC #: ADA398833
TITLE: U.S. ARMY LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM: U.S. ARMY AIRCREW RESCUE AND FACTORS DELAYING RESCUE (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JAMES E. BRUCKART
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESPITE STRICT FLIGHT DISCIPLINE, U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT INFREQUENTLY SUFFER IN-FLIGHT MISHAPS. THIS IS A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF AIRCREW SURVIVAL AND RESCUE IN 97 MISHAPS INVESTIGATED BY THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER FROM OCTOBER 1988 TO JUNE 1990. TO IDENTIFY FACTORS DELAYING RESCUE, LATER MISHAPS WERE COMPARED WITH 37 MISHAPS WHERE THE TIME TO REACH THE MISHAP SITE EXCEEDED 2 HOURS. THE AVERAGE TIME TO REACH A MISHAP SITE WAS 2.2 HOURS, BUT OVER 90 PERCENT WERE REACHED WITHIN 2 HOURS. THERE WERE TWO OR MORE SURVIVORS AT 82 PERCENT OF THE SITES AND 98 PERCENT OF THE DOWNED AIRCREW HAD AT LEAST PERSONAL SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT AVAILABLE.
KEYWORDS: SEARCH AND RESCUE, AIRCRAFT MISHAP, CRASHWORTHINESS, POSTCRASH
96-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 477 DTIC #: ADA309581
TITLE: PERCEPTION OF AN ILLUSORY FORM UNDER CONDITIONS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AMBIGUOUS FIGURES AND VISUAL ILLUSIONS ARE DIFFICULT TO PERCEIVE WHEN PRESENTED IN TERMS OF COLOR CONTRAST RATHER THAN LUMINANCE CONTRAST. THIS FINDING HAS PROMPTED THE NOTION THAT THE PERCEPTION OF THESE FORMS DEPENDS PRIMARILY ON PROCESSING ALONG AN ACHROMATIC, LUMINANCE PATHWAY. OTHERS CONTEND THAT THE PERCEPTION OF SUCH FIGURES DEPENDS ON THE VISIBILITY OF THE STIMULUS RATHER THAN ON THE PARTICULAR PATHWAY TRAVERSED FROM EYE TO BRAIN. IF VISIBILITY IS A LIMITING FACTOR ON PERCEPTION, THEN IT WOULD BE USEFUL TO DETERMINE HOW CERTAIN PERCEPTUAL AMBIGUITIES ARE RESOLVED UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS OF LIMITED VISIBILITY.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ILLUSIONS, ILLUSORY FORMS, EQUILUMINANCE, COLOR CONTRAST, TARGET IDENTIFICATION
96-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 535 DTIC #: ADA309417
TITLE: IMAGE CONTRAST AND VISUAL ACUITY THROUGH NIGHT VISION GOGGLES
AUTHOR(s): JEFF C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) INTENSIFY AMBIENT ILLUMINATION MAKING IT POSSIBLE TO SEE IN THE DARK DESPITE INSUFFICIENT LIGHT FOR NORMAL VISION. NVGS ARE USED FOR MILITARY AND CIVILIAN OPERATIONS AND AS VISUAL AIDS FOR NIGHT BLINDNESS. THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF VISION ACHIEVED THROUGH NVGS DEPENDS ON SEVERAL FACTORS INCLUDING THE INTENSITY OF AMBIENT RADIATION, THE INTEGRITY OF NVG ELECTRO-OPTICAL COMPONENTS, AND THE LUMINANCE, CONTRAST AND RESOLUTION OF THE NVG DISPLAY. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE EFFECTS OF DISPLAY CONTRAST AND LUMINANCE ON VISUAL RESOLUTION THROUGH NVGS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST, NIGHT VISION AIDS, LUMINANCE
96-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1031 DTIC #: ADA310131
TITLE: ALTITUDE ESTIMATION IN THE UH-60 FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, J. LYNN CALDWELL, MELANIE SESSIONS, CYNTHIA R. TIBBETTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CORRECT PERCEPTION OF SELF-ALTITUDE ABOVE THE EARTH IS AN ESSENTIAL SKILL FOR AVIATORS, ESPECIALLY THOSE FLYING NAP-OF-THE-EARTH. SINCE MUCH OF TODAY'S HELICOPTER TRAINING OCCURS IN FLIGHT SIMULATORS, IT IS IMPORTANT TO DETERMINE IF THE PERCEPTUAL CUES DENOTING ALTITUDE IN THE SIMULATOR TRANSFER TO THE REAL-WORLD FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT. A STUDY WAS PERFORMED TO ASSESS THE ACCURACY FOR ARMY AVIATORS IN ESTIMATING SELF-ALTITUDE IN THE SIMULATOR AND TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK ON THE TRAINING OF THIS CAPABILITY. RESULTS WITH 11 AVIATORS SHOWED THAT ALTITUDE ESTIMATION WAS MORE ACCURATE OVER LAND THAN WATER WHILE CRUISING AT HIGHER ALTITUDES (>50 FT) AND MORE ACCURATE OVER WATER THAN OVER LAND WHILE HOVERING OVER LOWER ALTITUDES. PERFORMANCE FEEDBACK RESULTED IN A DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENT IN OVERALL PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: ALTITUDE, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, DISTANCE PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, FLIGHT PREFORMANCE, FLIGHT SIMULATOR
96-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 882 DTIC #: ADA311655
TITLE: FEMALE AND MALE AVIATORS ARE NOT AFFECTED DIFFERENTLY BY SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND CONTINUOUS TASK DEMANDS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., J. LYNN CALDWELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT CHANGES IN U.S. MILITARY REGULATIONS HAVE BROUGHT ABOUT THE ASSIGNMENT OF FEMALE AVIATORS TO COMBAT ROLES. THIS HAS BEEN THE TOPIC OF SERIOUS DEBATE, BUT THERE ARE FEW FACTS CONCERNING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES' AND FEMALES' ABILITIES TO WITHSTAND COMBAT-RELEVANT STRESSORS. THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THERE ARE GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESPONSES TO A COMMON OPERATIONAL STRESSOR, SLEEP DEPRIVATION. SIX MALE AND SIX FEMALE UH-60 HELICOPTER PILOTS WERE EXPOSED TO A 40-HOUR PERIOD OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS AND TESTED ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE AND MOOD. THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE RESULTS INDICATED THAT GENDER PRODUCED VIRTUALLY NO OPERATIONALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF SLEEP LOSS. FURTHERMORE, ALTHOUGH MOOD EVALUATIONS SHOWED THAT WOMEN FELT LESS TENSE AND MORE ENERGETIC OVERALL THAN THEIR MALE COUNTERPARTS, THERE WERE NO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND GENDER. THUS, MALE AND FEMALE AVIATORS APPEAR EQUALLY CAPABLE OF PERFORMING FLIGHT-RELATED TASKS DESPITE MODERATE SLEEP LOSS.
KEYWORDS: GENDER, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, MOOD, SLEEP DEPRIVATION
96-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1019 DTIC #: ADA312045
TITLE: SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG WITH FLEXIBLE HARNESS (CEP/FH) AMONG CH-47D CREWMEMBERS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN E. RIBERA, BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NOISE LEVELS IN ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, PARTICULARLY THE CH-47D (CHINOOK), CAN REACH AS HIGH AS 115 DBA. CURRENT AVIATOR HELMETS PROVIDE ADEQUATE HEARING PROTECTION. HOWEVER, SPEECH COMMUNICATION IS LESS THAN OPTIMUM. THE COMMUNICATION EARPLUG WITH FLEXIBLE HARNESS (CEP/FH), DEVELOPED AT THE UNITED STATES ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, MAY PROVIDE AN ANSWER TO THE PROBLEM. SEVENTEEN AVIATORS AND CREWMEMBERS OF A U.S. ARMY RESERVE CH-47D UNIT FIELD TESTED THE CEP/FH AND SUBSEQUENTLY WERE QUERIED. RESULTS OF THE POSTTRIAL SURVEY ARE PRESENTED AND DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, ROTARY-WING, COMMUNICATION, HEARING, NOISE
96-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 800 DTIC #: ADA311728
TITLE: COUNTERWEIGHTS USED WITH ANVIS
AUTHOR(s): BILL MCLEAN, SAMUEL SHANNON, JOE MCENTIRE, SCOTT ARMSTRONG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, ON THE USE OF COUNTERWEIGHTS WITH THE AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS). THE PURPOSES OF THE SURVEY WERE TO DETERMINE FREQUENCY AND PURPOSE OF COUNTERWEIGHT USE, MATERIALS USED, AND ACTUAL WEIGHT OF THE COUNTERWEIGHTS. THIRTY-SEVEN NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) INSTRUCTOR PILOTS (IPS) AND NINETEEN NVG STUDENT PILOTS CONTRIBUTED TO THIS SURVEY. NVG PARTICIPANTS FLEW FOUR DIFFERENT AIRCRAFT TYPES LOCATED AT THREE DIFFERENT AIRFIELDS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLE, FLIGHT HELMET, HELMET MASS, CENTER OF MASS, COUNTERWEIGHT
96-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 603 DTIC #: ADA314708
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER: DISTRIBUTION OF SITTING HEIGHTS AMONG ARMY AVIATION TRAINING APPLICANTS 1986 TO 1995
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AVIATION TRAINING BRIGADE, U.S. ARMY AVIATION CENTER, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL CENTER, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, REQUESTED AN ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF SITTING HEIGHTS AMONG MALE AND FEMALE APPLICANTS FOR ENTRY INTO THE ARMY AVIATION BRANCH. THEY MAY REVISE THE CURRENT SITTING HEIGHT ENTRY STANDARD OF "LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 102 CENTIMETERS" TO A NEW QUALIFICATION STANDARD AS LOW AS "LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 97 CENTIMETERS."
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE ADMINISTRATION, FLIGHT SURGEON
96-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1179 DTIC #: ADA316577
TITLE: VISUAL VESTIBULAR INTERACTION IN THE DYNAMIC VISUAL ACUITY TEST DURING VOLUNTARY HEAD ROTATION
AUTHOR(s): MOO HOON LEE, SIMON DURNFORD, JOHN CROWLEY, ANGUS RUPERT
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ALTHOUGH INTACT VESTIBULAR FUNCTION IS ESSENTIAL IN MAINTAINING SPATIAL ORIENTATION, NO GOOD SCREENING TESTS OF VESTIBULAR FUNCTION ARE AVAILABLE TO THE AVIATION COMMUNITY. HIGH FREQUENCY VOLUNTARY HEAD ROTATION WAS SELECTED AS A VESTIBULAR STIMULUS TO ISOLATE THE VESTIBULO-OCULAR REFLEX (VOR) FROM VISUAL INFLUENCE. A DYNAMIC VISUAL ACUITY TEST THAT INCORPORATES VOLUNTARY HEAD ROTATION WAS EVALUATED AS A POTENTIAL VESTIBULAR FUNCTION SCREENING TOOL. TWENTY-SEVEN NORMAL SUBJECTS PERFORMED VOLUNTARY SINUSOIDAL HEAD ROTATION AT FREQUENCIES FROM 0.7-4.0 HZ UNDER THREE DIFFERENT VISUAL CONDITIONS: VISUALLY-ENHANCED VOR, NORMAL VOR, AND VISUALLY SUPPRESSED VOR.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, VESTIBULAR, VESTIBULO-OCULAR REFLEX HEAD ROTATION, VISUAL ACUITY
96-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 494 DTIC #: ADA316598
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM: PREDICTION OF SITTING HEIGHT BASED ON STATURE FOR MISHAP INJURY ANALYSIS
AUTHOR(s): KEVIN T. MASON, SAMUEL G. SHANNON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DURING AN ANALYSIS OF INJURY PATTERNS IN OH-58 AND UH-1 MISHAPS, THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) FOUND SITTING HEIGHT DATA WERE AVAILABLE ONLY FOR AVIATORS TRAINED AFTER 1986. SINCE MANY AVIATORS FLYING DURING THE STUDY PERIOD WERE TRAINED BEFORE 1986, A MODEL WAS DEVELOPED TO PREDICT SITTING HEIGHT BASED ON SOME OTHER MEASURE. STATURE WAS SELECTED SINCE IT IS MEASURED ANNUALLY, IS CONSISTENT FROM YEAR TO YEAR, AND IS AVAILABLE FOR ALL AVIATORS IN THE STUDY.
KEYWORDS: SITTING HEIGHT, AVIATORS, STATURE, AIRCREW AVIATION, MEDICINE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, DATABASE, ANTHROPOMETRY
96-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 740 DTIC #: ADA317258
TITLE: MEASURING RESOLUTION IN THE CONTRAST DOMAIN: THE SMALL LETTER CONTRAST TEST (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN, JAMES WICKS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENT EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT SMALL LETTER CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (CS) IS MORE SENSITIVE THAN VISUAL ACUITY (VA) TO DEFOCUS, LUMINANCE, BINOCULAR ENHANCEMENT, AND VISUAL DIFFERENCES AMONG PILOT TRAINEES. IT WOULD BE VALUABLE TO MAKE THIS TEST AVAILABLE FOR GENERAL USE. WE DEVELOPED A HARD COPY (LETTER CHART) VERSION CALLED THE SMALL LETTER CONTRAST TEST (SLCT) AND EVALUATED ITS SENSITIVITY AND RELIABILITY IN COMPARISON TO STANDARD VISION TESTS. THE SLCT HAS 14 LINES OF LETTERS WITH 10 LETTERS PER LINE. THE LETTERS ARE OF CONSTANT SIZE (20/25 OR 4/5 AT 4 M), BUT VARY IN CONTRAST BY LINE IN 0.1 LOG STEPS (0.01 LOG UNITS PER LETTER).
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY, VISION TESTING, RESOLUTION, LETTER CHART
96-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 285 DTIC #: ADA314684
TITLE: DYNAMIC VISUAL PERFORMANCE: COMPARISON BETWEEN HELMET-MOUNTED CRTS AND LCDS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN, ROGER WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A METHODOLOGY IS DEMONSTRATED FOR EVALUATING DYNAMIC VISUAL PERFORMANCE BY COMPARING A HELMET-MOUNTED CATHODE-RAY-TUBE (CRT) DISPLAY WITH A LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD). THE MINIATURE CRT CONTAINED IN THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) USE IN THE AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER WAS COMPARED TO A HEAD-MOUNTED ACTIVE-MATRIX LCD (AMLCD) CURRENTLY UNDER DEVELOPMENT. DYNAMIC VISUAL PERFORMANCE WAS ACCESSED BY MEASURING FLICKE DETECTION, TARGET RECOGNITION VERSUS DURATION, AND TARGET RECOGNITION VERSUS VELOCITY IN FIVE SUBJECTS TESTED WITH EACH DISPLAY (TWO-WAY REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN).
KEYWORDS: CATHODE RAY TUBE, DYNAMIC VISUAL ACUITY, LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAY, TEMPORAL RESPONSE
96-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 747 DTIC #: ADA314671
TITLE: U.S. ARMY SUNGLASSES: ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN, ROGER WILEY, RICHARD LEVINE, JAMES WICKS, ANTONIA RIVERS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SOME MILITARY AVIATORS HAVE REPORTED DIFFICULTY DISCRIMINATING THE COLOR OF COCKPIT WARNING LIGHTS WHEN WEARING PLASTIC SUNGLASSES. THIS DIFFICULTY COULD BE DUE TO LENSES THAT ARE TOO DARK OR ARE NONNEUTRAL AND THUS ALTER COLOR VISION. A STUDY WAS PERFORMED TO IDENTIFY THE ORIGIN OF THIS PROBLEM, RECOMMEND SOLUTIONS, AND DETERMINE A SUNGLASS TRANSMITTANCE THAT OPTIMIZES VISUAL PERFORMANCE. FIVE PAIRS OF PLASTIC SUNGLASSES (-4 TO +4 D) WERE ORDERED FROM EACH OF SEVEN MILITARY OPTICAL LABORATORIES (70 LENSES TOTAL). EACH LABORATORY WAS INSTRUCTED TO DYE THE LENSES NEUTRAL GRAY WITH 21 PERCENT TRANSMITTANCE.
KEYWORDS: SUNGLASSES, TINTED LENSES, LENS METERS, VERIFICATION, TRANSMITTANCE
96-38 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 928 DTIC #: ADA314709
TITLE: VISUAL DISPLAY DELAY EFFECTS ON PILOT PERFORMANCE (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS, TERRY L. BARRON, ROGER WILEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HELMET INTEGRATED DISPLAY SIGHT SYSTEM (HIDSS), ORIGINALLY PROPOSED FOR THE RAH-66 COMANCHE, DISPLAYS SENSOR DATA FROM FLIR AND IMAGE INTENSIFIERS, AS WELL AS FLIGHT INSTRUMENT AND TARGETING DATA. ALL THESE DATA WILL BE PROCESSED THROUGH ONBOARD COMPUTERS BEFORE BEING DISPLAYED ON MINIATURE CRT'S. IN ADDITION TO PROCESSING DELAYS, DELAYS ALSO ARE ARISING FROM THE HELMET TRACKER AND FROM SENSOR SLEWING THAT MAY INCREASE THE TOTAL VISUAL DISPLAY DELAY TO AS MUCH AS 250 MS. BECAUSE DISPLAY LAG IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT LIMITATIONS AFFECTING THE ABILITY OF AN AVIATOR TO USE A DISPLAY, WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECTS OF 0, 67, 133, 267, 400, AND 533 MS VISUAL DISPLAY DELAYS ON THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF 10 VOLUNTEER U.S. ARMY AVIATORS IN A FULL MOTION FLIGHT SIMULATOR.
KEYWORDS: DISPLAY DELAY, PILOT PERFORMANCE, VISUAL DISPLAYS, COMANCHE, HIDSS
96-39 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 616 DTIC #: ADA317260
TITLE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN PHOSPHORS FOR AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN, WILLIAM MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE VISUAL DISPLAY ON NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) IS GREEN AND ISOCHROMATIC (P22 PHOSPHOR). FUTURE SYSTEMS ARE EXPECTED TO USE A P43 PHOSPHOR WHICH HAS A NARROWER VISIBLE SPECTRUM AND IS YELLOWISH-GREEN, WHILE THE P22 IS DEEPER GREEN. IN TRANSITIONING TO THE P43, SOME NVGS MAY HAVE P22 AND P43 PHOSPHORS PAIRED IN THE SAME NVG. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE SUITABILITY OF THE P43 PHOSPHOR AND THE EFFECT OF MIXING PHOSPHORS IN THE SAME NVG. WE TESTED THREE SYSTEMS: ONE WITH P22 PHOSPHORS IN BOTH TUBES (P22), ONE WITH P43 IN BOTH TUBES (P43), AND ONE WITH P22 IN THE RIGHT AND P43 IN THE LEFT TUBE (MIXED). VISUAL ACUITY (VA), CONTRAST SENSITIVITY (CS), FLICKER SENSITIVITY, AND DYNAMIC CS WERE MEASURED IN SIX SUBJECTS WITH MEASURES REPEATED ACROSS THE THREE SYSTEMS (P22, P43, AND MIXED). THERE WAS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEMS IN VA OR CS ACROSS A RANGE OF SIMULATED NIGHT SKY CONDITIONS. THERE ALSO WAS NO DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTEMS IN SENSITIVITY TO FLICKER. PERFORMANCE ON DYNAMIC CS WAS SLIGHTLY BETTER WITH THE P43 DISPLAY, WHICH MAY RELATE TO THE FASTER DECAY TIME OF THIS PHOSPHOR. THESE RESULTS PROVIDE NO CONTRAINDICATION FOR USING THE P43 PHOSPHOR IN NVGS (PAIRED OR UNPAIRED), BUT IT WOULD BE PRUDENT TO MINIMIZE MIXING OF PHOSPHORS IN THE SAME NVG.
KEYWORDS: NONE
97-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2415 DTIC #: ADA319150
TITLE: RAH-66 COMANCHE HEALTH HAZARD AND PERFORMANCE ISSUES FOR THE HELMET INTEGRATED DISPLAY AND SIGHTING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, BEN T. MOZO, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HELMET INTEGRATED AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (HIDSS) IS A COMBINATION OF A PROTECTIVE HELMET, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), AND HELMET MOUNTED SIGHTING SYSTEM. IT IS PLANNED FOR USE IN THE ARMY'S NEXT GENERATION RECONNAISSANCE/ATTACK HELICOPTER, THE RAH-66 COMANCHE. IN 1986 AND 1988, THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) DEVELOPED AND PUBLISHED GUIDELINES FOR ADDRESSING POTENTIAL HEALTH HAZARD ISSUES WITH THE HIDSS. THE MOST RECENT VERSION OF THESE GUIDELINES WAS USAARL LR 88-4-21-10, "REVISION FOR THE HEALTH HAZARD ISSUES IN THE HIDSS." THIS PAPER IS A FURTHER REVISION OF THESE ISSUES. IN ADDITION TO RECOMMENDATIONS PROVIDED FOR PERFORMANCE IN THE AREAS OF BIODYNAMICS, OPTICS/VISION, AND ACOUSTICS, A NUMBER OF SAFETY AND TRAINING ISSUES ARE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: IMPACT ATTENUATION, CHINSTRAP, SPEECH INTELLIBILITY, EARPHONE, EARCUP, RESOLUTION, EXIT PUPIL, HYPERSTEREOPSIS, VISORS, DISTORTION
97-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 717 DTIC #: ADA318600
TITLE: MELATONIN EFFICACY IN AVIATION MISSIONS REQUIRING RAPID DEPLOYMENT AND NIGHT OPERATIONS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, HARRIS LIBERMAN, ALBERT W. KIRBY, B. ADAMS, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE RAPID DEPLOYMENT OF ARMY AVIATION PERSONNEL ACROSS TIME ZONES, COMBINED WITH MISSIONS BEGINNING IMMEDIATELY UPON ARRIVAL, RESULTS IN DESYNCHRONIZATION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE RHYTHMS. IMPLEMENTATION OF EFFECTIVE COUNTERMEASURES ENHANCES SAFETY, HEALTH, WELL-BEING, AND MISSION COMPLETION. THE NATURALLY OCCURRING HORMONE MELATONIN HAS BEEN SUGGESTED AS AN EFFECTIVE COUNTERMEASURE FOR JET LAG AND SHIFT LAG BECAUSE OF ITS INFLUENCE ON THE HUMAN CIRCADIAN TIMING SYSTEM AND ITS HYPNOTIC PROPERTIES. THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF MELATONIN (10 MG) IN MAINTAINING STABLE SLEEP/WAKE CYCLES OF ARMY AIRCREWS DURING A TRAINING MISSION INVOLVING RAPID DEPLOYMENT TO THE MIDDLE EAST AND NIGHT OPERATIONS. MELATONIN TREATMENT MAINTAINED SLEEP DURATIONS BETWEEN 7-8 HOURS WHILE PLACEBO TREATMENTS RESULTED IN SHORTER SLEEP DURATIONS. UPON AWAKENING, THE MELATONIN GROUP EXHIBITED SIGNIFICANTLY FEWER ERRORS THAN THE PLACEBO GROUP IN A DUAL-TASK VIGILANCE TEST.
KEYWORDS: DEPLOYMENT, NIGHT OPERATIONS, COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, MELATONIN
97-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1196 DTIC #: ADA322136
TITLE: BEDTIME ADMINISTRATION OF MELATONIN TO HEALTHY FEMALES DOES NOT ALTER MENSTRUAL CHARACTERISTICS
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, SANTIAGO ARROYO, MELANIE CLAYTON, CHARLES FERRY, KEITH BLESER, HEATHER DAVIS, RENE BECK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RAPID TRAVEL ACROSS MULTIPLE TIME ZONES OFTEN RESULTS IN FATIGUE, SLEEPINESS, INSOMNIA, AND POOR MENTAL PERFORMANCE. THESE SYMPTOMS, IN ADDITION TO OTHERS, OFTEN ARE KNOWN AS JET LAG OR DESYNCHRONOSIS. MELATONIN, AN ENDOGENOUSLY OCCURRING HORMONE, HAS BEEN SHOWN TO BE CAPABLE OF RESYNCHRONIZING CIRCADIAN RHYTHM DISRUPTIONS, AND INDUCING SLEEP IN HUMANS, AND THEREFORE CAN BE EFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING SLEEP LOSS AND MAINTAINING ALERTNESS DURING TRAVEL. HOWEVER, IN FEMALES, MELATONIN HAS A POTENTIAL INHIBITORY INFLUENCE ON THE HYPOTHALAMO-PITUITARY-OVARIAN AXIS, AND ITS USE MAY RESULT IN SECONDARY DISRUPTIONS OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE.
KEYWORDS: MELATONIN, MENSTRUAL CYCLE, OVULATION, LUTEINIZING HORMONE, FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE, 6-SULPHATOXYMELATONIN
97-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3551 DTIC #: ADA320271
TITLE: AN IN-FLIGHT INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFICACY OF DEXTROAMPHETAMINE FOR THE SUSTAINMENT OF HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., J. LYNN CALDWELL, J. ALAN LEWIS, HEBER D. JONES, MATTHEW J. REARDON, ROGER JONES, JOSE COLON, ANDRE PEGUES, ROBERT DILLARD, PARLEY JOHNSON, LARRY WOODRUM, ANDREW HIGDON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CURRENT BATTLEFIELD DOCTRINE INDICATES THAT ARMY AVIATORS MUST BE PREPARED TO ENGAGE IN SUSTAINED OPERATIONS AGAINST ENEMY FORCES. FIGHTING AROUND THE CLOCK CREATES A TACTICAL ADVANTAGE BECAUSE OF THE CONTINUOUS STRAIN THAT IS PLACED UPON ENEMY FORCES. HOWEVER, THIS STRATEGY CAN BACKFIRE IF THERE ARE INSUFFICIENT U.S. PERSONNEL TO ADEQUATELY STAFF THE DAY AND NIGHT SHIFTS WITH WELL-RESTED CREWS. FATIGUE PRODUCES SLOW AND INACCURATE PERFORMANCE, ERRORS OF OMISSION, AND DETERIORATIONS IN MOOD AND MOTIVATION. IN SOME SITUATIONS WHERE ADEQUATE SLEEP IS NOT POSSIBLE, THE ADMINISTRATION OF STIMULANTS IS THE ONLY EFFECTIVE COUNTERMEASURE FOR SLEEP LOSS.
KEYWORDS: STIMULANTS, AVIATORS, IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, EEG, MOOD, DEXTROAMPHETAMINE
97-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7024 DTIC #: ADA320166
TITLE: PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF THERMALLY STRESSFUL UH-60 SIMULATOR COCKPIT CONDITIONS ON AVIATORS WEARING STANDARD AND ENCUMBERED FLIGHT UNIFORMS
AUTHOR(s): MATTHEW J. REARDON, NICHOLAS SMYTHE, III, JULIA OMER, BETH HELMS, J. DARRELL HAGER, MARJORIE FREEZE, DONNA BUCHANAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A REPEATED MEASURES, 2 BY 2 FACTORIAL STUDY, USING 24 AVIATORS (17 TEST ITERATIONS) EVALUATED THE EFFECTS OF THE FOUR COMBINATIONS OF UNENCUMBERED MOPP0 AVIATOR BATTLE DRESS UNIFORM (ABDU) AND ENCUMBERED MOPP4 OVER ABDU FLIGHT ENSEMBLES IN COOL (70° F, 50 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY (RH)) AND HOT (100° F, 50 PERCENT RH) UH-60 COCKPIT CONDITIONS. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES. THE MOST STRIKING, OPERATIONALLY RELEVANT RESULT WAS THAT NONE OF THE CREWS IN THE ENCUMBERED MOPP4-HOT CONDITION WERE ABLE TO COMPLETE THE FIRST TWO 2-HOUR SORTIES.
KEYWORDS: NONE
97-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 989 DTIC #: ADA321687
TITLE: THE PERFORMANCE OF ALKALINE AA BATTERIES WITH THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS) - BEFORE AND AFTER ACTIVATION OF THE LOW BATTERY INDICATOR
AUTHOR(s): BILL MCLEAN, JOHN A. GARRARD, ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DUAL BATTERY PACK WITH THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS) HAS A LOW BATTERY INDICATOR TO ALERT THE USER TO SWITCH BATTERIES AT APPROXIMATELY 2.4 VOLTS BEFORE THE ANVIS PERFORMANCE IS AFFECTED. WITH THE ORIGINAL LITHIUM BATTERIES, THE USABLE TIME AFTER ACTIVATION OF THE LOW BATTERY INDICATOR IS APPROXIMATELY 30 MINUTES. ACTIVATION UNITS ARE NOW PREDOMINATELY USING A PAIR OF THE AA ALKALINE BATTERIES WITH ANVIS. THIS REPORT INVESTIGATED THE USABLE TIME AVAILABLE WITH ANVIS AFTER ACTIVATION OF THE LOW BATTERY INDICATOR FOR ALKALINE AA BATTERIES. LABORATORY RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE ANVIS USABLE TIME FOR THE ALKALINE BATTERIES WAS TYPICALLY MORE THAN 5 HOURS AFTER THE LOW BATTERY INDICATOR HAD BEEN ACTIVATED. ADDITIONALLY, WE FOUND SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN THE BATTERY VOLTAGES AT DIFFERENT AIRFIELDS FOR SUPPOSEDLY NEW BATTERIES, INDICATING THAT PILOTS ARE EITHER MIXING UP THE NEW AND USED BATTERIES DURING FLIGHT, OR THE BATTERIES ARE BEING SHORT-CIRCUITED DURING STORAGE.
KEYWORDS: BATTERY, ALKALINE, LITHIUM, ANVIS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE
97-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2220 DTIC #: ADB222028
TITLE: ASSESSMENT OF SOUND ATTENUATION AND SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY OF SELECTED ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION DEVICES AND THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG WHEN USED WITH THE HGU-56/P AVIATOR HELMET
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PROGRAM MANAGER FOR AIRCREW INTEGRATED SYSTEMS (PM-ACIS), FORMERLY AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (PM-ALSE), REQUESTED THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) EXAMINE THE STATUS OF ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION (ANR) SYSTEMS AVAILABLE IN THE MARKETPLACE. THE MECHANISM FOR ACQUIRING THE DEVICES WAS A COOPERATIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENT (CRDA) WHICH WAS IMPLEMENTED WITH THREE U.S. CORPORATIONS. EACH CORPORATION AGREED TO MODIFY THREE HGU-56 AVIATOR HELMETS, FURNISHED BY THE GOVERNMENT, BY INSTALLING THEIR ANR SYSTEM. THE MODIFIED HELMETS, THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP), AND THE STANDARD HGU-56 HELMET WERE EVALUATED BY THE USAARL AIRCREW PROTECTION DIVISION TO DETERMINE THE ELECTROACOUSTIC, HEARING PROTECTIVE, AND SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY CHARACTERISTICS. STANDARD TECHNIQUES, USING HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR SOUND ATTENUATION AND SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, WERE USED TO COMPLETE THE MEASUREMENTS.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION MEDICINE, ROTARY-WING, COMMUNICATION, HEARING, NOISE, NOISE REDUCTION
97-09 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 957 DTIC #: ADB220453
TITLE: OPERATIONAL TEST TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE COMMUNICATION EARPLUG AND SELECTED ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION DEVICES WHEN USED WITH THE HGU-56/P AVIATOR HELMET
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT N. STATON, BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIRTY-NINE AVIATORS/CREWMEMBERS ASSIGNED TO FLATIRON, U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL CENTER, 1/14TH AVIATION REGIMENT, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, AND SOATC, 160TH SOAR(A), FORT CAMPBELL, KENTUCKY, PARTICIPATED IN AN OPERATIONAL EVALUATION OF THE HGU-56/P AVIATION HELMET EQUIPPED WITH THREE DIFFERENT ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION (ANR) SYSTEMS AND THE COMMUNICATION EARPLUG (CEP) IN ROUTINE DAILY AVIATION MISSION ENVIRONMENTS. RESULTS OF WEEKLY AND POSTTRIAL COMPREHENSIVE SURVEYS ARE DISCUSSED. THE OPERATIONAL ASSESSMENT FOUND THAT BOTH CEP AND ANR SYSTEMS REDUCE NOISE EXPOSURE LEVELS AT THE WEARER’S EAR AND IMPROVE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY (SI) CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HGU-56/P HELMET SYSTEM. INTERCOMMUNICATION SYSTEM VOLUME CONTROLS ARE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY FROM LEVELS NORMALLY USED WITH THE STANDARD HELMET. EFFECTS ON SOUND ATTENUATION AND SI WHEN WEARING SPECTACLES WITH ANR AND STANDARD HELMET ARE MINIMAL. THE CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL MASK WEARING CAUSES SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN HELMET SYSTEM PERFORMANCE FOR STANDARD AND ANR CONFIGURATIONS WITH EARSEAL COMPROMISE. NO EFFECT WAS OBSERVED FOR THE COMBINATION PROTECTION OR THE CEP. ANR SYSTEMS DO NOT SHOW ANY POSITIVE EFFECT IN REDUCING IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS FROM WEAPON MUZZLES ENCOUNTERED IN ARMY AVIATION NOISE ENVIRONMENTS. A SYSTEM FIELDING DECISION WILL REQUIRE NOTING EFFECTS OF HELMET WEIGHT, ANCILLARY DEVICES, SAFETY, PERFORMANCE, USER ACCEPTANCE AND COST. SUBJECT PREFERENCE CHOICE WAS THE CEP.
KEYWORDS: COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG, CEP, ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION, ANR, HGU-56/P, SOUND ATTENTUATION, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL, CB, ANVIS
97-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3681 DTIC #: ADA321691
TITLE: THE EFFICACY OF HYPNOTIC-INDUCED PROPHYLACTIC NAPS FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF ALERTNESS AND PERFORMANCE IN SUSTAINED OPERATIONS
AUTHOR(s): J. A. CALDWELL, R. W. JONES, J. L. CALDWELL, J. A. COLON, A. PEGUES, L. IVERSON, K. ROBERTS, S. RAMSPOTT, W. SPRENGER, S. GARDNER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ARMY AVIATION UNITS MUST BE CAPABLE OF SUSTAINED OPERATIONS TO ACHIEVE A TACTICAL ADVANTAGE OVER ENEMY FORCES. HOWEVER, WHEN ADEQUATE NUMBERS OF PERSONNEL ARE UNAVAILABLE TO STAFF ALL SHIFTS, 24 HOURS PER DAY, COGNITIVE EFFICIENCY, MOOD, AND MOTIVATION RAPIDLY DETERIORATE BECAUSE OF INSUFFICIENT SLEEP. A SOLUTION FOR THIS PROBLEM MAY BE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A PROPHYLACTIC NAPPING STRATEGY WHICH ALLOWS PERSONNEL TO STORE A LIMITED AMOUNT OF SLEEP PRIOR TO DEPRIVATION. TWO HOUR NAPS HAVE BEEN SHOWN TO OFFER SIGNIFICANT ALERTNESS BENEFITS IN SUSTAINED WORK PERIODS.
KEYWORDS: HYPNOTICS, NAPS, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, PERFORMANCE, MOOD, ALERTNESS, SUSTAINED OPERATIONS
97-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 6086 DTIC #: ADA322607
TITLE: FLIGHT SIMULATOR EVALUATION OF A NOVEL DISPLAY TO MINIMIZE THE RISKS OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
AUTHOR(s): MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE, SIMON J. DURNFORD, SHANNON L. DEROCHE, EDUARDO A. ALVAREZ, HEBER D. JONES, ALFORD A. HIGDON, ARTHUR ESTRADA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A NOVEL INSTRUMENT DISPLAY DESIGNED TO REDUCE COGNITIVE WORKLOAD AND IMPROVE ACCURACY OF FLIGHT AND RECOVERY FROM A DISORIENTING EPISODE WAS TESTED AGAINST FLIGHT WITH STANDARD INSTRUMENTS IN A UH-60 DYNAMIC HELICOPTER SIMULATOR. SIXTEEN NON-UH-60 RATED PILOTS FLEW A STANDARD INSTRUMENT PROFILE AND RECOVERED FROM A SERIES OF UNUSUAL ATTITUDES BOTH WITH AND WITHOUT A SECONDARY TASK. RESULTS FROM ALL ASPECTS OF THE ASSESSMENT PROVED THE BENEFITS OF THE NEW DISPLAY. NOT ONLY WAS THERE EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED FLIGHT CONTROL, BUT ALSO AN IMPROVED PERFORMANCE ON A SECONDARY TASK (AUDITORY TONE IDENTIFICATION), AND THAT COGNITIVE WORKLOAD WAS REDUCED WHEN USING THE NOVEL DISPLAY COMPARED TO THE STANDARD INSTRUMENTS.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ROTARY WING, INSTRUMENTS, DISPLAYS
97-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 10352 DTIC #: ADA322522
TITLE: EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS AND AN ENCUMBERED AVIATOR UNIFORM ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE IN A UH-60 HELICOPTER SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): MATTHEW J. REARDON, NICHOLAS SMYTHE, III, JULIA OMER, BETH HELMS, ART ESTRADA, MARJORIE FREEZE, J. DARRELL HAGER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS ON FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF THE FOUR COMBINATIONS OF AN UNENCUMBERED LEVEL-ZERO MISSION ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE (MOPP)0 AVIATOR BATTLE DRESS UNIFORM (ABDU) AND ENCUMBERED MOPP4 OVER ABDU FLIGHT ENSEMBLE IN COOL (70° F, 50 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY [RH]) AND HOT (100° F, 50 PERCENT RH) UH-60 SIMULATOR COCKPIT CONDITIONS WERE EVALUATED WITH A REPEATED MEASURES, 2 BY 2 FACTORIAL STUDY USING NINE CREWS. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE RESULTS; A PREVIOUS REPORT PROVIDED DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, SIMULATOR, AVIATION, AIRCREW PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLES, WORKLOAD, MATB, SPECTRAL ANALYSIS, UH-60, MOPP
97-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1106 DTIC #: ADA323898
TITLE: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IN U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS: AN UPDATE OF THE 1987-92 SURVEY TO INCLUDE 1993-95
AUTHOR(s): MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE, SHANNON GROH, EDUARDO ALVAREZ
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT UPDATES THE SURVEY OF U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS (1987-92) BY DURNFORD ET AL., (1995) TO INCLUDE FISCAL YEARS 1993 THROUGH 1995. THOSE ACCIDENTS IN WHICH SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) WAS CONSIDERED TO HAVE PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE WERE IDENTIFIED AND COMPARED TO THOSE IN WHICH SD PLAYED NO PART. IN ADDITION, AN ATTEMPT WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FACTORS BEHIND EACH SD ACCIDENT TOGETHER WITH POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS. OF THE 970 ACCIDENTS NOW ON THE DATABASE, 30 PERCENT WERE CONSIDERED TO HAVE HAD SD AS A MAJOR OR CONTRIBUTORY FACTOR. OF PARTICULAR NOTE IS THE INCREASED INCIDENCE OF SD DURING HELICOPTER OPERATIONS DURING NIGHT AIDED FLIGHT. SD REMAINS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF ATTRITION OF ARMY HELICOPTER OPERATIONS, COSTING AN AVERAGE OF $58 MILLION AND 14 LIVES EACH YEAR.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ACCIDENTS, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, ROTARY-WING, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
97-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 930 DTIC #: ADA323967
TITLE: CHRONIC FATIGUE IN A SPECIAL OPERATIONS AVIATION UNIT: SPOUSE SURVEY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, DANIEL FASKO, JR., JOHN A. CALDWELL, CINDY TIBBETTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WAS ASKED TO DEVELOP AND EXECUTE METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING FATIGUE AND STRESS LEVELS IN A SPECIAL OPERATIONS AVIATION UNIT. SEVERAL PARALLEL EFFORTS WERE UNDERTAKEN, INCLUDING DETERMINING SOLDIER HIGH-RISK BEHAVIOR RATES, ACCIDENT ANALYSES, AND SOLDIER SURVEYS. THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE RESULTS OF AN ANONYMOUS FAMILY STRESS SURVEY DISTRIBUTED TO UNIT SPOUSES IN EARLY 1995, AND PROVIDES A GLIMPSE OF SOLDIER BEHAVIOR FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF THE FAMILY. SURVEY RESULTS INDICATED NO OBVIOUS DIFFERENCES IN JOB DEMANDS, DOMESTIC STRESS, AND MENTAL HEALTH OF RESPONDENTS FROM THE AVERAGE MILITARY OR CIVILIAN WORKFORCE. ADDITIONALLY, SPOUSES REPORTED VERY HIGH LEVELS OF JOB SATISFACTION AND UNIT PRIDE AMONG THEIR SOLDIERS. UNFORTUNATELY, RESPONSE TO THE SURVEY WAS VERY LOW; THEREFORE, NO FIRM CONCLUSIONS OR GENERALIZATIONS CAN BE MADE. AN IMPROVED SURVEY INSTRUMENT, THAT CAN BE USED IN FUTURE STUDIES, RESULTED FROM THE USE OF THE CURRENT SURVEY FORM.
KEYWORDS: SOLDIER SURVEY, STRESS, FATIGUE
97-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 6109 DTIC #: ADA324991
TITLE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIRST TRISERVICE CONFERENCE ON ROTARY-WING SPATIAL DISORIENTATION: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IN THE OPERATIONAL ROTARY-WING ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE, SHANNON L. DEROCHE, EDUARDO A. ALVAREZ, MELISA A. REESE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEVERAL RECENT STUDIES AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) AND THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER (USASC) HAVE HIGHLIGHTED THE SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTION OF SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) TO HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS. IN THE U.S. ARMY, THE COST CAN BE APPROXIMATED AT $58M AND 14 LIVES EACH YEAR. FOLLOWING SOME LOCAL TRAINING INITIATIVES BY USAARL AND THE U.S. ARMY SCHOOL OF AVIATION MEDICINE (USASAM), THE FIRST TRISERVICE SYMPOSIUM ON SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IN ROTARY-WING OPERATIONS WAS HELD FROM 24 THROUGH 26 SEPTEMBER 1996 AT USASAM.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ROTARY-WING, TRISERVICE, SYMPOSIUM
97-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2014 DTIC #: ADA324959
TITLE: U.S. ARMY'S AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM
AUTHOR(s): JOEL J. VOISINE, JOSEPH R. LICINA, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN 1972, THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) ESTABLISHED THE AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM (ALSERP). THE PURPOSE OF THIS PROGRAM IS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF AVIATION PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IN AN AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT ENVIRONMENT AND TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF THIS EQUIPMENT THROUGH MODIFICATION OR DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DESIGN CRITERIA. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PAMPHLET 385-40, ARMY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING, REQUIRES ALL LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT WHICH IS IN ANY WAY IMPLICATED IN THE CAUSE OR PREVENTION OF INJURY TO BE SHIPPED TO USAARL FOR ANALYSIS. THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVES OF THE ALSERP ARE (A) TO DETERMINE WHY AVIATION MISHAP OCCUPANT INJURIES WERE OR WERE NOT RECEIVED, AND (B) TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS AND CRITERIA FOR DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF INJURIES AND THEIR CORRELATION TO RETRIEVED AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT.
KEYWORDS: ALSERP, LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, MISHAPS, AIRCRAFT ACCIDENTS
97-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2567 DTIC #: ADA325238
TITLE: IMAGE QUALITY FIGURES OF MERIT FOR CONTRAST IN CRT AND FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, JEFF C. RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IMAGE QUALITY FIGURE OF MERIT OF "CONTRAST" IS DEFINED, EXPLAINED, AND DISCUSSED AS APPLIED TO BOTH CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) AND FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS (FPDS). CURRENTLY ACCEPTABLE REQUIREMENTS ARE DISCUSSED FOR BOTH PANEL MOUNTED AND HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PHYSICAL CONTRAST AND THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM ALSO IS DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: CONTRAST, CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT), FLAT PANEL DISPLAY (FPD), MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF), IMAGE QUALITY
97-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2730 DTIC #: ADA327332
TITLE: AIRCRAFT MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY AND CONTROL SYSTEMS: A NEW QUANTITATIVE HUMAN FACTORS DESIGN METHOD FOR ORGANIZING FUNCTIONS AND DISPLAY CONTENTS
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY FRANCIS, MATTHEW J. REARDON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY WERE TO REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF AIRCRAFT MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY AND CONTROL SYSTEM (MFDCS) DESIGN METHODS AND DEVELOP A QUANTITATIVE METHOD OF DESIGNING MFDCSS THAT INCORPORATE IMPORTANT HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES. REPORTS IN THE LITERATURE INDICATE THAT MFDCS DESIGN CAN INFLUENCE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE. HOWEVER, CURRENT DESIGN METHODS RELY PRIMARILY ON THE DESIGNER'S INTUITION AND EXPERIENCE.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT DESIGN, HIERARCHY, MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS, WORKLOAD
97-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1402 DTIC #: ADA327274
TITLE: AN INEXPENSIVE PORTABLE DESKTOP FLIGHT SIMULATION TASK
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, JOHN A. CALDWELL, J. LYNN CALDWELL, SCOTT EARHEART, CINDY TIBBETTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A MODIFIED RECREATIONAL FLIGHT SIMULATION WAS TESTED AS PART OF TWO RECENT STUDIES EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF DEXEDRINE ON SLEEP DEPRIVED AVIATORS. SOFTWARE AND CONTROLS FOR THIS TASK COST UNDER $250. SIX MALE AND FIVE FEMALE UH-60 PILOTS WERE SLEEP DEPRIVED FOR 40 HOURS TWICE IN A DOUBLE-BLIND REPEATED MEASURES STUDY COMPARING 10 MG DEXEDRINE (X3 DOSES) TO PLACEBO. EVERY 4 HOURS, SUBJECTS FLEW THE PROFILE AND WERE SCORED ON THEIR SPEED AND ACCURACY OF FLYING A SIMULATED LIGHT FIXED WING AIRCRAFT THROUGH 22 GATES UNDER VARYING WIND CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: FLIGHT SIMULATION, STIMULANT, DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, GAME, FATIGUE, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE
97-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 923 DTIC #: ADA327198
TITLE: ADVANCED INFORMATION DISPLAYS FOR THE 21ST-CENTURY WARRIOR (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): HENRY J. GIROLAMO, CLARENCE E. RASH, THOMAS D. GILROY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AND THE DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY (DARPA) HAVE FUNDED A NUMBER OF PROGRAMS WHICH HAVE AS A GOAL THE INTEGRATION OF FLAT PANEL DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES INTO HAND-HELD OR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY SYSTEMS. THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES A NUMBER OF SUCH PROGRAMS WHICH ARE CATEGORIZED AS ROTORCRAFT AVIATION, COMBAT VEHICLE, DISMOUNTED INFANTRY, MEDICAL, OR SOME COMBINATION OF THE ABOVE. THE TEST AND EVALUATION OF THESE VARIOUS DISPLAY SYSTEMS ALSO IS PRESENTED.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), FLAT PANEL DISPLAY (FPD), TESTING AND EVALUATION
97-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1543 DTIC #: ADA327266
TITLE: AN ASSESSMENT OF LUMINANCE IMBALANCE WITH ANVIS AT AN ARMY HELICOPTER TRAINING AIRFIELD
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ONE OF THE CAUSAL FACTORS LISTED IN A 1996 MID-AIR COLLISION BETWEEN TWO AUSTRALIAN ARMY HELICOPTERS IN FORMATION WAS A SPECULATION OF POSSIBLE LUMINANCE IMBALANCE BETWEEN THE RIGHT AND LEFT CHANNELS OF THE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) AT THE AIRFIELD OR ORIGIN FOR THE TWO HELICOPTERS INVOLVED IN THE ACCIDENT. THIS STUDY DESCRIBES A FIELD METHOD OF MEASURING AND DETERMINING LUMINANCE OUTPUT AND IMBALANCE FOR 20 PAIR OF NVGS AT A U.S. ARMY AIRFIELD. THE LUMINANCE SOURCE TO ACTIVATE THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS) WAS A CALIBRATED NVG TEST SET (TS-3895 U/V).
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE, ELECTRO-OPTICAL, PULFRICH PHENOMENON, LUMINANCE IMBALANCE
97-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2482 DTIC #: ADA328235
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE SPATIAL DISORIENTATION SORTIE IN TRAINING AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): MALCOLM BRAITHWAITE, EDUARDO ALVAREZ, KENNETH CASHWELL, CLARENCE COLLINS, ARTHUR ESTRADA, SHANNON GROH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOLLOWING DIDACTIC INSTRUCTION, MOST AIRCREW ARE ABLE TO EXPERIENCE SOME OF THE DISORIENTATING ILLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE ORIENTATION SENSES IN A VARIETY OF GROUND-BASED DEVICES. IN ORDER TO REINFORCE INSTRUCTION IN SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY OPERATE, BRITISH ARMY AIR CORPS HELICOPTER PILOTS ALSO RECEIVE AN AIRBORNE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIMITATIONS OF THEIR ORIENTATION SENSES. THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS ASSESSMENT WAS TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE SD DEMONSTRATION SORTIE WOULD BE AN EFFECTIVE ADJUNCT IN TRAINING AIRCREW IN SD IN THE U.S. ARMY. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE SORTIE AND RECORDS THE RESULTS OF THE ASSESSMENT.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, IN-FLIGHT TRAINING, DEMONSTRATION
97-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 480 DTIC #: ADA329112
TITLE: EFFECTIVENESS OF A LEAKING EARMUFF VERSUS A LEAKING EARPLUG (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): DANIEL L. JOHNSON, JAMES H. PATTERSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PROPER USE OF HEARING PROTECTION IN HIGH NOISE LEVEL ENVIRONMENTS IS A MATTER OF CONCERN. THE ATTENUATION ACHIEVED IN REAL-WORLD USAGE IS SELDOM OPTIMAL. A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF HIGH-INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE (UP TO A 193-DB PEAK PRESSURE LEVEL) ON THE HEARING OF HUMANS WEARING HEARING PROTECTION INCLUDED BOTH AN EARPLUG AND AN EARMUFF. BOTH THE PLUG AND MUFF WERE DEGRADED BY HOLES THAT ALLOWED A FREE PATHWAY BETWEEN THE OUTSIDE OF THE PROTECTOR AND THE EXTERNAL EAR CANAL. THIS SIMULATED A POOR FIT OF THESE PROTECTORS.
KEYWORDS: HEARING PROTECTION, EARMUFF, EARPLUG, NOISE, IMPULSE NOISE
97-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 723 DTIC #: ADA329011
TITLE: AN APPARENT PH-INDUCED EFFECT ON EXTENDED WEAR HYDROGEL LENS WATER CONTENT (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NUMEROUS STUDIES HAVE EXAMINED THE SEPARATE ISSUES OF PRECORNEAL TEARFILM PH AND HYDROGEL LENS WATER CONTENT. NONE HAVE EXAMINED THE TWO ISSUES IN AN ASSOCIATED, CLINICAL FASHION. EARLIER RESEARCH BY THIS AUTHOR HAS SHOWN THAT STABILIZED HYDROGEL LENS ANTERIOR SURFACE PH CORRELATES WITH ESTABLISHED VALUES FOR THE PRECORNEAL TEARFILM PH. THIS TECHNIQUE WAS THEREFORE PAIRED WITH TWO DIFFERENT METHODS OF HYDROGEL LENS WATER CONTENT ASSESSMENT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS A PREDICTABLE TEAR PH-RELATED EFFECT ON SOFT LENS HYDRATION.
KEYWORDS: TEARFILM PH, HYDROGEL CONTACT LENSES, EXTENDED WEAR, WATER CONTENT
97-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 514 DTIC #: ADA329013
TITLE: INFLUENCE OF EXTENDED SOFT CONTACT LENS WEAR ON THE COMPARATIVE MEASUREMENT OF CENTRAL CORNEAL THICKNESS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CLINICAL PERFORMANCE OF A PORTABLE ULTRASOUND PACHOMETER WAS COMPARED WITH A DIGITAL, 'OPTIMAL' PACHOMETER ATTACHMENT OF A CONTACT SPECULAR MICROSCOPE (CSM). THE TWO SEPARATE METHODS WERE USED TO ASSESS CENTRAL CORNEAL THICKNESS (CCT) IN 214 EXTENDED-WEAR SOFT CONTACT LENS SUBJECTS OVER A CUMULATIVE 33-MONTH PERIOD. THE TWO TEST METHODS DID NOT CORRELATE WELL (R = 0.56).
KEYWORDS: CENTRAL CORNEAL THICKNESS, ULTRASOUND PACHOMETER, DIGITAL PACHOMETER, CONTACT LENSES
97-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3717 DTIC #: ADA328240
TITLE: A HELICOPTER SIMULATOR ASSESSMENT OF PILOT HEAD MOVEMENT DURING VARIOUS PHASES OF FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): MALCOLM BRAITHWAITE, EDUARDO A. ALVAREZ, HEBER D. JONES, ALFORD A. HIGDON, SHANNON L. GROH, KATHLEEN G. BEAL, ARTHUR ESTRADA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OPTO-KINETIC CERVICO REFLEX (OKCR) IS A RECENTLY HYPOTHESIZED VISUALLY DRIVEN REFLEX THAT SERVES TO STABILIZE THE IMAGE OF THE EXTERNAL HORIZON ON THE RETINA DURING HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT ROLL MANEUVERS. ALTHOUGH ANECDOTALLY REPORTED AS OCCURRING, HEAD TILT DURING HELICOPTER FLIGHT HAS NOT BEEN FORMALLY STUDIED. SUCH RESEARCH IS REQUIRED TO DETERMINE THE FULL IMPACT AND SIGNIFICANCE IT MAY HAVE ON A ROTARY-WING AVIATOR'S FLYING PERFORMANCE. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HORIZON POSITION AND PERCEPTION OF ORIENTATION, AND THUS GENERATE VITAL INFORMATION TO ASSESS WHETHER THIS REFLEX PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN SPATIAL DISORIENTATIO
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, HEAD MOVEMENTS, OPTO-KINETIC & CERVIC REFLEX (OKCR)
97-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3997 DTIC #: ADA329048
TITLE: THE USE OF BIFOCAL SOFT CONTACT LENSES IN THE FORT RUCKER AVIATION ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): STEPHEN E. MORSE, MELISA A. REESE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE ARE PROBLEMS WITH THE COMPATIBILITY OF SPECTACLES AND CERTAIN HELMET MOUNTED ELECTRO-OPTICAL VISUAL DISPLAY SYSTEMS. THE INCOMPATIBILITY HAS BEEN PARTIALLY RESOLVED WITH SINGLE VISION CONTACT LENSES. HOWEVER, THESE CONTACT LENSES HAVE NOT HELPED SENIOR AVIATORS, WHO MUST WEAR BIFOCAL GLASSES DUE TO THEIR PRESBYOPIA. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE THE PERFORMANCE OF BIFOCAL SOFT CONTACT LENSES WITH THAT OF BIFOCAL SPECTACLE LENSES TO DETERMINE IF CONTACT LENSES ARE AN OPTION FOR HELPING OLDER AVIATORS MEET THE VISUAL REQUIREMENTS NEEDED TO FLY MILITARY AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, BIFOCALS, AVIATORS, PRESBYOPIA
97-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1543 DTIC #: ADA329189
TITLE: A VISUAL EVALUATION NEAR THE THRESHOLD OF ACUITY OF FIVE COLOR LIQUID-CRYSTAL FLAT-PANEL DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FIVE COLOR LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS (LCDS) WERE PERCEPTUALLY EVALUATED NEAR THE THRESHOLD OF VISUAL ACUITY IN A LETTER IDENTIFICATION TASK. STIMULI CONSISTED OF ALL 26 CAPITAL LETTERS OF THE ROMAN ALPHABET IN EITHER A 5X5 OR 7X7 MATRIX. THE SUBJECT'S TASK WAS TO IDENTIFY THE CORRECT LETTER BY ENTERING THE LETTER ON A COMPUTER KEYBOARD. THE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN REQUIRED ALL FIVE SUBJECTS TO BE WELL-PRACTICED TOUCH TYPISTS. THE LCDS WERE MATCHED FOR LUMINANCE AND CONTRAST OF TEST TARGETS AND TARGET IMAGE SIZE.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL ACUITY, LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS (LCD), PIXEL GEOMETRY, LEGIBILITY, HUMAN SUBJECTS, VISION, HUMAN FACTORS
97-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 8422 DTIC #: ADA329017
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF EEG AND EVOKED RESPONSE DATA COLLECTED IN A UH-1 HELICOPTER TO DATA COLLECTED IN A STANDARD LABORATORY ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., C. FRANK KELLY, KRISTI A. ROBERTS, HEBER D. JONES, JAMES A. LEWIS, LARRY WOODRUM, ROBERT M. DILLARD, PARLEY P. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE IN-FLIGHT COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL DATA SUCH AS CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY MAY PROVIDE REAL-TIME, OBJECTIVE EVALUATIONS OF AVIATOR STATUS DURING FLIGHT OPERATIONS. HOWEVER, LITTLE RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE TO ASSESS THE FEASIBILITY AND VALIDITY OF SUCH A STRATEGY. SOME INVESTIGATIONS (CONDUCTED IN THE FIXED WING ENVIRONMENT) HAVE SUGGESTED THAT TAPE-RECORDED ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) DATA ARE SENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN COCKPIT WORKLOAD, BUT SIMILAR STUDIES HAVE NOT BEEN PERFORMED IN ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. IN ADDITION, NONE OF THE PAST INVESTIGATIONS HAVE FOCUSED ON REAL-TIME TELEMETRY OF EEG FROM PILOTS UNDER ACTUAL IN-FLIGHT CONDITIONS, NOR HAVE THEY CONSIDERED THE FEASIBILITY OF COLLECTING VALID CORTICAL EVOKED POTENTIALS FROM HELICOPTER OR FIXED WING PILOTS IN FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: EEG, TELEMETRY, HELICOPTERS, AVIATORS
97-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 4938 DTIC #: ADA329208
TITLE: EFFECTS OF PILOT WORKLOAD ON EEG ACTIVITY RECORDED DURING THE PERFORMANCE OF IN-FLIGHT MANEUVERS IN A UH-1 HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., KRISTI A. ROBERTS, C. FRANK KELLY, HEBER D. JONES, JAMES A. LEWIS, LARRY WOODRUM, ROBERT M. DILLARD, PARLEY P. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN THE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, MEASURES THAT CAN BE COLLECTED CONCURRENTLY WITH AN AVIATOR'S PERFORMANCE OF PRIMARY, IN-FLIGHT DUTIES MAY OFFER A WAY TO MONITOR PILOT STATUS IN REAL TIME SO AS TO PREDICT PERFORMANCE PROBLEMS PRIOR TO THEIR OCCURRENCE. PREVIOUS RESEARCH HAS SHOWN THAT ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG) CHANGES APPARENTLY OCCUR AS A FUNCTION OF CHANGES IN PILOT WORKLOAD; HOWEVER, THESE RESULTS HAVE NOT BEEN REPLICATED IN THE ROTARY-WING ENVIRONMENT. ALSO, THE EARLIER STUDIES UTILIZED OFF-LINE ANALYSES OF TAPE-RECORDED EEGS RATHER THAN REAL-TIME TELEMETRY.
KEYWORDS: EEG, TELEMETRY, HELICOPTERS, AVIATORS
97-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 412 DTIC #: ADA329468
TITLE: CONE-SPECIFIC MEASURES OF HUMAN COLOR VISION (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JEFF RABIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PURPOSE. TO DESCRIBE A NEW TEST OF COLOR VISION (CONE-SPECIFIC CONTRAST SENSITIVITY) AND TO EVALUATE ITS SENSITIVITY IN COMPARISON TO STANDARD CLINICAL TESTS. METHODS. CONE-SPECIFIC COLORED LETTER CHARTS WERE GENERATED BY COMPUTER AND DISPLAYED ON A COLOR MONITOR. EACH CHART CONSISTS OF COLORED LETTERS THAT ARE MOST VISIBLE AT THE TOP BUT THAT GRADUALLY FADE INTO A GRAY BACKGROUND. CONE CONTRAST VARIES SYSTEMATICALLY ON EACH CHART SO THAT THE LETTERS ARE VISIBLE TO ONLY ONE CONE TYPE (L, M, OR S CONE).
KEYWORDS: COLOR VISION, CONTRAST, CONES, CONTRAST SENSITIVITY
97-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2500 DTIC #: ADA329484
TITLE: LONG-DURATION EXPOSURE CRITERIA FOR HEAD-SUPPORTED MASS
AUTHOR(s): BARCLAY P. BUTLER, NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MODERN CREW STATION OF ARMY HELICOPTERS USES THE HELMET AS AN INTEGRAL COMPONENT OF THE AIRCRAFT CONTROL SYSTEMS. WHAT WAS ONCE VIEWED AS A SIMPLE DEVICE FOR CRASH PROTECTION NOW SUPPORTS DEVICES INCLUDING NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, CHEMICAL MASK, HEAD-UP DISPLAYS, AND WEAPON AIMING SYSTEMS. THESE DEVICES COMBINE TO INCREASE THE BIOMECHANICAL STRESS IN THE NECK. THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING HELMET TORQUE ON THE MOTION OF THE HELMETED HEAD UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF LONG-DURATION WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXPOSURE.
KEYWORDS: HEAD-SUPPORTED MASS, REPEATED IMPACT, HELMET, WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION
97-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 513 DTIC #: ADA331649
TITLE: THE BRITISH ARMY AIR CORPS IN-FLIGHT SPATIAL DISORIENTATION DEMONSTRATION SORTIE (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOLLOWING DIDACTIC INSTRUCTION, MOST AIRCREW ARE ABLE TO EXPERIENCE SOME OF THE DISORIENTATING ILLUSIONS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE ORIENTATIONAL SENSES IN A VARIETY OF GROUND-BASED DEVICES. IN ORDER TO REINFORCE INSTRUCTION IN SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH THEY OPERATE, BRITISH ARMY AIR CORPS HELICOPTER PILOTS ALSO RECEIVE AN AIRBORNE DEMONSTRATION OF THE LIMITATIONS OF THEIR ORIENTATION SENSES. SINCE 1982, A SPECIFIC SD SORTIE HAS BEEN PROGRAMMED TOWARDS THE END OF THE BASIC ROTARY-WING PHASE OF FLIGHT TRAINING APPROXIMATELY 6 WEEKS AFTER THE AEROMEDICAL TRAINING MODULE, AND BEFORE STUDENTS COMMENCE ROTARY-WING INSTRUMENT FLIGHT TRAINING. REFRESHER SORTIES ARE FLOWN EVERY 4 YEARS.
KEYWORDS: BRITISH ARMY AIR CORPS, DEMONSTRATION SORTIE, SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
97-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 876 DTIC #: ADA331662
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG IN THE H-53 AND CH-46 HELICOPTER ENVIRONMENTS
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP), REQUESTED BY NAVAIR PM-202, WAS CONDUCTED AT HMX-1 OPERATIONAL TEST AND EVALUATION DEPARTMENT, QUANTICO, VIRGINIA. THE EVALUATION WAS COMPLETED BY 15 VOLUNTEER AVIATOR/CREWMEMBERS FLYING CH-46 AND CH-53 HELICOPTERS OVER A 4-MONTH PERIOD. THE CEP IS A MINIATURE EARPHONE ATTACHABLE TO A REPLACEABLE FOAM EARPLUG. THE CEP PROVIDES EXCELLENT HEARING PROTECTION AND SPEECH COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE WEARER. QUESTIONNAIRES WERE USED TO CAPTURE THE USERS' SUBJECTIVE COMPARISONS OF THE CEP AND THE HELMET SYSTEM NORMALLY WORN. RESULTS SHOWED SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENTS IN NOISE REDUCTION, SPEECH CLARITY AND QUALITY. DONNING AND DOFFING USING THE CEP WAS ASSESSED AT A SLIGHTLY LOWER LEVEL THAN THE HELMET NORMALLY USED, WHILE COMFORT WAS RANKED AS EQUAL. OVERALL VALUE WAS RATED SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER THAN THE NORMALLY USED HELMET.
KEYWORDS: HEARING PROTECTION, EARPLUG, COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG, CEP, EARPHONE
97-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2377 DTIC #: ADA331652
TITLE: ASSESSMENT OF AIRCREW STRESS
AUTHOR(s): LAWRENCE C. KATZ
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 21 AIRCREW MEMBERS OF A MEDICAL EVACUATION UNIT. RESPONDENTS WERE ASKED ABOUT THE CAUSES OF STRESS IN THEIR LIVES, COPING SKILLS, BELIEF SYSTEMS, AND STRESS SYMPTOMS. SCORES ON 21 SCALES WITHIN THESE 4 CATEGORIES WERE QUANTIFIED AND ANALYZED USING CORRELATIONS AND REGRESSION ANALYSIS, TO REVEAL PROBLEM AREAS, STRENGTHS, AND INTERRELATIONSHIPS. A STRESS PROFILE WAS GENERATED FOR THIS UNIT, INDICATING STRENGTHS IN THE AREAS OF RELATIONSHIP STABILITY AND RELATIONAL REWARDS, BUT POINTING TO WORK CHANGES AND ONGOING WORK PRESSURES AS SIGNIFICANT STRESSORS.
KEYWORDS: STRESS, COPING, BELIEF SYSTEMS, SYMPTOMS
98-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2961 DTIC #: ADA331738
TITLE: PRESSURES MEASURED UNDER EARMUFFS WORN BY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS DURING EXPOSURE TO FREEFIELD BLAST OVERPRESSURES
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR., BEN T. MOZO, ELMAREE GORDON, JESUS R. CANALES, DANIEL L. JOHNSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A SERIES OF STUDIES TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM SAFE EXPOSURES TO BLAST OVERPRESSURE (HIGH INTENSITY IMPULSE NOISE) WERE CONDUCTED AT THE BLAST OVERPRESSURE TEST SITE ON KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM, BY EG&G MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, INC., ALBUQUERQUE, NM. THE STUDIES FOCUSED ON TEMPORARY CHANGES IN THE THRESHOLD OF HEARING IN VOLUNTEERS WEARING EARMUFFS FOR HEARING PROTECTION. FROM THESE STUDIES, MAXIMUM SAFE EXPOSURE LEVELS HAVE BEEN DERIVED IN TERMS OF THE PARAMETERS OF THE FREEFIELD BLAST SIGNATURES.
KEYWORDS: BLAST OVERPRESSURE, FREEFIELD, HEARING PROTECTION
98-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 571 DTIC #: ADA332850
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT RETRIEVAL PROGRAM: HEAD AND NECK INJURY AMONG NIGHT VISION GOGGLE USERS IN ROTARY-WING MISHAPS
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) USE IN THE U.S. ARMY AND HEAD/NECK INJURY RISK IS UNKNOWN. A 10-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF TRAUMATIC HEAD/NECK INJURIES AMONG U.S. ARMY AIRCREW MEMBERS WEARING NVGS IN ROTARY-WING MISHAPS WAS CONDUCTED BY REVIEW OF U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER AND U.S. ARMY AVIATION EPIDEMIOLOGY DATA REGISTER RECORDS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HEAD INJURY, ALSERP, ROTARY-WING, AIRCRAFT, MISHAPS, AEDR
98-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1436 DTIC #: ADA336706
TITLE: PROPOSED NEW PROCEDURE FOR ESTIMATING ALLOWABLE NUMBER OF ROUNDS FOR BLAST OVERPRESSURE HAZARD ASSESSMENT
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CURRENT PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF WEAPONS BLAST OVERPRESSURE USE CRITERIA CONTAINED IN MIL-STD-1474D. THESE CRITERIA ARE APPLIED TO THE TEST DATA SO THAT THE SINGLE PRESSURE-TIME SIGNATURE WHICH INDICATES THE GREATEST HAZARD (WORST CASE ROUND) IS USED TO DERIVE THE RECOMMENDED FIRING RESTRICTIONS FOR THE SYSTEM. THIS APPROACH IS CONSERVATIVE AND PROBABLY OVERRESTRICTS THE USE OF THE SYSTEM. SINCE IT IS BASED ON THE WORST CASE ROUND, THE REST OF THE TEST DATA ARE ESSENTIALLY IGNORED IN THE HAZARD ASSESSMENT.
KEYWORDS: BLAST OVERPRESSURE, HEALTH HAZARD ASSESSMENTS, TESTS
98-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1270 DTIC #: ADA332880
TITLE: THE PRACTICAL EFFECTS OF ROUTINE DATA TRANSFORMATIONS ON ABSOLUTE EEG POWER DERIVED FROM SPECTRAL ANALYSIS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., KRISTI A. ROBERTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTS OF SELECTED EEG DATA TRANSFORMATIONS ON ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) RESULTS IN A REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN. EIGHTEEN SUBJECTS WERE GIVEN RESTING EEG EVALUATIONS AT EIGHT DIFFERENT TIMES DURING A PERIOD OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS. FOLLOWING SPECTRAL ANALYSIS, THE DATA WERE EITHER ANALYZED AS UNTRANSFORMED ABSOLUTE EEG POWER, LOG-NATURAL TRANSFORMED POWER, OR 2-ARCSINE-SQUARE ROOT TRANSFORMED RELATIVE POWER.
KEYWORDS: EEG, DATA TRANSFORMATIONS, LOG-NATURAL, RELATIVE POWER, GAUSSIAN PROPERTIES
98-5 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1059 DTIC #: ADA332855
TITLE: PREDICTING THE ABILITY TO MAINTAIN ALERTNESS DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION: THE ACCURACY OF SUBJECTIVE EVALUATIONS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., PEGGY S. RUYAK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN SUBJECTIVE MEASURES OF MOOD/SLEEPINESS AND AN OBJECTIVE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (EEG)-BASED MEASURE OF SLEEPINESS/ALERTNESS, 18 SUBJECTS WERE ADMINISTERED THE PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS), A VISUAL ANALOG SCALE (VAS), AND THE REPEATED TEST OF SUSTAINED WAKEFULNESS (RTSW) THROUGHOUT 38-HOUR PERIODS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS. MULTIVARIANT ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (MANOVA) INDICATED THAT ALL OF THE MEASURES, WITH THE EXCEPTION OF VAS ANXIETY, WERE SENSITIVE TO THE EFFECTS OF SLEEP LOSS.
KEYWORDS: SLEEPINESS, SUBJECTIVE, OBJECTIVE, RTSW, VAS, POMS
98-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 642 DTIC #: ADA338784
TITLE: THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG: A LOGICAL CHOICE FOR VOICE COMMUNICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, JOHN E. RIBERA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY AVIATOR WORKS IN HIGH LEVELS OF NOISE AND ROUTINELY FACES THE CHALLENGE OF EFFECTIVE VOICE COMMUNICATION. EXISTING AVIATOR HELMETS, WHILE ADEQUATE IN PROVIDING HEARING PROTECTION, DO NOT PROVIDE THE SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO NECESSARY TO OPTIMIZE IN-FLIGHT VOICE COMMUNICATIONS. THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) IS A SMALL DEVICE WORN BY THE AVIATOR AND PROVIDES SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENTS IN HEARING PROTECTION AND COMMUNICATION PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: EARPLUG, VOICE COMMUNICATIONS, NOISE ASSESSMENT, HEARING PROTECTION
98-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1255 DTIC #: ADA339399
TITLE: THE IMPACT OF TASK LENGTH ON MULTI-ATTRIBUTE TASK BATTERY (MATB) PERFORMANCE DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., STEPHANIE RAMSPOTT, SUSAN J. GARDNER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEVERAL FACTORS AFFECT THE SENSITIVITY TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION WHEN TAKING COMPUTERIZED TESTS. TWO OF THESE ARE TASK COMPLEXITY AND DURATION. COMPLEXITY CAN IMPROVE SENSITIVITY BY INCREASING THE DEMANDS REQUIRED TO COMPLETE THE TASK, BUT IT CAN ALSO DECREASE SENSITIVITY BY IMPROVING THE SUBJECT'S MOTIVATION. THE EFFECTS OF TASK DURATION ARE MORE PREDICTABLE IN THAT LONGER TESTS GENERALLY ARE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO DEPRAVATION EFFECTS THAN SHORTER ONE
KEYWORDS: TASK DURATION, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, PERFORMANCE, MATB
98-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 645 DTIC #: ADA338995
TITLE: SIMULATIONS OF HEAD STRIKES IN HELICOPTERS AND THE ROLES OF RESTRAINTS, SEAT STROKE AND AIRBAGS ON THEIR REDUCTION (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): NABIH M. ALEM, AMIR A. MOBASHER, FREDERICK T. BROZOSKI, DAVID G. BEALE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INJURIES FROM HEAD STRIKES REMAIN THE LEADING CAUSE OF FATALITIES IN U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER MISHAPS. THE ROLES OF THE RESTRAINT SYSTEM, ENERGY-ABSORBING SEAT STROKE, AND AIRBAGS IN PREVENTING OR REDUCING THE SEVERITY OF HEAD STRIKES ARE EXPLORED IN THIS PAPER USING MATHEMATICAL SIMULATIONS. STARTING WITH A BASELINE SIMULATION OF AN ACTUAL AH-64 SURVIVABLE MISHAP IN WHICH THE PILOT RECEIVED FATAL BASILAR SKULL INJURY, THE EFFECTS OF THREE PARAMETERS WERE EXAMINED: TIMING OF INERTIA REEL LOCKING, STROKING OF THE ENERGY-ABSORBING SEAT, AND THE PRESENCE OF AN AIRBAG MOUNTED AT THE INSTRUMENT PANEL. RESULTS OF THE SIMULATIONS SUGGESTED THAT DELAY OF INERTIA REEL IN LOCKING AT THE APPROPRIATE TIME TOGETHER WITH OBSTRUCTION OF SEAT STROKING MAY HAVE CAUSED THE PILOT'S HEAD TO STRIKE THE GLARE SHIELD. WHEN A HEAD STRIKE WAS UNAVOIDABLE, SIMULATIONS INDICATED THAT AN AIRBAG WOULD HAVE REDUCED ITS SEVERITY.
KEYWORDS: HEAD STRIKES, HELICOPTER MISHAPS, AIRBAGS, SEAT STROKE, SIMULATIONS
98-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1166 DTIC #: ADA339416
TITLE: U.S. ARMY AIRCREW HELMETS: HEAD INJURY MITIGATION TECHNOLOGY (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HEAD INJURY REMAINS THE PREDOMINANT CAUSE OF SEVERE AND FATAL INJURIES TO ARMY AIRCREW INVOLVED IN HELICOPTER MISHAPS. AS A MEANS TO PREVENT INJURIES OR REDUCE THEIR SEVERITY, THE U.S. ARMY HAS CONTINUOUSLY SOUGHT IMPROVEMENTS TO AVIATOR HELMETS. NUMEROUS IMPROVEMENTS HAVE RESULTED FROM ANALYSIS OF HELMETS INVOLVED IN AVIATION ACCIDENTS AND THE WEARER'S INJURIES. IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE NEWEST ARMY AVIATOR HELMET, THE HGU-56/P, OFFERS SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENTS OVER EARLIER DESIGNS. THIS PAPER PRESENTS A CHRONOLOGY OF ARMY AVIATOR HELMETS WITH DESCRIPTIONS DEFINING THEIR DIFFERENCES AND IMPROVEMENTS.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, IMPACT PROTECTION, HEAD INJURIES, HGU-56/P
98-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 928 DTIC #: ADA339781
TITLE: HEAD INJURY RISK IN U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING MISHAPS: CHANGES SINCE 1980 (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): SAMUEL G. SHANNON, JOHN P. ALBANO, KEVIN T. MASON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: OVER THE PAST SEVERAL DECADES, DATA HAVE BEEN COLLECTED ON U.S. ARMY AIRCRAFT MISHAPS DEFINING THAT ENVIRONMENT WITHIN AN AIRCRAFT DURING A MISHAP, INJURIES SUFFERED BY THE OCCUPANTS, AND THE CAUSE (OR CAUSES) OF THE MISHAP, IF KNOWN. AN ANALYSIS OF THESE DATA INDICATES 60 PERCENT OF THE OCCUPANTS ARE INJURED, ONE-THIRD FATALLY, IF THE MISHAP CONCLUDES WITH THE AIRCRAFT IMPACTING THE GROUND. MORE SIGNIFICANTLY, DESPITE IMPROVEMENTS IN HELICOPTER DESIGN, RESTRAINT SYSTEMS, AND PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, 68 PERCENT OF ALL FATALITIES HAD AT LEAST ONE FATAL INJURY TO THE HEAD.
KEYWORDS: HEAD INJURY, ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT, MISHAPS, AEDR
98-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 664 DTIC #: ADA338791
TITLE: MASS REQUIREMENTS FOR HELICOPTER AIRCREW HELMETS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, DENNIS F. SHANAHAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HELICOPTER AIRCREW HELMETS ARE BECOMING MORE SOPHISTICATED WITH INCREASED MISSION REQUIREMENTS. THIS INCREASE RESULTS IN ADDITIONAL MASS BEING SUPPORTED ON THE AIRCREW'S HEAD. ULTIMATELY, THERE IS A LIMIT TO HOW MUCH MASS CAN BE SUPPORTED BY THE AIRCREW WITHOUT INCREASING THE FATIGUE RATES AND NECK INJURY RISK IN ACCIDENTS. THIS PAPER REVIEWS THE PAST MASS PROPERTY REQUIREMENTS OF ARMY HELICOPTER HELMETS. CURRENT REQUIREMENTS FOR THE RAH-66 COMANCHE HELMET ARE ALSO DETAILED WITH THE RATIONALE FOR THEIR DERIVATION.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, IMPACT PROTECTION, HEAD INJURIES, NECK INJURY
98-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 730 DTIC #: ADA339573
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF EXPOSURE TO THE AH-64 COMBAT MISSION FLIGHT SIMULATOR ON POSTURAL EQUILIBRIUM
AUTHOR(s): M.G. BRAITHWAITE, J.C. MANNING, S.L. GROH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SIMULATOR SICKNESS SYNDROME IS A FORM OF MOTION SICKNESS THAT MAY OCCUR DURING THE SIMULATOR TRAINING EXERCISE, IMMEDIATELY AFTER, OR SOMETIME LATER. IT MAY BE INDUCED BY EITHER PHYSICAL OR VISUAL MOTION, AND SYMPTOMS INCLUDE: NAUSEA, DISORIENTATION, ATAXIA, DIZZINESS, VISUAL PROBLEMS, HEADACHE, DEPRESSION, AND SWEATING. AN IMPORTANT OPERATIONAL PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH SIMULATOR SICKNESS IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL AVIATOR IS INCAPACITATED.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATOR SICKNESS SYNDROME, AH-64, FLIGHT SIMULATOR
98-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1304 DTIC #: ADA340128
TITLE: VISOR USE AMONG U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN C. MORA, MELISSA H. LEDFORD, BARBARA S. REYNOLDS, REBECCA H. IVEY, EVERETT MCGOWAN III
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISORS ARE OPTICAL DEVICES THAT PROVIDE A LEVEL OF COMFORT AND PROTECTION FROM DUST, WIND, SUN GLARE AND PARTICLE FRAGMENTS AND, IN THE CASE OF A CRASH, FROM TREE BRANCHES, ROCKS, DEBRIS AND AIRCRAFT STRUCTURAL PARTS. THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY WHOSE OBJECTIVE WAS TO DOCUMENT VISOR USAGE, AND IDENTIFY PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OPTICAL QUALITY, AND MAINTENANCE IN ARMY ROTARY-WING AVIATION. THE SURVEY WAS DISTRIBUTED TO U.S. ARMY AVIATORS AND CREWMEN AT FORT HOOD, TEXAS; FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA; FORT CAMPBELL, KENTUCKY; AND FORT BRAGG, NORTH CAROLINA.
KEYWORDS: VISORS, SPH-4, SPH-4B, HGU-56/P, IHADSS, OPTICAL QUALITY
98-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2253 DTIC #: ADA336474
TITLE: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION AWARENESS TRAINING SCENARIOS FOR U.S. ARMY AVIATORS IN VISUAL FLIGHT SIMULATORS
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE, STEVEN R. GILREATH, PHILIP JOHNSON, J.C. MANNING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) REMAINS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF ATTRITION IN MILITARY FLYING. SD WAS CONSIDERED TO BE A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN 291 (30 PERCENT) OF CLASS A-C HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS IN THE U.S. ARMY DURING AN 8-YEAR PERIOD BETWEEN 1987 AND 1995. THE MONETARY COST OF SD IS HIGH AND THE FATALITY RATE IS BETWEEN ONE AND ONE HALF TO TWO TIMES THAT OF NON-DISORIENTATION ACCIDENTS.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ACCIDENT DATA, FLIGHT SIMULATION, VOLUNTEERS, PERCEPTION, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
98-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 618 DTIC #: ADA341285
TITLE: THE ROLE OF PROTECTIVE VISORS IN INJURY PREVENTION DURING U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AVIATION ACCIDENTS
AUTHOR(s): BARBARA S. REYNOLDS, CLARENCE E. RASH, PAUL M. COLTHIRST, MELISSA H. LEDFORD, JOHN C. MORA, REBECCA H. IVEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: VISORS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED HELMETS ARE CONSIDERED AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT (ALSE). THE ROLE OF VISORS IS TO REDUCE THE FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY OF FACIAL INJURIES. TO INVESTIGATE THIS ROLE, THE ARMY AVIATION ACCIDENT DATABASE FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, AND THE ALSE RETRIEVAL PROGRAM (ALSERP) DATABASE FROM THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, WERE INVESTIGATED FOR VISOR RELATED ACCIDENT DATA. IN ADDITION, A REVIEW OF PAST ANALYSES OF HEAD AND FACIAL ROTARY-WING ACCIDENT DATA WAS CONDUCTED. THE FINDINGS SUPPORT THE PREMISE THAT VISORS, WHEN PROPERLY DEPLOYED, PLAY A MAJOR ROLE IN REDUCING THE FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY OF FACIAL INJURIES.
KEYWORDS: VISORS, INJURY PREVENTION, ROTARY-WING ACCIDENTS, HELMETS, AVIATION LIFE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT, SPH-4, IHADSS, HGU-56/P
98-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2271 DTIC #: ADA341282
TITLE: PERIPHERAL VISION SENSITIVITY WITH NIGHT VISION DEVICES
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PERIPHERAL RETINAL SENSITIVITIES WERE MEASURED FOR RIGHT AND LEFT EYES USING A MONOCULAR NIGHT VISION DEVICE (NVD) (SINGLE TUBE AN/AVS-6 AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM) IN FRONT OF THE RIGHT EYE UNDER SIMULATED HIGH AND LOW NIGHT ILLUMINATIONS. SMALL CIRCULAR TARGETS WERE PROJECTED WITH A MODIFIED GOLDMAN PERIMETER FOR SIX SUBJECTS. THE COLOR OF THE TARGETS WERE WHITE, GREEN, AND RED.
KEYWORDS: ANVIS, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE, ELECTRO-OPTICAL, MONOCULAR VISION, TARGET DETECTION, VISUAL FIELDS, MESOPHIC
98-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 715 DTIC #: ADA339597
TITLE: EFFECTS OF WEIGHT AND CENTER OF GRAVITY LOCATION OF HEAD-SUPPORTED DEVICES ON NECK LOADING (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): HASHEM ASHRAFIUON, NABIH M. ALEM, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HEAD-SUPPORTED DEVICES (HSDS) ON NECK LOADING DURING HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS IS PRESENTED. THE NEW ARTICULATED TOTAL BODY (ATB) MODEL WHICH TREATS THE NECK AS A DEFORMABLE SEGMENT WAS USED FOR CRASH SIMULATION. DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF HUMAN AND MANIKIN SUBJECTS WERE CONSIDERED UNDER SEVERAL CRASH SCENARIOS.
KEYWORDS: SIMULATIONS, HEAD-SUPPORTED DEVICES, CRASH SIMULATION
98-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 7380 DTIC #: ADA341281
TITLE: HEAT STRESS EFFECTS OF A NAVY/USMC VS. ARMY AVIATOR ENSEMBLE IN A UH-60 HELICOPTER SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): MATTHEW J. REARDON, E. BETH FRASER, LAWRENCE KATZ, PATRICIA LEDUC, POORIA MOROVATI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS AVIATOR HEAT STRESS STUDY USED A BETWEEN TEST SUBJECTS DESIGN WITH ONE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION (HOT) AND TWO CURRENT (U.S. NAVY/U.S. MARINE CORPS VS. U.S. ARMY) ROTARY-WING MOPP4 ENSEMBLES ENCUMBERED WITH ADDITIONAL BALLISTIC PROTECTIVE AND OVERWATER SURVIVAL COMPONENTS.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, AIRCREW PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLES, AVIATION
98-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1912 DTIC #: ADA342921
TITLE: OPTICAL AND BIODYNAMIC EVALUATION OF THE HELMET INTEGRATED DISPLAY SIGHT SYSTEM (HIDSS) FOR THE RAH-66 COMANCHE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION PROGRAM PHASE
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, CLARENCE E. RASH, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, JOHN C. MORA, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION PHASE HELMET INTEGRATED DISPLAY SIGHT SYSTEM (HIDSS) FOR THE RAH-66 COMANCHE WAS EVALUATED. THE HIDSS CONSISTS OF AN INTEGRATED HELMET, A HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY CONSISTING OF A RIGHT AND A LEFT MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY, A HELMET TRACKING SYSTEM, A BORESIGHT RETICLE UNIT, AND THE ASSOCIATED ELECTRONICS. THE EVALUATION CONSISTED OF BIODYNAMIC, OPTICAL, AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE MEASURES.
KEYWORDS: COMANCHE HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), HELMET INTEGRATED DISPLAY SIGHT SYSTEM (HIDSS), OPTICAL TESTING
98-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 621 DTIC #: ADA342903
TITLE: NOVEL COMMUNICATIONS AND HEARING PROTECTION FOR HELMET SYSTEMS: COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: COMMUNICATIONS AND HEARING PROTECTION ARE USUALLY NECESSARY FOR PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN ARMY OPERATIONS. AIRCRAFT AND GROUND VEHICLES PRODUCE NOISE LEVELS IN EXCESS OF THE LIMITS DEFINED IN CURRENT HEARING CONSERVATION STANDARDS. HEARING PROTECTION AND COMMUNICATIONS ELEMENTS OF MOST HELMETS CONSTITUTE A SIGNIFICANT PORTION OF THE WEIGHT OF STANDARD HELMETS. FURTHER, PERFORMANCE OF MOST HELMETS IS MARGINAL WITH RESPECT TO SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY AND HEARING PROTECTION. SOME NOISE ENVIRONMENTS REQUIRE THAT EARPLUGS BE WORN IN COMBINATION WITH THE HELMET PROTECTOR IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE ADEQUATE PROTECTION.
KEYWORDS: EARPLUG, VOICE COMMUNICATIONS, NOISE ASSESSMENT, HEARING PROTECTION
98-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 533 DTIC #: ADA342918
TITLE: GROUND TROOP HELMET ELECTRONIC CABLE SAFETY DESIGN ISSUES (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SEVERAL DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS ARE ONGOING TO INTEGRATE ELECTRONIC DEVICES ONTO GROUND SOLDIER HELMETS WHICH IMPROVE TACTICAL ADVANTAGES OVER ADVERSARIAL FORCES. THESE DEVICES OFTEN RECEIVE ELECTRICAL SIGNALS AND POWER FROM REMOTE COMPONENTS LOCATED ON THE SOLDIER. WHILE TECHNOLOGY IS PROGRESSING TO DEVELOP WIRELESS SYSTEMS TO TRANSFER THESE SIGNALS, BASIC WIRE TECHNOLOGY APPEARS TO BE THE MOST SECURE AND RELIABLE AT THIS TIME. THESE INTERFACE CABLES ARE TETHERED BETWEEN THE HELMET AND TORSO. THESE TETHERED CABLES INTRODUCE NEW INJURY RISKS TO COMBAT SOLDIERS WHICH MUST BE ADDRESSED DURING SYSTEM DESIGN.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, SAFETY DESIGN, GROUND TROOPS, ELECTRONIC DEVICES
98-25 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2023 DTIC #: ADA342896
TITLE: A REVIEW OF THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SLEEP, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, AND EXERCISE
AUTHOR(s): PATRICIA A. LEDUC, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REVIEW LOOKED AT SOME OF THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH CONDUCTING SLEEP AND EXERCISE STUDIES. THE IMPACT OF FACTORS SUCH AS AGE, GENDER, FITNESS LEVEL OF SUBJECTS, AND DURATION AND INTENSITY OF EXERCISE HAVE BEEN EXAMINED. IN GENERAL, THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON SLEEP ARE MOST PRONOUNCED IF THE EXERCISE IS AEROBIC, CONDUCTED IN THE LATE AFTERNOON, AND OF A MODERATE DURATION.
KEYWORDS: EXERCISE, SLEEP, SLEEP DEPRIVATION
98-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 782 DTIC #: ADA342941
TITLE: EFFECTS OF SEAT STROKE DISTANCE ON THE ALLOWABLE MASS OF HEAD SUPPORTED DEVICES (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): AMIR A. MOBASHER, FREDERICK T. BROZOSKI, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE EFFECTS OF STROKING DISTANCE OF ENERGY-ATTENUATING HELICOPTER SEAT ON HEAD-SUPPORTED DEVICE (HSD) MASSES WERE INVESTIGATED IN VARIOUS HELICOPTER CRASH SCENARIOS. THE ARTICULATED TOTAL BODY (ATB) MODEL WAS USED TO SIMULATE THE HELICOPTER PILOT'S BIODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO FIVE DIFFERENT CRASH PULSES. PARAMETERS OF THE SIMULATIONS INCLUDED TWO ALLOWABLE SEAT STROKING DISTANCES (2.5 AND 25 CM) AND FOUR HSD MASSES (0.45, 1.4, 2.7, AND 4.1 KG).
KEYWORDS: HEAD-NECK INTERFACE, HEAD SUPPORTED DEVICES, ARTICULATED TOTAL BODY, SEAT STROKE, SIMULATIONS, HELICOPTER CRASHES
98-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 934 DTIC #: ADA347756
TITLE: HAIR EFFECTS ON AVIATOR HELMET STABILITY AND SOUND ATTENUATION (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, ELMAREE GORDON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN INCREASE IN THE FEMALE POPULATION IN THE U.S. NAVY AVIATOR AND AIRCREW COMMUNITY RAISED CONCERN THAT THE STANDARD ISSUED PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT MAY PROVIDE INADEQUATE PROTECTION. OF PARTICULAR CONCERN WAS THE PERFORMANCE OF THE RECENTLY DEVELOPED AVIATION HELMETS. WHILE THESE HELMETS MET THE CONTRACTUAL PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS, IT WAS NOT KNOWN WHAT EFFECT HAIR BULK WOULD HAVE ON THE MORE CRITICAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: HELMET, SAFETY DESIGN, FEMALE AIRCREW, HAIR STYLES, PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
98-28 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2739 DTIC #: ADA348473
TITLE: A PERFORMANCE HISTORY OF AN/PVS-5 AND ANVIS IMAGE INTENSIFICATION SYSTEMS IN U.S. ARMY AVIATION (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOSEPH MCENTIRE, MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE, JOHN C. MORA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN 1973, THE DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ADOPTED NIGHT VISION DEVICES FOR USE IN AVIATION. KNOWN AS THE AN/PVS-5 NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS), THESE DEVICES, WHICH ARE BASED ON THE PRINCIPLE OF IMAGE INTENSIFICATION (I²), HAVE BECOME THE MAINSTAY FOR THE AVIATOR'S CAPABILITY TO OPERATE DURING PERIODS OF LOW ILLUMINATION; I.E., AT NIGHT. IN THE 26 YEARS THAT HAVE FOLLOWED, A NUMBER OF ENGINEERING ADVANCEMENTS HAVE IMPROVED GREATLY THE PERFORMANCE OF THESE DEVICES. THE CURRENT VERSION, USING THIRD GENERATION I² TECHNOLOGY, IS KNOWN AS THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS).
KEYWORDS: IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, ANVIS, AN/PVS-6, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG), IMAGE QUALITY, PERFORMANCE, WEIGHT, CENTER OF MASS (CM), VISUAL ACUITY
98-29 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1709 DTIC #: ADA350768
TITLE: VIDEOKERATOSCOPE ACCURACY AND ITS POTENTIAL USE IN CORNEAL OPTICS RESEARCH
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS O. SALMON, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN C. MORA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF THE EYESYS CORNEAL ANALYSIS SYSTEM COULD MEASURE THE TOPOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CORNEA-LIKE TEST SURFACES ACCURATELY ENOUGH TO PERMIT DETAILED STUDIES OF CORNEAL OPTICS.
KEYWORDS: EYESYS, KERATOMETRY, VIDEOKERATOSCOPE, REFRACTIVE SURGERY, CORNEAL OPTICS
98-30 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2490 DTIC #: ADA350396
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF MELATONIN ON MENSTRUAL CHARACTERISTICS, PROLACTIN AND PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME-LIKE SYMPTOMS DURING A SIMULATED EASTWARD DEPLOYMENT
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, MELANIE CLAYTON, PIK RIVERA, SANTIAGO ARROYO, RHONDA STRICKLAND, NANCY GARNER, REGINA BAY-WRIGHT, KEITH BLESER, MARY BROCK, MELISSA LEDFORD, DARLENE WRIGHT, CHUCK FERRY, LEIGH HEIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN A PREVIOUS STUDY, WE INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS MELATONIN (10 MG) GIVEN AT BEDTIME (2300) FOR 7 CONSECUTIVE DAYS DURING THE LATE FOLLICULAR AND EARLY LUTEAL PHASE OF THE MONTHLY CYCLE, ON MENSTRUAL CHARACTERISTICS. OUR RESULTS SHOWED THAT UNDER OUR SPECIFIC CONDITIONS, EXOGENOUS MELATONIN HAS LITTLE EFFECT ON MENSTRUAL CHARACTERISTICS.
KEYWORDS: MELATONIN, 6-SULPHATOXYMELATONIN, MENSTRUAL CYCLE, LUTEINIZING HORMONE, PROLACTIN, STRESS
98-31 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2141 DTIC #: ADA350398
TITLE: ARE NEW IMAGE QUALITY FIGURES OF MERIT NEEDED FOR FLAT PANEL DISPLAYS?
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, THOMAS H. HARDING, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IMAGE QUALITY FIGURES OF MERIT (FOMS) ARE EXPLAINED. THE EXAMPLE OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION FOMS ARE USED TO ILLUSTRATE THE THEORETICAL ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF FOMS. FOMS FOR CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT) AND FLAT PANEL DISPLAY (FPD) TECHNOLOGIES ARE COMPARED. IT WAS CONCLUDED THAT NEW FOMS NEED TO BE DEVELOPED FOR FPDS, PARTICULARLY FOR CHARACTERIZING ASPECTS OF DYNAMIC IMAGERY.
KEYWORDS: GRAY SCALE, SPATIAL RESOLUTION, FIGURES OF MERIT (FOM), FLAT PANEL DISPLAY (FPD), CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT), IMAGE QUALITY, VISUAL PERCEPTION
98-32 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 13481 DTIC #: ADA352464
TITLE: DESIGN ISSUES FOR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY SYSTEMS FOR ROTARY-WING AVIATION
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, JOHN C. MORA, MELISSA H. LEDFORD, BEN T. MOZO, JOSEPH R. LICINA, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SINCE THE 1970S, THE TREND IN ARMY AVIATION HAS BEEN TO RELY ON HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS) TO PROVIDE THE AIRCREW WITH PILOTAGE IMAGERY, FLIGHT INFORMATION, AND FIRE CONTROL IMAGERY AND SYMBOLOGY. THIS PAPER IS INTENDED TO SERVE AS BOTH A CHECKLIST AND A GUIDE FOR DESIGNERS OF FUTURE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS FOR ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT), LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD), OPTICAL ABERRATION, DISTORTION, CATAIOPTRIC, HEAD TRACKING, EYE TRACKING, SYSTEM DELAY, ROLL COMPENSATION, CONTRAST, RESOLUTION, VISUAL FIELD, EXIT PUPIL, DEPTH PERCEPTION, CENTER OF MASS, RETENTION
98-33 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2794 DTIC #: ADA352470
TITLE: DESIGNING OPTIMAL HIERARCHIES FOR INFORMATION RETRIEVAL WITH MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY FRANCIS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MODERN AIRCRAFT USE COMPUTER SCREENS WITH A PUSH BUTTON INTERFACE TO REPLACE A VARIETY OF SINGLE-PURPOSE INSTRUMENTS. SUCH MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS (MFDS) ARE GRADUALLY BEING INTRODUCED INTO MILITARY HELICOPTERS, WITH FUTURE AIRCRAFT LIKELY TO BE HIGHLY DEPENDENT ON COMPUTERS. STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT POOR DESIGN OF MFD HIERARCHIES HAS A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON USER SATISFACTION AND PERFORMANCE. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EXTEND A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF HIERARCHY SEARCH INTO A METHODOLOGY FOR GATHERING DATA AND BUILDING A HIERARCHY LAYOUT THAT MINIMIZED THE TIME NEEDED TO FIND ITEMS IN A HIERARCHY.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT DESIGN, HIERARCHY, MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS, WORKLOAD
98-34 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 335 DTIC #: ADA354142
TITLE: EXERCISE MOUNTAIN SHIELD, TASK FORCE 11, AND VISUAL READINESS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT, IN AN EFFORT TO ASSIST IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE OPERATIONAL AND PLANNING GUIDELINES, PRESENTS DATA FROM A NO-NOTICE EXERCISE INVOLVING AN AVIATION BRIGADE IN GERMANY PREPARING FOR POSSIBLE DEPLOYMENT TO BOSNIA. ONE HUNDRED TWENTY-TWO SOLDIERS (OF 918) REQUESTED VISION SCREENING DURING PRE-DEPLOYMENT PROCESSING. TWENTY-FOUR POSSESSED 20/20 VISION OR BETTER AND SIMPLY REQUIRED DUPLICATE ORDERS OF NEEDED EYEWEAR. NINETY-EIGHT REQUIRED AN UPDATED REFRACTION.
KEYWORDS: NONE
98-35 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2194 DTIC #: ADA354133
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE AS A COUNTERMEASURE FOR FATIGUE IN SLEEP DEPRIVED AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): PATRICIA A. LEDUC, JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., PEGGY S. RUYAK, BRIAN PRAZINKO, SUSAN GARDNER, JOSE COLON, DAVID NORMAN, VICTOR CRUZ, ROGER W. JONES, MARY BROCK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO EXAMINE THE EFFICACY OF A NONPHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTION, EXERCISE, FOR SUSTAINING PERFORMANCE DESPITE A MODERATE AMOUNT OF SLEEP LOSS. TWELVE SUBJECTS WERE INDIVIDUALLY TESTED DURING TWO 40-HOUR PERIODS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION. VOLUNTEERS ENGAGED IN 10-MINUTE BOUTS OF EXERCISE DURING ONE PERIOD AND RESTED FOR AN EQUIVALENT AMOUNT OF TIME DURING THE OTHER PERIOD.
KEYWORDS: EXERCISE, SLEEP, SLEEP DEPRIVATION
98-36 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1255 DTIC #: ADA356135
TITLE: EXOGENOUS MELATONIN: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PROLACTIN AND ITS EFFICACY AT REDUCING STRESS
AUTHOR(s): ALBERT W. KIRBY, CARLOS A. COMPERATORE, MELANIE CLAYTON, PIK RIVERA, SANTIAGO ARROYO, REGINA BAY-WRIGHT, RHONDA STRICKLAND, KEITH BLESER, MARY BROCK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENTLY WE COMPLETED A STUDY DESIGNED TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF MELATONIN ADMINISTRATION (10 MG) AT 1300 ON MENSTRUAL CHARACTERISTICS, PROLACTIN, AND PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME-LIKE SYMPTOMS DURING A SIMULATED EASTWARD DEPLOYMENT. BRIGHT LIGHTS WERE UTILIZED TO SIMULATE EASTWARD MOVEMENT ACROSS SIX TIME ZONES. DURING ANALYSIS OF BIOCHEMICAL RESULTS, WE MADE THE FORTUITOUS DISCOVERY THAT MELATONIN APPEARS TO ALLEVIATE THE STRESS ASSOCIATED WITH THE IN-HOUSE SIMULATED DEPLOYMENT. THE STUDY WAS DOUBLE BLIND AND PLACEBO CONTROLLED.
KEYWORDS: MELATONIN, PROLACTIN, STRESS, DEPLOYMENT, FEMALE
98-37 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1851 DTIC #: ADA356097
TITLE: RECOVERY OF SLEEP, PERFORMANCE, AND MOOD FOLLOWING 38 HOURS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION USING NAPS AS A COUNTERMEASURE
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, JOHN A. CALDWELL JR., JOSE COLON, PEGGY S. RUYAK, STEPHANIE RAMSPOTT, WILLIAM D. SPRENGER, ROGER W. JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN CERTAIN SITUATIONS, SOLDIERS MUST CONTINUE TO PERFORM THEIR DUTIES OVER AN EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME, KNOWING THAT THEIR REGULAR SLEEP PERIOD WILL BE MISSED AND THEIR TIME AWAKE WILL EXTEND WELL PAST 24 HOURS. ALTHOUGH EQUIPMENT MAY BE ABLE TO OPERATE OVER EXTENDED WORK HOURS, PERSONNEL ARE NOT CAPABLE OF CONTINUING FOR DAYS WITHOUT PROPER REST AND RECOVERY. HOWEVER, DURING THE TIMES WHEN EXTENDED WORK HOURS ARE REQUIRED, SOLDIERS MUST FIND A WAY TO MAINTAIN ALERTNESS IN ORDER TO CARRY OUT THEIR DUTIES.
KEYWORDS: RECOVERY SLEEP, NAPS, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, PERFORMANCE, MOOD, ALERTNESS, HYPNOTICS
99-1 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3781 DTIC #: ADA356084
TITLE: THE EFFICACY OF DEXEDRINE® FOR THE SUSTAINMENT OF HELICOPTER PILOT PERFORMANCE DURING 64 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., NICHOLAS K. SMYTHE, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, BRIAN F. PRAZINKO, J. LYNN CALDWELL, DAVID N. NORMAN, EVELYN SKOUMBOURDIS, ARTHUR ESTRADA, WILLIAM D. SPRENGER, PEGGY S. RUYAK, SIOBHAN HOFFMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO ESTABLISH THE EFFICACY OF DEXEDRINE FOR SUSTAINING AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DESPITE 64 HOURS OF EXTENDED WAKEFULNESS. ALTHOUGH EARLIER FLIGHT STUDIES YIELDED FAVORABLE RESULTS WITH NO SIGNIFICANT SIDE EFFECTS, THEY WERE RESTRICTED TO SLEEP-DEPRIVATION PERIODS OF ONLY 40 HOURS. DUE TO REQUIREMENTS FOR LONGER PERIODS OF SUSTAINED WAKEFULNESS, IT WAS NECESSARY TO STUDY THE EFFICACY OF DEXEDRINE FOR MAINTAINING AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DURING 3 DAYS AND 2 NIGHTS WITHOUT SLEEP.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR, DEXEDRINE, EEG, IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, MOOD, STIMULANTS
99-2 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 948 DTIC #: ADA359651
TITLE: EXTERNAL POSITION LIGHTING EFFECTS ON NIGHT VISION GOGGLE PERFORMANCE (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ARMY AVIATION DEPENDS HEAVILY ON IMAGE INTENSIFICATION (I²) DEVICES TO EXTEND OPERATIONS INTO THE NIGHT. SUCH DEVICES ARE LIGHT AMPLIFICATION SYSTEMS THAT ADJUST THEIR AMPLIFICATION FACTOR (GAIN) ACCORDING TO THE LEVEL OF AMBIENT ILLUMINATION. HOWEVER, THESE NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVGS) ARE UNABLE TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN LIGHT ORIGINATING FROM THE EXTERIOR SCENE AND LIGHT ORIGINATING FROM EITHER INSTRUMENTS INSIDE THE COCKPIT OR LIGHTS MOUNTED TO THE AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: AIRCRAFT LIGHTING, FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATION (FAR), NIGHT VISION, IMAGE INTENSIFICATION, NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG), ANVIS, INTENSITY DISTRIBUTIION
99-3 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 507 DTIC #: ADA359606
TITLE: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS AND FACIAL INJURY IN U.S. ARMY AH-64A APACHE ACCIDENTS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE IS CONCERN THAT THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU) USED BY AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER PILOTS MIGHT CONTRIBUTE TO FACIAL INJURY IN A CRASH. THE U.S. ACCIDENT DATABASE WAS SEARCHED FOR HDU-RELATED INJURIES IN SURVIVABLE APACHE ACCIDENTS 1985-1995. FOUR AVIATORS IN THREE CRASHES SUSTAINED AN HDU-RELATED INJURY. THESE INVOLVED THREE PERIORBITAL CONTUSIONS AND TWO MINOR EYE INJURIES.
KEYWORDS: EYE INJURIES, FACIAL INJURY, HELMET DISPLAY UNIT, SURVIVABLE APACHE ACCIDENTS
99-4 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 915 DTIC #: ADA361470
TITLE: EVALUATION OF A STANDARDIZED SPATIAL DISORIENTATION FLIGHT PROFILE
AUTHOR(s): PATRICIA A. LEDUC, PHILIP A. JOHNSON, PEGGY S. RUYAK, ARTHUR ESTRADA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO EXAMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF USING VISUAL-VESTIBULAR MISMATCH SOFTWARE TO PRODUCE DISORIENTING EVENTS IN FLIGHT WITHIN A STANDARDIZED SIMULATOR FLIGHT PROFILE. DATA WERE EXAMINED IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT COLLECTION OF STANDARD FLIGHT PERFORMANCE MEASURES WAS NOT INTERRUPTED BY THE ADDITION OF DISORIENTING EVENTS.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, UH-60 SIMULATOR
99-6 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2056 DTIC #: ADA362293
TITLE: ALTERNATE SOURCE EVALUATION FOR THE AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM COMANCHE COMPATIBILITY PROGRAM PHASE IIB
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, THOMAS H. HARDING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO ALTERNATE IMAGE SOURCES UNDER CONSIDERATION FOR THE COMANCHE HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY HAVE BEEN EVALUATED FOR IMAGE QUALITY. THESE SOURCES WERE DEVELOPED UNDER PHASE IIA OF A CONTRACT MONITORED BY THE PROGRAM MANAGER, AIRCREW INTEGRATED SYSTEMS (PM-ACIS), HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA. ONE SOURCE IS A 24-MICRON ELECTROLUMINESCENT (EL) DISPLAY WITH 1280 X 1024 RESOLUTION, DEVELOPED BY HONEYWELL, INC., MINNEAPOLIS, MINNESOTA, AND A PLANAR SYSTEMS, INC., BEAVERTON, OREGON.
KEYWORDS: ELECTROLUMINESCENT (EL), FLAT PANEL DISPLAY (FPD), IMAGE SOURCE, LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD), OPTICAL TESTING, GRAY LEVEL, PIXEL GEOMETRY, MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF), CONTRAST, LUMINANCE UNIFORMITY
99-7 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3094 DTIC #: ADA361526
TITLE: HEAT STRESS EVALUATION OF SPECIAL OPERATIONS AVIATION REGIMENT AND AIR WARRIOR CONCEPT 1 AND 3 AVIATOR ENSEMBLES IN A UH-60 SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): MATTHEW J. REARDON, LAWRENCE C. KATZ, BETH E. FRASER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS AVIATION HEAT STRESS STUDY USED A MIXED BETWEEN/WITHIN TEST SUBJECT DESIGN WITH ONE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION (HOT) AND THREE ROTARY-WING MOPP4 ENSEMBLES (SPECIAL OPERATIONS AVIATION REGIMENT [SOAR], AIR WARRIOR CONCEPT 1, AND AIR WARRIOR CONCEPT 3) ENCUMBERED WITH BALLISTIC PROTECTION AND OVER-WATER SURVIVAL COMPONENTS. THE SOAR ENSEMBLE WAS TESTED WITH (SC) AND WITHOUT (SX) MICROCLIMATE COOLING (MCC) CONSISTING OF A WATER-COOLED UNDERSHIRT WITH PORTABLE REFRIGERATOR/PUMP.
KEYWORDS: HEAT, MICROCLIMATE COOLING, STRESS (PHYSIOLOGY), THERMAL
99-8 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2017 DTIC #: ADA361527
TITLE: HUMAN FACTORS AND PERFORMANCE CONCERNS FOR THE DESIGN OF THE HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, BEN T. MOZO, JOSEPH R. LICINA, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SINCE THE 1970S, THE TREND IN ARMY AVIATION HAS BEEN TO RELY INCREASINGLY ON HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) DEVICES OR SYSTEMS TO PROVIDE THE AIRCREW WITH PILOTAGE IMAGERY, FLIGHT INFORMATION, AND FIRE CONTROL IMAGERY AND SYMBOLOGY. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS FOR FUTURE HMDS MUST BE GUIDED BY SYSTEM PARAMETER CRITERIA CONVOLVED WITH HARDWARE LIMITATIONS, HUMAN PERFORMANCE STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES, AND GOOD HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PRACTICES.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMD), HUMAN FACTORS, VISION, IMAGE QUALITY, VISUAL ACUITY, TRANSMITTANCE, EYE RELIEF, EGRESS, TRACKING, STEREOPSIS, FIELD OF VIEW (FOV), VISUAL ILLUSION
99-9 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1374 DTIC #: ADA361529
TITLE: FEMALE HAIRSTYLE AND FLIGHT HELMET ACCOMMODATION: THE AMELIA PROJECT PHASE I: SURVEY STUDY, PART 1: RESEARCH REPORT
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, BARBARA A MURPHY, BEN T. MOZO, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MOST PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IN CURRENT MILITARY AVIATION WAS DESIGNED WITH MALE AIRCREW IN MIND. TO ENSURE THAT FEMALE AVIATOR PERFORMANCE IS NOT HAMPERED BY IMPROPERLY FITTED OR SIZED EQUIPMENT, THE U.S. NAVY (USN) ESTABLISHED THE AIRCREW MODIFIED EQUIPMENT LEADING TO INCREASED ACCOMMODATION (AMELIA) PROGRAM. IN THIS PHASE I STUDY, A NOVEL QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DISTRIBUTED TO A VARIETY OF USN AND U.S. MARINE CORPS (USMC) AVIATION INSTALLATIONS AROUND THE WORLD TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF FEMALE HAIRSTYLES ON FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY.
KEYWORDS: FEMALE AVIATORS, FEMALE HAIRSTYLES, FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE, FLIGHT HELMET SAFETY, PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
99-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1740 DTIC #: ADA361528
TITLE: FEMALE HAIRSTYLE AND FLIGHT HELMET ACCOMMODATION: THE AMELIA PROJECT PHASE I: SURVEY STUDY, PART 2: SURVEY RESPONSES
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, BARBARA A MURPHY, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MOST PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT IN CURRENT MILITARY AVIATION WAS DESIGNED WITH MALE AIRCREW IN MIND. TO ENSURE THAT FEMALE AVIATOR PERFORMANCE IS NOT HAMPERED BY IMPROPERLY FITTED OR SIZED EQUIPMENT, THE U.S. NAVY (USN) ESTABLISHED THE AIRCREW MODIFIED EQUIPMENT LEADING TO INCREASED ACCOMMODATION (AMELIA) PROGRAM. IN THIS PHASE I STUDY, A NOVEL QUESTIONNAIRE WAS DISTRIBUTED TO A VARIETY OF USN AND U.S. MARINE CORPS (USMC) AVIATION INSTALLATIONS AROUND THE WORLD TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF FEMALE HAIRSTYLES ON FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE AND SAFETY.
KEYWORDS: FEMALE AVIATORS, FEMALE HAIRSTYLES, FLIGHT HELMET PERFORMANCE, FLIGHT HELMET SAFETY, PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
99-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 886 DTIC #: ADA361991
TITLE: AN EVALUATION OF AIR WARRIOR CONCEPT AVIATOR ENSEMBLES WITH AND WITHOUT MICROCLIMATE COOLING
AUTHOR(s): LAWRENCE C. KATZ, ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS, BRUCE S. CADARETTE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PROGRAM MANAGER, U.S. ARMY AIRCREW INTEGRATED SYSTEMS (PM-ACIS) REQUESTED THAT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL), FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, ASSESS THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HEAT STRESS EXPOSURE FOR AVIATORS WEARING ENCUMBERED CHEMICAL DEFENSE LEVEL-4 MISSION ORIENTED PROTECTIVE POSTURE (MOPP4) ENSEMBLES.
KEYWORDS: AGE, AVIATION PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, HEAT STRESS
99-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1124 DTIC #: ADA361986
TITLE: TARGET IDENTIFICATION PREDICTOR STUDY: VISUAL, COGNITIVE, AND TRAINING VARIABLES
AUTHOR(s): RICHARD R. LEVINE, ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE TARGET IDENTIFICATION PREDICTOR STUDY (TIPS) WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE PREDICTIVE UTILITY OF VISUAL, COGNITIVE, AND TRAINING VARIABLES UPON TRACKED VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION PERFORMANCE WITHIN AN OPERATIONAL CONTEXT AND TO PROVIDE A RELIABLE AND VALID BASIS FOR A MODEL TO SELECT ANTITANK GUNNER TRAINEES. REGRESSION ANALYSES PERFORMED ON THE SCORES OF 208 JUNIOR ENLISTED SOLDIERS SHOWED THAT SCORES FROM CLASSROOM VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION TRAINING AND SCORES ON THE GROUP EMBEDDED FIGURES TEST WERE SIGNIFICANT PREDICTORS OF IDENTIFICATION SKILLS.
KEYWORDS: COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE, TARGET IDENTIFICATION, VISUAL PERFORMANCE
99-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 493 DTIC #: ADA362004
TITLE: INITIAL 67TH COMBAT SUPPORT HOSPITAL (CSH) OPTOMETRY SERVICES IN TASZAR, HUNGARY, ON OPERATION JOINT ENDEAVOR
AUTHOR(s): DEAN BANCROFT, MORRIS S. LATTIMORE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EXISTING U.S. ARMY PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT AUTHORIZATION DOCUMENTS DO NOT CURRENTLY RECOGNIZE THE NEED FOR OPTOMETRY SERVICES AT DEPLOYED COMBAT SUPPORT HOSPITALS (CSHS). THE SPECIFIC HOSPITAL TASKED WITH THE MISSION OF SUPPORTING OPERATION JOINT ENDEAVOR (OJE) FROM A SUPPORT BASE IN TASZAR, HUNGARY, ALSO DID NOT HAVE ANY DOCUMENTATION AUTHORIZING THE ASSIGNMENT OF OPHTHALMOLOGY ASSETS. CURRENT ARMY DOCTRINE STIPULATES THE PRESENCE OF AN AREA SUPPORT MEDICAL BATTALION (ASMB), WITH ASSIGNED OPTOMETRY ASSETS, TO DEPLOY AND OPERATE NEAR A CSH.
KEYWORDS: COMBAT SUPPORT HOSPITAL (CSH), OCULAR INJURY AND DISEASE, OPTOMETRY, TABLES OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT (TO&E)
99-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 909 DTIC #: ADM001164
TITLE: NOTES ON THE CALCULATION OF POWER IN DETERMINING SAMPLE SIZE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF DIGRAM-BALANCED DESIGNS
AUTHOR(s): ROBERT M. WILDZUNAS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER PRESENTS STEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLES TO HELP RESEARCHERS DETERMINE THE APPROPRIATE SAMPLE SIZE FOR AN EXPERIMENT AND TO CONSTRUCT DIGRAM-BALANCED MATRICES FOR THEIR DESIGNS. THE POWER CALCULATIONS ARE GENERIC FOR FIXED-EFFECTS ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) MODELS AND THUS, ARE GENERALIZABLE FOR THE MOST COMMON EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS EMPLOYED AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL).
KEYWORDS: COUNTERBALANCING, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, STATISTICAL POWER
99-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 931 DTIC #: ADA362972
TITLE: EVALUATING PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF A MEDICATION (DEXEDRINE®) IN THE SIMULATOR VERSUS AIRCRAFT ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, KRISTI A. ROBERTS, HEBER D. JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH ASSESSED THE PILOT PERFORMANCE COMPARABILITY OF SIMULATOR VERSUS IN-FLIGHT RESULTS. FLIGHT DATA FROM THREE SLEEP-DEPRIVATION STUDIES WERE POOLED. TWENTY AVIATORS WERE INCLUDED, 10 WHO FLEW A UH-60 HELICOPTER SIMULATOR AND 10 WHO FLEW A UH-60A AIRCRAFT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DEXEDRINE OR PLACEBO DURING 40 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS.
KEYWORDS: DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, (MATB), SIMULATORS, UH-60 SIMULATOR
99-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1401 DTIC #: ADA362964
TITLE: A SURVEY OF WORK AND SLEEP HOURS OF U.S. ARMY AVIATION PERSONNEL
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, STEVEN R. GILREATH, DAVID N. NORMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS SURVEY WAS TO DETERMINE WHEN ARMY AVIATION PERSONNEL WORK AND SLEEP WHILE ON REVERSE CYCLE. A TOTAL OF 157 AVIATION PERSONNEL FROM 3 ARMY POSTS WERE SAMPLED. THE ONE-PAGE QUESTIONNAIRE INDICATED THAT THE MAJORITY OF AVIATION PERSONNEL HAD EXPERIENCE WORKING NIGHT SHIFT/REVERSE CYCLE AT SOME POINT IN THEIR CAREERS; HOWEVER, OVER ONE THIRD HAD NOT DEALT WITH THIS SHIFT FOR MORE THAN 3 YEARS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT SHIFT, REVERSE CYCLE, SURVEY, WORK HOURS, WORK-REST CYCLES
99-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3364 DTIC #: ADA365558
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF MODAFINIL ON AVIATOR PERFORMANCE DURING 40 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS: A SIMULATOR STUDY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN A. CALDWELL, JR., NICHOLAS K. SMYTHE, III, J. LYNN CALDWELL, KECIA K. HALL, DAVID N. NORMAN, BRIAN F. PRAZINKO, ARTHUR ESTRADA, PHILIP A. JOHNSON, JOHN S. CROWLEY, MARY E. BROCK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS RESEARCH EVALUATED THE EFFICACY OF THE STIMULANT MODAFINIL FOR SUSTAINING SIMULATOR FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, COGNITIVE SKILL, PSYCHOLOGICAL MOOD, AND CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) ACTIVATION IN HELICOPTER PILOTS WHO HAD BEEN DEPRIVED OF SLEEP. SIX ARMY HELICOPTER PILOTS WERE EACH EXPOSED TO TWO 40-HOUR PERIODS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS SEPARATED BY ONE NIGHT OF RECOVERY SLEEP.
KEYWORDS: AVIATOR, ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM (EEG), MODAFINIL, MOOD, PERFORMANCE (HUMAN), SLEEP, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, STIMULANTS, FIGURES OF MERIT (FOM), COLOR CONTRAST, HEAD MOUNTED DISPLAY
99-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1040 DTIC #: ADA367318
TITLE: CONCEPT PHASE EVALUATION OF THE MICROVISION, INC. AIRCREW INTERGRATED HELMET SYSTEM HGU-56P VIRTUAL RETINAL DISPLAY
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SUPPORT OF THE RAH-66 COMANCHE, MICROVISION, INC., SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, HAS DEVELOPED A PROTOTYPE HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY BASED ON LASER DIODE SOURCES. THIS PROTOTYPE HAS BEEN EVALUATED FOR OPTICAL AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE. TESTS INCLUDE: EXIT PUPIL SIZE AND SHAPE, EYE RELIEF, FIELD-OF-VIEW, LUMINANCE, CONTRAST, CONTRAST TRANSFER FUNCTION (CTF), MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF), AND INTERPUPILARY DISTANCE AND VERTICAL ADJUSTMENTS.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMD), HELMET TYPES HGU-56/P, OPTICAL TESTING, VIRTUAL RETINAL DISPLAY (VRD), FIELD OF VIEW, VISUAL PERFORMANCE, MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF)
99-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1764 DTIC #: ADA368601
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY FIELD-OF-VIEW CONFIGURATIONS ON TARGET ACQUISITION
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY WITH A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAPPING FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) IS SLATED FOR USE WITH THE ARMY’S NEW RAH-66 COMANCHE HELICOPTER IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE AVAILABLE SIZE OF THE FOV. THERE ARE THREE POSSIBLE FIELD-OF-VIEW CONFIGURATIONS WHICH ARE FULL OVERLAP (FO), AND THE CONVERGENT AND DIVERGENT PARTIAL OVERLAP (CPO AND DPO) CONFIGURATIONS. WE TESTED THE EFFECT OF FOV CONFIGURATION ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE BY MEASURING RESPONSE TIMES AND ACCURACY IN A DEMANDING TARGET ACQUISITION TASK.
KEYWORDS: CONVERGENT FOV, DIVERGENT FOV, FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV), FULL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMD), PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, TARGET ACQUISITION, FUSION LOCK, ACCOMMODATION
99-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3411 DTIC #: ADA368615
TITLE: A SOFTWARE TOOL FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY FRANCIS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS DOCUMENT DESCRIBES MFDTOOL, A SOFTWARE AID FOR THE DESIGN OF MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS (MFDS). MFDTOOL APPLIES AN OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM TO DESIGNER-SPECIFIED CONSTRAINTS THEREBY CREATING THE BEST LAYOUT OF MFD INFORMATION FOR MFD HARDWARE. THE GUIDE SPECIFIES THE TYPES OF MFD SITUATIONS WHERE MFDTOOL APPLIES AND DESCRIBES THE STEPS NEEDED TO DEFINE CONSTRAINTS AND START THE OPTIMIZATION APPROACH. A SAMPLE MFD DESIGN PROBLEM (INVOLVING AN AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE) IS DISCUSSED. APPENDICES INCLUDE BOTH SOURCE CODE TO THE SOFTWARE AND A USER’S GUIDE TO MFDTOOL.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT DESIGN, HIERARCHY, MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS, WORKLOAD
2000-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 669 DTIC #: ADA371284
TITLE: ORBSCAN PACHYMETRY - IMPLICATIONS OF A REPEATED MEASURES AND DIURNAL VARIATION ANALYSIS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, SANDOR KAUPP, STEVEN SCHALLHORN, ROBERT LEWIS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: CORNEAL THICKNESS CHANGES REFLECT ALTERATIONS IN HYDRATION AND METABOLISM. ULTRASOUND PACHYMETRY DETERMINATIONS MAY BE ADVERSELY INFLUENCED BY FLUCTUATIONS IN TISSUE HYDRATION, WHEREAS OPTICAL SYSTEMS ARE APPARENTLY UNAFFECTED BY THESE FLUXES. A RECENTLY MARKETED, OPTICAL-BASED, TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING SYSTEM (ORBSCAN; ORBTEK, INC.) USES ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR CORNEAL SURFACE DATA TO CALCULATE CORNEAL THICKNESS. OBJECTIVE: THIS NEW INSTRUMENTATION PRESENTS AS A POTENTIALLY USEFUL PACHYMETRY TOOL FOR EVALUATION OF CORNEAS UNDER HYDRATION FLUX OR CHALLENGE (E.G., POSTPHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY (PRK) HEALING STUDIES) AND WAS THEREFORE EVALUATED FOR ACCURACY AND VARIABILITY.
KEYWORDS: CORNEAL THICKNESS, ULTRASOUND PACHYMETRY, OPTICAL-BASED, TOPOGRAPHIC MAPPING
2000-02 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 406 DTIC #: ADA371214
TITLE: AIRCREW UPPER EXTREMITY REACHES WHILE FLYING THE UH-60 FLIGHT SIMULATOR: RISK OF AIRBAG-INDUCED INJURY
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, AMATE VIZCAYA, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, PHILIP JOHNSON, FRED BROZOSKI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INFLATABLE RESTRAINTS SUCH AS AIRBAGS ARE BEING DESIGNED FOR MILITARY HELICOPTERS. TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL FOR EXTREMITY INJURY DURING AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT, 1-HOUR VIDEOTAPES OF 12 U.S. ARMY BLACK HAWK PILOTS FLYING A TRAINING SIMULATOR WERE REVIEWED. THE FLIGHTS WERE UNMODIFIED TRAINING SORTIES AND CONSISTED OF INSTRUMENT AND VISUAL FLIGHT OVER VARYING TERRAIN. EVERY TIME THE AVIATOR APPEARED TO MOVE OUTSIDE THE RESTING "FLIGHT" POSITION, THE NATURE AND DESTINATION OF THE MOVEMENT WERE RECORDED. THE TOTAL PROPORTION OF TIME SPENT REACHING FOR VARIOUS CONTROL CONSOLES RANGED FROM 1.8 PERCENT TO 5.2 PERCENT. COPILOTS IN INSTRUMENT FLIGHT CONDITIONS SPENT THE GREATEST PROPORTION OF THEIR TIME REACHING, AND PILOTS IN VISUAL FLIGHT CONDITIONS SPENT THE LEAST. DESPITE LIMITATION TO THIS BRIEF RETROSPECTIVE SIMULATOR STUDY, THESE RESULTS WILL BE USEFUL IN ESTIMATING THE RISK OF EXTREMITY INJURIES RELATED TO HELICOPTER AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT.
KEYWORDS: UH-60, CRASH RESTRAINT, COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM, FLIGHT SIMULATION
2000-03 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3140 DTIC #: ADA385106
TITLE: HELICOPTER PILOT ESTIMATION OF SELF-ALTITUDE IN A DEGRADED VISUAL ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): JOHN CROWLEY, LORAN HAWORTH, ZOLTAN SZOBOSZLAY, ALAN LEE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HUMAN VARIABILITY IN SELF-ALTITUDE PERCEPTION IS WELL KNOWN, BUT THE EFFECT OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES (NVDS) THAT PROVIDE A DEGRADED VISUAL IMAGE IS UNKNOWN. THIRTEEN ARMY AVIATORS WITH NORMAL VISION FLEW FIVE FLIGHTS (DAY, DAY-40" FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV), NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG), NVG-RIGHT TUBE ONLY, AND PILOT'S NIGHT VISION SENSOR (PNVS), A MONOCULAR THERMAL SENSOR) IN A MODIFIED AH-1 COBRA HELICOPTER. SUBJECTS ESTIMATED THEIR ALTITUDE OR FLEW TO SPECIFIED ALTITUDE WHILE FLYING A SERIES OF MANEUVERS. THE RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE SUBJECTS WERE BETTER AT DETECTING AND CONTROLLING CHANGES IN ALTITUDE (RELATIVE ALTITUDE ESTIMATION) THAN THEY WERE AT FLYING TO OR NAMING A SPECIFIC ALTITUDE (ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE ESTIMATION). IN CRUISE FLIGHT AND DESCENT, THE SUBJECTS TENDED TO FLY ABOVE THE DESIRED ALTITUDE (UNDERESTIMATION), AN ERROR IN THE SAFE DIRECTION. WHILE HOVERING, THE DIRECTION OF ERROR WAS LESS PREDICTABLE. IN THE LOW-LEVEL CRUISE FLIGHT SCENARIO TESTED IN THIS STUDY, ALTITUDE CONTROL WAS AFFECTED MORE BY CHANGES IN IMAGE RESOLUTION THAN BY CHANGES IN FOV OR OCULARITY. IN HOVERING FLIGHT, ALTITUDE CONTROL WAS THE WORST WHILE USING THE PNVS.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTERS, ALTITUDE PERCEPTION/ESTIMATION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, FLIGHT SAFETY, NVG, THERMAK IMAGING
2000-04 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1994 DTIC #: ADA371212
TITLE: FLIGHT EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG IN THE OH-58D HELICOPTER PART 1. RESEARCH REPORT
AUTHOR(s): BARBARA A. MURPHY, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS ASSIGNED TO OH-58D HELICOPTER OPERATIONAL UNITS PARTICIPATED IN AN EXPANDED FIELD ASSESSMENT OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP). CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CEP HAVE BEEN DETERMINED THROUGH LABORATORY AND FIELD TESTING OVER THE PAST SEVERAL YEARS. RESULTS OF THE LABORATORY STUDIES SHOWED THAT AVIATORS WERE PROTECTED AND PROVIDED WITH SPEECH COMMUNICATIONS CAPABILITY. THE CEP IS A LOW-COST AND SIMPLE APPROACH THAT IS READILY AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE FIELDING. DURING FY98, PROJECT MANAGER-AIRCREW INTEGRATED SYSTEMS (PM-ACIS) PURCHASED ENOUGH CEPS TO OUTFIT ALL AVIATORS CURRENTLY ASSIGNED TO OH-58D OPERATIONAL UNITS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE PURCHASE WAS TO FORM A LARGE SAMPLE OF USERS FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CURRENT CEP CONFIGURATION IN SOLVING THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH HEARING PROTECTION AND COMMUNICATION IN THE OH-58D HELICOPTER. THE ACCEPTABILITY OF THE CEP WAS ASSESSED BY COMPARISON WITH THE HELMET SYSTEMS CURRENTLY USED IN THE OH-58D HELICOPTER. COMMENTS AND RESPONSES PROVIDED BY THE VOLUNTEERS SHOW THAT THE CEP, WITH SOME MODIFICATIONS, IS A SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT OVER CURRENT SYSTEMS. WITH IMPROVED COCKPIT COMMUNICATIONS, FLYING BECOMES LESS FATIGUING AND STRESSFUL. THE CEP PERFORMS WELL DURING DAILY MISSIONS AND IS CONSIDERED A VIABLE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF INADEQUATE SPEECH CLARITY AND UNDERSTANDING IN THE KIOWA WARRIOR HELICOPTER. OVER 90 PERCENT OF THE PARTICIPANTS RATED THE CEP AS HAVING GREATER OVERALL OPERATIONAL VALUE THAN THE AVIATOR HELMET AS IT IS CURRENTLY USED. AVIATORS VIEW THE CEP AS A VIABLE SOLUTION TO THE COMMUNICATIONS PROBLEM AND FEEL IT SHOULD BE FIELDED TO ALL AVIATION UNITS. PART 1 OF THIS STUDY PRESENTS THE PRINCIPAL FINDINGS IN SUMMARY FORM. PART 2 CONTAINS THE DATA-SET NECESSARY TO ALLOW CLOSE INSPECTION OF INDIVIDUAL SUBJECT RESPONSES.
KEYWORDS: NONE
2000-05 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2212 DTIC #: ADA371213
TITLE: FLIGHT EVALUATION OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG IN THE OH-58D HELICOPTER PART 2. QUESTIONAIRE DATA
AUTHOR(s): BARBARA A. MURPHY, BEN T. MOZO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATORS ASSIGNED TO OH-58D HELICOPTER OPERATIONAL UNITS PARTICIPATED IN AN EXPANDED FIELD ASSESSMENT OF THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP). THE CEP IS A LOW-COST AND SIMPLE APPROACH THAT IS READILY AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE FIELDING. DURING FY98, PROJECT MANAGER-AIRCREW INTEGRATED SYSTEMS (PM-ACIS) PURCHASED ENOUGH CEPS TO OUTFIT ALL AVIATORS CURRENTLY ASSIGNED TO OH-58D OPERATIONAL UNITS. THE OBJECTIVE OF THE PURCHASE WAS TO FORM A LARGE SAMPLE OF USERS FOR EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE CURRENT CEP CONFIGURATION IN SOLVING HEARING PROTECTION AND COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS IN THE OH-58D HELICOPTER. THE CEP PERFORMS WELL DURING DAILY MISSIONS AND IS CONSIDERED A VIABLE SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM OF INADEQUATE SPEECH CLARITY AND UNDERSTANDING IN THE KIOWA WARRIOR HELICOPTER. PART 1 OF THIS REPORT, PUBLISHED SEPARATELY, PRESENTS THE METHOD AND ASSESSMENT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY. PART 2, THE PRESENT REPORT, CONTAINS THE DATA-SET NECESSARY TO ALLOW CLOSE INSPECTION OF INDIVIDUAL SUBJECT RESPONSES.
KEYWORDS: NONE
2000-06 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 573 DTIC #: ADA371230
TITLE: ASSESSMENT OF SIMULATED SPATIAL DISORIENTATION SCENARIOS IN TRAINING U.S. ARMY AVIATORS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): PHILIP A. JOHNSON, ARTHUR ESTRADA, M.G. BRAITHWAITE, J.C. MANNING
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) IS CONSIDERED TO BE PRESENT WHEN A PILOT FAILS TO PERCEIVE THE POSITION, MOTION, OR ATTITUDE OF HIS/HER AIRCRAFT WITH RESPECT TO THE GRAVITATIONAL VERTICAL OR SURROUNDING OBJECTS. THE RESULTS OF SD IN FLIGHT MAY BE DISASTROUS. THE LIMITATION OF GROUND BASED TRAINING TO RAISE THE AVIATOR'S AWARENESS OF SD IS WIDELY ACKNOWLEDGED. A PROPOSAL WAS THEREFORE RAISED TO DEVELOP SD SCENARIOS FOR PRESENTATION IN A VISUAL FLIGHT SIMULATOR. THE SCENARIOS WERE DEVELOPED USING ACCIDENT SUMMARIES FROM THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER (USASC), FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, WHICH WERE REVIEWED FOR SUITABLE CONTENT. THESE WERE THEN PRESENTED AS A SERIES OF SCRIPTS FROM WHICH A TRAINER COULD REPRODUCE THE SITUATION IN A VISUAL FLIGHT SIMULATOR. THE RESULTING SCENARIOS WERE PRESENTED TO 30 EXPERIENCED AVIATORS WHO COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRE EVALUATIONS AFTER EACH SCENARIO AND AN OVERALL EVALUATION. THE RESULTS SHOWED A HIGH LEVEL OF ACCEPTANCE OF THIS TRAINING TOOL BY A GROUP OF EXPERIENCED AVIATORS WITH DIFFERING BACKGROUNDS. THE SCENARIOS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED AS A U.S. ARMY AVIATION TRAINING TOOL AND ARE BEING DISTRIBUTED TO UNITS WORLDWIDE. THE SCENARIOS WERE DEVELOPED IN A UH-60 (BLACKHAWK) SIMULATOR, BUT HAVE BEEN REFINED TO MAKE THEM RELEVANT TO OTHER TYPES OF HELICOPTER OPERATIONS SUCH AS THE AH-64 (APACHE) ATTACK HELICOPTER.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, ARMY AVIATORS, SD
2000-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 183 DTIC #: ADA371606
TITLE: U.S. ARMY FEMALE AVIATOR ANTHROPOMETRIC, CLOTHING, AND COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY STUDY: DEMOGRAPHY AND ANTHROPOMETRY OF THE STUDY COHORT
AUTHOR(s): CLAIRE C. GORDON, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HISTORICALLY, AIRCRAFT DESIGN STANDARDS HAVE BEEN DEVELOPED UTILIZING THE 5TH TO THE 95TH PERCENTILE MALE. THE CURRENT U.S. ARMY AVIATOR POPULATION INCLUDES MANY FEMALES, WHO ARE COMPELLED TO OPERATE AIRCRAFT THAT MAY BE ILL-FITTING AND CONSEQUENTLY POTENTIALLY UNSAFE. THIS COMPREHENSIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM EXAMINED THE FEMALE-MACHINE MATCH ACROSS A VARIETY OF ARMY AIRCRAFT AND CLOTHING ENSEMBLES. THIS COHORT OF FEMALE AVIATORS IS THE LARGEST OF ITS KIND USING ACTUAL FEMALE PILOTS INSTEAD OF GENERAL MILITARY FEMALES. THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE 78 VOLUNTEERS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THIS STUDY ARE COMPARABLE TO OTHER DATA ON THE FEMALE PILOT POPULATION AS A WHOLE, MAKING THE GROUP AN EXCELLENT SAMPLE FOR STUDIES OF COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY. THE PRESENT REPORT ADDRESSES THE DEMOGRAPHY AND ANTHROPOMETRY OF THE STUDY COHORT. OTHER REPORTS IN THE SERIES WILL ADDRESS THE VARIOUS CLOTHING AND AIRCRAFT VARIABLES.
KEYWORDS: ROTARY-WING PILOTS, FEMALES, COCKPIT COMPATIBILITY, ANTHROPOMETRY, HUMAN FACTORS
2000-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 644 DTIC #: ADA371607
TITLE: PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF AN IMAGE QUALITY TESTER FOR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): SHENG-JEN HSIEH, CLARENCE E. RASH, THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS) PROVIDE ESSENTIAL PILOTAGE AND FIRE CONTROL IMAGERY INFORMATION FOR PILOTS. HOWEVER, IMAGE QUALITY TESTERS FOR HMD FIELD PERFORMANCE VALIDATION DO NOT CURRENTLY EXIST. THIS RESEARCH EMPLOYED TECHNIQUES FROM IMAGING ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION, AND COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN/COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (CAD/CAM) TO INVESTIGATE A PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR A PORTABLE HMD IMAGE TESTER. FOR THIS STUDY, A CHARGED COUPLE DEVICE (CCD) CAMERA AND LENS WERE SELECTED. HARDWARE CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS VIEWING ANGLES IN HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL POSITIONS, DYNAMIC WORKING RANGE AT DAY AND NIGHT, PIXEL RESOLUTION, FOCAL LENGTH, AND APERTURE RATIO WERE EVALUATED WITH REGARD TO HMD FUNCTIONALITY. EXPERIMENTS TO EVALUATE CAMERA SENSITIVITY AND TEST PATTERN MERITS WERE CONDUCTED USING A PROGRAMMABLE MICRO-POSITIONING SYSTEM, CCD CAMERA, OPTICAL FIXTURES AND BENCHES. NEXT, THE RELATIVE RATIO AMONG FEATURES WITHIN THE IMAGE PROFILE WAS ESTABLISHED AND AN IDEAL IMAGE PROFILE AND EVALUATION CRITERIA WERE ESTABLISHED BASED ON THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS. THIRD, IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHMS AND TECHNIQUES, SUCH AS EDGE DETECTION, WERE DEVELOPED AND APPLIED IN TEST PATTERN FEATURE DETECTION. A SOFTWARE PROTOTYPE, INCLUDING MODULES FOR IMAGE CAPTURE, IMAGE ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION, AND USER MANUALS, WAS DEVELOPED. FINALLY, A CONCEPT HARDWARE PACKAGE DESIGN IS PROPOSED. THIS DESIGN INCORPORATES A NOTEBOOK COMPUTER WITH A FLAT PANEL DISPLAY TO INTERFACE WITH THE CAMERA AND SOFTWARE PROTOTYPE; AND INCORPORATES FIXTURES FOR THE HMD, CAMERA, COMPUTER AND POWER SUPPLY. THIS DESIGN WILL ALLOW THE TESTER TO BE USED IN THE FIELD.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE QUALITY TESTER, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS
2000-09 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 160 DTIC #: ADA372369
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON SPATIAL DISORIENTATION
AUTHOR(s): P. LEDUC, D. RILEY, S. HOFFMAN, M. BROCK, D. NORMAN, P. JOHNSON, R. WILLIAMSON, A. ESTRADA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION IS AN INACCURATE IMPRESSION OF ONE'S POSITION IN SPACE WITH RESPECT TO THE EARTH'S SURFACE. AS SLEEP LOSS IS KNOWN TO PRODUCE VISUAL DISTURBANCES, THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECTS OF FATIGUE ON AVIATOR RESPONSE TO IN-FLIGHT, DISORIENTING EVENTS. EIGHT UH-60 RATED AVIATORS SERVED AS VOLUNTEER SUBJECTS. THE SUBJECTS REPORTED TO THE LABORATORY AT 1700 ON MONDAY FOR INPROCESSING AND BASELINE TESTING, RETIRED AT 2300, AND AWOKE AT 0700 ON TUESDAY. THROUGHOUT THE DAY, AVIATORS REPEATED ONE 6-HOUR PRACTICE TEST BLOCK THREE TIMES. EACH BLOCK INCLUDED A 1-HOUR UH-60 SIMULATOR FLIGHT, OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE MEASURES OF ALERTNESS, AND SEVERAL COGNITIVE TESTS. TO CONTROL FOR ORDER EFFECTS, HALF OF THE SUBJECTS REMAINED AWAKE FROM 0700 TUE TO 2300 WED AND WERE EXPOSED TO THE DISORIENTING EVENTS FOR THE FIRST TIME WHEN THEY WERE SLEEP DEPRIVED. THE OTHER HALF OF THE SUBJECTS REMAINED AWAKE FROM 0700 WED TO 2300 THU AND SAW THE EVENTS FIRST WHEN THEY WERE FULLY RESTED. ANALYSES SHOWED THAT NEARLY ALL MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE, TO INCLUDE MOOD, ALERTNESS, COGNITION, SPATIAL ORIENTATION, POSTURAL STABILITY, FLIGHT ACCURACY, AND RECOVERY FROM IN-FLIGHT DISORIENTATION, WERE DETRIMENTALLY IMPACTED BY FATIGUE.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, OCULOMOTOR, SIMULATOR SICKNESS
2000-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1044 DTIC #: ADA373632
TITLE: PRESCRIBING BIFOCAL SPECTACLES FOR U.S. ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): CORINA VAN DE POL, STEPHEN E. MORSE, BRIAN BROWN, GORDON C. HENDRICKS, DEBORAH R. TOWNS, STEVEN R. GILREATH, NINA S. JONES, MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS TECHNICAL REPORT IS GEARED TOWARDS CLINICIANS THAT PRESCRIBE BIFOCAL SPECTACLES FOR ARMY AVIATORS. THE BIFOCAL ADD REQUIRED TO PASS THE FLIGHT DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION (FDME) IS BASED ON A 14-INCH TESTING DISTANCE AND IS OFTEN TOO STRONG FOR USE IN THE COCKPIT. COCKPIT WORKING DISTANCES ARE GENERALLY 18 TO 36 INCHES. THIS GUIDE PROVIDES THE CLINICIAN WITH MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE EXPECTED NEAR WORKING DISTANCES IN SPECIFIC ARMY AIRCRAFT. A DESCRIPTION OF EACH AIRCRAFT, A DIAGRAM OF THE COCKPIT LAYOUT, DISTANCES TO EACH OF THE CONTROL PANELS AND THE SNELLEN EQUIVALENT LETTER SIZE OF INSTRUMENTATION IS DETAILED. THE FINAL PART OF THE PAPER USES AN EXAMPLE TO AID IN DETERMINATION OF THE OPERATIONALLY-OPTIMAL BIFOCAL ADD POWER AND SEGMENT HEIGHT.
KEYWORDS: BIFOCAL SPECTACLES, FLIGHT DUTY MEDICAL EXAMINATION, SNELLEN, OPERATIONALLY-OPTIMAL BIFOCAL
2000-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 499 DTIC #: ADA373633
TITLE: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION DEMONSTRATION FLIGHT FOR U.S. ARMY AVIATORS IN THE TH-67, UH-1 AND UH-60 HELICOPTERS
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE, SIOBHAN M. HOFFMAN, PATRICIA A. LEDUC
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD) OCCURS WHEN A PILOT MISPERCEIVES THE POSITION, MOTION, OR ATTITUDE OF HIS OR HER AIRCRAFT. IN WARTIME, THE RISK OF SD IS HEIGHTENED BY THE EXTRA PRESSURE ON SENSORY AND COGNITIVE RESOURCES. DURING OPERATION DESERT SHIELD/STORM, 81 PERCENT OF U.S. ARMY AVIATION NIGHTTIME ACCIDENTS WERE ASCRIBED TO SD. AN IMPORTANT COUNTERMEASURE TO SD IS THE AVIATOR'S AWARENESS OF HIS PHYSIOLOGICAL VULNERABILITY TO SD AND THE CIRCUMSTANCES IN WHICH SD IS MOST LIKELY TO OCCUR. CONSEQUENTLY, ALL MILITARY AVIATORS MUST ATTEND COURSES OF INSTRUCTION IN SD. MOST STUDENT PILOTS ARE GIVEN INSTRUCTION DURING THEIR FLIGHT TRAINING ON HOW TO OVERCOME THE EFFECTS OF SD, BUT FEW AIR SERVICES PROVIDE A SPECIFIC SD DEMONSTRATION SORTIE TO AUGMENT GROUND-BASED TRAINING. AN IN-FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION OF SD REINFORCES KNOWLEDGE OF THE LIMITATIONS OF THE ORIENTATION SENSES IN FLIGHT AND ENHANCES AIRCREW AWARENESS OF POTENTIALLY DISORIENTATING SITUATONS.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, HELICOPTERS
2000-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1477 DTIC #: ADA375186
TITLE: THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE VERSUS NAPPING ON ALERTNESS AND MOOD IN SLEEP-DEPRIVED AVIATORS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): PATRICIA A. LEDUC, JOHN A. CALDWELL, PEGGY S. RUYAK
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH ASSESSED THE COMPARABILITY OF EXERCISE VERSUS NAPPING FOR MAINTAINING ALERTNESS IN AVIATORS DEPRIVED OF SLEEP. SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE DATA FROM TWO SLEEP-DEPRIVATION STUDIES WERE POOLED. THIRTY AVIATORS WERE INCLUDED, 18 WHO WERE GIVEN ZOLPIDEM INDUCED NAPS DURING THE DEPRIVATION PERIOD AND 12 WHO EXERCISED DURING 40 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS. PERFORMANCE ON REPEATED TESTS OF SUSTAINED WAKEFULNESS, PROFILE OF MOOD STATE QUESTIONNAIRES, AND VISUAL ANALOGUE SCALES WAS ASSESSED. ZOLPIDEM-INDUCED NAPS WERE SUPERIOR TO REST IN SUSTAINING MOOD, AND ALERTNESS ON BOTH A SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE TEST. NAPPING WAS ALSO CLEARLY BETTER THAN EXERCISE FOR ATTENUATING CHANGES IN MOOD AND SUBJECTIVE ALERTNESS TYPICALLY PRODUCED BY SLEEP LOSS.
KEYWORDS: EXERCISE, SLEEP-DEPRIVED, AVIATORS, NAPS
2000-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 629 DTIC #: ADA378677
TITLE: ORBSCAN ACCURACY IN MEASURING CORNEAL SURFACE ELEVATION
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS O. SALMON, CORINA VAN DE POL, NINA S. JONES
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PURPOSE. THE SURGEON GENERAL HAS RECENTLY AUTHORIZED INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE HAD CORNEAL REFRACTIVE SURGERY ENTRY, BY WAIVER, INTO THE SERVICES. SINCE ARMY AVIATORS ALREADY OPERATE UNDER LESS THAN OPTIMAL VISUAL CONDITIONS, THE EYES ARE WORKING AT THE LIMITS OF THE VISUAL AND OPTICAL SYSTEM. CHANGES TO THE OPTICAL SYSTEM MUST BE VERY ACCURATELY ASSESSED TO DETERMINE IMPACT ON VISION, AND MEASUREMENT OF THE CORNEA IS THE PRIMARY MEANS OF VERIFYING THE OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EYE AFTER REFRACTIVE SURGERY. A MEASUREMENT ERROR OF LESS THAN ±1.0 MICROMETERS IS DIFFICULT TO ATTAIN, SO AN INDEPENDENT ASSESSMENT OF THE INSTRUMENT’S ACCURACY AND REPEATABILITY IS A FUNDAMENTAL PREREQUISITE TO CORNEAL TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS. THIS WAS THE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE IN THIS STUDY.
KEYWORDS: ORBSCAN, EYESYS, CORNEAL TOPOGRAPHY, ACCURACY, REPEATABILITY, CORNEAL OPTICS
2000-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1970 DTIC #: ADA388710
TITLE: THE UH-60 COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM: A PRELIMINARY ANTHROPOMETRIC ANALYSIS
AUTHOR(s): FRED BROZOSKI, JOHN CROWLEY, JOSEPH MCENTIRE, PHILIP JOHNSON, VICTOR CRUZ, CLIFTON DALGARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO INVESTIGATE THE POSSIBILITY OF PHYSICAL INTERACTION BETWEEN THE FRONT SEAT OCCUPANTS OF A UH-60 BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER AND THE PROPOSED UH-60 COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM (CABS). FIVE LARGE MALES (80TH - 95TH PERCENTILE IN STATURE), FIVE MID-SIZE MALES (40TH - 55TH PERCENTILE IN STATURE), AND FIVE SMALL FEMALES (5TH - 30TH PERCENTILE IN STATURE) SERVED AS VOLUNTEER SUBJECTS. SUBJECTS WERE OUTFITTED IN REPRESENTATIVE AIRCREW CLOTHING AND EQUIPMENT AND WERE SEATED IN THE COCKPIT OF A CABS-EQUIPPED UH-60. THE AIRBAGS WERE SLOWLY INFLATED TO A GAUGE PRESSURE OF 2 POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH. AFTERWARD, SUBJECTS WERE ASKED TO ASSUME POSITIONS RANGING FROM A NORMAL FLYING POSITION TO PERFORMING REACHES TO THE OVERHEAD AND CENTER CONSOLES. AT EACH POSITION, MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE BETWEEN THE CABS AND SPECIFIED ANATOMICAL REGIONS IN ORDER TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE OF OCCUPANT/AIRBAG INTERACTION. RESULTS SHOW THE SUBJECTS' CHESTS AND OUTBOARD ARMS TO HAVE THE HIGHEST PROBABILITY OF INTERACTION WITH A DEPLOYING CABS; OUTBOARD ARM INTERACTION WAS GREATEST IN THE LEFT CREWSTATION. ANTHROPOMETRY WAS OBSERVED TO HAVE NO CONSISTENT EFFECT ON THE RESULTS, POSSIBLY DUE TO VARIATIONS IN THE SUBJECTS' CREWSEAT POSITIONS.
KEYWORDS: UH-60, COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM, CABS, AIRBAGS, SUPPLEMENTAL RESTRAINTS, INADVERTENT DEPLOPYMENT, ANTHROPOMETRY
2000-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 589 DTIC #: ADA378682
TITLE: EFFECTS OF INADVERTENT UH-60 COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT ON FLIGHT CONTROL
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK T. BROZOSKI, PHILIP A. JOHNSON, JOHN S. CROWLEY, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: TWO STUDIES WERE UNDERTAKEN TO ASSESS THE EFFECT OF INADVERTENT DEPLOYMENTS OF A PROTOTYPE UH-60 COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM (CABS) ON FLIGHT CONTROL. IN STUDY ONE, THE EFFECTS OF INADVERTENT FOUR-AIRBAG (TWO FORWARD AND TWO LATERAL) CABS DEPLOYMENTS WERE INVESTIGATED; STUDY TWO LOOKED INTO THE EFFECTS OF INADVERTENT TWO-AIRBAG (TWO FORWARD AIRBAGS ONLY) CABS DEPLOYMENTS. IN BOTH STUDIES, CURRENT AND QUALIFIED UH-60 AVIATORS WERE RECRUITED TO FLY 1-HOUR SORTIES IN AN NUH-60 RESEARCH FLIGHT SIMULATOR. SIMULATED INADVERTENT CABS DEPLOYMENTS WERE INTRODUCED INTO THESE SORTIES DURING SIX PREDETERMINED FLIGHT MANEUVERS. THE SIMULATED DEPLOYMENTS INCLUDED UNCOMMANDED CYCLIC AND COLLECTIVE MOTIONS, OBSTRUCTION OF THE FORWARD AND LATERAL VIEWSCREENS, OBSTRUCTION OF THE INSTRUMENT PANEL, AND AN AUDIBLE CUE (USED TO CRUDELY MIMIC AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT NOISE). DATA WERE COLLECTED ON THE PROBABILITY OF CRASHING, THE TIME TO RECOVER FROM, OR TO CRASH AS A RESULT OF, EACH SIMULATED DEPLOYMENT, AS WELL AS ON THE SEVERITY OF EACH SIMULATED DEPLOYMENT AS PERCEIVED BY THE TEST SUBJECTS, SIMULATOR OPERATOR, AND SIMULATOR OBSERVER. RESULTS SHOW FLIGHT CONTROL TO BE MORE ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY INADVERTENT DEPLOYMENT OF THE FOUR-AIRBAG CABS, PARTICULARLY DURING HIGH-SPEED, LOW-LEVEL FLIGHT.
KEYWORDS: UH-60, CABS, INADVERTENT DEPLOYMENT, AIRBAGS, FLIGHT CONTROL, SIMULATION
2000-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2448 DTIC #: ADA386456
TITLE: EFFECT OF HEAD-SUPPORTED DEVICES ON FEMALE AVIATORS DURING SIMULATED HELICOPTER RIDES. PART I: BIOMECHANICAL RESPONSE
AUTHOR(s): KHALID W. BARAZANJI, NABIH M. ALEM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCHERS AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) RECENTLY CONCLUDED THAT WEIGHT-MOMENT OF HEAD-SUPPORTED DEVICES (HSDS) WORN BY MALE AVIATORS SHOULD NOT EXCEED 82.8 F 22.9 NEWTON-CENTIMETERS (N-CM). THE GOAL OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DEFINE A SAFE RANGE OF WEIGHTS AND CENTERS OF MASS OF HSDS THAT CAN BE TOLERATED BY FEMALE HELICOPTER PILOTS WITHOUT AFFECTING THEIR HEALTH OR DEGRADING THEIR PERFORMANCE. TWELVE SUBJECTS WERE EXPOSED TO WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION WHILE WEARING AN HSD WITH VARIOUS MASS PROPERTIES. DURING EXPOSURE, BIOMECHANICAL HEAD ACCELERATION, NECK MUSCLE ACTIVITIES, AND PERFORMANCE RESPONSES WERE RECORDED. THIS PAPER REPORTS THE BIOMECHANICAL RESPONSE FINDINGS. HEAD PITCH, ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR, AND AXIAL ACCELERATIONS WERE MEASURED FOR 12 DIFFERENT HELMET CONFIGURATIONS DURING SINUSOIDAL VERTICAL VIBRATION HAVING A MAGNITUDE OF 0.45 M/S2 AND FREQUENCIES SWEPT FROM 2 HZ TO 17 HZ AT THE RATE OF 0.25 HZ/SEC. RESULTS INDICATED THAT HEAD PITCH AND AXIAL ACCELERATION LEVELS FOR FEMALE SUBJECTS WERE LOWER THAN THOSE FOR THEIR MALE COUNTERPARTS.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTERS, FEMALES, HEAD SUPPORTED DEVICES, AVIATION, NECK FATIGUE, NECK STRENGTH, CENTER OF MASS
2000-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 795 DTIC #: ADA379756
TITLE: VARIABILITY OF EYE POSITIONS WITH EPS-21 SUN, WIND, AND DUST GOGGLE
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: METHODS FOR PROVIDING ADVANCED SPECTACLE AND GOGGLE LASER PROTECTION FOR VISIBLE LASERS INCLUDE REFLECTIVE DIELECTRIC COATINGS AND HOLOGRAMS, TUNED FOR SPECIFIC WAVELENGTHS. THE PRIMARY ADVANTAGE OF THESE METHODS COMPARED TO THE CURRENT FIELDED BROAD BAND ABSORPTIVE DYES IS THE POTENTIAL FOR INCREASED VISUAL TRANSMISSION FOR A GIVEN AMOUNT OF PROTECTION. HOWEVER, DIELECTRIC COATINGS AND HOLOGRAMS ARE ANGLE AND POSITION SENSITIVE SUCH THAT THE LOCATIONS OF THE EYE POSITIONS ARE CRITICAL FOR THE DESIRED PROTECTIVE EFFECTS. THIS STUDY MEASURED THE RIGHT AND LEFT EYE POSITIONS (LATERAL (X), VERTICAL (Y), AND FORE-AFT (Z)) OF 20 MILITARY SUBJECTS FIXATING STRAIGHT AHEAD WHILE WEARING AN EPS-21 SUN, WIND, AND DUST GOGGLE USING MECHANICAL METHODS. THE LATERAL AND VERTICAL EYE POSITIONS WERE ALSO DETERMINED USING A REFLECTIVE METHOD FOR RAPID DATA ACQUISITION. THE REFLECTIONS FROM THE GOGGLE LENS AND EYES WERE CAPTURED WITH A DIGITAL CAMERA AND ANALYZED WITH A COMPUTER PROGRAM. THE RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE EYE POSITIONS MEASURED MECHANICALLY FOR THIS SAMPLE VARIED SIMILARLY ABOUT THE X, Y, AND Z AXES.
KEYWORDS: EYE LOCATIONS, INTERPUPILLARY DISTANCE, LASER PROTECTION, PUPILLOMETER, HOLOGRAMS, DIELECTRIC COATINGS, ANTHROPOMETRY, EYE PROTECTION
2000-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 944 DTIC #: ADA379764
TITLE: FEASIBILITY OF USING THE AN/PVS-14 MONOCULAR NIGHT VISION DEVICE FOR PILOTAGE
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, ARTHUR ESTRADA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AN/PVS-14 MONOCULAR NIGHT VISION DEVICE (MNVD) HIGH PERFORMANCE IMAGE INTENSIFICATION SYSTEM WAS DESIGNED FOR GROUND USE. DURING A USAARL OPTICAL AND VISUAL EVALUATION OF THE MNVD, THE AUTHORS NOTED THAT THE USER COULD FUSE THE INTENSIFIED IMAGE WITH THE UNAIDED OR NONDISPLAY VIEWING EYE. THE FUSED IMAGES FROM THE RIGHT AND LEFT EYES PROVIDED SOME COLOR AND DEPTH PERCEPTION UNDER CERTAIN NIGHT LIGHTING CONDITIONS AND ALLOWED THE UNAIDED EYE TO REMAIN DARK ADAPTED. THIS ASSESSMENT EXPLORED THE POTENTIAL USE OF THE MNVD FOR PILOTAGE USING TWO EXPERIENCED NIGHT VISION GOGGLE (NVG) UH-60 PILOTS AND TWO EXPERIENCED AH-64 PILOTS, WHO ALSO USED THE HELMET DISPLAY UNIT (HDU) WITH SYMBOLOGY AND THERMAL IMAGERY. THE CONCLUSIONS FROM THIS INITIAL CONCEPT ASSESSMENT ARE THE FOLLOWING: (1) THE BINOCULAR STANDARD AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (OMNI II ANVIS) WOULD BE PREFERRED OVERALL TO THE SINGLE TUBE AN/PVS-14 FOR PILOTAGE. (2). BOTH UH-60 PILOTS REPORTED DIFFICULTY IN JUDGING DISTANCES AND CLOSURE RATES, WHILE THE AH-64 PILOTS RATED THE MNVD SLIGHTLY BETTER FOR DEPTH PERCEPTION THAN STANDARD ANVIS. ALL FOUR PILOTS REPORTED SOME EYESTRAIN OR DISCOMFORT, WHICH INCREASED WITH NO MOON ILLUMINATION.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLE, MONOCULAR VISION, ANVIS, NVIS, MNVD, AN/PVS-14, ELECTRO-OPTICAL
2000-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 698 DTIC #: ADA383436
TITLE: NOISE LEVELS IN THE USAARL NUH-60 (BLACKHAWK) AEROMED FLIGHT SIMULATOR
AUTHOR(s): ELMAREE GORDON, WILLIAM A. AHROON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: NOISE LEVELS IN THE NUH-60 (BLACK HAWK) AEROMED FLIGHT SIMULATOR LOCATED AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WERE MEASURED. NOISE LEVELS WERE ADJUSTED USING A NINE-POSITION CONTROL SET BY THE SIMULATOR OPERATOR. THE SIMULATOR OPERATOR'S MANUAL STATED THAT NOISE LEVELS SHOULD NOT EXCEED 85 DBA. MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE AT FIVE NOISE LEVEL SETTINGS AT THE PILOT AND COPILOT STATIONS. RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE A-WEIGHTED SOUND LEVEL OF THE FLIGHT SIMULATOR AT NOISE LEVEL SETTING 1 WAS 81.8 DBA WHILE LEVELS AT SETTINGS 3, 5, 7, AND 9 EXCEEDED THE 85 DBA NOISE EXPOSURE LIMIT. IN ADDITION, THE OCTAVE-BAND FREQUENCY SPECTRUM OF THE SIMULATOR NOISE AT SETTING 9 DIFFERED APPRECIABLY FROM THE SPECTRUM OF AN ACTUAL UH-60A AIRCRAFT. THESE DIFFERENCES WERE PARTICULARLY LARGE (EXCEEDING 20 DB) IN THE UPPER FREQUENCIES IN THE SPEECH RANGE AND SHOULD BE CONSIDERED BEFORE SIMILAR RESEARCH INVOLVING COMMUNICATION OR SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY IS CONDUCTED. IT IS NOTED THAT NOISE HAZARD SIGNS ARE POSTED APPROPRIATELY AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE USAARL NUH-60 FLIGHT SIMULATOR IN ACCORDANCE WITH MIL-STD-1474D "NOISE LIMITS." HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES SHOULD BE USED IN THE SIMULATOR WHEN OPERATED AT NOISE LEVELS ABOVE THE LOWEST NOISE LEVEL SETTING.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTERS, NOISE LEVELS, SIMULATORS
2000-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1738 DTIC #: ADA382912
TITLE: HIGH CONTRAST FILTERS AND THEIR USE IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): MCLEAN, W.E., RASH, C.E., SCHMEISSER, E.T.
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE IS A PERSISTENT PERCEPTION THAT VISUAL PERFORMANCE CAN BE IMPROVED THROUGH THE WEARING OF YELLOW-TINTED GLASSES, VISORS, ETC. A REVIEW OF PAST STUDIES WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY A TREND IN PERFORMANCE EFFECTS. AN ADDITIONAL SERIES OF LABORATORY AND FIELD INVESTIGATIONS WAS CONDUCTED TO EVALUATE PERFORMANCE WITH COLOR IDENTIFICATION TASKS. THE GENERAL FINDINGS SUPPORT THE CONCLUSION THAT WHILE PERFORMANCE FOR A SPECIFIC TASK UNDER SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS MAY BE ENHANCED THROUGH WEARING OF BLUE-BLOCKING FILTERS, BLANKET USE OF SUCH FILTERS WOULD RESULT IN MORE TASKS AND CONDITIONS WHERE PERFORMANCE IS DEGRADED THAN THOSE WHERE PERFORMANCE IS ENHANCED.
KEYWORDS: FILTERS, BLUE-BLOCKING, VISORS, YELLOW, AMBER, VISUAL PERFORMANCE
2000-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 14170 DTIC #: ADA384324
TITLE: PROCEEDINGS OF THE TECHNICAL COOPERATIVE PROGRAM WORKSHOP: INFLATABLE RESTRAINTS IN AVIATION
AUTHOR(s): EDITED BY JOHN S. CROWLEY, CLIFTON L. DALGARD
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATION ACCIDENTS FREQUENTLY RESULT IN DEATH OR INJURY--OCCUPANT FLAIL WITH RESULTANT HEAD INJURY IS THE LEADING CAUSE OF FATALITY AND SERIOUS INJURY IN ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS. INFLATABLE RESTRAINTS ARE A PROVEN SAFETY TECHNOLOGY IN THE AUTOMOTIVE WORLD, AND AIRBAGS ARE BEING DEVELOPED FOR ARMY HELICOPTERS AS WELL. OTHER APPLICATIONS IN TRANSPORT SAFETY SUCH AS INFLATABLE MOTORCYCLE HELMET COLLARS AND INFLATABLE RESTRAINT HARNESSES MAY BE USEFUL IN AVIATION--RESEARCH IS UNDERWAY IN EXCITING NOVEL AREAS.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER, AIR BAGS, INFLATABLE RESTRAINTS, SAFETY, CRASH PROTECTION
2000-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2122 DTIC #: ADA383970
TITLE: CLOSED COCKPIT FLIGHT IN THE U.S. ARMY: THE AH-64 EXPERIENCE (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): MORRIS R. LATTIMORE, JR., JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THERE IS A GROWING SENSE THAT COMBAT HELICOPTERS AND CREWMEMBERS IN FUTURE CONFLICTS WILL NEED A "CLOSED COCKPIT" FLIGHT CAPABILITY. THE CHALLENGES OF THE CLOSED COCKPIT ARE NUMEROUS AND RELATE TO THE AIRCRAFT AS WELL AS THE HUMAN OPERATOR. WHILE MANY AEROMEDICAL AND HUMAN FACTORS CONCERNS REMAIN TO BE EXPLORED, MUCH CAN BE LEARNED FROM EXPERIMENTAL FLIGHT TEST DATA COLLECTED OVER RECENT YEARS, AS WELL AS THE EXTENSIVE OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS) IN THE U.S. ARMY.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTERS, VISUAL DISPLAYS, APACHE, SPATIAL ORIENTATION, TRAINING, MOTION SICKNESS
2000-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 829 DTIC #: ADA383246
TITLE: DOSE UNIFORMITY OF OVER-THE-COUNTER MELATONIN AS DETERMINED BY HIGH-PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOOGRAPHY
AUTHOR(s): BRIAN F. PRAZINKO, JOSEPH A. SAM, J. LYNN CALDWELL, ALFRED T. TOWNSEND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE THE DOSE UNIFORMITY AMONG VARIOUS BRANDS OF OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) MELATONIN TABLETS (OR CAPSULES). MELATONIN IS A SUBSTANCE THAT MAY BE USED BY ARMY AVIATION PERSONNEL, SO EDUCATION IN REGARDS TO THE ACTUAL AMOUNTS OF MELATONIN CONTAINED IN EACH TABLET WILL BE BENEFICIAL. HIGH-PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY WAS USED TO ANALYZE EIGHT DIFFERENT BRANDS OF TABLETS. FROM EACH BRAND, TWO LOTS WERE SELECTED AND SIX TABLETS WERE TAKEN FROM EACH LOT FOR ANALYSIS. A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH EQUIPPED WITH A C-18 MICROBORE COLUMN WAS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH AN AUTOSAMPLER TO PERFORM TWO RUNS PER TABLET, WHILE ALSO RUNNING INTERMITTENT STANDARDS ON A REGULAR BASIS. OF THE BRANDS TESTED, MOST WERE EITHER CONSISTENTLY HIGHER OR LOWER THAN THE AMOUNT STATED ON THE LABEL. SOME BRANDS SHOWED SIGNIFICANT VARIABILITY. THIS VARIABILITY IS REASON FOR CONCERN FOR THOSE USERS OF OTC MELATONIN. ALTHOUGH SUCH VARIABILITY MAY NOT NECESSARILY CAUSE ANY SIDE EFFECTS, IT DOES INDICATE LAXITY IN PREPARATION TECHNIQUES.
KEYWORDS: MELATONIN, DOSE UNIFORMITY, HIGH-PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY
2000-24 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3131 DTIC #: ADA384583
TITLE: IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS OF THE UH-60 A/L BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER COCKPIT AIR BAG SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ELMAREE GORDON, BARBARA MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM (CABS) IS BEING DEVELOPED FOR THE UH-60A/L BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY CONDUCTED TESTS TO DETERMINE THE RISKS TO CREWMEMBERS AND PASSENGERS ASSOCIATED WITH EXPOSURE TO HIGH IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS EXPECTED DURING AN INADVERTENT SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT. A SERIES OF 21 AIRBAG DEPLOYMENT TESTS WERE CONDUCTED IN A STATIC UH-60A HELICOPTER. PEAK SOUND PRESSURE LEVELS RANGED FROM 134 DB TO 161 DB. LEVELS AT PILOT, COPILOT, AND GUNNER STATIONS EXCEEDED 140 DB DURING ALL 21 DEPLOYMENTS. LEVELS IN THE PASSENGER COMPARTMENT EXCEEDED 140 DB DURING 9 OF THE 21 DEPLOYMENTS. ARMY POLICY REQUIRES THE AIRCREW IN THE UH-60 HELICOPTER TO WEAR HELMETS THAT PROVIDE HEARING PROTECTION OR A COMBINATION OF HELMET AND EARPLUGS. PASSENGERS ARE REQUIRED TO WEAR PROTECTIVE EARPLUGS OR MUFFS OR A COMBINATION OF MUFFS AND EARPLUGS. THIS LEVEL OF HEARING PROTECTION ALSO MEETS THE REQUIREMENTS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST HIGH IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS CREATED BY THE DEPLOYMENT OF AIRBAGS. THEREFORE, IF THE REQUIRED HEARING PROTECTIVE DEVICES ARE WORN, THE POTENTIAL OF INADVERTENT DEPLOYMENT OF THE CABS IN THE UH-60 HELICOPTER POSES NO ADDITIONAL RISK TO THE HEARING OF CREW AND PASSENGERS.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER, COCKPIT AIRBAG SYSTEM (CABS), IMPULSE NOISE, HEARING PROTECTION, HEARING RISK
2000-26 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3528 DTIC #: ADA383159
TITLE: DESIGN OF INTERFACE AND ALGORITHMS FOR AN IMAGE QUALITY TESTER
AUTHOR(s): SHENG-JEN HSIEH (TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY), CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN C. MORA (USAARL), THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN (UES, INC.)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OBJECTIVES OF THE WORK REPORTED HERE WERE TO DESIGN AND INTEGRATE A COMMUNICATIONS INTERFACE AND SOFTWARE PROCEDURES (I.E., ALGORITHMS) FOR IMAGE PROCESSING FOR A HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) IMAGE TESTER. THIS IS A CONTINUATION OF A PREVIOUS EFFORT ENTITLED TLPRELIMINARY DESIGN OF AN IMAGE TESTER FOR HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY." THE PROPOSED IMAGE QUALITY TESTER CONSISTS OF HARDWARE (INCLUDING CAMERA, LENSES, SENSORS, AND FIXTURES) AND SOFTWARE FOR IMAGE CAPTURE AND ANALYSIS. THE INTERFACE AND IMAGE PROCESSING ALGORITHMS ARE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF THIS SYSTEM. THE INTERFACE BRIDGES THE GAP BETWEEN HARDWARE DEVICES AND SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS, AND THUS MAKES INFORMATION INTEGRATION POSSIBLE. THE ALGORITHMS PROCESS, ANALYZE, AND CHARACTERIZE THE TEST PATTERN INFORMATION GENERATED BY AN HMD.
KEYWORDS: IMAGE QUALITY, TESTER, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY, HMD, IHADSS
2000-27 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 834 DTIC #: ADA384639
TITLE: COMMUNICATIONS EFFECTIVENESS WHEN USING THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG OR EXPANDABLE-FOAM EARPLUG WITH THE HGU-56/P AVIATOR HELMET
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. AHROON, ELMAREE GORDON, BEN T. MOZO, LAWRENCE C. KATZ
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE ABILITY OF ROTARY-WING AIRCREW TO UTILIZE COCKPIT COMMUNICATIONS TO SUCCESSFULLY COORDINATE MISSIONS IS IMPAIRED BY THE HIGH NOISE INHERENT IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT AND BY HEARING PROTECTION STRATEGIES DESIGNED TO PROTECT THE AVIATORS FROM NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS. THE USE OF THE COMMUNICATION EARPLUG IN PLACE OF AN EXPANDABLE-FOAM EARPLUG WHEN USING DOUBLE-PROTECTION (SOUND-ATTENUATING HELMET AND EARPLUGS) SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES THE NUMBER OF EVENTS CLASSIFIED BY THE CIRCLE MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE IN THE SUB-CODE ASSOCIATED WITH PILOTS REQUESTING THAT A COMMUNICATION BE REPEATED. THE SUB-CODES ASSOCIATED WITH MISSED TRANSMISSIONS (I.E., REPEATED VERBALIZATIONS CAUSE BY AN ASSUMED MISSED TRANSMISSION) AND IMPROPER RESPONSES (WHERE THE RESPONSE WAS INAPPROPRIATE TO THE MESSAGE RECEIVED) DID NOT SHOW STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE. HOWEVER, THE RELATIVELY LOW FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF THESE SUB-CODES MAY LIMIT THE APPLICATION OF THESE TWO SUB-CODED BEHAVIORS.
KEYWORDS: NONE
2001-02 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 426 DTIC #: ADA386457
TITLE: THE SENSITIVITY OF REAL-TIME, TELEMETERED ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC DATA AND ACTUAL IN-FLIGHT PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT TO FATIGUE IN A SLEEP-DEPRIVATION PARADIGM
AUTHOR(s): J. CALDWELL, K. HALL, B. ERICKSON, K. KUBITZ, E. LABRADA, D. NORMAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE TYPICAL EEG CHANGES RECORDED FROM SUBJECTS IN EARLIER LABORATORY SLEEP-DEPRIVATION STUDIES WOULD OCCUR UNDER ACTUAL IN-FLIGHT CONDITIONS WHILE AVIATORS ARE PILOTING AN AIRCRAFT. IN ADDITION, THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO EXAMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH FATIGUE-RELATED DETERIORATIONS IN FLIGHT PERFORMANCE WERE ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED SLOW-WAVE EEG ACTIVITY. TEN UH-60 PILOTS WERE KEPT AWAKE FOR APPROXIMATELY 26 HOURS SO THAT DATA COULD BE COLLECTED DURING BOTH NON-SLEEP-DEPRIVED AND SLEEP-DEPRIVED CONDITIONS. EEG DATA AND PERFORMANCE DATA WERE COLLECTED IN THE LABORATORY AND WHILE PILOTING A SPECIALLY INSTRUMENTED UH-60 AIRCRAFT. DATA COLLECTED IN THE LABORATORY WERE BASED ON A COMPUTERIZED COGNITIVE TASK (THE MULTI-ATTRIBUTE TASK BATTERY OR MATB) AND THE DATA COLLECTED IN THE AIRCRAFT WERE FROM COMPUTERIZED MONITORING OF FLIGHT SKILLS DURING THE PERFORMANCE OF A STANDARDIZED FLIGHT PROFILE. SELF-RATINGS OF MOOD AND ALERTNESS WERE COLLECTED ONLY IN THE LABORATORY SETTING VIA THE PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS) AND THE VISUAL ANALOG SCALES (VAS).
KEYWORDS: TELEMETRY, FLIGHT, EEG, MOOD, PERFORMANCE, FATIGUE, SLEEP, DEPRIVATION
2001-03 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 343 DTIC #: ADA386488
TITLE: IS FATIGUE A PROBLEM IN ARMY AVIATION? THE RESULTS OF A SURVEY OF AVIATORS AND AIRCREWS
AUTHOR(s): J. CALDWELL, S. GILREATH, B. ERICKSON, N. SMYTHE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RECENTLY PUBLISHED DATA ON MILITARY AVIATION MISHAPS SUGGEST AIRCREW FATIGUE REMAINS A FLIGHT-SAFETY PROBLEM. THE CURRENT STUDY, IN WHICH THE RESPONSES FROM 241 ARMY AVIATORS AND 120 ARMY ENLISTED CREW MEMBERS WERE ANALYZED, INDICATES THAT INADEQUATE SLEEP AND/OR INSUFFICIENT SLEEP QUALITY IS ADVERSELY AFFECTING ON-THE-JOB ALERTNESS. THE REQUIREMENTS TO WORK A VARIETY OF SCHEDULES AND TO TRAVEL/WORK AWAY FROM HOME ARE LIKELY CONTRIBUTING TO LESS THAN OPTIMAL SLEEP QUALITY; HOWEVER, A NUMBER OF PERSONNEL MAY BE SUFFERING FROM SLEEP DEPRIVATION DUE TO INTENTIONAL SLEEP RESTRICTION AS WELL. THE PERSONNEL SURVEYED IN THIS STUDY INDICATED THEY WERE SLEEPING LESS THAN 7 HOURS PER NIGHT WHICH IS 1 HOUR LESS THAN THE AMOUNT RECOMMENDED BY SLEEP SPECIALISTS. THIS INSUFFICIENT SLEEP, COMBINED WITH ROTATING SCHEDULES AND OTHER WORK DEMANDS, NO DOUBT CONTRIBUTED TO THE PERCEPTIONS OF THREE-QUARTERS OF THE PRESENT SAMPLE THAT FATIGUE IS A WIDESPREAD PROBLEM IN THE MILITARY AVIATION COMMUNITY. THESE RESULTS INDICATE THE IMPORTANCE OF CONTINUING TO STRESS FATIGUE-REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN TRAINING AND OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: SURVEY, AVIATION, FATIGUE, SLEEP, FLIGHT SAFETY
2001-04 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 552 DTIC #: ADA391990
TITLE: FACIAL INJURY AND NIGHT VISION GOGGLES IN U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER ACCIDENTS 1980-2000
AUTHOR(s): JOHN S. CROWLEY, PAUL A. CAIN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES (NVG) ARE WORN EXTREMELY CLOSE TO THE AVIATOR'S FACE, THEREBY CONSTITUTING AN INJURY HAZARD, AND HEAD INJURIES ACCOUNT FOR 22.9 PERCENT OF INJURIES IN SURVIVABLE U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER CRASHES. THE MOST COMMON INJURY MECHANISM IS CONTACT WITH COCKPIT STRUCTURES, BUT THE EXTENT OF FACIAL INJURY CAUSED BY CONTACT WITH NVGS HAS NEVER BEEN REPORTED. METHODS: THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER DATABASE WAS SEARCHED FOR NVG-RELATED INJURIES IN CLASS A-C ACCIDENTS FROM 1980-2000. TO ESTIMATE THE POTENTIAL PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF A FACE PROTECTIVE VISOR (FPV), INJURIES WERE CLASSIFIED INTO THREE CATEGORIES (PROBABLY, POSSIBLY, AND PROBABLY NOT PREVENTED) BASED ON LOCATION. RESULTS: IN THE 347 SURVIVABLE CLASS A-C ACCIDENTS INVOLVING THE USE OF NVGS, 28 AVIATORS IN 21 AIRCRAFT SUFFERED 35 FACIAL INJURIES THAT WERE DEFINITELY ASCRIBED TO NVGS. MOST NVG-RELATED INJURIES (80 PERCENT) WERE "MINIMAL" OR "MINOR," AND NONE THREATENED LIFE OR VISION. THERE WERE 7.2 INJURED COCKPIT OCCUPANTS PER 100 CLASS A-C SURVIVABLE ACCIDENTS AND 31.9 INJURED PER 100 CLASS A ACCIDENTS.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, FACIAL INJURIES, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAYS, FACE-PROTECTIVE VISOR
2001-05 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 483 DTIC #: ADA392013
TITLE: VISUAL SEARCH PERFORMANCE IN HMDS WITH PARTIAL OVERLAPPED BINOCULAR FIELDS-OF-VIEW
AUTHOR(s): VICTOR KLYMENKO, THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY (UES), CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) WITH A PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV) IS SLATED FOR USE WITH THE ARMY'S NEW RAH-66 COMANCHE HELICOPTER IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE AVAILABLE SIZE OF THE FOV. THE CURRENT INVESTIGATION EXAMINED HOW THREE FOV CONFIGURATIONS AFFECT PERFORMANCE IN A VISUAL SEARCH TASK UNDER DEMANDING VIEWING CONDITIONS. PERFORMANCE WAS MEASURED BY RESPONSE TIME AND ACCURACY IN THE FULL OVERLAP FOV, THE CONVERGENT PARTIAL OVERLAP FOV, AND THE DIVERGENT PARTIAL OVERLAP FOV. TWENTY-ONE AVIATORS WERE REQUIRED TO VISUALLY SCAN FOR AND IDENTIFY A NUMBER OUT OF EIGHT ALPHANUMERICS RANDOMLY POSITIONED IN A RANDOMLY CLUTTERED FOV AS QUICKLY AS POSSIBLE WHILE MINIMIZING ERRORS. IN GENERAL, THE FASTEST RESPONSE TIMES (RTS) WERE TO TARGETS IN THE FULL OVERLAP FOV COMPARED TO THE PARTIAL OVERLAP FOVS. THE RT PERFORMANCE DATA WERE NOT DISCONFIRMED BY THE ACCURACY DATA, THAT IS, THERE WAS NO SPEED-ACCURACY TRADE-OFF IN THE DATA, MEANING, ACCURACY WAS NOT DEFERENTIALLY SUBSTITUTED FOR RESPONSE SPEED ACROSS CONDITIONS. THERE WERE NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN ACCURACY FOR THE THREE FOV CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS, PARTIAL BINOCULAR OVERLAP, FIELD-OF-VIEW
2001-06 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 733 DTIC #: ADA392525
TITLE: FINAL PHASE ONE EVALUATION OF THE MICROVISION, INC. AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) HGU-56P SCANNING LASER DISPLAY
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY (UES, INC.), CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SUPPORT OF THE RAH-66 COMANCHE, MICROVISION, INC., SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, HAS DEVELOPED A PROTOTYPE HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) BASED ON LASER SOURCES. THIS REPORT IS THE SECOND EVALUATION OF THE MICROVISION SYSTEM. THIS SYSTEM HAS BEEN TESTED FOR BOTH OPTICAL AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE. TESTS INCLUDE EXIT PUPIL SIZE (SHAPE AND UNIFORMITY), FIELD-OF-VIEW, LUMINANCE, CONTRAST, CONTRAST TRANSFER FUNCTION (CTF) , MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF), COLOR DISCRIMINATION, AND OPTICAL FOCUS.
KEYWORDS: HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), VIRTUAL RETINAL DISPLAY (VRD), AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS), OPTICAL TESTING, HELMET GEAR UNIT-56P (HGU-56P)
2001-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 392 DTIC #: ADA392484
TITLE: LASER ISSUES FOR ARMY AVIATION: QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, BARBARA S. REYNOLDS (USAARL), JIM HAUSER (ACIS)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ON THE MODERN BATTLEFIELD, LASERS ARE USED PRIMARILY AS RANGEFINDERS AND TARGET DESIGNATORS; HOWEVER, IN THE PAST THE HIGH COST AND TECHNOLOGICAL SOPHISTICATION OF LASERS HAVE LIMITED THEIR FIELDING TO NATIONAL ARMIES. THEIR LARGE SIZE AND POWER REQUIREMENTS HAVE FURTHER LIMITED THEIR PRESENCE ON THE BATTLEFIELD. WITHIN THE PAST FEW YEARS, HOWEVER, TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES HAVE REDUCED SIGNIFICANTLY BOTH THE SIZE AND POWER REQUIREMENTS OF LASERS AND COSTS HAVE PLUMMETED. WITHIN THE MILITARY, ESPECIALLY IN AVIATION, LASERS ARE A MAJOR POTENTIAL THREAT. THE AVIATOR'S MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE FOR GATHERING INFORMATION IS HIS/HER EYES. EITHER THROUGH HOSTILE INTENTIONS OR THROUGH TRAINING ACCIDENTS, THE AVIATOR'S VISION HAS BEEN SUSCEPTIBLE TO DAMAGE THROUGH EXPOSURE TO LASERS. TODAY, THIS POTENTIAL THREAT HAS INCREASED SIGNIFICANTLY WITH THE EASY AVAILABILITY OF LOW-COST LASER POINTERS. THE U.S. ARMY HAS LONG RECOGNIZED THE NEED TO ADDRESS THE ISSUES OF LASERS, LASER PROTECTION AND LASER INJURIES. WHILE A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE HAS BEEN ACQUIRED OVER THE YEARS REGARDING LASERS, THIS KNOWLEDGE DOES NOT ALWAYS REACH THE FIELD. THIS REPORT IS AN EFFORT TO ANSWER COMMONLY-FIELDED QUESTIONS ON LASERS, LASER PROTECTION AND LASER-RELATED INJURIES.
KEYWORDS: LASER, DIRECTED ENERGY, RANGE FINDER/DESIGNATOR, LASER EYE INJURIES, LASER PROTECTION, EYE PROTECTION
2001-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1566 DTIC #: ADA395082
TITLE: USE OF SIMULATOR SPATIAL DISORIENTATION AWARENESS TRAINING SCENARIOS BY THE U.S. ARMY AND NATIONAL GUARD
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, GINA E. ADAM, PATRICIA A, LEDUC
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EVERY YEAR THE U.S. ARMY LOSES ASSETS DUE TO PILOT SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD). TO MITIGATE THIS HAZARD AND IMPROVE PILOT ORIENTATION, THE ARMY HAS PROVIDED ACADEMIC TRAINING AND BETTER AIRCRAFT EQUIPMENT. DESPITE THESE COUNTERMEASURES, SD ACCIDENT/MISHAP RATES ARE NOT IMPROVING. IN 1997, USAARL DEVELOPED A METHOD OF SIMULATOR TRAINING THAT RESULTS IN A PILOT'S GREATER AWARENESS OF THE FACTORS THAT MAKE SD MORE LIKELY. TOUTED AS EXCELLENT BY ARMY AVIATION LEADERS, THIS TRAINING, HOWEVER, IS NOT REQUIRED. THIS PAPER EXPLORES THE USE AND ACCEPTANCE OF THIS SD AWARENESS TRAINING BY FIELD UNITS AND WHETHER THIS TRAINING SHOULD BE MANDATED.
KEYWORDS: SPATIAL DISORIENTATION TRAINING, FLIGHT SIMULATION TRAINING, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
2001-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1517 DTIC #: ADA394788
TITLE: ACCIDENT RATES IN GLASS COCKPIT MODEL U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, CHRISTIE L. SUGGS, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, GINA E. ADAM (USAARL), SHARON D. MANNING (U.S. ARMY AVIATION BRANCH SAFETY OFFICE), GREGORY FRANCIS (PURDUE UNIVERSITY), ROBERT NOBACK (U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOLLOWING THE LEAD SET BY COMMERCIAL AVIATION, THE U.S. ARMY HAS DEVELOPED AND FIELDED CREWSTATION DESIGNS FOR FOUR AIRCRAFT TYPES THAT REPLACE TRADITIONAL INSTRUMENTS WITH MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS (MFDS). THESE MFD-BASED CREWSTATIONS ARE KNOWN AS "GLASS COCKPITS." IN ADDITION, THE U.S. ARMY FIELDS TWO AIRCRAFT MODELS USING A HYBRID DESIGN WHICH HAS A MIX OF DEDICATED INSTRUMENTS AND MFDS. THE U.S. ARMY SAFETY CENTER ACCIDENT DATABASE WAS INVESTIGATED TO COMPARE ACCIDENT RATES FOR THE TRADITIONAL AND GLASS COCKPIT MODELS FOR THE OH-58 KIOWA, THE UH-60 BLACK HAWK, CH-47 CHINOOK, AND AH-64 APACHE. THE ACCIDENT RATES WERE COMBINED ACROSS CLASSES AND CALCULATED FOR THE OVERLAPPING YEARS FOR WHICH BOTH THE TRADITIONAL AND GLASS COCKPIT MODELS WERE FLOWN. FOR THE OH-58, THE GLASS COCKPIT ACCIDENT RATE OF 20.30 (EXPRESSED IN ACCIDENTS PER 100,000 FLIGHT HOURS) EXCEEDED THE 4.37 RATE OF THE TRADITIONAL COCKPIT. FOR THE UH-60, THE GLASS COCKPIT ACCIDENT RATE OF 17.06 EXCEEDED THE 8.81 RATE OF THE TRADITIONAL COCKPIT. FOR THE CH-47, THE 3.94 ACCIDENT RATE OF THE GLASS COCKPIT WAS LESS THAN THE 6.97 RATE OF THE TRADITIONAL COCKPIT. FOR THE AH-64, THE GLASS COCKPIT ACCIDENT RATE OF 23.00 EXCEEDED THE 18.36 RATE OF THE TRADITIONAL COCKPIT. THESE DATA SUGGEST THAT THE ACCIDENT RATE FOR THE GLASS COCKPIT IS GREATER THAN THE TRADITIONAL CREWSTATION DESIGN FOR THREE OF THE FOUR AIRCRAFT TYPES.
KEYWORDS: ROTARY-WING, HELICOPTER, ACCIDENT RATE, GLASS COCKPIT
2002-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 679 DTIC #: ADA397709
TITLE: EVALUATION OF SPATIAL RESOLUTION IN THE PHASE II MICROVISION, INC. AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) HGU-56/P SCANNING LASER DISPLAY
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE FINAL PHASE II VERSION OF THE MICROVISION, INC. AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) HGU-56/P SCANNING LASER DISPLAY WAS EVALUATED FOR SPATIAL RESOLUTION PERFORMANCE. THE DATA REPORTED HEREIN SHOW AN IMPROVEMENT IN THE MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF) OVER THE PHASE I SYSTEM. THE FOLLOWING MODULATION VALUES, WHICH MEET THE RAH-66 COMANCHE SPECIFICATIONS, ARE: 0.10 HORIZONTAL MTF AND 0.24 VERTICAL MTF.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), SCANNING LASER DISPLAY, SPATIAL RESOLUTION, MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION (MTF), CONTRAST
2002-02 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 935 DTIC #: ADA397663
TITLE: VISUAL ISSUES OF AH-64 APACHE AVIATORS (YEAR 2000)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, CHRISTIE L. SUGGS, JOHN C. MORA, CORINA VAN DE POL, BARBARA S. REYNOLDS, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A WEB-BASED SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED INVESTIGATING AH-64 APACHE PILOT EXPERIENCE WITH THE INTEGRATED HELMET DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS). A TOTAL OF 216 RESPONDENTS PROVIDED RESPONSES IN THE FOLLOWING AREA: VISUAL COMPLAINTS, HELMET FIT, AND ACOUSTICS. DATA INDICATED THAT 92% OF RESPONDENTS REPORTED AT LEAST ONE VISUAL COMPLAINT EITHER DURING OR AFTER IHADSS FLIGHT. ADDITIONAL FINDINGS INCLUDE: NO ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EYE PREFERENCE AND FREQUENCY OF COMPLAINTS, AN INCREASE IN FREQUENCY OF VISUAL COMPLAINTS FROM A PREVIOUS 1990 STUDY, AND NO CORRELATION BETWEEN FREQUENCY OF VISUAL COMPLAINTS AND AGE OR EXPERIENCE.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED-DISPLAY (HMD), AH-64, INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS)
2002-03 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 634 DTIC #: ADA397735
TITLE: A NOVEL DESIGN FOR A LOW-BACKSCATTER OPTICAL APERTURE
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN C. MORA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CONVENTIONAL FLAT APERTURE DESIGNS INTRODUCE ERROR AND NOISE IN OPTICAL/ELECTRO-OPTICAL APPLICATIONS WHEN THE APERTURE IS PLACED IN CLOSE PROXIMITY TO A LIGHT SOURCE LOCATED WITHIN THE SYSTEM. RAYS THAT ARE REFLECTED OFF THE BLOCKED PORTION OF THE APERTURE AND THEN ARE REFLECTED AGAIN OFF OF THE LIGHT SOURCE AND REENTER THE OPTICAL PATH INTRODUCE THIS ERROR. A NOVEL DESIGN FOR A LOW-BACKSCATTER APERTURE HAS BEEN INTRODUCED AND VALIDATED FOR A LIGHT MEASUREMENT APPLICATION. THE NEW CONCEPT IS PREDICATED ON A V- OR CONE-SHAPED APERTURE DESIGN THAT USES THE LAW OF REFLECTION TO DIRECT BLOCKED LIGHT RAYS AWAY FROM THE OPTICAL PATH. A LIGHT SOURCE APPLICATION WAS USED TO VALIDATE THE NEW DESIGN.
KEYWORDS: OPTICS, APERTURE, BACKSCATTER
2002-04 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 861 DTIC #: ADA397665
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF A MONOCULAR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY ON AIRCREW HEALTH: A COHORT STUDY OF APACHE AH MK1 PILOTS INITIAL REPORT
AUTHOR(s): KEITH L. HIATT, MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE (HEADQUARTERS DIRECTOR ARMY AVIATION, MIDDLE WALLOP, UK); JOHN S. CROWLEY, CLARENCE E. RASH, CORINA VAN DE POL, DANIEL J. RANCHINO (USAARL); WILLIAM K. STATZ, ALLISON J. EKE (FORMERLY OF DERA CENTRE FOR HUMAN SCIENCES, FARNBOROUGH, UK)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COLLABORATIVE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH STUDY HAS BEEN UNDERTAKEN BY HEADQUARTERS DIRECTOR ARMY AVIATION, MIDDLE WALLOP, UK, AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, TO DETERMINE IF THE USE OF THE MONOCULAR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY IN THE APACHE AH MKL ATTACK HELICOPTER HAS ANY LONG-TERM (10-YEAR) EFFECT ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE. THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE PROTOCOL, METHODOLOGY, DEVELOPMENT AND INITIAL EXECUTION PHASE OF THIS STUDY. THE TEST METHODOLOGY CONSISTS PRIMARILY OF A BATTERY OF VISION TESTS SELECTED TO CAPTURE CHANGES IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE (WITH AN EMPHASIS ON BINOCULAR VISUAL FUNCTIONS) OF APACHE AVIATORS OVER THEIR FLIGHT CAREER. ADDITIONAL SECTIONS ADDRESS DEMOGRAPHICS, CONTACT LENS USE, AND HANDEDNESS. IT IS ANTICIPATED THAT THE NUMBER OF APACHE AVIATORS WILL LEVEL OUT TO APPROXIMATELY 70 BY THE END OF THE FIRST 3 YEARS OF THE STUDY. NON-APACHE AVIATORS WILL SERVE AS A CONTROL GROUP.
KEYWORDS: WAH-64, APACHE, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), VISUAL PERFORMANCE, BINOCULAR, MONOCULAR
2002-05 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3570 DTIC #: ADA397776
TITLE: THE EFFICACY OF TEMAZEPAM FOR IMPROVING DAYTIME SLEEP AND NIGHTTIME PERFORMANCE IN ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): J. LYNN CALDWELL, KECIA K. HALL, BRIAN F. PRAZINKO, DAVID N. NORMAN, TERRI ROWE, BRADLEY S. ERICKSON, ARTHUR ESTRADA, JOHN A. CALDWELL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ARMY PERSONNEL ARE COMMONLY ROTATED TO A NIGHT SHIFT, OR REVERSE CYCLE, IN ORDER TO HAVE THE 24-HOUR PERIOD MANNED AT ALL TIMES. WORKING REVERSE CYCLE PRESENTS PROBLEMS TO PERSONNEL DUE TO THE DIFFICULTY IN MAINTAINING ALERTNESS DURING THE NIGHTTIME HOURS. THIS IS ESPECIALLY DIFFICULT WHEN THE SHIFT MUST BE WORKED SEVERAL CONSECUTIVE NIGHTS, CREATING A CUMULATIVE SLEEP DEPT. APPROPRIATE COUNTERMEASURES ARE REQUIRED TO ENSURE THAT PERSONNEL OBTAIN AS MUCH REST AND SLEEP AS POSSIBLE DURING THE TIME REQUIRED TO ADJUST TO REVERSE CYCLE SO THEY MAY PERFORM THEIR DUTIES EFFECTIVELY.
KEYWORDS: TEMAZEPAM, REVERSE CYCLE, NIGHT SHIFT, PERFORMANCE
2002-06 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 488 DTIC #: ADA398633
TITLE: NOISE PROTECTION OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM WORN WITH EYEGLASSES
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. AHROON, ELMAREE GORDON, DALE A. OSTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USE OF ANCILLARY DEVICES SUCH AS EYEGLASSES WITH A SOUND ATTENUATING HELMET CAN REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE HELMET TO PROTECT THE USER FROM HAZARDOUS NOISE EXPOSURES. THREE DIFFERENT EYEGLASS FRAME TYPES (BAYONET, CABLE, SKULL) WERE TESTED AND THE INSERTION LOSS (SOUND REDUCTION) OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) WORN WITH THE FRAMES WAS MEASURED ACROSS THE FREQUENCY RANGE FROM 25 HZ TO 20 KHZ. ALL THREE TYPES OF EYEGLASS FRAMES REDUCED THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE AIHS TO PROTECT THE WEARER FROM NOISE EXPOSURE. WHILE THE LIMITS ON OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES RESULTING FROM THE USE OF CABLE- OR SKULL-STYLE EYEGLASS FRAMES WERE MINIMAL, THE BAYONET-STYLE FRAMES CAN REDUCE BY MORE THAN HALF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE TIME IN WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL MAY BE EXPOSED TO HIGH-LEVELS OF ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE WITHOUT THE ADDED PROTECTION OF INSERT EARPLUGS. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT EARPLUGS BE USED WHEN BAYONET-STYLE EYEGLASS FRAMES ARE WORN WITH THE HGU-56/P AIHS.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, NOISE PROTECTION, HEARING, EYEGLASSES
2002-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 510 DTIC #: ADA400108
TITLE: DIOPTER FOCUS OF ANVIS EYEPIECES USING MONOCULAR AND BINOCULAR TECHNIQUES
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN, CORINA VAN DE POL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: US ARMY AVIATORS WERE ASKED TO OBTAIN BEST RESOLUTION USING AN OPHTHALMIC PHOROPTER WITH THREE DIFFERENT FOCUSING TECHNIQUES, VIEWING WITH UNAIDED VISION AND THROUGH THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS). EIGHT PARTICIPANTS WERE OVER 40 YEARS OLD AND 16 PARTICIPANTS WERE LESS THAN 30 YEARS OLD. THE METHOD LABELED "CLEAREST" VISION ALLOWED THE PARTICIPANT TO OSCILLATE THE DIOPTER LENS POWERS TO OBTAIN BEST RESOLUTION IN BOTH POSITIVE (CORRECTION FOR HYPEROPIA, AND TO REDUCE ACCOMMODATION) AND NEGATIVE (CORRECTION FOR MYOPIA, AND TO STIMULATE ACCOMMODATION) LENS POWER DIRECTIONS, MONOCULARLY. THE "MAXIMUM PLUS" METHOD INSTRUCTED THE PARTICIPANTS TO FIRST BLUR THE TRI-BAR TARGET USING EXCESSIVE PLUS LENS POWER TO GO PAST INFINITY AND THEN CHANGE THE LENS POWERS TOWARDS THE MINUS VALUES JUST TO CLEAREST VISION AND NO FURTHER USING MONOCULAR VISION. THE "BINOCULAR" TECHNIQUE INVOLVED BLURRING BOTH EYES SLIGHTLY WITH EXCESSIVE PLUS LENS POWER AND THEN INSTRUCTING THE PARTICIPANT TO REDUCE THE PLUS LENS POWER FOR ONE EYE TO CLEAREST VISION BINOCULARLY. THE PROCEDURES WERE REPEATED WITH THE OTHER EYE.
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION GOGGLE, ANVIS, NVIC, INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, DIOPTER, FOCUS
2002-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 9153 DTIC #: ADA403623
TITLE: CORNEAL SHAPE AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE AFTER KERATOREFRACTIVE SURGERY (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CORINA VAN DE POL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: KERATOREFRACTIVE SURGERY INCLUDES ANY CORNEAL SURGERY DESIGNED TO MODIFY THE REFRACTIVE STATE OF THE EYE. CHANGES IN CORNEAL SHAPE HAVE BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN THE ABERRATION STRUCTURE OF THE EYE, SPECIFICALLY AN INCREASE IN SPHERICAL ABERRATION. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE VISUAL PERFORMANCE AFTER REFRACTIVE SURGERY, HOW THE CORNEA CHANGES IN TERMS OF CLARITY AND SHAPE, AND HOW THESE CHANGES RELATE TO VISUAL PERFORMANCE. THE PROCEDURES EVALUATED IN THIS STUDY INCLUDED PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY (PRK), ASTIGMATIC PRK (PARK), LASER IN-SITU KERATOMILEUSIS (LASIK), AND INTRASTROMAL CORNEAL RING SEGMENTS (ICRS). CORNEAL SHAPE CHANGES WERE ANALYZED USING THE POINT SPREAD FUNCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CORNEA, STANDARD TOPOGRAPHIC INDICES AND NEWLY DEVELOPED INDICES BASED ON THE REFRACTIVE POWER DISTRIBUTION OF THE CORNEAL SURFACE. PERFORMANCE ON THE HIGH CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY (HCVA) TEST AND CONTRAST SENSITIVITY ON THE SMALL LETTER CONTRAST TEST (SLCT) BOTH DECREASED AFTER REFRACTIVE SURGERY. THE IMPACT OF REFRACTIVE SURGERY ON SLCT PERFORMANCE WAS MORE SIGNIFICANT THAN FOR HCVA PERFORMANCE, POTENTIALLY BECAUSE THE SLCT HAS A SAMPLING ADVANTAGE OVER HCVA. CORNEAL FACTORS THAT CORRELATED WITH THE AMOUNT OF PERFORMANCE DECREMENT INCLUDED TRANSIENT CORNEAL HAZE AFTER SURFACE EXCIMER PROCEDURES, THE RANGE OF POWERS OF THE CENTRAL CORNEA, AND CHANGES IN THE OPTICAL QUALITY OF THE CORNEA. THE AMOUNT OF CORRECTION, SIZE OF THE PUPIL, AND TYPE OF PROCEDURE WERE ADDITIONAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE QUALITY OF VISION. THE BEST RESULTS ARE OBTAINED WHEN THE REFRACTIVE CORRECTION WAS WELL CENTERED, THE CORNEAL SURFACE HAD A UNIFORM AND MINIMAL POWER DISTRIBUTION, NO SUBEPITHELIAL HAZE WAS PRESENT AND THE PUPIL WAS SMALL. PATIENTS WERE GENERALLY SATISFIED WITH THEIR OUTCOMES, DESPITE MEASURABLE DEFICITS IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE, HOWEVER THE FEW CASES OF UNFAVORABLE OUTCOMES POINT TO THE NEED FOR STRICT EVALUATION OF ANY PROCEDURE, ESPECIALLY WHEN THE PROCEDURE IS ELECTIVE. RECOMMENDED ANALYSIS INCLUDES VISUAL PERFORMANCE BEYOND SNELLEN, AND THE IMPACT OF THE PROCEDURE ON OCULAR OPTICS, CLARITY AND MECHANICAL STABILITY.
KEYWORDS: PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY (PRK), LASER IN-SITU KERATOMILEUSIS (LASIK), HIGH CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY (HCVA), SMALL LETTER CONTRAST TEST (SLCT)
2002-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 900 DTIC #: ADA405118
TITLE: OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF TRANSIENT CORNEAL HAZE AND ITS RELATION TO VISUAL PERFORMANCE AFTER PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CORINA VAN DE POL, KOICHI SOYA, DAVID G. HWANG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY HAS THE POTENTIAL TO CAUSE TRANSIENT CORNEAL HAZE. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO EVALUATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSIENT CORNEAL HAZE AS MEASURED BY AN OBJECTIVE MEANS AND HIGH AND LOW CONTRAST VISUAL PERFORMANCE. IN A PROSPECTIVE STUDY, 44 EYES OF 28 PATIENTS WERE EXAMINED PREOPERATIVELY AND AT 1, 3, 6, AND 12 MONTHS AFTER PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY: FIVE LASER IN SITU KERATOMILEUSIS AND TWO INTRASTROMAL CORNEAL RING SEGMENTS (INTACS [KERAVISION, FREMONT, CA]) WERE INCLUDED FOR COMPARISON, BECAUSE THESE PROCEDURES ARE NOT EXPECTED TO CAUSE HAZE. HAZE WAS MEASURED USING A PROTOTYPE OBJECTIVE HAZEMETER, TSPC-3, A MODIFICATION OF THE NIDEK EAS-1000. VISUAL PERFORMANCE WAS MEASURED USING HIGH-CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY AND THE RABIN SMALL LETTER CONTRAST TEST. CORNEAL HAZE WAS GREATEST AT THE 1-MONTH EXAMINATION AND WAS CONSISTENT WITH A DECREASE IN VISUAL PERFORMANCE ON BOTH TESTS. CORNEAL HAZE RESOLVED IN 82% OF EYES BY 10 & 4 MONTHS AFTER PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY. HOWEVER, VISUAL PERFORMANCE HAD NOT RETURNED TO PREOPERATIVE LEVELS IN 65% AND 81% OF THESE EYES ON THE HIGH-CONTRAST VISUAL ACUITY TEST AND THE SMALL LETTER CONTRAST TEST, RESPECTIVELY. EYES THAT UNDERWENT LASER IN SITU KERATOMILEUSIS AND INTACS DID NOT DEVELOP CORNEAL HAZE; HOWEVER, VISUAL DECREMENTS WERE MEASURED. AS A CLINICAL TOOL, THE TSPC-3 HAZEMETER OBJECTIVELY MEASURES VERY SUBTLE CHANGES IN HAZE LEVELS. CORNEAL HAZE APPEARS TO ACCOUNT FOR ONLY APPROXIMATELY 50 PERCENT OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE CHANGES IN THE EARLY HEALING PERIOD AFTER PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY. OTHER FACTORS, NAMELY TOPOGRAPHIC ABNORMALITIES, ARE MORE LIKELY TO BE AN IMPORTANT CAUSE OF PERSISTENT VISUAL DISTURBANCES.
KEYWORDS: PHOTOREFRACTIVE KERATECTOMY, CORNEAL HAZE, VISUAL PERFORMANCE
2002-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 622 DTIC #: ADA405465
TITLE: EVALUATION OF PINCH CORRECTION IN THE PHASE 2 MICROVISION, INC. AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM HGU-56/P SCANNING LASER DISPLAY
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, JOHN S. MARTIN, UES, INC.; CLARENCE E. RASH, USAARL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN EVALUSTION OF A PINCH CORRECTION TECHNIQUE FOR USE IN THE MICROVISION, INC., AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM VERSION OF A RETINAL SCANNING LASER HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY WAS CONDUCTED. USING SPECIALLY SELECTED GRILL TEST PATTERNS, THE ABILITY OF THE DISPLAY WITH PINCH CORRECTION TO MAINTAIN SCAN LINE ALIGNMENT AT THE ENDS OF THE SCANS WAS DETERMINED TO BE GREATLY IMPROVED. THIS IMPROVEMENT WAS VISUALLY DEMONSTRATED USING ADDITIONAL TEXT CHARACTER TEST PATTERNS.
KEYWORDS: PINCH CORRECTION, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), RETINAL SCANNING DISPLAY (RSD)
2002-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 333 DTIC #: ADA405112
TITLE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE COUNTERMEASURES MODAFINIL AND NAPPING FOR MAINTAINING PERFORMANCE AND ALERTNESS USING A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS
AUTHOR(s): J. L. CALDWELL, J. A. CALDWELL, K. A. ROBERTS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE DATA FROM TWO SEPARATE STUDIES WERE COMBINED IN ORDER TO STATISTICALLY COMPARE THE EFFICACY OF THE WAKEFULNESS-PROMOTING SUBSTANCE MODAFINIL TO A 2-HOUR NAP FOR SUSTAINING COGNITIVE SKILL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL MOOD IN HELICOPTER PILOTS WHO HAVE BEEN DEPRIVED OF SLEEP (OTHER THAN THE NAP). PERFORMANCE DATA FROM THE MULTIATTRIBUTE TASK BATTERY (MATB) AND MOOD DATA FROM THE PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS) WERE ANALYZED FOR THIS COMPARISON. EIGHTEEN SUBJECTS' DATA FROM THE NAPPING STUDY WERE WITH SIX SUBJECTS' DATA FROM THE MODAFINIL STUDY (THE DATA WERE COLLECTED AT SIMILAR TESTING TIMES). BASELINE-ADJUSTED DIFFERENCE SCORES WERE ANALYZED. A THREE-WAY MIXED FACTORIAL ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA) WAS USED WITH ONE GROUPING FACTOR (MODAFINIL STUDY VERSUS NAPPING STUDY) AND TWO REPEATED-MEASURES FACTORS -- CONDITION (TREATMENT OR NO TREATMENT) AND TIME (SPECIFIC TO EACH TEST). THE TWO COUNTERMEASURES WERE EFFECTIVE IN COMBATING THE USUAL DECLINE IN COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE AND MOOD DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION, BUT THEY WERE NOT COMPARABLE. IT APPEARS THAT MODAFINIL WAS SUPERIOR TO NAPS IN MAINTAINING ALERTNESS. THE SUBJECTIVE MOOD DATA INDICATED THAT BOTH COUNTERMEASURE WERE SUCCESSFUL AT DECREASING FATIGUE AND CONFUSION, AND INCREASING VIGOR WHEN COMPARED TO NO INTERVENTION AT ALL. HOWEVER, WHEN COMPARING MODAFINIL AND A NAP, MODAFINIL MAINTAINED A HIGHER LEVEL OF VIGOR AND A LOWER LEVEL OF FATIGUE THAN THE NAP, PARTICULARLY IN THE EARLY MORNING HOURS WHEN THE CIRCADIAN DIP IN ALERTNESS IS MOST PROBLEMATIC. THE PERFORMANCE DATA SUPPORTED THE SUBJECTIVE MOOD FINDINGS BY SHOWING THAT, WHILE BOTH STRATEGIES ATTENUATED PERFORMANCE LOSSES DURING SUSTAINED WAKEFULNESS, MODAFINIL WAS MORE EFFICACIOUS THAN A NAP. THIS WAS ESPECIALLY TRUE OF REACTION TIME AND ERRORS OF OMISSION. AS WITH SUBJECTIVE MOOD, MODAFINIL’S SUPERIORITY WAS PARTICULARLY EVIDENT IN THE EARLY MORNING HOURS. ALTHOUGH NAPPING WAS NOT THE SUPERIOR COUNTERMEASURE, IT WAS NONETHELESS EFFECTIVE, AND MAY THEREFORE BE CONSIDERED IN SITUATIONS WHERE SOME SLEEP (BUT NOT A FULL, CONSOLIDATED SLEEP PERIOD) IS FEASIBLE. HOWEVER, IN SETTINGS WHERE SLEEP OPPORTUNITIES ARE LIMITED OR UNAVAILABLE, NAPPING ALONE MAY NOT ADEQUATELY OFFSET THE MAJORITY OF FATIGUE-RELATED DECREMENTS. IN THESE CASES, A PHARMACOLOGICAL FATIGUE COUNTERMEASURE SUCH AS MODAFINIL MAY BE APPROPRIATE FOR THE SHORT-TERM POSTPONEMENT OF SLEEP UNTIL ADEQUATE CREW REST SCHEDULES CAN BE IMPLEMENTED.
KEYWORDS: SLEEP-DEPRIVATION, NAPS, MODAFINIL, PERFORMANCE, MOOD
2002-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1083 DTIC #: ADA405515
TITLE: NOISE ATTENUATION IN HALO VERTICAL WIND TUNNEL TRAINING
AUTHOR(s): DALE A. OSTLER, PAUL A. CAIN, ELMAREE GORDON(USAARL), ERIC W. FALLON(WAMC,FORT BRAGG,NC)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE VERTICAL WIND TUNNEL (VWT) AT FT. BRAGG, NC IS ONE OF THE ARMY'S TRAINING GROUNDS FOR HIGH ALTITUDE LOW OPENING (HALO) PARACHUTE JUMPERS. DUE TO THE NATURE OF THE OPERATION (I.E. JET ENGINE AND HIGH WIND STREAM) PERSNOOEL USING THE VWT ARE EXPOSED TO STEADY-STATE NOISE LEVELS IN EXCESS OF 120 DBA SPL (SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL). THESE LEVELS EXCEED THE SAFE NOISE EXPOSURE LIMITS ON NOISE EXPOSURE MUST BE ENFORCED. THESE TIME LIMITS SUBSTANTIALLY CURTAIL TRAINING EFFORTS AND IMPACT MILITARY READINESS STATUS. EFFORTS HAVE BENN MADE TO INCREASE THE ATTENTUATION PROVIDED BY THE HELMETS WORN IN THE VWT. AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH WAS USED TO MEASURE THE AT-THE-EAR NOISE LEVELS UNDER FIVE DIFFERENT PARACHUTIST'S HELMETS IN THE VWT. SUBSEQUENTLY, AN ESTIMATE WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE TIME OF NOISE EXPOSURE. RESULTS SUGGEST THAT ONE OF THE HELMETS PROVIDES SUPERIOR HEARING PROTECTION TO THE OTHERS, THUS ALLOWING SUFFICIENT TRAINING TIME IN THE VWT. APPLICATION OF THESE RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS WILL BE DISCUSSED.
KEYWORDS: VERTICAL WIND TUNNEL, VWT, HIGH ALTITUDE LOW OPENING, HALO, DOUBLE HEARING PROTECTION
2002-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2436 DTIC #: ADA405678
TITLE: IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS OF THE UH-6OA/L BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER COCKPIT AIR BAG SYSTEM - ENHANCED LATERAL AIR BAGS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. AHROON, ELMAREE GORDON, FREDERICK T. BROZOSKI
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COCKPIT AIR BAG SYSTEM (CABS) IS BEING DEVELOPED FOR THE UH-6OA/L BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER. EARLIER AEROMEDICAL EVALUATIONS OF CABS REVEALED A POTENTIAL INJURY RISK ASSOCIATED WITH THE LATERAL AIR BAG COMPONENT. AN ENHANCED LATERAL AIR BAG WAS DEVELOPED AND A SERIES OF 12 DEPLOYMENT TESTS WAS CONDUCTED. IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS RANGED FROM 144.8 DB PEAK SOUND PRESSURE LEVEL (SPL) TO 162.4 DB PEAK SPL WITH B-DURATIONS UP TO 172.6 MS. ALTHOUGH EACH AIR BAG DEPLOYMENT RESULTED IN IMPULSE NOISE LEVELS EXCEEDING THE 140 DB PEAK SPL LIMIT SPECIFIED BY U.S. ARMY GUIDELINES, SINCE ROTARY-WING AIRCREW AND PASSENGERS ARE REQUIRED TO WEAR HEARING PROTECTION, NO INCREASED RISK TO HEARING IS ANTICIPATED FROM A SINGLE DEPLOYMENT OF THE CABS ENHANCED LATERAL AIR BAG.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT AIR BAG SYSTEM, CABS, UH-6OA/LI BLACK HAWK, IMPULSE NOISE, AIR BAG, AIRBAG
2002-19 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 495 DTIC #: ADA405658
TITLE: HEAT STRESS EVALUATION OF AIR WARRIOR BLOCK I MOPP0 AND MOPP4 ENSEMBLES WITH AND WITHOUT MICROCLIMATE COOLING
AUTHOR(s): PATRICIA A. LEDUC, MATTHEW J. REARDON, JAMES L. PERSSON, SIOBAHN M. GALLAGHER, SHANNEN L. DUNKIN, DANIEL R. FULLER, GERALD E. LUCIER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE CURRENT STUDY EVALUATED THE FEASIBILITY OF A 5-HOUR FLIGHT IN MOPP4 WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF LOOOF AND 50% RELATIVE HUMIDITY. EIGHT VOLUNTEER PILOTS PARTICIPATED IN A WITHIN SUBJECT, REPEATED MEASURES DESIGN. THE TEST CONDITIONS INCLUDED 70°F WITHOUT NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL (NBC) GEAR (COOL STANDARD (CS)), 70°F WITH NBC GEAR (COOL MOPP (CM)), AND 100°F WITH NBC GEAR AND MICROCLIMATE COOLING (HOT MOPP (HM)). THE TEST SESSIONS CONSISTED OF AN INITIAL 20-MINUTE WARM UP, TWO FLIGHT SORTIES AND AN INTERVENING BREAK (WITHOUT NBC GEAR REMOVAL). PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, MOOD, AND REACTION TIME WERE MEASURED DURING THE TEST SESSIONS. THE PEAK MEAN CORE TEMPERATURE DID NOT EXCEED 99.8"F. MEAN CORE TEMPERATURE IN THE HM CONDITION WAS ABOUT 0.4"F HIGHER THAN CM AND ABOUT 0.6"F HIGHER THAN CS. THE ABSOLUTE INCREASE WAS QUITE MODEST COMPARED TO THE APPROVED UPPER LIMIT OF 102.5"F. MEAN PERCENT DEHYDRATION WAS GREATEST FOR THE HM CONDITION DESPITE THE USE OF THE COOLING VEST. HOWEVER, THE FLUID DEFICIT OF APPROXIMATELY 300 CC PER HOUR WAS A TOTALLY COMPENSABLE RATE. THE RESULTS INDICATED THAT THE COOLING VEST WAS EFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING HEAT STRESS DURING AN EXTENDED ROTARY-WING MISSION IN A HOT, HUMID CONDITION. HOWEVER, THE COOLING VEST DID NOT TOTALLY PREVENT SWEATING AND A MILD DEGREE OF DEHYDRATION IN THE HOT ENCUMBERED CONDITION. AVERAGE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE SCORES WERE REDUCED IN THE HM AND CM CONDITION PRIMARILY BY THE ENCUMBRANCE OF THE MOPP ENSEMBLE AND ONLY MINIMALLY BY THE HEAT STRESS ITSELF.
KEYWORDS: HEAT STRESS, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, SIMULATOR, AVIATION, AIRCREW PROTECTIVE ENSEMBLES, UH-60, MOPP
2002-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 996 DTIC #: ADA406497
TITLE: AN ASSESSMENT OF ACOUSTIC AND ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPE PERFORMANCE IN THE UH-60 NOISE ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): PAUL A. CAIN, WILLIAM A. AHROON, DAVID GREENBURG
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U.S. ARMY HELICOPTERS USED TO PROVIDE AEROMEDICAL TRANSPORT ARE EXTREMELY NOISY (105 DB) AND THIS PREVENTS AUSCULTATION WITH CURRENT GENERATION STETHOSCOPES. FOUR STETHOSCOPES WERE TESTED IN SIMULATED HELICOPTER NOISE AT 70 TO 100 DB TO DETERMINE THE DETECTION THRESHOLD OF A NORMAL HEART AND BREATH SOUND. THEY WERE UNABLE TO DETECT PHYSIOLOGICAL SOUNDS IN HIGH NOISE BUT THEY DID DIFFER IN PERFORMANCE (P < 0.001); THE BEST BEING THE ACOUSTIC, FOLLOWED BY THE THREE ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPES. AN ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPE MODIFIED WITH THE COMMUNICATIONS EAR PLUG PERFORMED BETTER (P < 0.05) AT 70 AND 80 DB THAN AT HIGHER NOISE LEVELS, IMPLYING THAT AMBIENT NOISE WAS AMPLIFIED AFTER ENTERING THE SENSING HEAD. THE THRESHOLD OF NOISE FOR THE DETECTION OF HEART AND BREATH SOUNDS WAS 85 DB AND 75-80 DB, RESPECTIVELY,INDICATING THE NEED FOR AT LEAST A 30 DB IMPROVEMENT IN SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO. FUTURE RESEARCH MUST MEASURE THE THRESHOLD FOR DETECTION OF ABNORMAL SOUNDS TO DETERMINE IF A GREATER IMPROVEMENT IS REQUIRED. IF THE ELECTRONIC STETHOSCOPE IS TO BE DEVELOPED FURTHER, AS SEEMS MOST PRAGMATIC, A SUITABLE SENSOR WILL BE NEEDED BEFORE SUCCESSFUL AUSCULTATION IN ROTARY-WING AEROMEDICAL TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT IS POSSIBLE.
KEYWORDS: AUSCULTATION, HELICOPTER, NOISE, STETHOSCOPE
2002-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1028 DTIC #: ADA405652
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF AH-64 PILOT ATTITUDES TOWARD TRADITIONAL AND GLASS COCKPIT CREWSTATION DESIGNS
AUTHOR(s): G. FRANCIS, C. RASH, P. LEDUC, G. ADAM, S. ARCHIE, L. LEWIS, B. REYNOLDS, C. SUGGS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: COMPUTERS AND MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS (MFDS) ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF SEVERAL CURRENT ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. THE COCKPIT DESIGN WITH THESE TYPES OF SYSTEMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED THE "GLASS COCKPIT." MFDS AND COMPUTERS ARE ALSO AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE COCKPIT DESIGNS FOR PLANNED FUTURE AIRCRAFT. A RECENT STUDY NOTED THAT AIRCRAFT WITH A GLASS COCKPIT DESIGN HAVE HIGHER ACCIDENT RATES THAN CORRESPONDING AIRCRAFT WITH THE TRADITIONAL COCKPIT DESIGN. THIS FINDING SUGGESTED THAT THE DIFFERENCES OF CREWSTATION DESIGN NEEDED TO BE EXAMINED. TO IDENTIFY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES, THIS STUDY ASSESSED PILOTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD TRADITIONAL AND GLASS COCKPIT DESIGNS IN THE AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER. THE STUDY IDENTIFIED WHICH ASPECTS OF THE DIFFERENT COCKPIT DESIGNS WERE MOST FAVORABLE OR TROUBLESOME TO THE PILOTS, AND IDENTIFIED DIFFERENCES IN OPINIONS ACROSS PILOTS WHO FLEW TRADITIONAL OR GLASS COCKPIT DESIGNS. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY SHOWED THAT IN GENERAL PILOTS PREFER THE GLASS COCKPIT DESIGN OF THE AH-64D. HOWEVER, AH-64D PILOTS DID IDENTIFY ISSUES OF HIGHER MENTAL WORKLOAD AND GREATER DIFFICULTY MAINTAINING PROFICIENCY AFTER LONG PERIODS AWAY FROM THE AIRCRAFT.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT, CREWSTATION DESIGN, ACCIDENT RATE, WORKLOAD, CREW COORDINATION, SAFETY
2002-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 856 DTIC #: ADA406879
TITLE: MFDTOOL. (VERSION 1.3): A SOFTWARE TOOL FOR OPTIMIZING HIERARCHIAL INFORMATION ON MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): GRESORY FRANCIS, CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PROVIDES THE DESCRIPTION OF AN ENHANCED VERSION (1.3) SOFTWARE PROGRAM CALLED MFDTOOL. MFDTOOL ALLOWS HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION EXPERTS TO OPTIMIZE THE DESIGN OF MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAY (MFD) SCREENS. HOWEVER, THE ORIGINAL VERSION OF MFDTOOL WAS LIMITED TO ONLY ONE TYPE OF INTERACTION, AND WAS THEREBY RESTRICTED TO ONLY A SMALL SUBSET OF POSSIBLE MFDS. MFDTOOL, VERSION 1.3, PROVIDES FOR MULTIPLE TYPES OF INTERACTIONS, GREATLY ENHANCING ITS ABILITY TO DEFINE APPROPRIATE MFD DESIGNS. IN ADDITION TO PROVIDING IMMEDIATE BENEFIT TO MFD DESIGNERS, MFDTOOL ALLOWS FOR THE SYSTEMATIC INVESTIGATION OF WHICH TYPES OF INTERACTIONS ARE IMPORTANT IN HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTIONS WITH MFDS. PREVIOUSLY, SUCH STUDIES WERE LIMITED BECAUSE THERE WAS NO MEANS OF INSURING THAT AN MFD DESIGN WAS APPROPRIATELY BUILT TO ACCOMMODATE A PARTICULAR TYPE OF INTERACTION. WITH MFDTOOL, SUCH DESIGNS CAN BE GENERATED EASILY, AND THIS WILL ALLOW EXPERIMENTATION ON THOSE DESIGNS TO REVEAL IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE HUMAN-COMPUTER INTERACTION.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT DESIGN, HIERARCHY, MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS (MFDS), WORKLOAD
2002-23 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2173 DTIC #: ADA407153
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF VISUAL FIELDS WITH FIXED AND MOVING FIXATION POINTS VOLUME I
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOUR PROCEDURES WERE USED TO MEASURE THE EXTENT OF THE DETECTION FIELDS OF FOUR PRIMARY MERIDIANS OF THE BINOCULAR VISUAL FIELDS OF FOUR SUBJECTS . PROCEDURES I (MOVING TARGET) USED A HORIZONTALLY MOVING TARGET AND A STATIONARY FIXATION POINT. PROCEDURE II (FIXED TARGET) USED A STATIONARY TARGET AND A HOR1ZONTALLY MOVING FIXATION POINT. PROCEDURE III (SACCADIC MOVE) USED A SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENT BETWEEN TWO STATIONARY HORIZONTAL FIXATION POINTS AND A STATIONARY TARGET. PROCEDURE IV (FLASHED TARGET) USED A STATIONARY FIXATION POINT AND A .6 SECOND FLASHED TARGET. THE RESULTS FROM THE DYNAMIC PROCEDURES (I AND II) AND THE TWO STATIC PROCEDURES (III AND IV) WERE VERY SIMILAR FOR EACH SUBJ ECT . IN THE DYNAMIC PROCEDURES, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHANGE IN CONTRAST AND AN EQUIVALENT CHANGE IN VELOCITY TENDS TO SUPPORT BLOCH I S LAW (IXT=C) BETWEEN 2 DEG/S AND 20 DEG/S FOR A GIVEN RETINAL LOCATION. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RECIPROCAL OF RELATIVE SINGLE GLIMPSE PROBABILITY OF FOUR SUBJ ECTS MEASURED IN THIS STUDY AND THE MEAN DETECTION TIMES FOR COMPARABLE STIMULI TAKEN FROM KRENDEL AND WODINSKY I STUDY (1960) APPEAR TO BE LINEAR AND HIGHLY CORRELATED (.92 TO .99). VOLUME I OF THIS REPORT DETAILS THE TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME II CONTAINS THE APPENDICES.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL FIELD MEASUREMENTS, TARGET DETECTION, CONTRAST SACCEDIC SUPPRESSION, TARGET VELOCITY, VISUAL LOBE, BINOCULAR VISUAL FIELDS
2002-23a (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2671 DTIC #: ADA406933
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF VISUAL FIELDS WITH FIXED AND MOVING FIXATION POINTS VOLUME II
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM E. MCLEAN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOUR PROCEDURES WERE USED TO MEASURE THE EXTENT OF THE DETECTION FIELDS OF FOUR PRIMARY MERIDIANS OF THE BINOCULAR VISUAL FIELDS OF FOUR SUBJECTS . PROCEDURES I (MOVING TARGET) USED A HORIZONTALLY MOVING TARGET AND A STATIONARY FIXATION POINT. PROCEDURE II (FIXED TARGET) USED A STATIONARY TARGET AND A HOR1ZONTALLY MOVING FIXATION POINT. PROCEDURE III (SACCADIC MOVE) USED A SACCADIC EYE MOVEMENT BETWEEN TWO STATIONARY HORIZONTAL FIXATION POINTS AND A STATIONARY TARGET. PROCEDURE IV (FLASHED TARGET) USED A STATIONARY FIXATION POINT AND A .6 SECOND FLASHED TARGET. THE RESULTS FROM THE DYNAMIC PROCEDURES (I AND II) AND THE TWO STATIC PROCEDURES (III AND IV) WERE VERY SIMILAR FOR EACH SUBJ ECT . IN THE DYNAMIC PROCEDURES, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHANGE IN CONTRAST AND AN EQUIVALENT CHANGE IN VELOCITY TENDS TO SUPPORT BLOCH I S LAW (IXT=C) BETWEEN 2 DEG/S AND 20 DEG/S FOR A GIVEN RETINAL LOCATION. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RECIPROCAL OF RELATIVE SINGLE GLIMPSE PROBABILITY OF FOUR SUBJ ECTS MEASURED IN THIS STUDY AND THE MEAN DETECTION TIMES FOR COMPARABLE STIMULI TAKEN FROM KRENDEL AND WODINSKY I STUDY (1960) APPEAR TO BE LINEAR AND HIGHLY CORRELATED (.92 TO .99). VOLUME I OF THIS REPORT DETAILS THE TECHNICAL REPORT AND VOLUME II CONTAINS THE APPENDICES.
KEYWORDS: VISUAL FIELD MEASUREMENTS, TARGET DETECTION, CONTRAST SACCEDIC SUPPRESSION, TARGET VELOCITY, VISUAL LOBE, BINOCULAR VISUAL FIELDS
2003-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1330 DTIC #: ADA408903
TITLE: A PROPOSED LASER SAFETY EVALUATION PLAN FOR THE MICROVISION, INC., SCANNING LASER HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL), THOMAS H. HARDING (UES, INC.)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PROGRAM MANAGER, AIRCREW INTEGRATED SYSTEMS (PM-ACIS) IS DEVELOPING A SCANNING LASER HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) THAT CAN BE FITTED TO THE U.S. ARMY HELMET GEAR UNIT 56P (HGU-56P) AVIATION HELMET. THIS HMD IS MANUFACTURED BY MICROVISION INC., BOTHELL, WASHINGTON. THIS HMD SYSTEM REPRESENTS THE FIRST SCENARIO IN WHICH AVIATORS WILL BE DIRECTLY AND PURPOSELY VIEWING LASER ENERGY. FOR THIS REASON, IN ADDITION TO STANDARD REQUIRED LASER SAFETY MEASURES, AN EXPANDED EFFORT IS REQUIRED TO OVERCOME INGRAINED AVIATOR TRAINING TO AVOID EXPOSURE TO LASER ENERGY. THIS REPORT PRESENTS A PROPOSED LASER SAFETY EVALUATION PLAN, WHICH IS INTENDED TO BOTH DOCUMENT LASER ENERGY EXPOSURE LEVELS DURING NORMAL AND SYSTEM FAILURE CONDITIONS, AS WELL AS PROVIDE ENHANCED SAFETY INFORMATION CONSIDERED INSTRUMENTAL IN ACHIEVING AVIATION COMMUNITY ACCEPTANCE OF THIS NEW HMD TECHNOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: SAFETY ANALYSIS, LASER SCANNING DISPLAY, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD)
2003-02 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 969 DTIC #: ADA408934
TITLE: A COMPARISON OF AH-64D AND OH-58D PILOT ATTITUDES TOWARD GLASS COCKPIT CREWSTATION DESIGNS
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY FRANCIS (PURDUE UNIVERSITY), CLARENCE RASH, GINA ADAM, PATRICIA LEDUC, STEFANIE ARCHIE (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: COMPUTERS AND MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF SEVERAL CURRENT ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. THE COCKPIT DESIGN WITH THESE TYPES OF SYSTEMS IS SOMETIMES CALLED THE "GLASS COCKPIT." MULTIFUNCTION DISPLAYS AND COMPUTERS ARE ALSO AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE COCKPIT DESIGNS FOR PLANNED FUTURE AIRCRAFT. A RECENT STUDY BY RASH ET AL. (2001) NOTED THAT AIRCRAFT WITH A GLASS COCKPIT DESIGN HAVE HIGHER ACCIDENT RATES THAN CORRESPONDING AIRCRAFT WITH THE TRADITIONAL COCKPIT DESIGN. THIS FINDING SUGGESTED THAT THE DETAILS OF CREWSTATION DESIGN NEEDED TO BE EXAMINED. TO IDENTIFY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES, THIS STUDY ASSESSED PILOTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD GLASS COCKPIT DESIGNS IN THE AH-64D APACHE AND OH-58D KIOWA HELICOPTERS. THE STUDY COMPARED THE OPINIONS OF PILOTS IN THESE TWO GLASS COCKPIT DESIGNS TO IDENTIFY WHICH ASPECTS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE COCKPITS WERE MOST FAVORABLE OR TROUBLESOME TO THE PILOTS. THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY IDENTIFY WHICH AREAS OF COCKPIT DESIGN REQUIRE FURTHER INVESTIGATION.
KEYWORDS: COCKPIT, CREWSTATION DESIGN, WORKLOAD, CREW COORDINATION, SAFETY, GLASS COCKPIT
2003-03 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 734 DTIC #: ADA410457
TITLE: POWER MEASUREMENT FOR MICROVISION, INC., AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM SCANNING LASER HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JESSICA A. STELLE (USAARL), THOMAS H. HARDING (UES, INC.)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PROGRAM MANAGER, AIRCREW INTEGRATED SYSTEMS (PM-ACIS) IS DEVELOPING A NEW HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) TECHNOLOGY BASED ON SCANNING LASERS. UNDER THIS PROGRAM, MICROVISION, INC., BOTHELL, WASHINGTON, HAS DEVELOPED A SCANNING LASER HMD PROTOTYPE FOR USE WITH THE AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) HELMET GEAR UNIT - 56/P (HGU-56/P). AS PART OF A COMPREHENSIVE LASER SAFETY EVALUATION PLAN, POWER MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROTOTYPE SYSTEM WERE MADE AT THE DESIGN EYE POSITION FOR BOTH NORMAL AND FAILURE MODES. FOR NORMAL OPERATION, RIGHT EYE AND LEFT EYE MEASUREMENTS OF 1.48 AND 1.58 MICROWATTS WERE OBTAINED. FOR TOTAL SCANNER FAILURE, A VALUE OF 77 MICROWATTS WAS OBTAINED.
KEYWORDS: SCANNING LASER HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD, LASER SAFETY, AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS)
2003-04 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 773 DTIC #: ADA408908
TITLE: THE ISSUE OF VISUAL CORRECTION COMPATIBILITY WITH HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E, RASH, MELVYN E. KALICH, CORINA VAN DE POL, BARBARA S. REYNOLDS
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS PAPER EXAMINES THE COMPATIBILITY ISSUES OF HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) DESIGNS, THE REQUIREMENT FOR PROVIDING COMPATIBLE VISION CORRECTION, AND THE METHODS AVAILABLE IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE THIS REQUIREMENT. FIRST, THE PROBLEM OF LIMITED HMD EYE CLEARANCE IS DEFINED IN THE CONTEXT OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND VISUAL CORRECTION METHODS. NEXT, PAST EFFORTS TO MITIGATE THIS PROBLEM VIA THE USE OF SPECIALLY MODIFIED SPECTACLES AND CONTACT LENSES ARE REVIEWED. FINALLY, CURRENT AND FUTURE POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO THIS PROBLEM ARE EXPLORED.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY, PHYSICAL EYE RELIEF, CONTACT LENS, REFRACTIVE SURGERY
2003-06 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3809 DTIC #: ADA413136
TITLE: FITTING ISSUES SURVEY FOR THE AH-64 INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, JESSICA A. STELLE, MELISSA L. ISAAK, JULIET E. NELSON, STEFANIE L. ARCHIE, JOSEPH R. LICINA (USAARL), MALCOLM G. BRAITHWAITE, MARK S. ADAMS, KEITH L. HIATT (HEADQUARTERS DIRECTOR ARMY AVIATION, MIDDLE WALLOP, UK)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), EMPLOYED IN THE U.S. ARMY'S AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER, IS USED TO PRESENT PILOTAGE AND TARGETING IMAGERY AND SYMBOLOGY. THEREFORE, IN ADDITION TO THE STANDARD COMFORT AND PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS OF A HELMET SYSTEM, THE IHADSS MUST PROVIDE A STABLE OPTICAL ALIGNMENT. FIELDED IN THE EARLY 1980'S, THE IHADSS IS STILL THE ARMY'S ONLY INTEGRATED HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD). IN AN ATTEMPT TO PERFORM BOTH THE STANDARD PROTECTIVE ROLE OF A HELMET AND TO SERVE AS A MOUNTING PLATFORM FOR AN OPTICAL SIGHT, THE IHADSS HAD TO MAKE CERTAIN DESIGN COMPROMISES THAT HAVE RESULTED IN SOME USER SATISFACTION ISSUES. A JOINT SURVEY OF U.S. AND U.K. AH-64 AVIATORS WAS CONDUCTED TO IDENTIFY AND QUANTIFY THESE ISSUES. SURVEY FINDINGS INDICATED THAT WHILE A MAJORITY OF AVIATORS FOUND THE QUALITY, COMFORT AND SATISFACTION OF FIT TO BE ACCEPTABLE, A SIGNIFICANT PROPORTION OF AVIATORS HAVE ENCOUNTERED PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OBTAINING PROPER HELMET SIZE, AVAILABILITY OF REPLACEMENT COMPONENTS, AND SUBSTANTIAL VARIATION IN FITTING EXPERTISE. RESULTS OF THIS SURVEY CAN ASSIST IN ONGOING AND FUTURE HMD HELMET SYSTEM DESIGNS.
KEYWORDS: INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SUGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), AH-64, FIT SATISFACTION, HELMET, COMFORT
2003-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3031 DTIC #: ADA414823
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF HEAD MOTION IN ROTARY-WING FLIGHT USING VARIOUS HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY CONFIGURATIONS (PART I. AZIMUTH)
AUTHOR(s): RYAN J. ROSTAD, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOSHUA K. BRILEY, JOHN C. MORA, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SPITE OF AN IMMENSE INCREASE IN INTEREST IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS) OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, THERE HAVE BEEN FEW STUDIES ON HEAD MOTION WHILE USING HMDS IN OPERATIONAL FLIGHT. ROTARY-WING FLIGHTS CONDUCTED USING A NUMBER OF HMD CONFIGURATIONS HAVE RESULTED IN A HEAD POSITION DATABASE THAT WILL BE USEFUL IN FILLING THIS VOID. AZIMUTH HEAD POSITION DATA HAVE BEEN ANALYZED FOR A SLALOM FLIGHT MANEUVER FOR FOUR VISUAL ENVIRONMENTS: GOOD VISUAL ENVIRONMENT (DAYTIME, UNAIDED), NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HMD WITH THERMAL IMAGERY, AND HMD WITH THERMAL IMAGERY AND SYMBOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), HEAD MOTION, HEAD POSITION, HEAD VELOCITY
2003-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 542 DTIC #: ADA414806
TITLE: THE ROLE OF THE PILOTS NIGHT VISION SYSTEM (PNVS) AND INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SUGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) IN AH-64 APACHE ACCIDENTS
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, BARBARA S. REYNOLDS, JESICA A. STELLE, ROBERT D. PETERSON, PATRICIA A. LEDUC
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS), WHILE NOT NEW, ARE A UNIQUE METHOD OF PROVIDING PILOTAGE AND TARGETING IMAGERY TO AVIATORS. ALTHOUGH THERE ARE A NUMBER OF HMDS IN VARIOUS PHASES OF DESIGN, THE AH-64S INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) IS CURRENTLY THE ARMY'S ONLY FIELDED INTEGRATED HMD. A NUMBER OF STUDIES HAVE INVESTIGATED THE VISUAL AND PERCEPTUAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MONOCULAR OPTICAL DESIGN OF THE IHADSS IN COMBINATION WITH THE AH-64S FORWARD LOOKING INFRARED (FLIR) THERMAL SENSOR (PILOTS NIGHT VISION SYSTEM - PNVS). WHILE THESE SYSTEMS HAVE GREATLY ENHANCED THE OPERATIONALEFFECTIVENESS OF THE AH-64, THEY HAVE RESULTED IN REPORTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL COMPLAINTS, DEGRADED VISUAL CUES, AND BOTH STATIC AND DYNAMIC ILLUSIONS. THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE POSSIBLE ROLE THE IHADSS HMD AND PNVS MAY HAVE PLAYED IN AH-64 APACHE ACCIDENTS. A TOTAL OF 217 AH-64 ACCIDENTS (FY85-02) WERE ANALYZED AND ASSIGNED CAUSAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THE IHADSS AND PNVS. THE RESULTING ANALYSIS FAILED TO IDENTIFY ANY SIGNIFICANT ROLE BETWEEN THESE SYSTEMS AND FLIGHT-RELATED ACCIDENTS.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), AH-64 ACCIDENTS, INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS), PNVS, FLIR
2003-09 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1535 DTIC #: ADA414825
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF HEAD MOTION IN ROTARY-WING FLIGHT USING VARIOUS HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY CONFIGURATIONS (PART II. ELEVATION)
AUTHOR(s): RYAN J. ROSTAD, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SPITE OF AN IMMENSE INCREASE IN INTEREST IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS) OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, THERE HAVE BEEN FEW STUDIES ON HEAD MOTION WHILE USING HMDS IN OPERATIONAL FLIGHT. ROTARY-WING FLIGHTS CONDUCTED USING A NUMBER OF HMD CONFIGURATIONS HAVE RESULTED IN A HEAD POSITION DATABASE THAT WILL BE USEFUL IN FILLING THIS VOID. AZIMUTH HEAD POSITION DATA HAVE BEEN ANALYZED FOR A SLALOM FLIGHT MANEUVER FOR FOUR VISUAL ENVIRONMENTS: GOOD VISUAL ENVIRONMENT (DAYTIME, UNAIDED), NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HMD WITH THERMAL IMAGERY, AND HMD WITH THERMAL IMAGERY AND SYMBOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMD), HEAD MOTION, HEAD POSITION, HEAD TRACKING, ELEVATION
2003-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 393 DTIC #: ADA414820
TITLE: NOISE ATTENUATION OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM WHEN WORN WITH THE COMBAT VEHICLE CREWMAN HOOD (BALACLAVA)
AUTHOR(s): MARTIN B. ROBINETTE, WILLIAM A. AHROON, DALE A. OSTLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE IMPACT PROTECTION AND NOISE ATTENUATION TO U.S. ARMY ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT CREWMEMBERS. THE ABILITY OF ANY HELMET TO ATTENUATE ENVIRONMENTAL NOISE DEPENDS ON AN ADEQUATE SEAL BETWEEN THE EARCUP AND THE USER'S HEAD. ANY OBJECT (E.G., EYEGLASS FRAMES) OR PRACTICE (E.G., LOOSE CHIN STRAP) THAT INTERFERES WITH THE SEAL BETWEEN THE EARCUP AND THE HEAD WILL COMPROMISE BOTH HELMET RETENTION (WITH RESULTANT EFFECTS ON IMPACT PROTECTION) AND NOISE ATTENUATION. THE NOISE ATTENUATION OF THE HGU-56/P AIHS WAS MEASURED WITH AND WITHOUT THE FLIGHT APPROVED BALACLAVA (COMBAT VEHICLE CREWMEMBER HOOD). THE BALACLAVA INTERFERES WITH THE EARCUP SEAL AND ADVERSELY AFFECTS THE NOISE ATTENUATION OF THE HGU-56/P AIHS. WHEN WORN WITHOUT THE ADDITIONAL HEARING PROTECTION PROVIDED BY EARPLUGS OR THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG, THE BALACLAVA CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM USING MINIMAL FITTING INSTRUCTIONS DID NOT DIFFER FROM THOSE OBTAINED USING THE ANSI S12.6-1997 EXPERIMENTER-SUPERVISED FIT METHOD. CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO FIT THE FLIGHT HELMET CORRECTLY IN ORDER TO ENSURE ADEQUATE NOISE AND IMPACT PROTECTION.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, AIRCRAFT CREWMEMBERS, HEARING PROTECTION, NOISE ATTENUATION, HELICOPTER, AVIATION MEDICINE
2003-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1539 DTIC #: ADA417296
TITLE: ANALYSIS OF HEAD MOTION IN ROTARY-WING FLIGHT USING VARIOUS HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY CONFIGURATIONS (PART 111. ROLL)
AUTHOR(s): JESSICA A. STELLE, RYAN J. ROSTAD, CLARENCE E. RASH, JOHN S.CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SPITE OF AN IMMENSE INCREASE IN INTEREST IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS) OVER THE PAST TWO DECADES, THERE HAVE BEEN FEW STUDIES ON HEAD MOTION WHILE USING HMDS IN OPERATIONAL FLIGHT. ROTARY-WING FLIGHT CONDUCTED USING A NUMBER OF HMD CONFIGURATIONS HAS RESULTED IN A HEAD POSITION DATABASE THAT WILL BE USEFUL IN FILLING THIS VOID. VARIOUS ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES HAVE BEEN APPLIED TO INVESTIGATE CHARACTERISTICS OF ROLL (TILT) HEAD POSITION DISTRIBUTIONS FOR A SLALOM FLIGHT MANEUVER FOR FOUR VISUAL ENVIRONMENTS: GOOD VISUAL ENVIRONMENT (DAYTIME, UNAIDED), NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HMD WITH THERMAL IMAGERY, AND HMD WITH THERMAL IMAGERY AND SYMBOLOGY.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMDS), HEAD MOTION, HEAD POSITION, HEAD TRACKING, ROLL (TILT)
2004-02 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 848 DTIC #: ADA419273
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE MICROVISION HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY FOR SYNTHETIC VISION APPLICATION ENGINEERING PROTOTYPE FOR THE VIRTUAL COCKPIT OPTIMIZIMATION PROGRAM
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, J. STEVE MARTIN, HOWARD H. BEASLEY (UES, INC.), CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN SUPPORT OF THE VIRTUAL COCKPIT OPTIMIZATION PROGRAM (VCOP), AN IMAGE QUALITY EVALUATION WAS CONDUCTED ON THE VERSION #3 PROTOTYPE OF A RETINAL SCANNING DISPLAY HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD). THE VCOP HMD IS A BINOCULAR, FULL-COLOR DISPLAY WITH FULLY OVERLAPPED FIELDS-OF-VIEW . OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS INCLUDED EXIT PUPIL CHARACTERISTICS, LUMINOUS RESPONSE AND UNIFORMITY, MODULATION AND CONTRAST TRANSFER FUNCTIONS, FIELD-OF-VIEW (FOV), AND SEE-THROUGH TRANSMISSION. SATISFACTORY MEASURES OF PERFORMANCE WERE FOUND FOR EXIT PUPIL SIZE AND SHAPE, FOV, LUMINANCE UNIFORMITY AND PRESENCE OF ABERRATIONS. PERFORMANCE AND DESIGN ISSUES THAT WERE FOUND IN NEED OF IMPROVEMENT WERE: (1) SYSTEM STABILITY FOLLOWING CALIBRATION, (2) INCREASED PHYSICAL EYE CLEARANCE, (3) SPATIAL FILTERING OF HIGH FREQUENCY NOISE, (4) IMPROVED LENS COATINGS TO IMPROVE SEE-THROUGH LIGHT TRANSMISSION, (5) REDUCED SIZE OF LENS/OPTICS, AND (6) MINIATURIZATION OF ELECTRONICS, IF REQUIREMENTS GO BEYOND SIMULATION.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), VIRTUAL COCKPIT OPTIMIZATION PROGRAM (VCOP), IMAGE QUALITY, TEST AND EVALUATION
2004-03 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 314 DTIC #: ADA419911
TITLE: NONSPEECH AUDIO IN HELICOPTER AVIATION
AUTHOR(s): ADRIANUS J. M. HOUTSMA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE RESULTS OF A LITERATURE STUDY ON THE USE OF NONSPEECH AUDIO IN HUMAN-MACHINE INTERACTION, ESPECIALLY APPLIED TO HELICOPTER AVIATION. THE STUDY FOCUSES ON VARIOUS DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES FOR COMMUNICATING IMPORTANT STATES OF A MACHINE TO ITS OPERATORS THROUGH THE USE OF NONSPEECH SOUNDS. THE TWO MOST POPULAR SOUND DESIGNS ARE THE SO-CALLED AUDITORY ICONS (NATURAL SOUNDS THAT HAVE A MEANING BY ASSOCIATION WITH A REAL OBJECT) AND EARCONS (ABSTRACTS SOUNDS WHOSE MEANING MUST BE LEARNED). USABILITY INDICES SUCH AS EFFECTIVENESS, EFFICIENCY AND USER SATISFACTION ARE REVIEWED FOR A NUMBER OF EXPERIMENTAL CASES. THE CONCLUSION IS THAT DESIGNS OF AUDITORY ICONS AND EARCONS ARE NOT NECESSARILY MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE. IT APPEARS ENTIRELY POSSIBLE TO DEVELOP SETS OF ARTIFICIAL SOUNDS THAT COMBINE THE BEST FEATURES OF EACH DESIGN APPROACH.
KEYWORDS: NONSPEECH AUDIO, AUDITORY ICONS, EARCONS, HELICOPTER NAVIGATION
2004-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 195 DTIC #: ADA421376
TITLE: ISSUES IN DESIGN AND SAFETY OF HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS - RESULTS OF A ROTARY-WING PILOT SURVEY
AUTHOR(s): JOANNA L. GREIG, SIOBHAN M. GALLAGHER, SHANNEN L. DUNKIN, MARY E. BROCK, PATRICIA A. LEDUC
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AN INTERNET-BASED QUESTIONNAIRE STUDY DEVELOPED BY RESEARCHERS AT THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL), FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, WAS CONDUCTED TO ADDRESS ISSUES IN DESIGN OF THE AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM HEAD-UP DISPLAY (ANVIS/HUD) AND OPTICAL DISPLAY ASSEMBLY (ODA) SYSTEMS. SURVEY RESPONSES ANALYZED INCLUDED THOSE REGARDING STRUCTURAL AND DISPLAY DESIGN, AS WELL AS THOSE ADDRESSING ISSUES CONCERNING FLIGHT SAFETY. SURVEY PARTICIPANTS INCLUDED ACTIVE DUTY, RESERVE, AND NATIONAL GUARD, AS WELL AS DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CIVILIAN PILOTS, FROM UNITS AROUND THE WORLD RESPONDING TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE BETWEEN JANUARY AND JULY 2002. DATA ABSTRACTED FROM OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS WERE TRANSFORMED INTO BINARY VARIABLES FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES. APPROXIMATELY 32 PERCENT OF HUD USERS AND 44 PERCENT OF ODA USERS INDICATED THEY WOULD NOT USE THEIR HUD OR ODA IF GIVEN THE CHOICE. HOWEVER, THE RESULTS GATHERED ARE ESSENTIAL FOR DIRECTING FURTHER TESTING AND EVALUATION OF PROPOSED MODIFICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: ANVIS/HUD, SAFETY, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAYS (HMD), DESIGN
2004-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2642 DTIC #: ADA422207
TITLE: INSERTION LOSS OF THE HGU-84/P ROTARY-WING HELMET SYSTEM WITH OREGON AERO EARCUP REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. AHROON, MELINDA E. HILL, ELMAREE GORDON, MARTIN B. ROBINETTE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SOUND ATTENUATION OF THE HGU-84P ROTARY-WING HELMET SYSTEM WITH OREGON AERO EARCUP REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS WAS EVALUATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH ANSI S 12.42- 1995 (R1999) MICROPHONE-IN-REAL-EAR PROCEDURES. THE DIFFERENCES IN INSERTION LOSSES BETWEEN THE VARIOUS HELMET MODIFICATIONS WERE GENERALLY QUITE SMALL AND UNLIKELY TO HAVE AN EFFECT ON OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS, ESPECIALLY IF DOUBLE HEARING PROTECTION IN THE FORM OF EARPLUGS, THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP), OR ATTENUATING CUSTOM COMMUNICATIONS EARPHONE SYSTEM FOR AIRCREW (ACCES FOR AIRCREW) IS EMPLOYED. THE INSERTION LOSS OF THE HELMET WITH THE OREGON AERO HUSHKIT EARCUP REPLACEMENT FOAM WAS SIGNIFICANTLY POORER THAN THE STANDARD HELMET SYSTEM. INSERTION LOSSES WITH THE SOFTSEAL (REPLACEMENT EARCUP SEAL) WITH HUSHKIT AND THE SOFTSEAL/HUSHKIT COMBO (SOFT REPLACEMENT EARCUP) WERE STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER THAN THE STANDARD HELMET CONFIGURATION AT SOME FREQUENCIES, ALTHOUGH THE DIFFERENCES WERE MARGINAL AT THE LOW FREQUENCIES AT WHICH ROTARY-WING NOISE HAZARDS ARE THE GREATEST. CAUTION IS URGED WHEN CONSIDERING THE USE OF THE SOFTSEAL OR SOFTSEAL/HUSHKIT COMBO SINCE, AT THE TIME OF THIS WRITING, NEITHER OF THESE EARCUP REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS HAS BEEN EVALUATED FOR HELMET RETENTION OR BLUNT IMPACT PROTECTION IN CASE OF AN AIRCRAFT MISHAP.
KEYWORDS: NOISE ATTENUATION, HELMET, HGU-84/P, HUSHKIT, SOFTSEAL
2004-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 602 DTIC #: ADA422198
TITLE: TACTILE SITUATION AWARENESS SYSTEM FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION FINAL REPORT
AUTHOR(s): B. J. MCGRATH, NAVAL AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (NAMRL), A. ESTRADA, (USAARL), M. G. BRAITHWAITE, HEADQUARTERS DIRECTOR ARMY AVIATION, (MIDDLE WALLOP, HAMPSHIRE, UK), A.K. RAJ, INSTITUTE FOR HUMAN AND MACHINE COGNITION, (UNIVERSITY OF WEST FLORIDA), A. H. RUPERT, (NAMRL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER (JSF) -TACTILE SITUATION AWARENESS SYSTEM (TSAS) FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION PROJECT ORIGINATED AT THE NASA JOHNSON SPACE CENTER AND THE NAVAL AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY WITH FUNDING PROVIDED FROM THE JSF PROGRAM OFFICE. THE JSF-TSAS PROJECT WAS CONCEIVED AS A SHORT-DURATION TECHNOLOGY MATURATION AND FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM. THE JSF FLIGHT SYSTEMS INTEGRATED PRODUCT TEAM (IPT) PROVIDED OVERALL PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND FUNDING THROUGHOUT THE DEMONSTRATION EFFORT. THE PROJECT INTEGRATED A TACTILE DISPLAY, F-22 COOLING VEST, AND GPS/INS TECHNOLOGIES INTO A SINGLE SYNERGISTIC SYSTEM IN A UH-60 HELICOPTER. A 10-EVENT TEST OPERATION WAS CONDUCTED TO DEMONSTRATE THE UTILITY OF THIS ADVANCED HUMAN-MACHINE INTERFACE. FOUR DEMONSTRATION PILOTS WERE SELECTED TO FLY THE FLIGHT EVENTS. SUMMARY RESULTS SHOWED THAT TSAS TECHNOLOGIES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO INCREASE PILOT SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND REDUCE PILOT WORKLOAD WHEN USING THE TACTILE DISPLAY, ESPECIALLY DURING SIMULATED SHIPBOARD OPERATIONS IN INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS (IMC). PROTOTYPE HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT SHOWED THAT TACTILE DISPLAYS COULD BE INTEGRATED INTO EXISTING FLIGHT GEAR. THE TEST PILOTS SUCCESSFULLY PERFORMED ALL MANEUVERS WITH DEGRADED OUTSIDE VISUAL CUES, RELYING ON TACTILE CUES FOR THE NECESSARY INFORMATION. USING TSAS, PILOTS DEMONSTRATED IMPROVED CONTROL OF AIRCRAFT DURING COMPLEX FLIGHT CONDITIONS.
KEYWORDS: JOINT STRIKE FIGHTER, TACTILE SITUATION AWARENESS SYSTEM, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM, INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
2004-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 471 DTIC #: ADA421592
TITLE: THE ROLE OF HUMAN CAUSAL FACTORS IN U.S. ARMY UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE ACCIDENTS
AUTHOR(s): SHARON D. MANNING (USAABSO), CLARENCE E. RASH, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, (USAARL), ROBERT K. NOBACK (USMEPCOM), JOSEPH MCKEON (USASC)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOR THE PERIOD FY95-FY03, EACH UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) ACCIDENT WAS REVIEWED AND CLASSIFIED BY A SERIES OF CHARACTERISTICS USING TWO APPROACHES. THE FIRST WAS A VARIANT ON A METHODOLOGY REFERRED TO AS THE HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSIS AND CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM (HFACS). THE HFACS CAPTURES DATA FOR FOUR LEVELS OF HUMAN-RELATED FAILURE: UNSAFE ACTS, RECONDITIONS FOR UNSAFE ACTS, UNSAFE SUPERVISION, AND ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCES. THE SECOND ANALYSIS APPROACH WAS BASED ON THE ACCIDENT METHODOLOGY DEFINED IN DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PAMPHLET 385-40, "ARMY ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION AND REPORTING." HUMAN CAUSAL FACTORS ARE IDENTIFIED DURING THIS ANALYSIS AND BROKEN DOWN INTO FIVE TYPES OF FAILURE: INDIVIDUAL FAILURE, LEADER FAILURE, TRAINING FAILURE, SUPPORT FAILURE, AND STANDARDS FAILURE. WHERE THE ASSIGNMENT OF CAUSE INCLUDED HUMAN ERROR, THE ACCIDENT DATA INCLUDING NARRATIVE AND FINDINGS WERE ANALYZED TO IDENTIFY SPECIFIC HUMAN CAUSAL FACTORS (E.G., HIGH/LOW WORKLOAD, FATIGUE, POOR CREW COORDINATION, ETC.). NO SINGLE HUMAN CAUSAL FACTOR WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR ALL ACCIDENTS. HOWEVER, BOTH METHODS OF ANALYSIS IDENTIFIED INDIVIDUAL UNSAFE ACTS OR FAILURES AS THE MOST COMMON HUMAN-RELATED CAUSAL FACTOR CATEGORY (PRESENT IN APPROXIMATELY 61 PERCENT OF THE 18 HUMAN ERROR RELATED ACCIDENTS).
KEYWORDS: UNMANNED AERIAL, HUMAN ERROR, UAV, ACCIDENT, HFACS
2004-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 541 DTIC #: ADA422522
TITLE: SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY IN NOISE USING THROAT AND ACOUSTIC MICROPHONES
AUTHOR(s): BARBARA E. ACKER-MILLS, ADRIANUS J. M. HOUTSMA, WILLIAM A. AHROON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT CREW ARE EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF AMBIENT NOISE THAT CAN CAUSE HEARING LOSS AND IMPEDE SPEECH COMMUNICATION. EXISTING TECHNOLOGY GENERALLY FOCUSES ON THE LISTENER AND DEVICES THAT CAN INCREASE THE SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO AND DECREASE NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS. HOWEVER, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY IS STILL DEPENDENT ON THE QUALITY OF THE ORIGINAL SPEECH SIGNAL. THROAT MICROPHONES GREATLY REDUCE AMBIENT NOISE IN THE ORIGINAL SIGNAL, THUS ENHANCING THE SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO FOR THE LISTENER, BUT HIGHER FREQUENCIES ARE ELIMINATED WHICH MAY NEGATIVELY AFFECT SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY. SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY FOR SIGNALS GENERATED BY AN ACOUSTIC MICROPHONE, A THROAT MICROPHONE, AND THE TWO MICROPHONES TOGETHER WAS ASSESSED USING THE MODIFIED RHYME TEST (MRT). STIMULUS WORDS WERE DIGITALLY RECORDED IN A REVERBERANT CHAMBER WITH BROADBAND NOISE INTENSITY AT 90 DB(A) AND 106 DB(A). LISTENERS COMPLETED THE MRT TASK IN THE SAME SETTINGS, THUS SIMULATING TYPICAL ENVIRONMENTS OF A ROTARY-WING AIRCRAFT. RESULTS SHOW THAT SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY IS MUCH WORSE FOR THE THROAT MICROPHONE THAN FOR THE ACOUSTIC MICROPHONE, PARTICULARLY FOR THE HIGHER NOISE LEVEL. IN ADDITION, NO BENEFIT IS GAINED BY ADDING THE THROAT MICROPHONE SIGNAL TO THE ACOUSTIC MICROPHONE SIGNAL.
KEYWORDS: NOISE, AMBIENT NOISE, HEARING LOSS, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, ACOUSTIC MICROPHONE, THROAT MICROPHONE
2004-15 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3452 DTIC #: ADA423600
TITLE: A PROOF OF CONCEPT OF AN AIRBORNE VISIBILITY INDICATOR
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, JAMES L. PERSSON, JOANNA L. GREIG, JOHN S. CROWLEY, CORINA VAN DE POL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: EVERY YEAR U. S. ARMY AND CIVIL AVIATION LOSES LIVES AND AIRCRAFT DUE TO SPATIAL DISORIENTATION EXPERIENCED DURING PERIODS OF MINIMAL VISIBILITY OR INADVERTENT ENTRY INTO INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS. FLIGHTS SOMETIME END CATASTROPHICALLY WHEN AN AIRCRAFT FLIES INTO TERRAIN OR WATER. IT IS THE DUTY OF THE PILOT-IN-COMMAND OF A SINGLE-AIRCRAFT MISSION, OR OF THE AIR MISSION COMMANDER IN A MULTI-AIRCRAFT OPERATION, TO DETERMINE THE PREVAILING VISIBILITY THROUGH WHICH THEY WILL BE TRAVELING. U. S. ARMY ROTARY-WING PILOTS HAVE ALWAYS HAD TO USE THEIR JUDGMENT AND EXPERIENCE TO SUBJECTIVELY ASSESS THE ENROUTE VISIBILITY. AS WEATHER DETERIORATES, PILOTS MUST RELY ON THEIR SUBJECTIVE ANALYSIS TO FORMULATE A COURSE OF ACTION: TO PROCEED, ALTER, OR ABORT THE MISSION. ADVANCES IN STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGIES MAY BE ABLE TO PROVIDE MILITARY AND CIVIL PILOTS WITH OBJECTIVE VISIBILITY DATA PRESENTED VIA A COCKPIT INSTRUMENT (AN AIRBORNE VISIBILITY INDICATOR (AVI)) WHICH COULD PROVIDE THE NECESSARY OBJECTIVE REAL-TIME INFORMATION FROM WHICH AN INFORMED DECISION TO PROCEED WITH OR ABORT A MISSION CAN BE MADE. PRIOR TO THE ACTUAL EXPENSE OF DEVELOPING SUCH AN INSTRUMENT, THIS PROOF OF CONCEPT PROJECT WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE IF SUCH A CONCEPT WAS PRACTICAL, WOULD ENHANCE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, AND SERVE AS A COUNTERMEASURE TO INADVERTENT ENTRY INTO VISUAL CONDITIONS CONDUCIVE TO SPATIAL DISORIENTATION (SD). IN GENERAL, DATA FROM THIS PROOF OF CONCEPT INVESTIGATION INDICATED THAT AN AVI WOULD BE A USEFUL TOOL, WAS FAVORABLY RECEIVED BY AIRCREWS, AND WAS A COUNTERMEASURE TO SD. BASED ON THE FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS OF THIS PROOF OF CONCEPT PROJECT, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AVI BE CONTINUED AND A USAARI, SMALL BUSINESS INNOVATIVE RESEARCH (SBIR) PROPOSAL TOPIC BE SUBMITTED FOR CONSIDERATION.
KEYWORDS: AIRBORNE VISIBILITY INDICATOR, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, SPATIAL ORIENTATION, ATMOSPHERIC VISIBILITY SENSOR, INADVERTENT INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
2004-16 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3458 DTIC #: ADA423599
TITLE: SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY WITH HELICOPTER NOISE: TESTS OF THREE HELMET-MOUNTED COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): JOHN E. RIBERA, BEN T. MOZO, BARBARA A. MURPHY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY AVIATOR HELMET COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS ARE DESIGNED TO ENHANCE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY (SI) IN BACKGROUND NOISE AND REDUCE EXPOSURE TO HARMFUL LEVELS OF NOISE. SOME AVIATORS, OVER THE COURSE OF THEIR AVIATION CAREER, DEVELOP NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS THAT MAY AFFECT THEIR ABILITY TO PERFORM REQUIRED TASKS. NEW TECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE SI IN NOISE FOR AVIATORS WITH NORMAL HEARING AS WELL AS THOSE WITH HEARING LOSS. SI IN NOISE SCORES WERE OBTAINED FIOM 40 ROTARY-WING AVIATORS (20 WITH NORMAL HEARING AND 20 WITH HEARING-LOSS WAIVERS). THERE WERE THREE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS EVALUATED: A STANDARD SPHDB, AN SPH-4B AVIATOR HELMET MODIFIED WITH COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP), AND AN SPH-4B MODIFIED WITH ACTIVE NOISE REDUCTION (ANR). SUBJECTS' SI WAS BETTER IN NOISE WITH NEWER TECHNOLOGIES THAN WITH THE STANDARD ISSUE AVIATOR HELMET. A SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF AVIATORS ON WAIVERS FOR HEARING LOSS PERFORMED WITHIN THE RANGE OF THEIR NORMAL HEARING COUNTERPARTS WHEN WEARING THE NEWER TECHNOLOGY. THE RANK ORDER OF PERCEIVED SPEECH CLARITY WAS 1) CEP, 2) ANR, AND 3) UNMODIFIED SPH-4B. TO INSURT OPTIMUM SI IN NOISE FOR ROTARY-WING AVIATORS, CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO RETROFITTING EXISTING AVIATOR HELMETS WITH NEW TECHNOLOGY, AND INCORPORATING SUCH ADVANCES IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS OF THE FUTURE. REVIEW OF STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING FITNESS TO FLY IS NEEDED.
KEYWORDS: SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, NOISE, ROTARY WING HELICOPTER, HELMETS, COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS, HEARING, HEARING LOSS
2004-17 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 332 DTIC #: ADA426307
TITLE: OPTIMIZATION OF KEYBOARD DESIGN FOR SPECIALIZED TEXT ENTRY (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY FRANCIS (PURDUE UNIVERSITY), CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AS COMPUTERS ARE INTRODUCED INTO EVER MORE DEVICES WITH NEW METHODS OF INPUTTING INFORMATION, THERE HAS BEEN INTEREST IN HOW TO OPTIMALLY DESIGN THE INFORMATION INPUT SYSTEM. WE BUILD ON PREVIOUS WORK ALONG THESE LINES TO DEMONSTRATE A PROGRAM THAT CAN QUICKLY BUILD THE OPTIMAL KEYBOARD LAYOUT THAT MINIMIZES THE TIME REQUIRED TO INPUT A GIVEN SET OF DATA. THIS APPROACH MAKES IT POSSIBLE TO CREATE DIFFERENT KEYBOARD DESIGNS FOR DIFFERENT SPECIALIZED USES OF KEYBOARDS ANDOR FOR DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS. IN OUR REPORT WE OUTLINE THE BASIC APPROACH TO THE OPTIMIZATION PROCESS, IDENTIFY SITUATIONS WHERE SUCH OPTIMIZATION COULD BE BENEFICIAL, AND DEMONSTRATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE OPTIMIZATION.
KEYWORDS: KEYBOARD, DATA ENTRY
2004-18 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1955 DTIC #: ADA427797
TITLE: THE EFFECT OF A MONOCULAR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY ON AIRCREW HEALTH: A COHORT STUDY OF APACHE AH MK1 PILOTS TWO-YEAR BASELINE REVIEW
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, CORINA VAN DE POL, JOHN S. CROWLEY, MELISSA I. ISAAK, LISA J. LEWIS, KEITH L. HIATT, MALCOM G. BRAITHWAITE, DANIEL RANCHINO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: A COLLABORATIVE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH STUDY HAS BEEN UNDERTAKEN BY HEADQUARTERS DIRECTOR ARMY AVIATION, MIDDLE WALLOP, UK, AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE TECHNICAL COOPERATIVE PROGRAM (TTCP), SUBGROUP U, TECHNICAL PANEL 7 (HUMAN FACTORS IN THE AVIATION ENVIRONMENT) TO DETERMINE IF THE USE OF THE MONOCULAR INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) IN THE BRITISH ARMY’S APACHE AH MK 1 ATTACK HELICOPTER HAS ANY LONG-TERM EFFECT ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE. THIS FIRST INTERIM REPORT COVERS THE PERIOD OF JANUARY 2000 – MAY 2002. IT DOCUMENTS THE BASELINE DATA FOR 117 SUBJECT PILOTS (14 AH MK 1 EXPOSED, 103 CONTROL) ENROLLED FROM THE PERIOD 17 NOVEMBER 2000 TO 23 MAY 2002. AT THIS EARLY STAGE OF THE STUDY, THE CONSTRAINED SELECTION PROCESS FOR EXPOSED SUBJECTS HAS RESULTED IN AN OLDER AND MORE EXPERIENCED EXPOSED GROUP. THIS IS A RESULT OF THE CURRENT APACHE AVIATOR POPULATION CONSISTING OF ENTIRELY EXPERIENCED AVIATORS. AN ADDITIONAL CONSEQUENCE OF THIS SELECTION PROCESS IS A HIGHER PROPORTION OF EXPOSED SUBJECTS REQUIRING VISION CORRECTION. IN TURN, THE HIGHER PROPORTION OF EXPOSED SUBJECTS REQUIRING VISION CORRECTION RESULTED IN A HIGHER PROPORTION OF CONTACT LENS USAGE, WHICH IS ALSO DRIVEN BY INCOMPATIBILITY ISSUES BETWEEN THE IHADSS AND USE OF SPECTACLES. AT THIS EARLY STAGE OF THE STUDY, THERE ARE ONLY MINOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS IN TERMS OF REFRACTIVE STATUS AND VISUAL PERFORMANCE. THE EXPOSED GROUP IS MORE MYOPIC THAN THE CONTROL GROUP, WHICH IS IN KEEPING WITH THE AGE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS, AS THE EXPOSED GROUP IS OLDER. THE CONTROL GROUP HAS A LOWER LEVEL OF ACCOMMODATIVE RANGE BY AGE, WHICH WAS NOT AN EXPECTED FINDING; HOWEVER, THIS DIFFERENCE IS PROBABLY DUE TO THE GREATER ACCOMMODATIVE CAPABILITY OF A FEW EXPOSED SUBJECTS WITHIN A MUCH SMALLER SAMPLE SIZE THAN THE CONTROL SUBJECT POOL. FOR ALL OTHER VISUAL MEASURES, THERE IS NOT A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HELMET MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) APACHE AH MK1 PILOTS
2004-20 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 944 DTIC #: ADA426334
TITLE: APACHE AVIATOR VISUAL EXPERIENCES WITH THE IHADSS HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY IN OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM
AUTHOR(s): KEITH L. HIATT, CLARENCE E. RASH, ERIC S. HARRIS, WILLIAM H. MCGILBERRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FORTY AH-64 APACHE AVIATORS REPRESENTING A TOTAL OF 8,564 FLIGHT HOURS AND 2,260 COMBAT HOURS DURING OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM AND ITS AFTERMATH WERE SURVEYED FOR THEIR VISUAL EXPERIENCES WITH THE AH-64'S MONOCULAR INTEGRATED HELMET AND DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY IN A COMBAT ENVIRONMENT. A MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO DETERMINE IF THE FREQUENCIES OF REPORTS OF VISUAL COMPLAINTS AND ILLUSIONS REPORTED IN PREVIOUS STUDIES, ADDRESSING MOSTLY BENIGN TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS, DIFFER IN THE MORE STRESSFUL COMBAT ENVIRONMENT. THE MOST FREQUENTLY REPORTED VISUAL COMPLAINTS, BOTH WHILE AND AFTER FLYING, WERE VISUAL DISCOMFORT AND HEADACHE, WHICH IS CONSISTENT WITH PREVIOUS STUDIES. FREQUENCIES OF COMPLAINTS AFTER FLYING IN THE CURRENT STUDY WERE NUMERICALLY LOWER FOR ALL COMPLAINT TYPES, BUT DIFFERENCES FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES ARE STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT ONLY FOR VISUAL DISCOMFORT AND DISORIENTATION (VERTIGO). WITH THE EXCEPTION OF "BROWNOUT/WHITEOUT," REPORTS OF DEGRADED VISUAL CUES IN THE CURRENT STUDY WERE NUMERICALLY LOWER FOR ALL TYPES, BUT STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT ONLY FOR IMPAIRED DEPTH PERCEPTION, DECREASED FIELD OF VIEW, AND INADVERTENT INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS. THIS STUDY ALSO FOUND STATISTICALLY LOWER REPORTS OF ALL STATIC AND DYNAMIC ILLUSIONS (WITH ONE EXCEPTION, DISORIENTATION). THIS IMPORTANT FINDING IS ATTRRIBUTED TO THE GENERALLY FLAT AND FEATURELESS GEOGRAPHY PRESENT IN A LARGE PORTION OF THE IRAQI THEATRE AND TO THE SHIFT IN THE WAY THAT AVIATORS USE THE TWO DISPARATE VISUAL INPUTS PRESENTED BY THE IHADSS MONOCULAR DESIGN (I.E., GREATER USE OF BOTH EYES AS OPPOSED TO CONCENTRATING PRIMARILY ON DISPLAY IMAGERY).
KEYWORDS: INTEGRATED HELMET DISPLAY SIGHTING SYSTEM (IHADSS) (HMD) AH64
2004-21 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1394 DTIC #: ADA427080
TITLE: HEARING PROTECTION OF THE TOPOWL HELMET-MOUNTED SIGHT AND DISPLAY SYSTEM WITH THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. AHROON, ELMAREE GORDON, MELINDA HILL, MARTIN B. ROBINETTE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE THALES AVIONICS TOPOWL® HELMET-MOUNTED SIGHT AND DISPLAY SYSTEM (HMSD) WITH AND WITHOUT THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP) WAS TESTED FOR SOUND ATTENUATION USING AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS INSTITUTE (ANSI) STANDARD S12.6-1984 AND ANSI S12.6-1997 (R2002). INSERTION LOSS MEASUREMENTS WERE MADE FOR THE HMSD WITHOUT THE CEP IN ACCORDANCE WITH ANSI S12.42-1995 (R1999). THE THALES AVIONICS TOPOWL® HMSD WORN WITHOUT THE CEP DOES NOT MEET THE NAVY/MARINE CORPS SOUND ATTENUATION REQUIREMENT BUT EXCEEDS THE REQUIREMENT WHEN WORN WITH THE CEP. WHEN WORN WITHOUT THE ADDITIONAL HEARING PROTECTION AFFORDED BY THE CEP OR OTHER PASSIVE EARPLUGS, AIRCREW WEARING THE THALES AVIONICS TOPOWL® HMSD WOULD BE AT RISK DUE TO HIGHER NOISE EXPOSURE AND REDUCED SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY, HENCE REDUCED OPERATIONAL CAPABILITIES. EXPANDABLE-FORM OR PREFORMED EARPLUGS COULD BE EMPLOYED WITH THE THALES AVIONICS TOPOWL® HMSD TO MEET THE NAVY/MARINE CORPS HEARING PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS. HOWEVER, THESE TYPES OF EARPLUGS WILL COMPROMISE SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY AND, THUS, NEGATIVELY IMPACT CREW PERFORMANCE. THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY RECOMMENDS THAT THALES AVIONICS TOPOWL® HMSD NOT BE USED WITHOUT THE ADDITIONAL HEARING PROTECTION AND ENHANCED COMMUNICATIONS AFFORDED BY INSERT HEARING PROTECTION AND COMMUNICATION DEVICES SUCH AS THE CEP
KEYWORDS: NOISE ATTENUATION, HELMET, TOPOWL, HMSD, COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG CEP
2004-22 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 608 DTIC #: ADA428530
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE SEATTLE PHOTONICS LIGHT SHAPE DIFFUSER
AUTHOR(s): MARIA E. RAATZ, HOWARD H. BEASLEY, THOMAS H. HARDING (UES, INC), CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: UNDER A COOPERATIVE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENT BETWEEN SEATTLE PHOTONICS (SEATTLE, WASHINGTON) AND THE U.S. ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA), A NOVEL PRODUCT CALLED THE SEATTLE PHOTONICS’ LIGHT HOMOGENIZING SHEET (LHS) IS EVALUATED FOR USE AS A BACKLIGHT IN HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY DESIGNS. THE LHS IS DESIGNED TO SPREAD THE LIGHT FROM A SOURCE UNIFORMLY OVER A WELL-DEFINED AREA WITH HIGH LIGHT EFFICIENCY. SEATTLE PHOTONICS PROVIDED TWO DEMONSTRATION UNITS (DEMO 1 AND DEMO 2). THE SEATTLE PHOTONICS LHS CONTAINED IN BOTH DEMO 1 AND DEMO 2 PRODUCED GREATER ILLUMINATION UNIFORMITY AND LIGHT EFFICIENCY THAN DID A COMPARABLE DEVICE REPRESENTING CURRENT TECHNOLOGY. IN THIS EVALUATION, THE LHS IN BOTH DEMO 1 AND DEMO 2 PRODUCED APPROXIMATELY 1.7 TO 1.9 TIMES GREATER LIGHT EFFICIENCY THAN DID THE COMPARISON DEVICE. THE ILLUMINATION FROM THE LSD SCREEN IS BEST DESCRIBED AS A GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION AND PRODUCES A MORE HIGHLY UNIFORM LIGHT DISTRIBUTION.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY, BACKLIGHT, LIGHT UNIFORMITY
2005-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1608 DTIC #: ADA429771
TITLE: EVALUATION OF AN AUDITORY HAZARD MODEL USING DATA FROM HUMAN VOLUNTEER STUDIES
AUTHOR(s): JAMES H. PATTERSON (DOTHAN, AL), WILLIAM A. AHROON (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE AUDITORY HAZARD ASSESSMENT ALGORITHM FOR THE HUMAN EAR COMPUTER MODEL DEVELOPED AT THE U. S. ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY, ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND, MD, WAS EVALUATED USING DATA FROM HUMAN VOLUNTEER STUDIES SPONSORED BY THE U.S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND MATERIEL COMMAND, FT DETRICK, MD. MEASUREMENTS OF THE EXPOSURE IMPULSES MADE UNDER THE EARMUFFS OF VOLUNTEERS AND THE RESULTING TEMPORARY HEARING LOSSES WERE ANALYZED USING THE MODEL. THE MODEL PREDICTIONS WERE COMPARED TO THE NUMBER OF VOLUNTEERS SHOWING SIGNIFICANT THRESHOLD SHIFTS. FOR THE SIX-IMPULSE EXPOSURES, THE MODEL TENDED TO PREDICT MORE HAZARD THAN THE HUMAN DATA SHOWED. THIS OVER PREDICTION OF HAZARD AT SMALL NUMBERS OF IMPULSES WAS EXACERBATED AT LARGER NUMBERS OF IMPULSES BECAUSE OF A RAPID ACCUMULATION OF PREDICTED HAZARD WITH INCREASING NUMBERS OF IMPULSES. THE MINIMUM PHASE PROCEDURE OF THE MODEL FOR ESTIMATING THE EFFICACY OF HEARING PROTECTION FROM REAL EAR ATTENUATION AND INSERTION LOSS DATA WAS EVALUATED. THE MODEL PREDICTIONS FROM THE MINIMUM PHASE CALCULATIONS INDICATED HIGHER RISK THAN THE MEASUREMENTS UNDER THE EARMUFFS. IN GENERAL, THE MODEL HAZARD INDICATIONS, FROM MEASURED DATA AND MINIMUM PHASE CALCULATIONS, WERE NOT IN AGREEMENT WITH THE RESULTS OF THE HUMAN STUDIES.
KEYWORDS: AUDITORY HAZARDS, PRESSURE-TIME SIGNATURES, MIRE, EARMUFF, HUMAN VOLUNTEER
2005-02 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 653 DTIC #: ADA429992
TITLE: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF VISUAL AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF THREE CURRENT MULTIFOCAL CONTACT LENS DESIGNS FOR PRESBYOPIC U.S. ARMY AVIATORS
AUTHOR(s): CORINA VAN DE POL, GINA M. BISSETTE, ARTHUR ESTRADA III, BRYAN D. BROWN
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: U. S. ARMY AVIATORS HAVE BEEN AUTHORIZED TO WEAR CONTACT LENSES FOR AVIATION DUTIES WITH SPECIAL WAIVER SINCE 1991. THE AUTHORIZED CONTACT LENS MODALITY IS THE SINGLE-VISION SOFT CONTACT LENS THAT CORRECTS FOR 20/20 DISTANCE AND NEAR. AS AVIATORS BECOME PRESBYOPIC, THEY OFTEN HAVE TO RETURN TO BIFOCAL SPECTACLE WEAR OR READERS OVER THEIR DISTANCE CONTACT LENSES IN ORDER TO COMPLETE THEIR AVIATION DUTIES. SPECTACLES INTRODUCE INTERFACE PROBLEMS WITH HEAD MOUNTED DISPLAYS AND NIGHT VISION GOGGLES. THIS PILOT STUDY EVALUATED THE POTENTIAL UTILITY OF MULTIFOCAL CONTACT LENSES TO PROVIDE ADEQUATE VISUAL AND FLIGHT PERFORMANCE FOR PRESBYOPIC AVIATORS. BIFOCAL SPECTACLES OR READERS PROVIDE BETTER LEVELS OF VISUAL PERFORMANCE THAN ANY OF THE THREE MULTIFOCAL CONTACT LENSES EVALUATED. FLIGHT PERFORMANCE IN A UH-60 SIMULATOR UNDER DAYTIME CONDITIONS WAS NOT DECREMENTED WITH THE MULTIFOCAL CONTACT LENSES EVALUATED IN THIS STUDY; HOWEVER, THIS STUDY DID NOT EVALUATE NIGHT FLIGHT, INTERFACE WITH HEAD-MOUNTED DISPLAYS OR NIGHT VISION GOGGLE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE. STUDIES SPECIFIC TO THE APACHE FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT ARE BEING CONSIDERED SINCE VISUAL PERFORMANCE REMAINED WITHIN NORMS AND APACHE PILOTS ARE FACED WITH GREATER INTERFACE PROBLEMS WITH BIFOCAL SPECTACLES AND HEAD-MOUNTED DISPLAYS AND PROTECTION MASK CONFIGURATIONS THAN PILOTS IN OTHER AVIATION PLATFORMS. MANY APACHE PILOTS HAVE BEEN PERMANENTLY GROUNDED OR CONVERTED TO OTHER PLATFORMS DUE TO THE ONSET OF PRESBYOPIA AND SPECTACLE COMPATIBILITY ISSUES IN THE COCKPIT. MULTIFOCAL CONTACT LENSES, WHEN FIT TO SPECIFIC PARAMETERS, MAY BE AN OPTION UNDER SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCES WHERE SPECTACLES WOULD LEAD TO REDUCED PERFORMANCE.
KEYWORDS: CONTACT LENSES, PRESBYOPIC, BIFOCAL, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY
2005-03 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 547 DTIC #: ADA431148
TITLE: USER SURVEY OF PERIPHERAL VISION-RESTRICTING DEVICES
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOR DECADES, CIVILIAN AND MILITARY FLIGHT TRAINERS HAVE USED PERIPHERAL VISION-RESTRICTING DEVICES (PVRDS) IN ORDER TO ENHANCE INSTRUMENT FLIGHT TRAINING THAT WAS PERFORMED DURING PERIODS OF VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS (OUTSIDE OF CLOUDS). IN ADDITION TO LIMITING A PILOT'S VIEW ONLY TO THE PRIMARY FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS, PVRDS ALSO CAUSE THE ARTIFICIAL EXCLUSION OF THE FULL COCKPIT ENVIRONMENT, I.E., OVERHEAD SWITCHES AND GAUGES, AND THOSE ON THE CENTER AND OPPOSITE-PILOT SIDE OF THE INSTRUMENT PANEL. THERE SEEMS TO BE A GENERAL RELUCTANCE BY ARMY AVIATORS TO WEAR PVRDS. ANECDOTAL INFORMATION SUGGESTS THAT THE RESTRICTIONS AND LOSS OF PERIPHERAL INFORMATION AND SPATIAL ORIENTATION DUE TO PVRD USE MAY CAUSE ADVERSE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS, INCLUDING LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND SPATIAL DISORIENTATION. AN EXTENSIVE SEARCH FOR RELEVANT LITERATURE AND RESEARCH PRODUCED NO INDICATIONS OF ANY PREVIOUS STUDIES REGARDING THE EFFECTS OF PVRDS. THE PURPOSES OF THE SURVEY WERE: 1) TO COLLECT THE MUCH-NEEDED BASIC INFORMATION IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE EXTENT OF PERIPHERAL VISION-RESTRICTING DEVICE USE AND THEIR ADVERSE EFFECTS, IF ANY (REAL AND/OR PERCEIVED), ON AVIATOR TRAINING AND PROFICIENCY, AND 2) TO USE THE DATA TO DETERMINE IF ANY FURTHER RESEARCH INTO THE EFFECTS AND USE OF PVRDS IS WARRANTED. THE RESULTS OF THIS USER SURVEY IDENTIFIED WHICH DEVICES ARE BEING USED AND WHICH ARE PREFERRED, AND PROVIDED AN IDEA OF THEIR ACCEPTABILITY AND APPARENT IMPORTANCE BASED ON THE OPINIONS OF A SAMPLE OF THE USER COMMUNITY. MOST IMPORTANTLY, THESE RESULTS INDICATE THAT THERE MAY BE ADVERSE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF PVRDS. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT FUTURE RESEARCH BE CONDUCTED DURING FLIGHT (ACTUAL OR SIMULATED) THAT EVALUATES DIFFERENT TYPES OF PVRDS AS TO THEIR EFFECTIVENESS AS A TRAINING AID AND THEIR PERFORMANCE IN MINIMIZING THE ADVERSE EFFECTS IDENTIFIED IN THIS SURVEY.
KEYWORDS: PERIPHERAL VISION-RESTRICTING DEVICES, PVRD, INSTRUMENT FLYING, INSTRUMENT FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUMENT TRAINING AIDS, INSTRUMENT TRAINING DEVICES
2005-05 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3565 DTIC #: ADA431142
TITLE: BLUNT HEAD INJURY PROTECTION FOR PARATROOPERS. PART II: IMPROVED SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
AUTHOR(s): CHRISTOPHER C. TRUMBLE, B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AIRBORNE OPERATIONS REGULARLY EXPOSE PARATROOPERS TO RISK OF HEAD IMPACT. EVEN RELATIVELY MILD HEAD IMPACTS, WHILE NOT LIFE THREATENING, CAN CAUSE SHORT-TERM IMPAIRMENT FROM DIZZINESS, HEADACHES, MEMORY LOSS, LACK OF ABILITY TO CONCENTRATE, AND IRRITATION. THERE MAY ALSO BE A CUMULATIVE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) EFFECT FROM REPETITIVE HEAD IMPACTS COMPOUNDING THE SEQUELAE. GIVEN THE NECESSITY FOR SPEED AND AGGRESSIVENESS IN THE AIRBORNE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT, THESE SYMPTOMS BECOME MILITARILY SIGNIFICANT, NO MATTER HOW TEMPORARY, BY JEOPARDIZING SOLDIER SURVIVABILITY AND THE SUCCESS OF THE UNIT'S MISSION. THERE IS AN OBVIOUS NEED TO PROTECT THE SOLDIER IN THESE ENVIRONMENTS AND REDUCE THE HEAD INJURY RATE TO A MINIMUM. THIS TEST REPORT PROVIDES THE RESULTS OF COMPARATIVE LABORATORY ASSESSMENTS OF SEVEN CANDIDATE HEAD PROTECTION SYSTEMS COMPATIBLE WITH THE AIRBORNE CONFIGURATION OF THE EXISTING BALLISTIC PROTECTIVE HELMET, COMMONLY KNOWN AS THE PASGT (PERSONNEL ARMOR SYSTEM FOR GROUND TROOPS).
KEYWORDS: PERSONNEL ARMOR SYSTEM, PASGT, HEAD IMPACT, BRAIN INJURY, AIRBORNE OPERATIONS, PARATROOPERS, SURVIVABILITY, HELMETS, BALLISTIC PROTECTION SURVIVABILITY, HELMETS, BALLISTIC PROTECTION.
2005-06 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2269 DTIC #: ADA431147
TITLE: A COMPARISON STUDY OF PERIPHERAL VISION-RESTRICTING DEVICES USED FOR INSTRUMENT TRAINING
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, LARRY C. WOODRUM, TERRI L. ROWE, ELIZABETH G. STOKES, JOHN S. CROWLEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: FOR DECADES, CIVILIAN AND MILITARY FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS HAVE USED PERIPHERAL VISION-RESTRICTING DEVICES (PVRDS) IN ORDER TO ENHANCE INSTRUMENT FLIGHT TRAINING THAT WAS PERFORMED DURING PERIODS OF VISUAL CONDITIONS (OUTSIDE OF CLOUDS). IN ADDITION TO LIMITING A PILOT'S VIEW ONLY TO THE PRIMARY FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS, PVRDS ALSO CAUSE THE ARTIFICIAL EXCLUSION OF THE FULL COCKPIT ENVIRONMENT, I. E., OVERHEAD SWITCHES AND GAUGES, AND THOSE ON THE CENTER AND OPPOSITE-PILOT SIDE OF THE INSTRUMENT PANEL. THESE RESTRICTIONS AND LOSS OF PERIPHERAL INFORMATION AND SPATIAL ORIENTATION CAN, AND DO, CAUSE ADVERSE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON SOME PILOTS. PVRDS MUST BE WORN IN ACCORDANCE WITH CURRENT DIRECTIVES REGARDLESS OF ANY IDENTIFIED NEGATIVE EFFECTS ON TRAINING AND PROFICIENCY. THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO IDENTIFY THE MOST PREFERRED PVRD AMONG THREE DEVICES REPORTEDLY USED BY A SURVEY POPULATION AND A NEWLY DESIGNED HOOD CONCEPT. WHEN CONSIDERING ALL OF THE DATA IN AGGREGATE, THE NOVEL HOOD WAS JUDGED THE MOST PREFERRED BASED ON PERFORMANCE RATINGS, MINIMAL REPORTS OF ADVERSE AFFECTS, AND ITS SELECTION AS THE FIRST CHOICE OF ONE-HALF OF THE PARTICIPANTS. THE MOST PREFERRED DEVICE AMONG THOSE READILY AVAILABLE FOR USE BY AVIATORS APPEARS TO BE THE VISOR STICKER. THE FOGGLES© RECEIVED "WORST" RATINGS IN BOTH THE FIELD OF VIEW AND COMFORT CATEGORIES. THE HOOD WAS EASILY IDENTIFIABLE AS THE LEAST FAVORED. IT RECEIVED GENERALLY POOR PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS AND CAUSED A SIZEABLE NUMBER OF REPORTED ADVERSE EFFECTS, INCLUDING LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND SPATIAL DISORIENTATION. ITS OVERALL FAVORABLE RATINGS AND DEMONSTRATED PROMISE OF MINIMIZING THE ADVERSE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH PVRD USE DURING INSTRUMENT FLIGHT TRAINING INDICATE ITS ACCEPTABILITY TO THE AVIATION COMMUNITY. IT IS ALSO RECOMMENDED THAT THE U. S. ARMY ISSUE THE VISOR STICKER AS AN INTERIM "STANDARD" FOR MEETING THE CONDITIONS SET FORTH IN ALL AIRCREW TRAINING MANUALS.
KEYWORDS: PERIPHERAL VISION-RESTRICTING DEVICES, PVRD, INSTRUMENT FLYING, INSTRUMENT TRAINING, INSTRUMENT TRAINING AIDS, INSTRUMENT TRAINING DEVICES
2005-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 347 DTIC #: ADA432947
TITLE: FLEXIBLE DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES…DO THEY HAVE A ROLE IN THE COCKPIT? (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH, ERIC S. HARRIS, WILLIAM H. MCGILBERRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE 21ST CENTURY PROMISES A NEW “HOLY GRAIL” OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES. WITH THE LONG-PROMISED ARRIVAL OF THE PLASMA DISPLAY ALLOWING “HANG-N-THE-WALL” TELEVISION, THE DISPLAY COMMUNITY HAS MOVED ON TO THE PROMISE OF FULLY CONFORMABLE DISPLAYS, KNOWN AS FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS. THIS TOUTED NEW CLASS OF DISPLAYS IS NOT ACTUALLY UNIQUE IN ITSELF BUT IS ACTUALLY AN ASSORTMENT OF NOVEL SUBCLASSES OF EXISTING DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES. THESE TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDE LIQUID CRYSTAL (LC), LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED) AND ELECTROPHORESIS (EP). FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS BASED ON THESE TECHNOLOGIES ARE ADVERTISED AS THINNER (ALMOST PAPER THIN), LIGHTER WEIGHT, STRONGER (EXTREMELY RUGGED AND DURABLE), CHEAPER, SUPER EFFICIENT AND CONFORMABLE, AS COMPARED TO CURRENT RIGID, MOUNTED DISPLAYS. CURRENTLY, ORGANIC LED (OLED) AND ELECTROPHORETIC DISPLAYS ARE EXAMPLES OF FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS THAT HAVE ENTERED THE COMMERCIAL MARKET. THE AVIATION COMMUNITY MAY FIND THESE DISPLAYS HIGHLY DESIRABLE FOR COCKPIT APPLICATIONS. HOWEVER, CARE MUST TAKEN TO ENSURE THAT GOOD HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES ARE ADHERED TO IN SUCH APPLICATIONS.
KEYWORDS: FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS, ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (OLED), COCKPIT APPLICATIONS
2005-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 376 DTIC #: ADA434859
TITLE: SELF-REPORT AND OCULAR MEASURES OF FATIGUE IN U.S. ARMY APACHE AVIATORS FOLLOWING FLIGHT
AUTHOR(s): PATRICIA A. LEDUC, JOANNA L. GREIG, SHANNEN L. DUMOND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER PILOTS FLY THE AIRCRAFT USING A MONOCULAR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY THAT PROVIDES IMAGERY FROM TWO SEPARATE FORWARD-LOOKING INFRARED SENSORS MOUNTED ON THE NOSE OF THE AIRCRAFT. STUDIES HAVE DOCUMENTED COMPLAINTS OF FATIGUE, HEADACHES, AND VISUAL PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THIS SIGHTING SYSTEM. THE GOALS OF THIS STUDY WERE 1) TO QUANTIFY POSSIBLE FLIGHT-INDUCED FATIGUE IN APACHE AVIATORS AND 2) TO EVALUATE MINIMALLY INTRUSIVE NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC MEASURES OF FATIGUE FOR POTENTIAL USE IN OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS. METHODS: USING A PRE-POST DESIGN, WE ASSESSED SELF-REPORTED LEVELS OF ALERTNESS, PHYSICAL, COGNITIVE, AND VISUAL FATIGUE AND OCULAR INDICES OF FATIGUE OBTAINED USING AN INSTRUMENT SPECIFICALLY DESIGNED TO CAPTURE VARIOUS EYE RESPONSES. FIFTY-THREE AVIATORS CONTRIBUTED DATA TO THIS STUDY. RESULTS: SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN ALL PRE- AND POSTFLIGHT OCULAR RESPONSES WERE OBSERVED. PUPIL SIZE AND CONSTRICTION LATENCY INCREASED WHILE CONSTRICTION AMPLITUDE AND SACCADIC VELOCITY DECREASED. SIGNIFICANT PRE- AND POSTFLIGHT DIFFERENCES ALSO WERE SEEN ON ALL SELF-REPORT MEASURES. PILOTS REPORTED BEING LESS ALERT AND MORE FATIGUED FOLLOWING FLIGHT. CONCLUSIONS: WE FOUND THAT FLIGHT IN AN AH-64 APACHE WAS A SIGNIFICANT FACTOR IN PRODUCING CHANGES IN OCULAR AND SELF-REPORT MEASURES SIMILAR TO THOSE PRODUCED BY SLEEP LOSS.
KEYWORDS: OCULOMOTOR, COGNITIVE, PUPILLARY RESPONSE, SACCADE
2005-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 720 DTIC #: ADA437531
TITLE: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF KEYBOARDS FOR THE AH-64D HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): GREGORY FRANCIS (PURDUE UNIVERSITY), CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE TREND TOWARDS DIGITAL COCKPIT DESIGNS HAS CREATED THE NEED TO PROVIDE DATA ENTRY KEYBOARDS IN THE COCKPIT. USING DATA REPRESENTATIVE OF TEXT ENTRIES USED BY PILOTS FLYING THE AH-64 APACHE HELICOPTER, A QUANTITATIVE MODEL WAS DEVELOPED OF HOW LONG IT WOULD TAKE TO ENTER THIS KIND OF TEXT WITH THE CURRENT KEYBOARD USED BY THE PILOTS. THE MODEL WAS USED TO CREATE AN ALTERNATIVE OPTIMIZED KEYBOARD THAT ARRANGES THE LAYOUT OF LETTERS IN A WAY THAT SHOULD ALLOW (ACCORDING TO THE MODEL) MUCH FASTER ENTRY OF THE TEXT. AN EXPERIMENT DEMONSTRATED AN ADVANTAGE FOR THE OPTIMIZED DESIGN OVER THE ORIGINAL DESIGN OF AN APPROXIMATE 31% IMPROVEMENT IN DATA ENTRY TIME.
KEYWORDS: DATA ENTRY KEYBOARD, WORKLOAD, AH-64 APACHE
2005-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 796 DTIC #: ADA437530
TITLE: BLUNT IMPACT PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ADVANCED COMBAT HELMET AND THE PARATROOPER AND INFANTRY PERSONNEL ARMOR SYSTEM FOR GROUND TROOPS HELMET
AUTHOR(s): B. JOSEPH MCENTIRE (USAARL) PHILLIP WHITLEY (CRITERION ANALYSIS INCORPORATED)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: PROTECTIVE HELMETS ARE TYPICALLY REQUIRED TO ABSORB ENERGY IN ORDER TO REDUCE HEAD INJURY RISK DURING BLUNT IMPACT EVENTS. THE ENERGY-ABSORBING MECHANISM MUST BE ROBUST ENOUGH TO REDUCE THE IMPACT ENERGY TO A LOW-INJURY PROBABILITY LEVEL THROUGHOUT A REALISTIC RANGE OF IMPACT VELOCITIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES, REGARDLESS OF THE HELMET IMPACT SITE. THE ADVANCED COMBAT HELMET (ACH) IS CONFIGURED WITH FITTING PADS THAT POSSESS THE CAPABILITY TO ATTENUATE LIMITED BLUNT HEAD IMPACT FORCES. PRIOR COMBAT HELMETS WERE NOT REQUIRED BY THEIR GOVERNING SPECIFICATIONS TO PROVIDE ANY TESTED LEVELS OF BLUNT IMPACT PROTECTION. TO OBTAIN FURTHER INFORMATION, A SERIES OF BLUNT IMPACT TESTS WERE CONDUCTED WITH THE ACH AND THE PARATROOPER AND INFANTRY VERSIONS OF THE PASGT HELMET. THE HELMETS WERE TESTED AT TWO IMPACT VELOCITIES, THREE ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES, AND SEVEN IMPACT SITES WITH TWO SUCCESSIVE IMPACTS. THE PERFORMANCE OF EACH WAS CHARACTERIZED BY THE TRANSMITTED ACCELERATION MEASURED WITHIN A STANDARD HEAD FORM AND COMPARED AGAINST THE RECOMMENDED THRESHOLD FOR MEAN AND MAXIMUM ACCELERATION.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HEAD INJURY, ADVANCED COMBAT HELMET, ACH, PASGT
2006-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1401 DTIC #: ADA441086
TITLE: SOUND ATTENUATION OF ROTARY-WING AVIATION HELMETS WITH OREGON AERO EARCUP REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS
AUTHOR(s): ELMAREE GORDON, WILLIAM A. AHROON, MELINDA E. HILL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE SOUND ATTENUATION OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) AND THE HGU-84/P ROTARY-WING HELMET SYSTEM (RWHS) CONFIGURED WITH OREGON AERO™ REPLACEMENT EARCUP PRODUCTS WAS EVALUATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD METHODS FOR MEASURING THE REAL-EAR ATTENUATION OF HEARING PROTECTORS [ANSI S12.6-1997 (R2002)], METHOD A: EXPERIMENTER-SUPERVISED FIT. SOUND ATTENUATION OF BOTH THE HGU-56/P AIHS AND HGU-84/P RWHS CONFIGURED WITH THE OREGON AERO HUSHKIT™ REPLACEMENT EARCUP FOAM OR SOFTSEAL™ REPLACEMENT EARCUP SEAL WAS ESSENTIALLY EQUIVALENT TO THE HELMET’S STANDARD CONFIGURATIONS. HOWEVER, THE OREGON AERO™ SOFTSEAL/HUSHKIT COMBO™, SOFT REPLACEMENT EARCUPS PROVIDED SIGNIFICANTLY POORER SOUND ATTENUATION THAN THE STANDARD CONFIGURATION. AS WITH THE ARMY’S CURRENT FLIGHT HELMET/EARCUP COMBINATION, DOUBLE PROTECTION (I.E., EARPLUGS IN ADDITION TO THE SOUND-PROTECTIVE FLIGHT HELMET) IS REQUIRED IN CERTAIN HIGH NOISE ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HGU-56/P AIHS, HGU-84/P R WHS, OREGON AERO, REAL-EAR ATTENUATION, HEARING PROTECTION, SOUND ATTENUATION, NOISE PROTECTION, FLIGHT HELMET
CR-2006-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 680 DTIC #: ADA441139
TITLE: A LITERATURE REVIEW OF MUSCULOSKELETAL INJURIES TO THE HUMAN NECK AND THE EFFECTS OF HEAD-SUPPORTED MASS WORN BY SOLDIERS
AUTHOR(s): SARAH J. MANOOGIAN, ERIC A. KENNEDY, STEFAN M. DUMA (CENTER FOR INJURY BIOMECHANICS, BLACKSBURG, VA)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT REVIEWS RESEARCH, CONDUCTED PRIOR TO 2004, IN FOUR AREAS OF NECK BIOMECHANICS THAT PERTAIN TO HEAD-SUPPORTED MASS (HSM). FIRST, COMPUTER MODELS OF THE HEAD AND NECK ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR BIOFIDELITY AND VERSATILITY. SECOND, NECK INJURY CRITERIA ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR APPLICABILITY TO STUDYING HSM-RELATED NECK INJURIES. THIRD, EXISTING STUDIES OF HSM EFFECTS ON HEAD-NECK RESPONSE TO IMPACT ARE REVIEWED. FOURTH, A REVIEW OF MUSCLE ACTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON NECK IMPACT RESPONSE IS PRESENTED. THIS STUDY FOUND THAT HSM POSES AN UNDERMINED RISK TO THE SAFETY OF THE SOLDIER. COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATIONS EXIST TO ACCURATELY SIMULATE HUMAN RESPONSE TO A VARIETY OF LOADING CONDITIONS, INCLUDING SIMULATIONS OF LIVE OCCUPANT RESPONSE WITH PASSIVE OR ACTIVE MUSCLES. NECK INJURY CRITERIA CAN BE USED TO DETERMINE THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE SIMULATED OCCUPANT TO POTENTIAL NECK INJURY. FURTHER STUDIES UTILIZING THESE TOOLS WILL ENSURE THAT MILITARY PERSONAL ARE NOT SUBJECTED TO UNNECESSARY SAFETY RISKS AS A CONSEQUENCE OF ADDITIONAL HEAD-SUPPORTED MASS.
KEYWORDS: HEAD SUPPORTED MASS, NECK INJURY, CERVICAL SPINE INJURY, AVIATION, AIRCREW HELMETS, NVGS
2006-02 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 599 DTIC #: ADA442616
TITLE: STATIC AND DYNAMIC RETENTION ASSESSMENT OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM EQUIPPED WITH QUICK-RELEASE ALPHA AND SNAP FASTENER RETENTION ASSEMBLIES
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK T. BROZOSKI, JOSEPH R. LICINA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: CURRENTLY, THE HGU-56P FLIGHT HELMET CHINSTRAP IS FASTENED BY LOOPING THE CHINSTRAP WEBBING THROUGH TWO D-RINGS. FEEDBACK FROM THE ARMY AVIATION COMMUNITY HAS REVEALED POSSIBLE PROBLEMS WITH THIS DESIGN. THE PM AIR WARRIOR INITIATED TESTING OF TWO ALTERNATE QUICK-RELEASE FASTENING MECHANISMS. THE FIRST, THE ALPHA BUCKLE, HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY USED BY THE BRITISH MILITARY ON THEIR FIXED- AND ROTARY-WING HELMETS. THE SECOND IS A PULL-THE-DOT SNAP FASTENER THAT ALLOWS FOR A QUICK RELEASE. USAARL EVALUATED THE RETENTION QUALITIES OF HGU-56P HELMETS FITTED WITH BOTH ALTERNATE BUCKLE SYSTEMS. COMPARISONS WERE ALSO MADE BETWEEN THE THREE BUCKLE TYPES WITH RESPECT TO EASE AND SPEED OF BUCKLE RELEASE. HGU-56P HELMETS EQUIPPED WITH THE QUICK-RELEASE BUCKLES SHOULD PROVIDE STATIC AND DYNAMIC HELMET RETENTION EQUIVALENT TO THAT OF THE STANDARD HELMET CONFIGURED WITH THE DOUBLE D-RING BUCKLE. SIGNIFICANT (P < 0.05) REDUCTIONS IN CHINSTRAP RELEASE TIMES WERE RECORDED WITH THE USE OF THE ALPHA AND SNAP-FASTENER BUCKLES AS COMPARED TO THE DOUBLE D-RING.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HGU-56P, HELMET RETENTION
2006-03 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1890 DTIC #: ADA442749
TITLE: INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE TEAM PERFORMANCE
AUTHOR(s): BRIAN K. SPERLING, AMY PRITCHETT (GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY), ARTHUR ESTRADA, GINA E. ADAM (USAARL)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS STUDY INVESTIGATES THE DISTRIBUTION OF INFORMATION SOURCES WITHIN A TEAM'S ENVIRONMENT. SPECIFICALLY, THIS STUDY HYPOTHESIZES THAT PROVIDING TASK SPECIFIC INFORMATION TO INDIVIDUAL TEAM MEMBERS WILL IMPROVE COORDINATION AND DECISION-MAKING, AND THEREFORE TEAM PERFORMANCE, AT TIME-CRITICAL TASKS. MAJOR THEMES ADDRESSED IN THIS RESEARCH INCLUDE TEAMS AND TEAM PROCESSES, MENTAL MODELS, TEAM MENTAL MODELS. WORK DOMAIN ANALYSIS, AND HIERARCHICAL TASK ANALYSIS. FURTHERMORE, THE THEORY BEHIND THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEMENTARY MODELS IS INTRODUCED.
KEYWORDS: TEAM PROCESSES, TEAM COMMUNICATION, TEAM TASK PERFORMANCE, INDIVIDUAL TASK PERFORMANCE, WORKLOAD, INFORMATION SHARING, INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION, COORDINATION, MENTAL MODES, TEAM MENTAL MODELS, WORK DOMAIN ANALYSIS, HIERARCHICAL TASK ANALYSIS
2006-05 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3340 DTIC #: ADA444218
TITLE: THE HEAD POSTURE OF HELICOPTER PILOTS DURING VISUAL FLIGHT: A NEW HYPOTHESIS FOR THE HEAD TILT ASSOCIATED WITH BANKING AIRCRAFT
AUTHOR(s): LEONARD A. TEMME (USAARL) AND DAVID L. STILL (UES, INC.)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: HEAD AZIMUTH, PITCH, AND TILT OF FOUR HELICOPTER PILOTS WERE MEASURED DURING REPEATED EXECUTIONS OF THE SLALOM MANEUVER UNDER CONDITIONS OF GOOD METEOROLOGICAL VISIBILITY. THESE DATA ARE RELEVANT TO THE OPTO-KINETIC CERVICAL REFLEX (OKCR), WHICH IS USUALLY DESCRIBED IN THE LITERATURE AS (1) A REFLEX NECK MOVEMENT (2) DRIVEN PRIMARILY BY STIMULATION IN THE PERIPHERY OF THE VISUAL FIELD (3) SERVING THE SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF PROVIDING A STABILIZED HORIZONTAL FRAME OF REFERENCE AND (4) IMPORTANT FOR MAINTAINING SPATIAL ORIENTATION. THE PRESENT RESULTS SUGGEST AN ALTERNATIVE EXPLANATION FOR THE TILT OF PILOTS' HEADS DURING COORDINATED BANKING TURNS. THE DATA SHOWED THAT PILOTS TURNED THEIR HEAD TO LOOK INTO THE DIRECTION OF THE TURN AND THAT THE HEAD AZIMUTH, PITCH AND TILT ARE HIGHLY INTER-CORRELATED. THIS SUGGESTED THAT THE HEAD TILT ATTRIBUTED TO THE OKCR MAY BE UNDERSTOOD MORE PARSIMONIOUSLY AS A COMPONENT OF HEAD MOTIONS PILOTS MAKE AS THEY CONTROL THE AIRCRAFT. IF THIS IDEA IS TRUE, THEN THERE MAY BE LITTLE NEED TO POSTULATE THE EXISTENCE OF A SPECIFIC VISUAL NEUROMUSCULAR NECK REFLEX. THE REPORT ALSO REVIEWS THE LITERATURE TO EVALUATE THE RELATIVE MERITS OF THE OKCR AND THE ALTERNATIVE BIOMECHANICAL MODEL OF HEAD TILT WITH AIRCRAFT BANKING.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTERS, HELICOPTER PILOTS, OPTO-KINETIC HEAD CERVICAL REFLEX, HEAD MOVEMENTS, OKCR
2006-06 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 625 DTIC #: ADA443940
TITLE: A SURVEY OF AVIATOR PERCEPTIONS OF AVIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURE TRAINING AND RECALL
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA AND SHANNEN DUMOND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE FIRST STEP IN THE U.S. ARMY'S CURRENT PRACTICE OF TEACHING AVIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES IS TO REQUIRE STUDENT PILOTS TO LEARN THE TEXTUAL PROCEDURES THROUGH ROTE MEMORIZATION. NO STANDARDIZED GUIDANCE OR MEMORIZATION TECHNIQUES ARE PROVIDED AS BEST PRACTICES. THE U.S. ARMY IS PARTICULARLY DEMANDING OF THEIR STUDENT AND GRADUATE PILOTS IN THAT IT REQUIRES THE MEMORIZATION OF AN EXTENSIVE NUMBER OF EMERGENCY PROCEDURES (MANY MORE THAN THE OTHER MILITARY SERVICES), EACH OF WHICH USUALLY CONTAINS MULTIPLE PURPOSEFULLY-ORDERED STEPS. EXPERIENCE SHOWS THAT HOURS OF STUDY DO NOT ASSURE ACCURACY AND TIMELINESS OF RECALL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS WRITTEN SURVEY WAS 1) TO IDENTIFY (BASED ON ANONYMOUS SUBJECTIVE OPINION DATA) THE ATTITUDES, PERCEPTIONS, AND THOUGHTS OF AVIATORS REGARDING THEIR STUDY HABITS AND THE ARMY'S TRADITIONAL METHOD OF TEACHING AND TESTING AVIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES; 2) TO ASSESS THE TOLERABILITY OF AVIATORS TO CHANGES TO CURRENT TRAINING METHODS AND TO LEARNING NOVEL MEMORIZATION TECHNIQUES; AND 3) TO DETERMINE IF FURTHER RESEARCH INTO NOVEL TRAINING METHODS IS WARRANTED. WITH A RESPONSE RATE OF 97%, 194 OPERATIONAL ARMY HELICOPTER AVIATORS AT FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA, PROVIDED ANONYMOUS OPINION DATA. THESE PERSONNEL CONSISTED OF STUDENT PILOTS, INSTRUCTOR PILOTS AND THOSE ATTENDING HELICOPTER INSTRUCTOR PILOT COURSES. THE RESULTS INDICATE THAT WHILE MOST RESPONDENTS ARE SATISFIED WITH THEIR CHOSEN MEMORIZATION METHOD(S), A LARGE PERCENTAGE (OVER 65%) WOULD BE INTERESTED IN LEARNING DIFFERENT/ADDITIONAL METHODS. THE RESULTS SUGGEST THAT LEARNING AND RETAINING AVIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES CAN BE DIFFICULT FOR SOME PILOTS. FURTHER RESEARCH MAY PROVIDE ARMY PILOTS WITH BETTER WAYS TO LEARN AND RETAIN THE REQUIRED INFORMATION.
KEYWORDS: AVIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURES, MEMORIZING, MEMORIZATION TECHNIQUES, RETENTION, RECALL
2006-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 844 DTIC #: ADA444947
TITLE: AIRSICKNESS PREVENTION IN HELICOPTER PASSENGERS: A COMPARISON OF FOUR COUNTERMEASURES
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, IAN P. CURRY, JAMES L. PERSSON, SHEAN E. PHELPS, CARLOS M. PARRADO, JAMES S. MCGHEE, DANIEL R. FULLER, SHAWN M. ALDERMAN, MICHAEL B. WATTO, AARON L. WILSON, MARK TOMASULO, TERRI L. ROWE, BRIAN K. VISKUP, JULIE ROSTAD, MICHAEL P. HUNT, LANA S. MILAM, TIFFANY N. ROUSE, AND LARRY C. WOODRUM
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESPITE MANY EXISTING TREATMENTS, AIRSICKNESS REMAINS AN ISSUE OF CONCERN IN TODAY'S MILITARY. THIS STUDY USED A DOUBLE-BLIND, BETWEEN GROUPS, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED DESIGN TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF FOUR AIRSICKNESS COUNTERMEASURES: THREE PHARMACOLOGICAL AND ONE NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL. ALL FLIGHTS WERE CONDUCTED IN AN ACTUAL UH-60 BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER. SIXTY-FOUR, MALE, NON-AVIATOR SUBJECTS (AGES 18 TO 34) WERE RECRUITED FROM FORT BENNING, GEORGIA. SIXTEEN SUBJECTS WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO EACH OF FOUR GROUPS: 1) PROMETHAZINE (25 MG)-CAFFEINE (200 MG), 2) MECLIZINE (25 MG), 3) SCOPOLAMINE (1.5 MG), AND 4) RELIEFBAND. EACH INDIVIDUAL PARTICIPATED TWICE, ONCE WITH THE TREATMENT AND ONCE WITH PLACEBO. THE FINDINGS INDICATE THAT ONLY THE COMBINATION OF PROMETHAZINE-CAFFEINE PRODUCED A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION IN NAUSEA AND MOTION SICKNESS SEVERITY, AND IMPROVEMENT IN REACTION TIME WHEN COMPARED TO ITS PLACEBO CONTROL AND THE OTHER COUNTERMEASURES. DATA FROM THIS STUDY INDICATED THAT OF THE COUNTERMEASURES TESTED, PROMETHAZINE-CAFFEINE IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE AT REDUCING AIRSICKNESS WITH THE LEAST ADVERSE SIDE EFFECTS.
KEYWORDS: AIRSICKNESS, MOTION SICKNESS, ANTIEMETICS, MECLIZINE, SCOPOLAMINE, PROMETHAZINE, ACUSTIMULATION, RELIEFBAND
2006-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 917 DTIC #: ADA444945
TITLE: EVALUATION OF THE MICROVISION SPECTRUM SD2500 HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY FOR THE AIR WARRIOR BLOCK 3 DAY/NIGHT HMD PROGRAM
AUTHOR(s): CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL) AND THOMAS H. HARDING, J. STEVE MARTIN, AND HOWARD H. BEASLEY (UES, INC.)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE MICROVISION SPECTRUM SD2500 HMD, A MONOCULAR, FULL-COLOR SCANNING LASER DISPLAY, DISPLAY, WAS EVALUATED FOR OPTICAL IMAGE QUALITY. THE DATA INDICATED COMPLIANCE WITH SPECTRAL INTEGRITY, FIELD CURVATURE, REFRESH RATE, LUMINANCE UNIFORMITY, DISTORTION AND EXIT PUPIL SIZE SPECIFICATIONS. HOWEVER, THE CONTRAST TRANSFER FUNCTION AND THE MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION CLEARLY SHOWED THAT THE SYSTEM HAD INSIGNIFICANT MODULATION AT THE NYQUIST FREQUENCY. THE TRAPEZOIDAL SHAPED FIELD-OF-VIEW WAS DETERMINED TO BE NONCOMPLIANT, AND THE LOSS OF THE LEFT SEVEN COLUMNS OF PIXELS WAS IDENTIFIED AS A DEFICIENCY.
KEYWORDS: HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD), OPTICAL TESTING, SPECTRUM SD2500, SCANNING LASER DISPLAY
2006-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1074 DTIC #: ADA451604
TITLE: ACCURACY, REPEATABILITY AND INSTRUMENT MYOPIA INDUCED BY A CLINICAL ABERROMETER - THE COMPLETE OPHTHALMIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM (COAS)
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS O. SALMON AND CORINA VAN DE POL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: REFRACTIVE SURGERY CORRECTS LOWER-ORDER REFRACTIVE ABERRATIONS (SPHERE AND ASTIGMATISM), BUT IN MANY CASES IT INADVERTENTLY CREATES LARGE HIGHER-ORDER ABERRATIONS THAT CAN DEGRADE VISION. THIS HAS PROMPTED THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEW INSTRUMENTS, ABERROMETERS, WHICH MEASURE HIGHER-ORDER ABERRATIONS. WE EVALUATED A NEW CLINICAL ABERROMETER, THE COMPLETE OPHTHALMIC ANALYSIS SYSTEM (COAS) FOR ACCURACY, REPEATABILITY AND INSTRUMENT MYOPIA. METHODS: WE MEASURE 56 NORMAL EYES (28 SUBJECTS) USING THE COAS, WITH AND WITHOUT CYCLOPLEGIA AND EVALUATED ITS LOWER-ORDER ACCURACY IN COMPARISON TO CLINICAL SUBJECTIVE REFRACTION. WE ALSO EVALUATED LOWER-AND HIGHER-ORDER REPEATABILITY AND INSTRUMENT MYOPIA. DATA WERE ANALUYZED FOR A 5.0-MM DIAMETER PUPIL. FOR COMPARISON, SOME OF THESE ANALYSES WERE ALSO PERFORMED ON A CONVENTIONAL AUTOREFRACTOR. RESULTS: MEAN COAS ACCURACY FOR LOWER-ORDER ABERRATIONS (SPHERE AND ASTIGMATISM) WAS AT LEAST AS GOOD AS CLINICAL SUBJECTIVE REFRACTION. LOWER-ORDER REPEATABILITY WAS SIMILAR TO CONVENTIONAL AUTOREFRACTION. FOR HIGHER-ORDER ABERRATIONS, REPEATABILITY, WAS IN THE 0.05-0.01-UM RANGE (95% CI). INSTRUMENT MYOPIA WAS SMALL. CONCLUSIONS: ON AVERAGE, THE COAS PROVIDES ACCURATE, REPEATABLE MEASUREMENTS OF THE LOWER-ORDER ABERRATIONS (SPHERE AND ASTIGMATISM) WITH LITTLE INSTRUMENT MYOPIA. WE QUANTIFIED REPEATABILITY FOR HIGHER-ORDER ABERRATIONS AND PROVIDED RECOMMENDATIONS ON HOW TO USE THE COAS IN FUTURE REFRACTIVE SURGERY-RELATED RESEARCH.
KEYWORDS: ABERRATIONS, ABERROMETER, ABERROMETRY, WAVEFRONT, REFRACTIVE ERRORS, ACCURACY, REPEATABILITY, INSTRUMENT MYOPIA, AUTOMATED REFRACTION
2006-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 893 DTIC #: ADA452173
TITLE: EFFECTS OF HEAD UP DISPLAY SYMBOLOGY LAG ON RECOVERY FROM INADVERTENT INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS: PERFORMANCE COSTS
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, SIOBHAN M. GALLAGHER, JOANNA L. GREIG, AND SHANNEN L. DUMOND
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: AVIATOR WORKLOAD REDUCTION EFFORTS HAVE LED TO THE PRODUCTION OF HEAD UP DISPLAYS (HUD) FOR THE AVIATOR’S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS). THESE DEVICES SUPERIMPOSE FLIGHT SYMBOLOGY ON ONE TUBE OF THE ANVIS SO THAT NO HEAD MOVEMENT IS REQUIRED TO OBTAIN FLIGHT INFORMATION. RECENT ADVANCES IN TECHNOLOGY HAVE GIVEN THE HUD A FASTER PROCESSING TIME THAN ITS FIRST VERSIONS. THIS STUDY EXAMINED THE EFFECTS OF SYMBOLOGY LAG TIME ON PILOT RECOVERY FROM INADVERTENT ENTRY INTO INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS (IMC) USING HUD1 (REFRESH RATE OF 750-1000 MILLISECONDS) AND HUD3 (REFRESH RATE OF 19-39 MILLISECONDS), AND SERVES TO SHOW THE PERFORMANCE COST OF USING SYSTEMS WITH SLOWER REFRESH RATES. HUD3 MORE CLOSELY APPROXIMATES THE REAL ENVIRONMENT AND OUT-PERFORMED HUD1 IN SEVERAL MEASURES.
KEYWORDS: HEAD UP DISPLAY, HUD, IIMC RECOVERY, SYMBOLOGY REFRESH RATE
2006-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 755 DTIC #: ADA460871
TITLE: PERFORMANCE EFFECTS OF MOUNTING A HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY ON THE ANVIS MOUNT OF THE HGU-56P HELMET (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): THOMAS H. HARDING, JOHN S. MARTIN, AND CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U.S. ARMY, UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE AIR WARRIOR PRODUCT OFFICE, IS DEVELOPING A MODULAR HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD) FOR FOUR AIRCRAFT SERIES WITHIN ITS HELICOPTER FLEET. A DESIGN CONSIDERATION IS MOUNTING THE HMDS TO THE HGU-56P AVIATOR'S NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS) MOUNT. THIS PARTICULAR MOUNT IS BEING CONSIDERED, PRESUMABLY DUE TO ITS INHERENT COST SAVINGS, AS THE MOUNT IS ALREADY PART OF THE HELMET. MOUNTING THE HMD IN THIS POSITION MAY HAVE CONSEQUENCES FOR THE DAYLIGHT PERFORMANCE OF THESE HMDS, AS WELL AS INCREASING THE FORWARD WEIGHT OF THE HMD. THE LATTER WOULD HAVE CONSEQUENCES FOR HELMET WEIGHT AND CENTER-OF-MASS BIODYNAMIC ISSUES. CALCULATIONS WERE MADE OF THE INCREASED LUMINANCE NEEDED AS A CONSEQUENCE OF MOUNTING THE HMD IN FRONT OF AN HGU-56P TINTED VISOR AS OPPOSED TO MOUNTING IT BEHIND THE VISOR. BY MOUNTING IN FRONT OF THE HELMET'S VISOR, THE HMD'S LIGHT OUTPUT WILL BE FILTERED AS LIGHT COMING FROM THE OUTSIDE WORLD. SPECIAL CONSIDERATION THEN WOULD HAVE TO BE GIVEN TO THE HMD'S LIGHT SOURCE SELECTION PROCESS, AS NOT TO SELECT A SOURCE THAT WOULD DIFFERENTIALLY REDUCE LUMINANCE BY A MOUNTED VISOR (E.G., LASER PROTECTION VISOR) COMPARED TO THE AMBIENT LIGHT IN THE AVIATOR'S FIELD-OF-VIEW.
KEYWORDS: AIR WARRIOR, HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY, ANVIS, HMD, HUD, MODEL, SIMULATION, SYMBOLOGY, NATURAL BACKGROUNDS, HELMET WEIGHT, CENTER-OF-MASS
2006-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 760 DTIC #: ADB323713
TITLE: A UNIFIED TAXONOMIC APPROACH TO THE LABORATORY ASSESSMENT OF VISIONIC DEVICES (REPRINT)
AUTHOR(s): ALAN R. PINKUS AND CLARENCE E. RASH
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INCREASED USAGE OF VISIONIC DEVICES NECESSITATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF A UNIFIED APPROACH TO TESTING AND EVALUATION OF SUCH DEVICES. A NATO WORKING GROUP WAS ESTABLISHED TO ACHIEVE THIS GOAL. THIS PRESENTATION DESCRIBES A TAXONOMY TO CLASSIFY A GIVEN VISIONIC DEVICE (BASED ON OPTICAL DESIGN AND DISPLAY TYPE) AND TO RECOMMEND SPECIFIC TEST PARAMETERS THAT SHOULD BE MEASURED TO ENSURE PLANNED OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE IS DELIVERED IN THE FINAL PRODUCT.
KEYWORDS: VISIONIC DEVICE, OPTICAL MEASUREMENT, TAXONOMY, IMAGE INTENSIFIER, HEAD-MOUNTED DISPLAY
2007-01 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1436 DTIC #: ADA460887
TITLE: INSERTION LOSS OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM WITH OREGON AERO EARCUP REPLACEMENT PRODUCTS
AUTHOR(s): WILLIAM A. AHROON, ALISA J. LAPRATH, ELMAREE GORDON, MARTIN B. ROBINETTE, AND MELINDA E. HILL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE INSERTION LOSS OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) CONFIGURED WITH OREGON AERO REPLACEMENT EARCUP PRODUCTS WAS EVALUATED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD MICROPHONE-IN-REAL-EAR AND ACOUSTIC TEST FIXTURE METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF INSERTION LOSS OF CIRCUMAURAL HEARING PROTECTION DEVICES [ANSI S12.42-1995 (R1999)], MICROPHONE-IN-REAL-EAR METHOD. INSERTION LOSS OF THE HGU-56/P AIHS CONFIGURED WITH THE OREGON AERO HUSHKIT REPLACEMENT EARCUP FOAM WAS ESSENTIALLY EQUIVALENT TO THE HELMET’S STANDARD CONFIGURATION. EMPLOYING THE OREGON AERO SOFTSEAL REPLACEMENT EARCUP SEAL WITH THE HUSHKIT FOAM YIELDED A SMALL IMPROVEMENT IN INSERTION LOSS OVER THE STANDARD HELMET CONFIGURATION. HOWEVER, THE OREGON AERO SOFTSEAL/HUSHKIT COMBO SOFT REPLACEMENT EARCUPS PROVIDED SIGNIFICANTLY POORER INSERTION LOSS THAN THE STANDARD EARCUP CONFIGURATION. AS WITH THE ARMY’S CURRENT FLIGHT HELMET/EARCUP COMBINATION, DOUBLE PROTECTION (I.E., EARPLUGS IN ADDITION TO THE SOUND-PROTECTIVE FLIGHT HELMET) IS REQUIRED IN CERTAIN HIGH-NOISE ENVIRONMENTS.
KEYWORDS: HEARING, INSERTION LOSS, HEARING PROTECTION, SOUND ATTENUATION, NOISE PROTECTION, HGU-56/P, FLIGHT HELMET, OREGON AERO
2007-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 3186 DTIC #: ADA461463
TITLE: A NOVEL APPROACH IN FACILITATING AVIATION EMERGENCY PROCEDURE LEARNING AND RECALL THROUGH AN INTUITIVE PICTORIAL SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, JENNIFER A. KEELEY, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, JULIE M. BASS, TIFFANY N. ROUSE, JOHN G. RAMICCIO, AND TERRI L. ROWE
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: RESEARCH HAS DEMONSTRATED THAT PROVIDING STUDENTS WITH MEMORIZATION TECHNIQUES IMPROVED THEIR ABILITY TO RECALL INFORMATION. THIS STUDY EMPLOYED A PRETEST-POSTTEST, CONTROL GROUP DESIGN TO TEST THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A NOVEL MNEMONIC STRATEGY: THE INTUITIVE PICTORIAL SYSTEM (IPS). DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS, ALONG WITH CORRELATION, WERE USED TO ASSESS THE STUDY DATA, WHICH DETERMINED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE IPS AND TRADITIONAL TRAINING METHODS. ALTHOUGH THE STUDY’S FINDINGS DID NOT SHOW THE IPS AS PRODUCING PERFORMANCE GAINS SUPERIOR TO THAT OF THE TRADITIONAL METHOD, USER ASSESSMENTS AND SYMBOL RECOGNITION PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATED THE UTILITY AND MERIT OF THE SYSTEM AS AN AUGMENTATION. THE MANNER IN WHICH THE SYMBOLS WERE ABLE TO FACILITATE THE RECALL OF UNCOMMON, UNFAMILIAR TERMS AND PHRASES IN A NAÏVE POPULATION TO A LEVEL COMPARABLE TO THAT OF HIGHLY-EXPERIENCED PILOTS IN JUST ONE WEEK HIGHLIGHTED THE IPS’S CAPACITY TO AID IN THE ENCODING OF INFORMATION INTO LONG-TERM MEMORY. THIS INFORMATION COULD LEAD TO IMPORTANT INNOVATIONS TO CURRENT U.S. ARMY TEACHING METHODS AND AVIATION SAFETY.
KEYWORDS: MEMORY, COGNITION, MEMORIZATION STRATEGIES, MNEMONICS, EMERGENCY PROCEDURES TRAINING, PICTORIALS
2007-08 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 593 DTIC #: ADA462841
TITLE: COMPARISON OF HEARING IN NOISE TEST (HINT) SCORES USING THREE DIFFERENT TRANSDUCERS
AUTHOR(s): JOHN RIBERA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: ARMY AIRCREW WORK IN HOSTILE LISTENING ENVIRONMENTS AND RELY ON HEARING FOR CREW COORDINATION--A CRITICAL COMPONENT OF ROTARY-WING AVIATION. NEW TECHNOLOGIES MAY REQUIRE THAT AVIATORS TO HAVE THE ABILITY TO NOT ONLY HEAR IN NOISE, BUT TO LOCALIZE WARNING AND OTHER SIGNALS. THE HEARING IN NOISE TEST (HINT) EVALUATES FUNCTIONAL HEARING IN NOISE, BUT HAS ONLY BEEN NORMALIZED USING SUPRA-AURAL HEADPHONES. METHODS: SIXTY NORMAL HEARING STUDENTS FROM UTAH STATE UNIVERSITY WERE EQUALLY PARTITIONED INTO THREE GROUPS. EACH GROUP WAS ADMINISTERED THE HINT IN FOUR TEST CONDITIONS WITH ONE OF THREE TRANSDUCERS: (A) THD-39 SUPRA-AURAL, (B) ER-3A FOAM INSERT, OR (C) THE COMMUNICATIONS EARPLUG (CEP). RESULTS: DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCORES OBTAINED USING THE THREE TRANSDUCERS IN ANY OF THE THREE NOISE CONDITIONS. THERE WAS A DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE THD-39P RESULTS AND THOSE OBTAINED FROM THE OTHER TWO INSERT EARPHONES IN THE QUIET CONDITION THAT WAS LIKELY DUE TO A CALIBRATION ISSUE. CONCLUSIONS: INSERT-TYPE EARPHONES SHOULD BE CONSIDERED FOR ADMINISTRATION OF THE HINT ONCE A CORRECTION FACTOR HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED.
KEYWORDS: AEROSPACE MEDICINE, AVIATION, NOISE, SPEECH INTELLIGIBILITY
2007-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 2228 DTIC #: ADA467760
TITLE: PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF STROBOSCOPIC SHUTTER GLASSES ON MOTION SICKNESS IN HELICOPTER PASSENGERS
AUTHOR(s): ART ESTRADA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF PRELIMINARY TESTS CONDUCTED BY THE USAARL OF TWO SETS OF STROBOSCOPIC SHUTTER GLASSES (AT 4 HZ AND 8 HZ) PROPOSED AS A COUNTERMEASURE FOR MOTION SICKNESS. THE PURPOSE WAS TO EXAMINE THE MISSION APPLICABILITY AND PRODUCT POTENTIAL OF THE GLASSES AND TO GAIN SUPPORT FOR THEIR INCLUSION IN FUTURE USAARL MOTION SICKNESS STUDIES. SIX PARTICIPANTS EXPERIENCED TWO FLIGHTS IN THE CABIN OF A BLACK HAWK HELICOPTER: THE FIRST FLIGHT WITH SHUTTER GLASSES AND THE SECOND WITHOUT THEM. FOLLOWING EACH FLIGHT, EACH PARTICIPANT FILLED OUT A MOTION SICKNESS QUESTIONNAIRE AND PROVIDED SUBJECTIVE FEEDBACK. THIS PRELIMINARY TESTING OF THE SHUTTER GLASSES WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THEIR WORTHINESS OF FURTHER STUDY. THE TESTING WAS DELIBERATELY LIMITED WITH NO INTENTIONS OF DRAWING FIRM CONCLUSIONS AS TO THE SHUTTER GLASSES’ EFFICACY. ALTHOUGH THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SHUTTER GLASSES AS A COUNTERMEASURE FOR MOTION SICKNESS IS NOT IMPLIED BY THIS TEST, THE RESULTS DID INDICATE THAT SHUTTER GLASSES, PARTICULARLY THE 8 HZ DEVICE, DEMONSTRATED PROMISE AND SHOULD BE EXPLORED AS A NON-PHARMACOLOGICAL MOTION SICKNESS PREVENTION STRATEGY.
KEYWORDS: STROBOSCOPIC, SHUTTER TECHNOLOGY, MOTION SICKNESS, AIRSICKNESS
2007-14 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1043 DTIC #: ADA472633
TITLE: A PHYSIOLOGICAL AND HUMAN FACTORS EVALUATION OF A NOVEL PERSONAL HELICOPTER OXYGEN DELIVERY SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): IAN P. CURRY AND RICHARD A. ROLLER
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN CURRENT U.S. ARMY OPERATIONS, ROTARY-WING AIRCREW CAN BE REPEATEDLY EXPOSED TO MODERATELY HIGH ALTITUDE (UP TO 18,000 FEET PRESSURE ALTITUDE), MAKING HYPOXIA, AND ITS PERFORMANCE EFFECTS, A REAL HAZARD. THE UNITED STATES ARMY AEROMEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY (USAARL) WAS TASKED BY THE PRODUCT MANAGER AIR WARRIOR TO EVALUATE A PORTABLE OXYGEN SYSTEM FOR POTENTIAL USE BY U.S. ARMY HELICOPTER AIRCREW. THE SYSTEM DESCRIBED BELOW PROVIDED CAPABILITY FOR OXYGEN PRODUCTION, CHARGING OF THE PORTABLE SYSTEM, AS WELL AS IN-FLIGHT USE BY AIRCREW. THE SYSTEM WAS TESTED FOR ITS COMPATIBILITY WITH CURRENT AIRCREW ASSEMBLIES, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, AIRCREW DUTIES, AND EMERGENCY EGRESS. THE SYSTEM WAS ALSO TESTED ON PILOT VOLUNTEERS AT ALTITUDE TO DETERMINE EFFICACY. THE PERSONAL HELICOPTER OXYGEN DELIVERY SYSTEM (PHODS) WAS ABLE TO MAINTAIN AIRCREW BLOOD OXYGEN AT ACCEPTABLE LEVELS UP TO AND INCLUDING 18,000 FEET.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER OXYGEN SYSTEM HYPOXIA ALTITUDE
2008-04 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 864 DTIC #: ADA475373
TITLE: EFFECTS OF PERSONAL HELICOPTER OXYGEN DELIVERY SYSTEM (PHODS) NASAL CANNULA INSTALLATION ON THE LATERAL IMPACT PROTECTION OF THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS)
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK BROZOSKI, KATIE PADGETT, AND JAMES LINDSEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USAARL WAS TASKED BY THE PRODUCT MANAGER, AIR WARRIOR, TO EVALUATE THE AQUALUNG PORTABLE HELICOPTER OXYGEN DELIVERY SYSTEM (PHODS). THE OBJECTIVES WERE TO ASSES THE BLUNT IMPACT PROTECTION AND MASS PROPERTIES OF THE HGU-56/P HELMETS MODIFIED WITH THE PHODS NASAL CANNULA. SIX SMALL HGU-56/P HELMETS WERE MODIFIED WITH NASAL CANNULAS AND SUBJECTED TO BLUNT EARDOME IMPACTS PER THE HGU-56/P PRODUCT SPECIFICATION. MASS AND CENTER OF MASS (CM) ASSESSMENTS WERE PERFORMED USING ONE LARGE HGU-56/P HELMET MODIFIED WITH A NASAL CANNULA. MODIFIED HGU-56/P HELMETS LIMITED HEADFORM ACCELERATIONS TO LESS THAN THE 150-G CRITERION DURING EARDOME IMPACTS. THUS, HGU-56/P HELMETS MODIFIED WITH THE PHODS NASAL CANNULA SHOULD PROVIDE ADEQUATE LATERAL IMPACT PROTECTION IN SURVIVABLE ROTARY-WING MISHAPS. INSTALLING THE PHODS NASAL CANNULA ON THE HGU-56/P FLIGHT HELMET INCREASED HELMET WEIGHT AND ALTERED HELMET CM POSITION. THE ADDITIONAL MASS AND CHANGE IN CM DID NOT APPRECIABLY INCREASE THE RISK OF SUSTAINING ACUTE LOWER NECK INJURY FOR THE CONDITIONS EVALUATED.
KEYWORDS: HELICOPTER, BLUNT IMPACT, HELMETS, HGU-56/P, AQUALUNG PORTABLE HELICOPTER OXYGEN DELIVERY SYSTEM, PHODS, NECK INJURY
2008-05 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1010 DTIC #: ADA478732
TITLE: APACHE AVIATOR EVALUATION OF DUAL-TECHNOLOGY NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS IN OPERATION IRAQI FREEDOM (OIF) URBAN COMBAT (MASTER’S THESIS)
AUTHOR(s): J. KEVIN HEINECKE (UTSI), CLARENCE E. RASH (USAARL), RICHARD RANAUDO (UTSI), AND KEITH L. HIATT (OCS-FORSCOM)
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE U. S. ARMY CURRENTLY FIELDS TWO VARIANTS OF NIGHT VISION DEVICES (NVDS), THE AVIATOR NIGHT VISION IMAGING SYSTEM (ANVIS) AND THE PILOT NIGHT VISION SYSTEM/TARGET ACQUISITION AND DESIGNATION SYSTEM (PNVS/TADS). THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THESE SENSORS IN THE AH-64D DURING URBAN MISSIONS IN IRAQ FROM NOVEMBER 2005 THRU OCTOBER 2006 WAS ASSESSED WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTERED TO 38 APACHE AH-64D AVIATORS. THE SURVEY COMPARED SENSORS WITH REGARD TO RECONNAISSANCE, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, AND HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES. RESULTS SHOWED THAT THE I2 ANVIS WAS PREFERABLE TO THE FLIR FOR RECONNAISSANCE MISSIONS. ANVIS WAS ALSO PREFERRED FOR WIRE AND AIRCRAFT AVOIDANCE. THE PRIMARY BENEFIT OF THE PNVS/TADS SYSTEM, AS REPORTED BY AVIATORS, WAS THE FLIGHT SYMBOLOGY CUES PROVIDED THROUGH THE HELMET-MOUNTED DISPLAY (HMD).
KEYWORDS: NIGHT VISION SYSTEMS, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, NIGHT VISION GOGGLES, THERMAL IMAGING, HELICOPTER, URBAN COMBAT, FLIP, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS
2008-06 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 479 DTIC #: ADA478734
TITLE: PREDICTABILITY OF PILOT PERFORMANCE FROM SIMULATED TO REAL FLIGHT IN THE UH-60 (BLACK HAWK) HELICOPTER
AUTHOR(s): ELMAR T. SCHMEISSER, DANIEL R. FULLER, AND CORINA VAN DE POL
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: DESPITE CONTINUED RELIANCE ON SIMULATORS DURING TRAINING, RESEARCH, AND PILOT CERTIFICATION, THE PREDICTIVE RELATIONSHIP OF DATA OBTAINED FROM SIMULATORS AND ITS RELEVANCE TO THE OPERATIONAL REALITY OF FLIGHT REMAINS INCONCLUSIVE. IF A PILOT SHOWS GREAT PROFICIENCY IN AN AIRCRAFT SIMULATOR, PERHAPS THE PILOT WILL ALSO EXHIBIT SIMILAR LEVELS OF PROFICIENCY IN THE ACTUAL AIRCRAFT. THE RESEARCH PRESENTED IN THIS REPORT CONTINUES AN ALMOST THIRTY YEAR ATTEMPT TO ESTABLISH PILOT PERFORMANCE IN AN AIRCRAFT SIMULATOR AS A VALID PREDICTOR OF ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE IN THE CORRESPONDING AIRCRAFT. WHILE A LARGER SAMPLE SIZE MAY HAVE STRENGTHENED THE RESULTS OF THIS STUDY, IT CAN BE CONCLUDED THAT A SIGNIFICANT LACK OF PREDICTABILITY IN PILOT PERFORMANCE EXISTS FROM SIMULATED TO REAL FLIGHT IN THE UH-60 HELICOPTER. THESE RESULTS FOLLOW AND REINFORCE PREVIOUS STUDIES CONDUCTED IN NUMEROUS AIRFRAMES OVER THE LAST 30 YEARS.
KEYWORDS: BLACK HAWK, PILOT PERFORMANCE, FLIGHT PERFORMANCE, NUH-60 FLIGHT SIMULATOR, JUH-60A HELICOPTER
2008-07 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 855 DTIC #: ADA478747
TITLE: IMPACT PROTECTION ASSESSMENT OF THE REDESIGNED OREGON AERO ZETALINER FITTING SYSTEM IN THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM
AUTHOR(s): FREDERICK BROZOSKI, JOSEPH LICINA, SHEAN PHELPS, KATIE PADGETT, KIMBERLY VASQUEZ, JAMES LINDSEY, AND AMY HARVEY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE HGU-56/P AIRCREW INTEGRATED HELMET SYSTEM (AIHS) USES THE THERMOPLASTIC LINER (TPL®) TO PROVIDE WEARERS WITH A CUSTOM HELMET FIT. WHILE THE TPL® PROVIDES A COMFORTABLE HELMET FIT FOR MOST HGU-56/P AIHS WEARERS, THERE IS A PORTION OF THE AVIATION WARFIGHTER POPULATION WHO CANNOT BE COMFORTABLY ACCOMMODATED BY THE TPL®. OREGON AERO, INC. MARKETS AN ALTERNATIVE HELMET FITTING SYSTEM FOR THE HGU-56/P AIHS (THIS FITTING SYSTEM IS REFERRED TO AS THE ZETAII THROUGHOUT THE MANUSCRIPT). THE IMPACT OF REPLACING THE TPL® WITH THE ZETAII FITTING SYSTEM ON THE BLUNT IMPACT PROTECTION PROVIDED BY THE HGU-56/P AIHS IS UNKNOWN. FIFTY TWO (52) NEW HGU-56/P AIHSS IN FOUR SIZES (SMALL, MEDIUM, LARGE, AND EXTRA-LARGE) WERE SUBJECTED BY BLUNT IMPACT EVALUATIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE HGU-56/P PURCHASE DESCRIPTION. THE TPL® IN EACH HELMET WAS REPLACED WITH A ¼-INCH THICK ZETAII FITTING SYSTEM. PEAK HEAD ACCELERATIONS MEASURED DURING THESE TRIALS WERE COMPARED TO PEAK HEAD ACCELERATION LIMITS LISTED IN THE HGU-56/P AIHS PURCHASE DESCRIPTION; PEAK HEAD ACCELERATIONS EXCEEDING THE LIMITS SET FORTH IN THE PURCHASE DESCRIPTION REPRESENTED REDUCED BLUNT IMPACT PROTECTION. PEAK HEAD ACCELERATIONS MEASURED DURING THIS EVALUATION REMAINED BELOW THESE SPECIFIED LIMITS, INDICATING THAT THE IMPACT PROTECTION OF THE HGU-56/P AIHS IS NOT DEGRADED WITH THE USE OF THE ZETAII FITTING SYSTEM.
KEYWORDS: HELMETS, HUMAN FACTORS, HUMAN ENGINEERING
2008-09 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 934 DTIC #: ADA481844
TITLE: PERFORMANCE SUSTAINMENT OF TWO MAN CREWS DURING 87 HOURS OF EXTENDED WAKEFULNESS WITH STIMULANTS (DEXEDRINE, CAFFEINE, MODAFINIL) AND NAPPING: ANALYSIS OF AIRCREW PERFORMANCE DURING IN-FLIGHT EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
AUTHOR(s): ARTHUR ESTRADA, JOHN G. RAMICCIO, PATRICIA A. LEDUC, AND IAN P. CURRY
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS EFFORT, A SMALL PART OF A LARGER STUDY, WAS TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, CAFFEINE, MODAFINIL, AND PLACEBO AFFECTED PARTICIPANT ABILITY TO EMPLOY GOOD AIRCREW COORDINATION PRACTICES AND FUNCTION AS AN EFFECTIVE CREW DURING EMERGENCY SITUATIONS. THIRTY-TWO UH-60 RATED AVIATORS, PARTICIPATING AS CREWS OF TWO UNDER ONE OF THE FOUR CONDITIONS, WERE ASSESSED FOR AIRCREW COORDINATION, CREW RESPONSE TIME, AND SEVEN FLIGHT PERFORMANCE MEASURES DURING EMERGENCIES PRESENTED AT 23, 47, AND 71 HOURS OF CONTINUOUS WAKEFULNESS. WHILE SOME ASPECTS OF THE FLIGHT PERFORMANCE REVEALED STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES, IT IS CLEAR THAT DRUG CONDITION MADE NO CONSISTENT SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN AIRCREW PERFORMANCE. THE FATIGUE EFFECT WAS LIMITED TO AIRCREW COORDINATION, WHILE NOT SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECTING FLIGHT PERFORMANCE OR RESPONSE TIME. THE VARIABLE WHICH HAD THE MOST SIGNIFICANT ALBEIT INCONSISTENT EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE WAS FLIGHT EXPERIENCE. THE FINDINGS DEMONSTRATE THAT ANALYSES OF PERFORMANCE DURING RELATIVELY SHORT, STIMULATING EXPERIENCES DO NOT PROVIDE RELIABLE EVIDENCE AS TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STIMULANTS.
KEYWORDS: STIMULANTS, AIRCREW COORDINATION, DRUG EFFECTS, IN-FLIGHT EMERGENCIES
2008-10 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 566 DTIC #: ADA481814
TITLE: PERFORMANCE OF THE COMMUNICATION ENHANCEMENT AND PROTECTIVE SYSTEM (CEPS) UNDER SUSTAINED HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES
AUTHOR(s): ELMAREE GORDON AND ADRIANUS J. M. HOUTSMA
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: THE USAARL CONDUCTED AIRWORTHINESS TESTING ON THE COMMUNICATION ENHANCEMENT AND PROTECTION SYSTEM (CEPS). THE TEST PLAN INCLUDED CONDUCTING ACOUSTIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS OF THE CEPS TO DETERMINE IF THE CEPS WOULD MAINTAINS CLEAR AND AUDIBLE COMMUNICATIONS TO THE EAR OF THE USER AND ALL ITS COMPONENTS WOULD REMAIN OPERATIONAL AFTER EXPOSURE TO SUSTAINED HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES CONDITIONS (DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE TEST METHOD STANDARD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CONSIDERATIONS AND LABORATORY TESTS MIL-STD-810F). THE CEPS MET THE TEST CRITERIA AFTER THE HIGH TEMPERATURE OPERATION TEST (49 °C) AND THE HIGH TEMPERATURE STORAGE TESTS (52 °C). THE DEVICE FAILED TO MEET THE CRITERIA AFTER THE MAXIMUM HIGH TEMPERATURE STORAGE TEST (63 °C), POSSIBLY BECAUSE OF A COMPONENT FAILURE. THE DEVICE MET THE TEST CRITERIA AFTER THE LOW TEMPERATURE OPERATION TEST (-19° C) AND AFTER ONE ITERATION EACH OF A 4-HR LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE TEST CONDUCTED AT -21 °C AND -33 °C. THE DEVICE FAILED THE TEST CRITERIA AFTER ONE LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE TEST (-46 °C), POSSIBLY BECAUSE OF COMPONENT FAILURE. IN EACH CASE OF COMPONENT FAILURE, THE TUBE OF THE RIGHT MICROPHONE HAD BECOME DETACHED FROM THE FACEPLATE; MEASUREMENTS WERE ERRATIC OR COULD NOT BE COMPLETED AND TESTING WAS ENDED. IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE CEPS NOT BE STORED AT TEMPERATURES HIGHER THAN 52 °C LONGER THAN 6 HOURS OR BELOW -33 °C, AND MUST BE PROTECTED FROM CONDENSATION AFTER EXPOSURE TO LOW TEMPERATURE OPERATION AND STORAGE.
KEYWORDS: COMMUNICATIONS AND ENHANCEMENT PROTECTION SYSTEM, CEPS, COMMUNICATIONS EAR PLUG, CEP, HEARING PROTECTION, NOISE PROTECTION
2008-11 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 1532 DTIC #: ADA485179
TITLE: QUANTITATIVE ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHIC (QEEG) DATA ANALYSIS FOR THE PERFORMANCE SUSTAINMENT OF TWO MAN CREWS THROUGHOUT 87 HOURS OF EXTENDED WAKEFULNESS WITH STIMULANTS (DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, CAFFEINE, MODAFINIL) AND NAPPING
AUTHOR(s): CARLOS CARDILLO
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: MILITARY OPERATIONS REQUIRE ARMY AVIATION UNITS TO OPERATE AROUND THE CLOCK DURING TIME OF CONFLICT. SLEEP MANAGEMENT, NAPS, AND PHARMACOLOGICAL FATIGUE COUNTERMEASURES MAY BE COMBINED TO ASSIST IN ACHIEVING SUCCESSFUL MILITARY OUTCOMES. WE USED QEEG METHODOLOGIES IN AN EFFORT TO ELUCIDATE THE CNS EFFECTS OF STIMULANTS (MODAFINIL, DEXTROAMPHETAMINE AND CAFFEINE) AND NAP COMBINED WITH THE SLEEP DEPRIVATION FACTOR. IN REGARDS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION EFFECTS, RESULTS INDICATE THAT BY THE END OF THE STUDY ALL GROUPS EXPERIENCED INCREASES IN SLOW-WAVES (MAINLY DELTA) AND DECREASES IN ALPHA WAVES. CAFFEINE, MODAFINIL, AND DEXTROAMPHETAMINE, RESPECTIVELY, REVERSED DURING THE INITIAL 42 HOURS THE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION WITH SMALLER INCREASES IN DELTA ACTIVITY AND LESS DETERIORATION OF ALPHA ACTIVITIES. CAFFEINE AND MODAFINIL APPEARED TO HAVE THE GREATEST DEGREE OF EFFECT WITH RESPECT TO PRODUCING DELAYS ON ALPHA ACTIVITY DETERIORATION. ALPHA ACTIVITY REMAINED CLOSE TO BASELINE LEVELS FOR THE FIRST 46 HOURS. WE OBSERVE A MARKED DETERIORATION OF ALPHA AFTER 22 HOURS IN THE DEXTROAMPHETAMINE AND PLACEBO GROUPS. THERE IS VIRTUALLY NO INCREASE IN THETA ACTIVITY ACROSS THE SLEEP DEPRIVATION CYCLE, FOR ALL GROUPS, INCLUDING PLACEBO. THESE MAY REPRESENT EFFORT LEVELS CONSISTENTLY ACROSS ALL GROUPS. ADDITIONAL ANALYSIS COULD SYSTEMATICALLY CORRELATE COGNITIVE TASKS AND QEEG DATA FOR EACH PHARMACOLOGIC INTERVENTION.
KEYWORDS: QEEG, QEEG PROFILE, LEAD, FREQUENCY BAND
2008-12 (Click Article # to Download .pdf) SIZE (K): 424 DTIC #: ADA485178
TITLE: EFFICACY OF TACTILE CUES FROM A LIMITED BELT-AREA SYSTEM IN ORIENTING WELL-RESTED AND FATIGUED PILOTS IN A COMPLEX FLIGHT ENVIRONMENT
AUTHOR(s): IAN P. CURRY, ARTHUR ESTRADA, CATHERINE M. WEBB, AND BRADLEY S. ERICKSON
ABBREVIATED ABSTRACT: IN THE YEARS 2003-2005 THE U. S. MILITARY LOST IN EXCESS OF $500M AND 30 LIVES PER YEAR DUE TO SD MISHAPS, OVER HALF OF WHICH INVOLVED BROWNOUT. CURRENT STANDARD ARMY AIRCRAFT COCKPIT DISPLAYS DO NOT PROVIDE DRIFT INFORMATION LEAVING THE PILOT GUESSING AS TO THE DIRECTION AND MAGNITUDE OF THE AIRCRAFT’S DRIFT VECTOR WHEN CLOSE TO THE GROUND. THIS INFORMATION IS CRITICAL TO THE SAFE LANDING OF HELICOPTERS IN BROWNOUT OR WHITEOUT CONDITIONS. THIS EFFORT TESTED A SYSTEM THAT PROVIDES DRIFT INFORMATION THROUGH THE TACTILE SENSE (8 TACTORS PLACED EVERY 45 DEGREES) VIA A BELT AROUND THE WAIST. THE BELT WAS WORN BY PILOTS FLYING THE USAARL UH-60 HELICOPTER WITH VISION RESTRICTED TO THE INSTRUMENT PANEL ONLY, THE SAME PILOTS FLEW A REPEATED SERIES OF MANEUVERS CLOSE TO THE GROUND WITH AND WITHOUT THE SYSTEM BEFORE AND AFTER 37 HOURS OF FATIGUE. THE PILOT’S PERFORMANCE WAS SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER USING THE BELT THAN WITHOUT IN BOTH RESTED AND FATIGUED CONDITIONS. THE TSAS-LITE SYSTEM USED IN THIS STUDY DEMONSTRATED THAT A LIMITED TACTILE DISPLAY CAN PROVIDE INCREASED MISSION EFFECTIVENESS AND SAFETY IN THE CRITICAL AREAS OF LOW SPEED MANEUVER NEAR THE GROUND IN DEGRADED VISUAL CONDITIONS. THE SYSTEM ALSO HAS THE POTENTIAL TO INCREASE A PILOT’S SITUATIONAL AWARENESS AND REDUCE BOTH THE PERCEPTION OF DRIFT AND THE OVERALL MENTAL STRESS OF FLIGHT IN THIS CHALLENGING ENVIRONMENT.
KEYWORDS: TACTILE DISPLAYS, SPATIAL DISORIENTATION, BROWNOUT
2008-13 (Click Article # to Download .pdf)